CELT document E590001-006

The greevances of the Englishe Pale

Introductory Note

This short treatise about the parlous condition of the Pale during the Nine Years' War focuses on the burden imposed upon the inhabitants of the Pale by the Crown army, and offers invaluable insight into the suffering of the Queen's loyal subjects of the Pale during this war. Central to this treatise is the assertion that the inhabitants of the Pale were subject to unjust exploitation by the very forces appointed for their defence. The author contends that in addition to the depredations of the rebels and State-authorised demands for food, shelter, carriage, and other necessities for the maintenance of the Crown army, the inhabitants of the Pale suffered under excessive illegal extortions by army captains and soldiers, all of which greatly contributed to their increasing impoverishment during this war. But, this treatise not only serves to present the grievances of the Palesmen against these army abuses; it also acts as a declaration of the Palesmen's loyalty to the Crown. Despite their increasing poverty under these insufferable burdens, the author insists that the Palesmen have always been, and still are, loyal subjects of the queen, and that no amount of suffering was enough to deter them from their obedience to the English monarch. The author also objects to government suspicions of Palesmen's loyalties on account of their Catholic religion, contending that matters of conscience did not alter their Crown allegiance or their desire to further the Queen's interests in Ireland. As further testament to their loyalty, the author concludes this treatise with a reminder of the historic military services provided by the Old English against the Crown's enemies in Ireland, including enemies who had emerged from their own community earlier that century. This pronouncement not only serves to expound the loyal services of the Old English, but also aims to discredit the New English by demonstrating that it was the Old English, not the New English, who had defended and preserved Ireland for the English Crown. Thus, the author reveals his animosity towards the newcomers who were effectively replacing the Old English in their traditional role as administrators and defenders of the Queen's realm of Ireland, a role for which he, and many other Palesmen, believed the Old English were better suited.

The unidentified author of this treatise is almost certainly an Old English inhabitant of the Pale. This may be discerned from his pride in the community's past military endeavours, as well as his use of “us” and “them” when complaining of English administrators' unacceptable ignorance of the differences between the “meere Irish” and the descendants of the original Anglo-Norman conquerors. By these means the author defines the Old English community as separate and distinct from both the Gaelic Irish and New English populations. The treatise itself offers little help in identifying the author, as no specific location within the Pale is discussed in detail, nor does it offer the name of a single individual. Moreover, the recipient of this “declaracion” is not identified, which could be some help to identifying the author by suggesting his possible benefactor. However, the language used in the treatise, “your Maiestie” rather than “her Maiestie”, strongly suggests that the author intended it to be read by the queen, and it may have been addressed directly to Elizabeth without the use of an intermediary like Burghley or Sir Robert Cecil. These omissions, as well as the fact that no major events are mentioned, have also made the actual composition date of the treatise difficult to ascertain. The manuscript is calendared in the Irish State Papers under the year 1598, but bears no date itself. It was most likely written after April 1596, when the Irish Council issued “Orders to be obserued and kept within the seuerall counties of Thenglish Pale and the Countries adioyninge against the abuses and extorcions of the Souldiers” 1, as some of the regulations contained in those orders are referred to by the author.

The treatise transcribed here, found among the Irish State Papers held by the Public Records Office, is strikingly similar to another manuscript calendared in the Carew MSS in June 1597. 2 Although the spelling is quite different in these two manuscripts, the content is largely the same, so it is presumed that they were penned by the same author, but possibly copied by a different transcriber. It is conceivable that the Carew MSS was a draft on which the treatise here transcribed was based, as it appears that several minor corrections were made from the Carew MSS in the copy contained in the State Papers. Four paragraphs contained in the Carew MSS appear to have been cut out in the State Paper manuscript. Although this has little effect on the author's overall argument, and it is possible that the transcriber accidentally overlooked the section while copying, it is also possible that the omission was strategic and, therefore, may be of some social or political significance. The likelihood of this is borne out when comparing this treatise with the petitions and complaints of Counties Meath and Kildare in 1596 and 1597 respectively. 3 The inhabitants of Meath and Kildare provided the names of offending officers within those counties and detailed each officer's offences; however, while cataloguing the various outrages committed by military officers and soldiers in the Pale, the author of this treatise does not proffer the name of a single transgressor, preferring to speak in more general terms of the abuses committed by the army as a whole. There are a number of credible reasons for this, particularly the fact that the author may have feared the retribution of the accused, a reality which he denounced in this tract. The main thrust of the excised section addresses the erection of quarter masters to determine the billeting of travelling troops on the country inhabitants, which had previously been the responsibility of local sheriffs or leading citizens. Its exclusion could be explained by a number of scenarios: the author's desire to avoid antagonising these officials; that he actually favoured the establishment of quarter masters; or, that he himself, or some individual close to him, may have been appointed to this office, in which case he would be loathe to disparage the office. Unfortunately, the anonymity of the author renders any conclusion concerning his intentions in these matters hypothetical at best. Nevertheless, this treatise remains an insightful source for any examination of the Crown army in the Pale and the suffering of Elizabeth's loyal subjects of Ireland during the Nine Years' War.

Ruth Canning, IRCHSS


Edited by Ruth Canning

Whole text


A declaracion of the present state of the Englishe Pale of Ireland and of many the causes which hath brought the same to misery and Ruyn.

1 The saide English Pale consisteth of ffive shiers viz: Dublin, Meath, Westmeath, Kildare, and Lowth, not much lardger in all then Yorckshire in England, whereof the Countie of Lowth, that parte of the Countie of Meath which lieth Northe and West, the river of Boyne, the Countie of Westmeath, the Countie of Kildare, and that parte of the Countie of Dublin, lyinge by Southe, the River of Lyffie, are for the more parte spoyled, wasted, and consumed, by burnyng or otherwise, save some Castles in each of the said Shiers, where the owners doe shroude them selves from the Rebells, which they can not longe holde without your Maiesties speedie releif.

2 This waste and distruction is growen by these three wayes viz., by the Incursions of the traytors and Rebells, by the daylie greate insolencies, extreme outrages and disorders of soildiors, and by the manyfold burthens laied on the Subiects by your Maiesties governors Councell and Comaunders here.

3 The Countie of Lowth is contynuallie spoyled and over Runn by the arch Traytor Tireone, the Mc Mahons and their confederats.

4 The said Mc Mahons, the Relies, O Roircke, O ffarrall Bane, and others their wicked adherents, some of the Magoghegans, Christofer fitz Robartes, some of the Nugents, and one Tirrell, with some forces vnder his comaunde, sent out of Vlster hath contynuallie, from tyme to tyme, Ransacked, spoyled and burned most partes of the Counties of Meath and Westmeath.

 2The Cavanaghes, Birnes, Tooles, Moores, Conors, bastarde Geraldines, and one James fitz Piers have lykewise praied, spoyled, and burned a greate parte of the Countie of Kildare and that parte of the Countie of Dublin, which lieth by southe the river of Lyffie, as also some partes of the Countie of Meathe, as the Baronies or hundreds of Donboyne, Moyfenragh, Deece and Lune.

And this don without resistance of your Maiesties Army, whoe might haue stopped in our opynions many of these mischifes if suche as were placed in garrizons there aboutes had performed the duties of soildiors, which they comonly forbare, alleadging they were onelie to guarde there garrizon places and not to leave the same.

And althoughe these contynuall spoyles, Roberies, and burnynges done by the Rebells weare enoughe of it self, to waste any contrie, yet the soildiors entertayned and appointed by youre Maiesty for the contries savegarde and defence have contrary to your Maiesties good pleasure no lesse consumed, empoverished and anoyed moste parte of the Pale, then the traytors, for first the horse companies in their passing throughe the same, everie man moste comonlie hath dobble horses, some officers treble, each of them one boy, and some two travayling not past ffower myles in the day and that not directlie, but crossing the contry to and froe, wasting with this their lingringe Iornies thenhabytaunts corne excessivelie with their horses, and their other goodes with their extorcion.

The ffoote companies lykewise observinge the same course in travaylinge moste comonlie not aboue two or three myles in the day, and thoughe their appointed garrizons be not past ten myles of, yet do they often tymes goe thirty myles aboute, being followed and accompanied, as they goe through the Pale, eache soildior with his boy at leaste, and for a greate parte with their woman, and many horses aswell of their owne, as of the contrie violentlie taken from the owners to carry them their children and women, placing them selves, at their pleasures, exacting meate and drincke farre more then competent, and comonlie money for them, their boyes, women and followers, muche exceeding the peoples habylitie, taking money for officers after a doble rate whereof  3 amongest every seaven or eight soildiors they affirme comonly to haue one, and if there be any wanting of a full company, as comonlie in these iournies and all other cases tending to the contries chardge there are rather more then vnder, then are the numbers which they reporte to be absent saied to be ymployed in necessarie causes, and they which are present take vp money for the diet of them pretended to be absent, and if they be not satisfied with meate and money according their outradgious demaundes, then doe they beate their poore hostes, and their people, ransackinge their howses, taking away chattell and goodes of all sortes, not leaving soe muche as the tooles or instruments that craftes men doe excercise their occupacions withall, nor the garments to their backes, or clothes on their beddes, soe as at their next meeting places there are to be founde many tymes suche plentifull store of howshold stuffe, or what els they coulde either carrie or drive away with them as at ordinarie marcketts which if the owners did not redeame at the will of the takers, then are they soulde or dispersed in suche sorte as they that ought them shall never come by them agayne.

And if any doe withstand or gaynsay suche their inordinate wills, then they do not onelie excersies all the crueltie they can against them, but doe also procure other companies to set a fresh vpon the poore Inhabytaunts and spoyle them in farre worse sorte then before in nature of a Revendge, soe as whoesoever resisteth their willes shalbe sure to haue nothinge left him, if he can escape without cruell punyshment otherwise.

This course of ranging and extorting of the sealie people ys become so comen and gainfull as that many soildiors have no other entertaynement as they say from their Captens, and many others that are not soildiors, pretendinge to be of some company or other, have in lyke outragious manner ranged vp and downe the contry, spoyling and robbing the Subiects as if they were Rebells pretending to be soildiors, and knowing howe gainfull that course is, hath often plaied the lyke partes vnknowen to the poore people who live in suche awe of the soildiors as they dare not resist any that take vpon them that profession. Soe as of all sydes the poore subiects goe so miserable to wracke as noe tongue or pen can at full expresse.

 4 Yf these passinges or repassinges throughe the contry hapened but sealdome, and with fewe companies, the greefe were not so intollerable, but since theis broyles, yt was ordinarie that every two monethes or there aboutes there should be drawen through the Pale two or three thowsand men from the partes of Mounster, Leynster, and Connoght to Dondalke, to conclude a cessacion of warres, and with howe smalle advauntage to your Maiesties service, and with howe greate hurte to your subiects is nowe so well knowne, and then so muche felt, as it needeth no newe rehersall.

Also when the fforces are placed in garrizons, lardge proporciones of beoffes, muttons, and grayne are ymposed by the State and principall comaunders for findinge of men and horses to be levied wicklie of the poore inhabytaunts, without consent of the Nobylitie and gentlemen cheefelie entrested therein, and althoughe they must for 20s. give a beoffe, for which them selves paied some tymes fforty, some tymes more, and may vtter them againe in the marcketts at greater Rates then is laied downe, yet if some smalle parte of the said proporcions happen to be in areare and vnpaied at the tymes appointed, the soildiors straight runneth into the contry with their horses, boyes, and women, vpon pretence to take vp the areare of their allowance, extorting thenhabytaunts duringe their bying so abrode without yelding the contry amends for the same, or forgoinge any parte of the proporcions assigned to fynde them in garrizon, where as in respect of the lardgnes of their allowance, and of the contynuall wants of the nombers that these proporcions are plotted for, they might without want, abide in their garrizons vntill their full allowance weare brought in.

And althoughe at other tymes their proporciones of beoffes and the rest be fullie sent in, yet do they vex and opresse thenhabytaunts next adioynyng to their garrizons moste extreamelie, consumyng wastfullie and needles suche provision as the people do make for the relief of them selves and their famylies, and in mysusinge of their persons in suche wyse, as the poore creators being thereby deprived of foode and rest, together with the spoyles of the Rebells, are forced to forsake their howses, which out of hand are  5 pulled downe, and the tymber thereof burned in the garrizons, which waste is made the more greevous, that thenheritors or enhabytantes of those wast places, are forced to carrie the tymber of theire owne howses to be burned, the soildiors leaving noe trees either fruictfull or otherwise vnspoyled, the planters and preservers with heavie hartes looking on their longe labors and expectacions thus defaced and brought to soe vncomfortable event.

Besides the perillinge of the contrie with the former maner of throughfare, the soildiors are often called from their garrizons to muster some where nere Dublin, where severall of the captens doe comonlie keepe, being the cheefest place of ease, and securitie within the Pale, by reason whereof the soildiors vsing their former disorders to and froe, for many daies together, the contrie is spoyled beyond measure, and your Highenes thereby greatlie deceaved, where as if the musters were duelie taken at the garrizon places, where the numbers should best be founde oute, then should not the contry with these nedeles iournies be so miserablie wasted, nor the deceit be so greate to your Maiestie.

These miserable affliccions are the more greevous vnto vs that the Army hetherto consisted for a greate parte of the meere Irishe, of whom many hath bene traytors and Rebells, latelie pardoned, or protected, who are naturalie inclyned and delited to see the Pale goe to wracke, which by these meanes they bring to passe more effectuallie and with lesse danger to them selves then if they were in actuall Rebellion. And yet (woe be vnto vs therefore) noe great difference for ought wee perceave made betwixt vs, and those the ofspring of Traytors, whom with the sheddinge of their blood, our Auncestors with the losses of their blood in the service of your Maiesties moste worthy progenitors dispossessed of that which we nowe holde from your Highnes as true and faithfull harted subiects.

 6 And although the alurements of this vnhappie tyme did offer provocacions to carry vnstaied myndes astray, yet we as vnremoveable from our loyalties, doe remayne stedfast and constant, contynuallie accepting, and making choise, of all callamities, misseries, and mischiefes what soever, rather then to be disloyall, farr different from the Irisherie, that never omitted the least occasion of advantage given them to take Revendge of the Pale, and to showe them selves the professed enemyes of your Maiesties Crowne and dignitie.

Howbeit, the former misseries had never lighted vpon the Pale, yet is it chardged, and burdened by the State, with suche and so manyfold ymposicions of beoffes, muttons, Porckes, graine, carriages, pioners, and other provicions to be yealded to youre Maiesties fforces in campe, and garrizons, besides their greate burdens in finding soildiors of their owne, for defence of the borders, with the charge of the ordinarie and yeerely Rising out to generall hostings, as if the Pale bare no other burden but the same, yt weare sufficient to bringe it to vtter Ruyn and desolacion.

Your Highnes rate for beoffes of late yeres was fiftene shillings the beoffe, which was nere the full value of them in that tyme, but sithence the price hath bene raysed to twenty shillings, and yet so farre vnder their value as the same bred an extreme wracke to the subiects, them selves paying for eche beoffe fortie shillings or ffiftie shillings a peece, which they must give the soildiors for twentie shillings, and a porcke Rated at five shillings, being worth to be sold twenty shillings.

Also where the soildiors were appointed to haue ten sheaves of otes nightlie for each horse, paying therefore two pence half penny, when in the last of the yeare otes grewe scarce in the contry (all being consumed before) then must the inhabytants haue paied the soildiors for each sheafe a peny qr., which proved so chardgeable to the poore, and seemed so profitable to the taker, as many of the contry were thereby vndon and forced to forgoe tilladge, and  7 leave the land vnsowen, and many faier horsses were famished that could not feede on the money their masters receaved for their provander. The soildiors complayneth that they cannot receave their pay, protesting that if they could haue the same daylie given them, they would maintayne them selves serviseably without greefe to the contrie, but fayling thereof they are driven to range vp and downe amongest the Subiects as before, so as thoughe your Maiesty send thether greate store of treasure, the soildiors are chefelie relieved by the Subiects vndoeinge.

Many companies appointed to lie in garrizon, and victualled with your Highnes store, when the same is nere at an end, and some tymes before, pretendinge want, and not procuringe or having care of supplie from your Highnes victualer, ffrom whom they are to haue the same, yssue forthe into the contry where they list taking beoffes or what els they pretend to wante at their owne pleasures, far exceeding any ordinarie or competent proportion, whereof some parte they restore for money, and the rest they vse as they will, thinking all they do lawfull, so as they give their ticquetts which many tymes they deny, and if the owners of the goods so taken profer to stay the same, as some hath don, demaunding by what aucthorytie or warrant their goodes are thus violentlie taken from them, their comon aunswere is that their drom and collors is a sufficiant warrant, then if the owners seeme not to be so satisfied, they be assaulted and as Rigouroslie vsed as if they were disobedient, and disloyall Subiects.

The meane devysed by the State for Recompencing of the partie greeved by this outragious course, was to graunt a comission to the Sherif in some shiers to plott the said beoffes indifferentlie vpon that whole shier where they were so taken, and so with a generall hurte to satisfie our private greefe, which bredd many enormities by reason the offendors were not punyshed for the outrage, nor restrayned to competent proporcions, and compelled to make satisfaccion for their excesse and disorder.

 8Vpon complaynt exhibited vnto the State for other the abuses of soildiors, proclamacions were set forthe that in their thrughfare, vpon payne of death they should not exact the contry, but take suche meate and drinke as the inhabytaunts could afforde them, giving reddie money or their officers ticquetts for the same, and if they did otherwise, that then it should be lawfull to Sherifs, Iustices of Peace, and others, to apprehend and comitt the soildiors so offendinge to the shier goale, or fayling thereof to present their names, that they might inflict suche punyshement on them, as their misdemeanors and abuses did merit, which order as yt fell out, procured greater disorder, for the soildiors hearing thereof came so stronglie to the places where they did lodge, as the contry neither durst nor were hable to apprehend them, thoughe their outrages were greater then before, so as the same was the distruction of those places altogether, neither was yt possible to present their names, except the Inhabytaunts had speciall knowledge of them, ffor the soildiors to delude the good meanyng of the foresaid proclamacions, did not onelie deny their names, but gave out them selves to belonge vnto a contrary Capten, whose company perhaps was then in the remotest place of the land, so as every way the poore subiects goe to decay in such sorte as nowe all other hopes are frusterated, saving suche as they must allwaies drawe from the fountayne of your princelie bountie.

Sondry principall Rebells and traytors being taken into protection from tyme to tyme, haue had their companies of horse and foote placed in the contry, exacting of the people, diet and money, as largelie as any with farre greater greefe to the bearers being driven by that meanes to cherishe and entertayne their deadlie Enemies. 4

 9 It was founde and forseene by the begynynge of these courses what end the same would come vnto, for prevencion whereof proffer was made on the contries behalf to mayntayne and haue in areadines five hundred horsemen, to serve your Maiesty at your Highenes pay of twellve pence star. le peece per diem, either in garrizon or abroade, without other charge to the contrie, then carriages onelie vpon occasions of travayle, and withall sute was made to haue Armor and municion delivered to thinhabytaunts for some of the money due to them for contry chardges, and that certayne bands should be erected of the Englishe Pale to be trayned by some expert man at the chardge of the contry, to be reddie at their owne chardge to withstand any invacion or sudden brunt of Rebells. And if need required their service for any long tyme, then they to serve your Highenes for ordinary pay without burthen to the contry.

Which offers weare not accepted, as we are iustlie moved to thinke, vpon suspicion of lacke of due affection in vs towardes your Maiesties service, of which Imaginacion we see no cause or collor, except it be for the generall opinion of difference in matters of conscience and Religion conceaved of this contry people, which seemeth a very falible argument of disloyaltie, and a frevolous suggestion, as the manner of your Highenes subiects carriadge here doth sufficientlie declare, the quarrell betwixt vs and the Irish proceeding not of matters of Religion, but for land which we sithence the conquest have possessed and gotten by our auncestors bloodd.

By our loyall bearinge of the before mencioned burthen and calamyties, and many other thinges of lyke sorte, for breavities sake omitted, by the deathes of sondry gentlemen of the englishe Race of the Pale that have spent their bloode and lost their lives in these late tumoltes in resisting the Rebells and enemyes, by that also that moste of the Notablest Rebells that have borne Armes here against your Maiesty since the begynynge of your Highenes Raigne, have ben slayne and overthrowen by your subiects  10 of this contry byrth, as the Earle of Desmonde, James fitz Morrishe, Callough O Connor, Rory oge, and divers others. It may playnely appeare (as we confidentlie hope your Maiesty will conceave) what faithfull and harty affection we carrie towardes your Maiesty vpon whose gracious care and regarde of vs our whole hope do altogether depend.

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Title statement

Title (uniform): The greevances of the Englishe Pale

Title (translation, English Translation): The grievances of the English Pale

Title (extended): [S.P. 63/202, part iv, 60]

Author: unknown

Editor: Ruth Canning

Responsibility statement

Donated by: Ruth Canning

Electronic file prepared by: Beatrix Färber

Funded by: University College, Cork and The HEA via PRTLI 4

Edition statement

1. First draft, revised and corrected.

Extent: 6,000 words

Publication statement

Publisher: CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts: a project of the Department of History at University College, Cork

Address: College Road, Cork, Ireland — http://www.ucc.ie/celt

Date: 2009

Distributor: CELT online at University College, Cork, Ireland.

CELT document ID: E590001-006

Availability: Copyright lies with Ruth Canning. The text is reproduced here with her kind permission.

Source description

Manuscript Source

  1. Dublin, P.R.O., S.P. 63/202, part iv, no. 60, fos. 200-204. 1598. 'The greevances of the Englishe Pale'.
  2. London, Lambeth Palace Library, Carew MSS, Vol. 632, No. 271, fos. 163-170. June, 1597. 'A declaracion of the presente state of the Englishe Pale of Ireland and of many the causes which haue brought the same to miserie and extreame distresse'.

Further reading: primary sources

  1. Cal. Carew, III, 260–265, 'Declaration of the present state of the English Pale of Ireland' June 1597.
  2. Cal. S.P. Ire, VII, 433–434, 'A declaration of the present state of the English Pale of Ireland'.
  3. P.R.O., S.P. 63/189, 46(IX). Apr. 18, 1596. 'Orders to be obserued and kept within the seuerall counties of Thenglish Pale and the Countries adioyninge against the abuses and extorcions of the Souldiers aswell lyeinge in Garrisons in Tounes, as passing through & lyinge in the Countrie'.
  4. P.R.O., S.P. 63/189, 46(X). May 22, 1596. 'Note of the abuses committed by certain soldiers of the Lord General's troop in the county of Meath'.
  5. P.R.O., S.P. 63/200, 53. July 24, 1597. Petition of the inhabitants of Co. Kildare.
  6. Hiram Morgan, 'Faith and Fatherland or Queen and Country'. An Unpublished Exchange Between O'Neill and the State at the Height of the Nine Years War.' Dúiche Néill: Journal of the O'Neill Country Historical Society, (1994) 1–49. (Available online at CELT.)
  7. Joseph McLaughlin, 'New Light on Richard Hadsor, II. Select Documents XLVII: Richard Hadsor's 'Discourse' on the Irish State, 1604', Irish Historical Studies 30/119 (1997) 337–353.
  8. Edmund Hogan (ed.), The Description of Ireland and the State Thereof as it is at This Present in Anno 1598. (Dublin 1878) 43–44.

Further reading: secondary sources

  1. Colm Lennon, Sixteenth-Century Ireland: The Incomplete Conquest. (Second ed.) (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 2005).
  2. Colm Lennon, The Lords of Dublin in the Age of Reformation. (Blackrock: Irish Academic Press 1989).
  3. Valerie McGowan-Doyle, "Spent blood': Christopher St Lawrence and Pale Loyalism,' in Hiram Morgan (ed.), The Battle of Kinsale. (Bray: Wordwell 2004) 179–191.
  4. John McGurk, The Elizabethan Conquest of Ireland: The 1590s Crisis. (Manchester: Manchester University Press 1997).
  5. Hiram Morgan, Tyrone's Rebellion: the Outbreak of the Nine Years War in Tudor Ireland. (Suffolk: Boydell Press 1993).
  6. Peter E. Medine; Joseph Anthony Wittreich; and S. K. Heninger, Soundings of Things Done: Essays in Early Modern Literature in Honor of S. K. Heninger, Jr. (University of Delaware 1997) 103.
  7. John S. Nolan, Sir John Norreys and the Elizabethan Military World. (Exeter: University of Exeter 1997).
  8. Francis Sheppard Thomas, A History of the State Paper Office: with a view of the documents therein deposited (Oxford 1849) 20.

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unknown. ten folios.

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  author 	 = {unknown},
  editor 	 = {Ruth Canning},
  edition 	 = {0},
  note 	 = {ten folios},
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The text transcribed by Ruth Canning comprises ten folios.

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Creation: by one (or more) unknown author(s) between April 1596 and June 1597

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    The text is in Elizabethan English.

Keywords: political; prose; treatise; 16c

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(Most recent first)

  1. 2019-06-05: Changes made to div0 type. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  2. 2009-06-09: File converted to XML and encoded for structure; header constructed; file parsed; SGML and HTML versions created. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  3. 2009-06: Transcribed text, with introduction and bibliographic detail, donated to the CELT Project. (ed. Ruth Canning, IRCHSS Scholar, Dept of History, UCC)

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  1. P.R.O., S.P. 63/189, 46(IX). (Apr. 18, 1596. "Orders to be obserued"). 🢀

  2. Cal. S.P. Ire, VII, pp. 433-434; Cal. Carew MSS, III, 260-265, "Declaration of the present state of the English Pale ? June 1597". 🢀

  3. P.R.O., S.P. 63/189, 46(X). (May 22, 1596. "Note of the abuses committed by certain soldiers of the Lord General?s troop in the county of Meath"); P.R.O., S.P. 63/200, 53. (July 24, 1597. Petition of the inhabitants of Co. Kildare). 🢀

  4. Absent from this version of the treatise are four paragraphs contained in the Carew MSS, fos. 13-15: "The Souldiors till nowe of late were commonlye in theire throughefare, partely directed by the Shireefes collectors and others of the countrey, with some ease to the poore inhabitants. But nowe to agravat our miseries there be quarter masters errected, whoe doe plot and quarter the Souldiors with noe indifference or care havinge noe knowledge of the countrey but overburtheninge some with over greate nombers to theire vtter vndoeinge, doe for reward free others.
    And whether they doe quarter and chardge places tyme out of mynde, priveledged and freed from all Impositions in respect of service and yearely rysinge due out of them to your Maiestie. And your most Noble progenitors greately to the discontentment of the Nobillitie and gentlemen of this Realme that shoulde by this course be brought to as miserable state as the poorer sorte, yf they yelded therevnto.
    The little consolacion and hope of some small reliefe in extremityes which helde the poore people in some comforte to endure and beare with patience theire present miseries in expectacion of redresse in the end, by your Maiesties woonted and gratious care over them, was that theire goodes of best vallewe, and such theire cattell of best vallewe, and such theire cattell as they might haue spared from theire best and necessarie vses they had sent amongst theire freinds into the Inner and most safest places of the Englishe Pale to mainteyne for theire last refuge, where all things ells were brought to nothinge which they did assure themselves of soe longe as your Highenes forces remayned in garrison vppon the borders. But alas to the vtter discomfort of all your Maiesties well affected Subiects.
    The forces were remoaved from the frontires of the Englishe Pale the last Moneth of May, and the remnant of your poore Subiects in this dispeopeled countrey beinge before consumed and worne out with the Ravinge and pilladge of the Souldiors and made vnable to furnishe themselves with horses, Armor, and weapon, for theire owne defence lefte exposed to the furye and radge of the Rebbells which occasion they did not overslipp, but withall theire Wynter forces invaded the countrey, spoyled and burned even into the bowells and harte thereof, (where never Traytor, since first your Noble progenitors put footinge therein) ever durst shewe his face, soe as men of all sorts are allmost broughte to the extemitye of dispaire, yf the comfortable expectacion of speedye redresse from your Highenes deliuer them not from the vnsupportable horror thereof." 🢀


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