CELT document E660001-002

My Irish Journal, 1669–1670


At a gathering held at the Shanagarry Design Centre, overlooking Ballycotton Bay, University College Cork's CELT Project announced the launch online of William Penn's pocket diary from his 1669–70 visit to Ireland. The contents of the diary first turned up in the late nineteenth century. The original notebook consists of quickly-scribbled entries. These required considerable deciphering by Isabel Grubb, the mid-twentieth century Irish Quaker historian, who identified the many places and people in precise notes to the text. Her edition is now published online with the permission of Pearson Education.

This text displays many of the traits that made William Penn (1644–1718) such a signal success later on. He comes across as an exceptional lobbyist and activist, a great propagandist and promoter of his cause and a shrewd businessman whose word was his bond. He never set out to be an important humanitarian, yet his practical pursuit of religious liberty for Protestant Dissenters ended up conferring universal civil rights. Penn was sent over to Ireland by his father to re-organize the leases on his Irish estates in County Cork. However, he spent most of his time working on behalf of the Quakers who, much to his father's chagrin, he had recently joined. Immediately on landing in Cork, he went to see Quakers imprisoned by the authorities of the town where he himself had been imprisoned two years before. They were there for holding illegal meetings and refusing to swear oaths when arrested. Afterwards, he travelled to Dublin to lobby on their behalf. With his father a Cromwellian admiral who made a timely move to the royalist side at the Restoration, Penn knew everybody from King Charles II down and was particularly well connected to ruling Protestant elite in Ireland with whom he had been raised. The list of people he met and wined and dined in Dublin is a veritable Who's Who of the period. He went to Irish Council in Dublin Castle on behalf of his co-religionists, he did not meet the Lord Lieutenant who was ill but he records handing over 'six cobbs', i.e. pieces of eight; on November 29th the Dublin Friends were released. The entry for the day before states 'I was at meeting, it was large. I declared 1-and-a-half hours, prayed twice' but one would have thought the douceur of the week before was equally instrumental.

Penn was constantly on the move by horseback. Such travel could be perilous, not least when crossing the Blackwater, 'a river of great note, rapidity and depth' near Cappoquin on 4 December 1669 he, his party, their horses and baggage nearly got swept away. The meetings that Penn held or was involved in are described in terms such as 'heavenly' or 'precious'; but they were also deliberatively provocative. News of a Quaker meeting would not only attract adherents and sympathizers but also opponents and the officers of the law. Debates, controversies and often arrests would follow. Failure to arrest Penn himself would leave authorities looking impotent and if the Friends themselves were arrested then there were ugly court scenes with otherwise law-abiding Protestants being hauled off to the town gaol. All in all, Penn, like subsequent civil activists, was showing the law up to be an ass. He who had famously and fearlessly flouted social convention by refusing to doff his hat in the presence of the king. Penn was also a relentless propagandist. A number of his diary entries mention him writing tracts, and also mention him delivering copy to the press. The journal provides evidence that two of his tracts were printed in Cork even though the tracts themselves give no place of publication. Most famously during this period, he wrote, partly as a result of the Quaker experience in Ireland, his frequently reprinted Great Case of the Liberty of Conscience, which first came off Joshua Winter's press in Dublin in 1670. Penn's skill at lobbying and publicity later came into its own when he promoted the Pennsylvania colony in the early 1680s, but so too did his deal making.

The diary shows him, with the assistance of Philip Ford, driving hard bargains in relation to the tenanting of his lands made around the New Year (i.e. 25th March) 1670. In this way he let 500 acres to 24 tenants securing rents of £1,100 a year at 2s an acre. He would take distresses, i.e. exercise the legal right of distraint of goods—to force the payment of arrears or settle on the terms of lease he preferred. The diary shows him belabouring William Berry, a Protestant tenant at Clonakilty, into submission by impounding his cattle. On the other hand, he was pleased to note his Protestant tenants and neighbours draining bogs, setting hedges, measuring and mapping their lands after the civilised and more profitable English manner. At the end of his nine months in Ireland Penn managed to have his fellow Cork Quakers released. But the interesting thing about Penn's Irish Journal is that the native Catholic whose lands he now occupied hardly get a look in. They are rarely surnamed, let alone first-named and they are the subject of passing derogatory remarks about their barbarous, superstitious customs. Indeed one of the tracts he published in Cork was an anti-Papist one. However a deal is a deal, and Penn's attitudes changed significantly in 1680–1 with the deal he made with James Duke of York. In this he obtained the extensive lands south of James's recently acquired New York colony by switching support from exclusionist Popish Plotters to the future Catholic king. As a result he ended up only keeping his word in these advantageous deals he made not only with Indians but also with James, even to the point of nearly losing all during the Glorious Revolution and subsequent Williamite conquest of Ireland'. Penn's Irish Journal, which is now online, brings CELT to a total of 16,000,000 words, available free worldwide on Ireland's longest running Humanities Computing project.

Hiram Morgan


Editorial note by Isabel Grubb (1952)

The following is a modernised version of 'My Irish Journall' by William Penn. I have used modernised spelling and punctuation and wherever possible have given what I believe to be the correct full names in place of the initials which Penn wrote. The usual names of the months have been inserted instead of the numerals used by the Quakers. Where I am in doubt about a reading or a name I have put a query mark. Square brackets indicate my own suggestions.

To show how this version differs from the original manuscript would produce a most unsightly script, difficult and unpleasant to read. I have based my version on the copy published in the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 40, 1916, and on many emendations and corrections of it kindly supplied by Professor Henry J. Cadbury from the original manuscript. Without his suggestion and much valuable advice and help this work would not have been undertaken nor completed.

Acknowledgement should be made to the Friends Historical Association which kindly undertook either to advance or to secure the funds necessary for the publication of this book.

William Penn

Edited by Isabel Grubb

My Irish Journal, 1669–1670


1. My Irish Journal

Departed from London on 15th September 1669.

1669.1. September 15thI came to Watford, to…

September 15th

I came to Watford, to Ann Merrick's, Amor Stoddart and John Giggour accompanying me. 1

1669.2. 16I came to Isaac Penington's, Amor…


I came to Isaac Penington's, Amor Stoddart and John Giggour being with me; we had a meeting there; Amor Stoddart left us and went for Watford. 2

1669.3. 17John Giggour went for London, I…


John Giggour went for London, I remained there; I left Amersham and took leave for my journey, but at Maidenhead missing of my servant I returned to Isaac Penington's.

1669.4. 18I went with Guli Springett to…


I went with Guli Springett to Penn Street; returned at night. 3

1669.5. 19Guli Springett, Sarah Hersent [?], etc.…


Guli Springett, Sarah Hersent [?], etc. went on foot to meet at Russell's and I with them; wrote to Aylesbury for Philip Ford. 4

1669.6. 20Philip Ford came early; Isaac Penington,…


Philip Ford came early; Isaac Penington, John Penington, Mary Penington, John Giggour and myself and Philip Ford went for Reading. Guli Springett and Thomas Ellwood accompanied us beyond Maidenhead. Thomas Ellwood and Philip Ford exchanged horses, on at £5. 10, the other at £9. We arrived at Reading, visited the prisoners. 5


1669.7. 21John Penington, Philip Ford and myself…


John Penington, Philip Ford and myself departed from Reading. Isaac Penington, Mary Penington and John Giggour returned home. We dined at Newbury and lay at Malmesbury.

1669.8. 22We departed. John Penington went to…


We departed. John Penington went to Bristol by Bath, and we two by Chippenham. We met that night at Bristol; they lay two at the inn, I at Dennis Hollister's, with George Whitehead [?] I visited George Fox, Margaret Fell, William and Isabel Yeamans, Thomas Bisse and Leonard Fell that night. 6

1669.9. 23I went to Francis Rogers' to…


I went to Francis Rogers' to lie, they to Thomas Bisse. We remained there till the 23rd of the next month. I lay at several Friends' houses; we were very kindly entertained; meetings grew fresh. I was moved among others to testify to George Fox's marriage. 7

1669.10. October 23rdIt should be noted that…

October 23rd8

We left Bristol, came to King Road accompanied by Thomas Speed [or Thomas Salthouse], Thomas Lower [?], Charles Harford [?], 9 Francis and William Rogers.

1669.11. 24We sailed, the wind being East…


We sailed, the wind being East North East. Got beyond Cornwall seven leagues.

1669.12. 25We arrived at the Cove of…


We arrived at the Cove of Cork and lay there all night. 10

1669.13. 26We came to Cork. Dined at…


We came to Cork. Dined at Thomas Mitchell's. Visited the prisoners, Samuel Thornton being there. 11 We lay at Elizabeth Pike's. 12

1669.14. 27William Morris and myself went to…


William Morris and myself went to the Mayor's, 13 but to no purpose. I met Christopher Pennock, 14 F.S. [Hugh  p.20 Scamp?], 15 John Boles. 16 We had a meeting in prison at night where we also had dined. I wrote also to both baronies to prepare them; to Robert Southwell for £30 payable to Gerard Roberts. 17

1669.15. 28Left Cork with Philip Dymond, William…


Left Cork with Philip Dymond, William Morris. Dined at Kilworth, supped at Clogheen at a Friend's Inn, William Lawford's. 18

1669.16. 29We came to John Fennell's;John Fennell…


We came to John Fennell's; 19 dined at Cashel at The Cow. Passed through Holy Cross (so called from a superstitious conceit that a piece of Christ's cross was brought thither from Jerusalem;) and by Clas: town where the English were murdered by the Fitzpats; lay at Thurles the ancient Manor House of the Duke of Ormonde. 20

1669.17. 30We came to James Hutchinson's, a…


We came to James Hutchinson's, a Friend, who was gone before us towards Rosenallis. Passed by Mountrath, the Earl's house and town, where we saw the iron works. Lay at Rosenallis at William Edmondson's. 21

1669.18. 31It was the General meeting for…


It was the General meeting for Leinster. 22 Two Friends spoke from Dublin. William Edmondson kept the meeting, and heavenly it was. 23

1669.19. November 1stWe left William Edmondson's; stopped…

November 1st

We left William Edmondson's; stopped at Mountmellick. 24 Came to Kildare and there lodged.

1669.20. 2We came to Naas, there dined,…


We came to Naas, there dined, and lay at Dublin at John Gay's. I visited M. Canning and F. Stepny that night. 25

1669.21. 3William Morris, Philip Dymond and we…


William Morris, Philip Dymond and we met at my  p.21 chamber. Stepney came to see me. Dined and supped at home.

1669.22. 4William Edmondson came with Friends to…


William Edmondson came with Friends to the city. We were at meeting. William Edmondson, George Gregson, William Penn [?] spoke. 26 Philip Dymond, William Edmondson, and George Gregson prayed. Dined and supped at home. 27

1669.23. 5All Friends me at my lodging…


All Friends me at my lodging to keep the National Meeting. William Edmondson, William Morris, and George Gregson spoke. The sufferings of Friends came before us. Munster and Leinster; but Ulster were returned. A paper was sent to all the Provincial Men's meetings to advise them to be more punctual in the registering of all sufferings, and to transmit them in briefly to the National Meeting. A paper by way of Address was carried by William Morris and William Penn to the Mayor who abused them, but did not relieve the prisoners of the city. Supped at home, no dinner.

1669.24. 6We met at Samuel Claridge's, where…


We met at Samuel Claridge's, where we drew up the Leinster and Munster sufferings by way of Address to the Lord Lieutenant. 28 Dined and supped at home.

1669.25. 7We met at the little house,…


We met at the little house, where William Edmondson and one Sharp spoke. 29 William Edmondson and Philip Dymond prayed. John Gay, his wife and children were present. Supped at home.

1669.26. 8I received a letter from Joseph…


I received a letter from Joseph Stepny about his daughter's burial, having written to him. Deane came to me and William Edmondson about it at Elizabeth Gardiner's. 30 Dined and supped at home.


1669.27. 9Sir George Ascue came to see…


Sir George Ascue came to see me. All Friends went with M. Canning, Joseph Stepny's daughter to our burying ground. They carried her with about ten coaches. Dined and supped at home.

1669.28. 10Colonel Packer came to see me,…


Colonel Packer came to see me, but T. Fouls said to meet Rob and Lawrence about a dispute, though denied by him. He affirmed[:]

1. That I was eternally damned if I did not own that Christ's death was to satisfy the vindictive justice of God.

2. That there were examples among the Martyrs that suffered more signally, and more with joy and peace, and more gloriously and with greater triumph than Christ did.

We went that afternoon, I, Ann Gay, John Penington, Philip Ford, and little D. in a coach to Chapelizod to see Colonel [?] Lawrence; he was in town. He makes Imagery. 31

Colonel Lawrence and Major Jones came to my lodging and Priest Roules; the last was quiet and affable, the other passionate and confounded about the moral religion and water baptism: William Morris present. Dined and supped at home.

1669.29. 11Sir William Petty came to see…


Sir William Petty came to see me, stayed three hours. He was very friendly. E. Morcoe and her sister dined at my lodging. We went to the Castle; received a slight account by Colonel [?] Herle. From thence to Colonel Shapcot's about Colonel Wallis. He was kind. I dined, supped at home. 32

1669.30. 12I went to the Castle, Colonel…


I went to the Castle, Colonel Herle very civil but nothing done. Visited by Fouls. Dined and supped at  p.23 home. Gave two silver candlesticks and snuffers to Ann Gay for their care and lodging.

1669.31. 13Stayed at home. Wrote to the…


Stayed at home. Wrote to the Earl of Drogheda; for England to Guli Springett, Isaac and Mary Penington, Elizabeth Jepson, and Elizabeth Bailey. Visited by Dr. Roules. He denied vindictive justice in the nature of good. [God?]

Dined and supped at home. Philip Dymond went for England. 33

1669.32. 14We kept meeting at the old…


We kept meeting at the old meetinghouse. I declared about one hour. I prayed afterwards. A great meeting. Dined and supped at home.

1669.33. 15I went to Lord Drogheda about…


I went to Lord Drogheda about Friends. He treated me with all civility. Promised his utmost. Invited me to dine with him at my pleasure.

Met T.H., William Morris, George Webber here at my lodging. Disputed with Fouls. Dined and supped at home. 34

1669.34. 16The professors of all sorts declined…


The professors of all sorts declined a meeting. I dined with Sir William Petty. Sir George Ascue came to see me; discoursed with Bird about Guli's land. Supped at home, visited by Joseph Stepny. 35

1669.35. 17I went to the Earl of…


I went to the Earl of Drogheda. He treated me with great civility. I met the Earls of Arran and of Roscommon, R.H., Lord Jo, C.T., Lord Drogheda, G.T., etc. I disputed with Wilson. Was visited by Roules, F. Stepny, Joseph and their kinsman Captain. John Burnyeat came to town and with me. Dined and supped at home. 36


1669.36. 18I was with John Burnyeat in…


I was with John Burnyeat in the morning. I dined at home.

Discoursed with C.Dis, and his sister M.F. We had a precious meeting at the great house. Joseph Stepny was with me at night. So was John Burnyeat, George Webber, and another Friend. Supped at home also. 37

1669.37. 19I was with Lord Kingston who…


I was with Lord Kingston who was very civil and kind. I went to Barry and delivered him the Address in the morning; in the afternoon I went to the Council. I met the Earl of Drogheda there. The Address was not read. I met also with William Fitzgerald and Robert Fitzgerald. I dined and supped at home.

1669.38. 20Visited by J. Fouls. No meeting…


Visited by J. Fouls. No meeting can be had with professors. There came also W. Bird and Colonel [?] Sands about Guli Springett's business. The estate being neglected is gone all but a third [threepence?]. Wrote for England to my father, to Alexander Parker, Francis Rogers, Guli Springett. Dined and supped at home. 38

A letter received from the Chancellor's chaplain about T.S.j. Visited by Ingenious Bon [Bonnell?]. An account received of the revenue of the Kingdom £219,500.

1669.39. 21The family went with me to…


The family went with me to meeting at Dublin, where I have been since the 2nd instant. John Burnyeat spoke, a good meeting. It was in the power of the Almighty. Many people came. Amongst the rest several of the ruder, boisterous gallants to gaze on me, which they did for almost an hour. Meeting being done, we went out where I spoke to them very sharply and so we parted. I supped at home.


1669.40. 22I was at the Council about…


I was at the Council about Friends. It sat not because of the Lord Lieutenant's illness. I met there Sir George Lane, Sir Arthur Forbes, Sir Theophilus Jones, Priest Yarner, etc. They spoke merely to me but I urged a release of poor Friends upon them, three of them being Privy Councillors. I went to the Castle, saw C. Heade [Colonel Herle?] From thence to Sir George Ascue, so to Colonel Shapcot's where I got the articles of agreement between Colonel Wallis and I. 39

I fee'd him with six cobbs. I staled [stated?] the purchase of the Cork inhabitants. From thence to John Burnyeat's and so home, where I dined and supped.

1669.41. 23I was visited this morning by…


I was visited this morning by Lieutenant Colonel Young. I visited Sir John Temple and Sir George Lane. Neither at home. Thomas Gookin was to see me. Dined at home. Bonnell dined with me. Supped at home. John Burnyeat lay here that night. 40

1669.42. 24Thomas Gookin, Colonel Phair, and Priest…


Thomas Gookin, Colonel Phair, and Priest Roules dined here. T. Fouls came to see me. Dr. Hall was to visit me also. I was at Colonel Shapcot's, he was not within. I went with Ann Gay to John Bumyeat's. William Bird came to see me at night. Dined and supped at home. 41

1669.43. 25I was at Colonel Shapcot's early…


I was at Colonel Shapcot's early but did little. From thence I went to John Burnyeat's. From thence to Colonel Phair's lodging where I met Sir St.John Broderick, where we discoursed of Phair's matters; I caused my hair to be cut off and put into a wig because of baldness since my imprisonment. I was at meeting and a very heavenly one it was. 42

I was with Colonel Shapcot where I ended my business  p.26 about Colonel Wallis and the inhabitants of Cork. From thence to supper at home, and so to John Burnyeat's lodging with Ann Gay to take our leave of him. Dined and supped at home.

1669.44. 26John Burnyeat went towards the Mole…


John Burnyeat went towards the Mole from the city of Dublin. 43 Colonel Phair came to see me. So did Hawkins, T. Fouls, D. Tree [?] Sir George Ascue, and Bonnell. Dined and supped at home; nothing was done at Council.

1669.45. 27Sir Amos Meredith, Colonel Phair, Lieutenant…


Sir Amos Meredith, Colonel Phair, Lieutenant Colonel Walker dined with me at my lodging. I wrote to Guli Springett, to George Fox, to George Whitehead [?], to T. Fir., to George Webber, to my father, to Francis Rogers, and to Isabel Yeamans; dined and supped at home. 44

1669.46. 28I was at meeting, it was…


I was at meeting, it was large. I declared 1-and-a-half hours, prayed twice. The meeting was fresh and quiet. Supped at home. Friends came to my chamber at night, where we had a precious meeting.

1669.47. 29Friends were released in this city…


Friends were released in this city with great love and civility from the judges. Nothing was done, nor is likely to be done at Council, because of the Army and Revenues. Dr. Roules and Jo. Scott were to see me. Robert Turner, Elizabeth Gardiner, William Maine and his wife were here. Several Friends' books were by me dispersed. George Whitehead, George Fox, Edward Burrough, Ambrose Rigge, William Penn, primers, etc. My accounts ended with John Gay. 45

1669.48. 30We came from Dublin to Rathcoole;Rathcoole…


We came from Dublin to Rathcoole; 46 John Gay, his wife and the children, Samuel Claridge, Anthony Sharp  p.27 and another Friend. I left orders with John Gay about all matters. Miles 6.

1669.49. 1st December 1669We left Rathcoole. They…

1st December 1669

We left Rathcoole. They went with us two miles and so returned. We baited at Blackrath and lay at Carlow where I sent for C. Chaffin. Gave him books to disperse. Miles 26. 47

1669.50. 2We departed from Carlow and passed…


We departed from Carlow and passed through Castledermot and baited at Kilkenny. From thence we came to Bat Fouks's house where we lay. Miles 21. 48

1669.51. 3We departed thence and passed through…


We departed thence and passed through Callan and baited at Ninemilehouse, called Grangemockler, and lay at Clonmel being 14 miles. Supped with Mead with whom I had much dispute about original sin. 49

1669.52. 4We changed John Penington's horse with…


We changed John Penington's horse with Mead, and had one piece and two cobbs to boot. We departed from Clonmel, famous for Oliver's siege, its present strength, and great fruitfulness of soil. We passed through Fourmilewater and came to Cappoquin where in passing over the Blackwater, a river of great note, rapidity and depth, the horses were so unruly, especially John Penington's, that we were all endangered of drowning. John Penington was struck overboard and by mighty mercy I and the boatman caught and saved him. Philip Ford's horse slued over and swum back, portmanteau and all to the other side; and whilst I and the ferryman were saving John Penington my horse and his had well nigh flung us both upon him, and they upon us, which the God of mercy for His name's sake prevented. We returned, John Penington lost his hat, got him to an Inn, put him to  p.28 bed, plied him with hot cloths, strong waters, and what could be got to preserve him; after two hours stay to dry and recruit him we passed the ferry and came by Lismore, the Earl of Cork's great seat, and so to Tallow, a road well improved and much English, where we lay at the sign of The George. Miles 17. 50

1669.53. 5We left Tallow and came to…


We left Tallow and came to Captain Bent's. We passed by a great company of Irish gathered to the Mass upon a hill. We dined at Captain Bent's. Went to see the vale of Shanagarry. Stopped at Captain Boles' farm, he holds of my father, well improved; from thence to Captain Bent's where we supped and lay. 51

1669.54. 6I left Captain Bent's and went…


I left Captain Bent's and went to see Colonel Phair's wife; and thence with Captain Bent, his wife and daughter went to Cork, where I went to see the prisoners that night. 52

1669.55. 7We went to meeting. I spoke…


We went to meeting. I spoke in the power of the Lord God a few words to backsliders, thence to dinner at Thomas Mitchell's and so to prison and so home at Elizabeth Pike's.

1669.56. 8I stayed to write letters. I…


I stayed to write letters. I could not agree with Captain Boles. I went to prison where I spoke a few words in the pure life. From thence home.

1669.57. 9I left Cork. John Boles in…


I left Cork. John Boles in company to Kinsale. Cousin [or Captain] Rooth came to visit me at The Green Dragon and Cousin Penn. 53

1669.58. 10I went to Robert Southwell, who…


I went to Robert Southwell, who was civil. I received advice from him. From thence we went to the fort,  p.29 where we dined. I gave the soldiers two cobbs or plate pieces. From thence came to Cousin Crispin's. 54

1669.59. 11I left Cousin Crispin's and came…


I left Cousin Crispin's and came to Imokilly. He came with us to the first ferry, 7 miles. I called at Francis Smith's, met Jo Spat and Priest Vowell, came to Captain Bent's where was Ensign Crow. 55

1669.60. 12I sent Philip Ford to Cork…


I sent Philip Ford to Cork for John Gossage, with letters to Sheriff Field and Sheriff Harvey, also to John Gossage, and Samuel Thornton. I went to see Colonel Phair's wife. Spoke some words there. Supped at Captain Bent's. Had much dispute with Ensign Crow. Disaffected. 56

1669.61. 13I stayed at home all day.…


I stayed at home all day. Colonel Osborne, Sergeant Rouls, Captain Freke, Priest Vowell, Francis Smith, and old Frankland came to see me. The first two about land, but had no positive answer till the 16th following, because Priest Muscall was not there who opposes Sergeant Rouls now in possession of Ballylowrace and Ballyroe. Rode out into the fields in the evening. Lay at Captain Bent's. 57

1669.62. 14I went to see Ballylowrace and…


I went to see Ballylowrace and Ballyroe, and Barries quarter, alighted at Sergeant Rouls', saw Lissanly and Ballinwillen and Ballintober. Lay at Captain Bent's. John Gossage and Philip Ford came from Cork. 58

1669.63. 15We went to admeasure Geiragh and…


We went to admeasure Geiragh and Knocknacaple, Francis Smith being there and John Boles. It amounts to ... acres ... more than by the Line Survey. Colonel Wallis came to see me. Lay at Captain Bent's. 59

1669.64. 16Francis Smith, Sergeant Rouls and Priest…


Francis Smith, Sergeant Rouls and Priest Muscall  p.30 came about the lands of Ballylowrace and Ballyroe. It was determined for Rouls. Much dispute at table against the Priest; people satisfied. Still at Captain Bent's. John Gossage and Philip surveyed Francis Smith's land again.

1669.65. 17We went to Sergeant Rouls to…


We went to Sergeant Rouls to admeasure his. We lay there that night.

1669.66. 18We made an end of Rouls'…


We made an end of Rouls' land, Ballywillen and Lissauly. Captain Bent's [or Boles's] and came home that night. 60

1669.67. 19Francis Smith came for a lease.…


Francis Smith came for a lease. We agreed at £42 per annum. Sergeant Rouls we also agreed with at 4/6 per acre with other considerable improvements on that halfploughland. Dined and supped at home as I have done all the while. Received a packet from Cork, one from Guli Springett, Alexander Parker, Richard Penn, Thomas Cook, John and Ann Gay. 61

1669.68. 20We went to Colonel Phair's. We…


We went to Colonel Phair's. We supped there; lay at Colonel Phair's.

1669.69. 21We went to Captain Boles's house,…


We went to Captain Boles's house, admeasured his lands in part. Dined there. I returned and John Hull with me. John Penington, John Gossage and Philip Ford stayed that night. I wrote for England to Francis Rogers, Isabel Yeamans, Guli Springett, Alexander Parker, George Whitehead, P.E., S.M., etc. 62

1669.70. 22We went to Captain Boles's, finished…


We went to Captain Boles's, finished his land and so to Aghada to Captain Walkham's and lay there. John Hull went to Ballicrenane. Met with Major Woodley. 63


1669.71. 23We went about admeasuring P. Walkham's…


We went about admeasuring P. Walkham's land. Francis Smith and Sir Pierce Smith came to see us; articles were signed, sealed and delivered for £42 per annum the first year, and £40 per annum afterwards, during three lives. Samuel Thornton came in the while. Returned with him to Captain Boles's, so to Colonel Phair's who was come home, and thence to Captain Bent's house, where we lay and had some service.

1669.72. 24He went to Cork. I to…


He went to Cork. I to P. Walkham's. Finished the admeasurement there.

1669.73. 25Was Pie Day, none could be…


Was Pie Day, none could be got to work. 64 John Penington, John Gossage, Philip and I went to Cork by Colonel Phair's where we first dined. We lay at Thomas Cook's. Visited Friends in prison first. Samuel Thornton lay with me.

1669.74. 26We went to a meeting at…


We went to a meeting at George Bennett's, four miles out of Cork. We overtook John Stubbs and many Mallow Friends. We had a large and blessed meeting; we returned to Cork. Lay at Thomas Cook's. Samuel Thornton, John Stubbs and I lay together. We had a meeting at our lodging. The widow Plasteed and Thomas Mitchell were there. 65

1669.75. 27Samuel Thornton went for Mallow, John…


Samuel Thornton went for Mallow, John Stubbs stayed in Cork and I came into Imokilly, to my father's house, Shanagarry, or old garden. Having called at Colonel Phair's we were civilly treated. 66

1669.76. 28We went to see Colonel Wallis's…


We went to see Colonel Wallis's trenches in the great bog where he has made a double ditch two miles quicksetted and many great ditches across, by which it  p.32 may become profitable land. John Penington fell into a trench, stepping over. John Hull came to us. Dined and supped at Shanagarry. 67

1669.77. 29Major Farmer and John Boles came…


Major Farmer and John Boles came to see me. I had advice from Farmer. Dined and supped at Shanagarry. I have perused part of the Jesuits' book. 68

1669.78. 30I went to meet John Stubbs…


I went to meet John Stubbs but found him not. He came late in the evening with Christopher Pennock. Lay with me.

1669.79. 31He went with Christopher Pennock to…


He went with Christopher Pennock to Youghal, where he had a meeting. I carried him part of the way and then returned. Met at Shanagarry Colonel Osborne, Richard Hull, Francis Smith, Sergeant Rouls, and John Boles, also G. Fitzgerald. I did little business. They dined here. We had some controversy together about matter of liberty. Sergeant Rouls is to conclude with me about the business. G. Fitzgerald would have a farm. None can be set to him. They left us. I went with them, so did John Hull, Colonel Wallis, and John Boles almost to Ballicrenane, then returned. 69

1670.1. 1st January 1669/1670Colonel Wallis, John Boles…

1st January 1669/1670

Colonel Wallis, John Boles and I went to Inch, found the house out of repair. Thence to Captain Walkham's and so with John Gossage and Philip Ford home to Shanagarry. 70

1670.2. 2We stayed at Shanagarry. All but…


We stayed at Shanagarry. All but John Gossage and Philip Ford went to Gale's. Was about the Answer to the Jesuits. 71


1670.3. 3I was very busy about the…


I was very busy about the Answer all day almost. John Hull transcribed it.

1670.4. 4John Boles came to me. Colonel…


John Boles came to me. Colonel Wallis, he, John Penington and I went to Captain Gale's. Rode into the sea. John Gossage and Philip Ford went to admeasure Thomas Frankland's farm and returned to Shanagarry that night. Major Woodley came to dinner. John Hull went to Cork and carried the first sheet to the press. John Boles went home and Woodley to Gale's.

1670.5. 5I went an hour before day…


I went an hour before day to Captain Bent's for advice. He came back two miles. I overtook Captain Walkham and John Boles. I concluded with Captain Walkham for £90 per annum for Finure, Ballincarrownig, Acredoan, Condon's acres and Seskinstown. 72

Major Woodley and I have not quite agreed. He went to Rouls's and Captain Walkham home.

1670.6. 6Major Woodley and I could not…


Major Woodley and I could not agree. I dined and supped at Shanagarry.

1670.7. 7I wrote much of my Answer…


I wrote much of my Answer to the Jesuits and John Penington transcribed it.

1670.8. 8I wrote for England to George…


I wrote for England to George Whitehead, Isabel Yeamans, Francis Rogers and my father. I bought frieze for Margaret Lowther. 73 ff.w. [?] P.E., P.P., S.M. I sent another sheet to the press. Gale came. We agreed at per annum.

1670.9. 9Captain Gale came again. We agreed…


Captain Gale came again. We agreed still at the same price. I wrote some of my Answer.


1670.10. 10Captain Walkham and John Boles came,…


Captain Walkham and John Boles came, the lease agreed upon and drawn at £84 per annum. Sergeant Rouls was also here, and agreed at 4s. 4d. per acre.

1670.11. 11Colonel Phair came to see me.…


Colonel Phair came to see me. We went to Gale's. I had a letter from Robert Southwell, Captain Rooth, Major Love about the soldiers' pay. Orders given about it. Philip Ford returned with John Burnyeat and Samuel [Thornton]. 74

1670.12. 12John Burnyeat, John Penington, Samuel and…


John Burnyeat, John Penington, Samuel and I went to Tallow. Lost our way by six miles. We baited there. Took a guide to Clogheen. We were lost on the mountain, fain to grope our way. At last got over by many wonderful precipices, and came to Clogheen by another guide from the foot of the mountains, being in all about 29 Irish miles, near 50 English. 75

1670.13. 13Next morning we went to John…


Next morning we went to John Fennell's, found Solomon Eccles there. Had a meeting. John Burnyeat and Solomon Eccles spoke. It was a most precious meeting. Many Friends were there, George Baker, John Boles and James Hutchinson, etc. 76

1670.14. 14John Burnyeat and Samuel went for…


John Burnyeat and Samuel went for Carlow, Solomon Eccles and John Fennell to Waterford, and we returned by Tallow, where we baited, to Shanagarry.

1670.15. 15Captain Gale came hither. We concluded…


Captain Gale came hither. We concluded at £90 per annum.

1670.16. 16John Penington and Philip Ford and…


John Penington and Philip Ford and I went to Captain Gale's. Put out the grey gelding to grass. He gave me a stone colt. Came home to Shanagarry again.


1670.17. 17Captain Walkham, Captain Gale, Captain Boles,…


Captain Walkham, Captain Gale, Captain Boles, Major Woodley and Priest Vowell came to see me. Finished with Captain Boles at £62 per annum. I had much dispute at table with Vowell. Farmer Landy was there. I went with Priest Vowell to the strand. Much discourse with him. 77

1670.18. 18He came again, and Captain Hull's…


He came again, and Captain Hull's wife and Lady Tynte's other two daughters, Colonel Phair and Saph and their wives. Gale and John Phair came also to see me. Philip went to Cork. 78

1670.19. 19I wrote more of my Answer.…


I wrote more of my Answer. I went to Colonel Phair's with Captain Gale. Lay there. Met Philip as we went. He returned with us to Colonel Phair's.

1670.20. 20Went to Captain Bent's also, to…


Went to Captain Bent's also, to advise about Major Woodley's reference.

20 [sic]

Colonel Phair and I etc. went to Garrett Fitzgerald's of Lisquinlan to view Clonmain. We dined there; had a dispute with Priests Vowell and Webb, one Chaplain to the Lord President, the other at Youghal. We returned and parted upon the hill by the windmill. To the poor 1shilling. 79

1670.21. 21I went and Colonel Wallis to…


I went and Colonel Wallis to Colonel Phair's about the reference. The land was returned 4s. 3d. per acre, I paying quitrent.

I abated 6d. per acre and that was 3s. 9s. per acre. We so agreed on all sides. He before Colonel Phair, Bent, Farmer, Wallis, etc., gave up Inch, the house, not to touch, and arrears of rent to pay. So we returned home. To Colonel Phair's servant 1 s.


1670.22. 22I met Gerald Fitzgerald about the…


I met Gerald Fitzgerald about the sawmill, we concluded on £44 per annum and what it shall be adjudged more worth by Farmer and Gale, I paying quit rent.

1670.23. 23We stayed within. I wrote part…


We stayed within. I wrote part of my letter to my father. We waited upon the Lord. Went walking.

1670.24. 24I made an end of my…


I made an end of my father's and wrote one to my sister about Francis Cook. I received a letter from Captain Smith's wife at Ballincrenane. I answered it. 80

1670.25. 25I went to Captain Bole's From…


I went to Captain Bole's From thence to Colonel Phair's and so to Captain Bent's. From thence to Captain Rous, agreed with him. Philip went to Cork. I called at Colonel Fitzgerald's. Was not at home, met him returning to Captain Bole's. Supped there. Came late to Shanagarry. 81

1670.26. 26Colonel Osborne, Captain Smith's wife, and…


Colonel Osborne, Captain Smith's wife, and Hull's wife came to at Shanagarry about Captain Smith's farm, they earnestly solicited for an abatement of the 4s. 6d. per acre, but I could not be moved from my commission and judgement. It was agreed that it should be so taken, and Colonel Osborne the security. They returned. Much was added to my Answer.

1670.27. 27George Webber, Susanna Mitchell and Joan…


George Webber, Susanna Mitchell and Joan Cook came with Philip from Cork. Stayed one night.

1670.28. 28They returned to Captain Bole's and…


They returned to Captain Bole's and Captain Bent's, there Susanna Mitchell prayed. We carried them on their way to Carrigtuohill, and there parted. They went for Cork. John Penington and Philip Ford and  p.37 myself for Captain Bent's and so to Shanagarry. John Bailey brought me a letter from John Gay. 82

1670.29. 29I went to Colonel Osborne's, Colonel…


I went to Colonel Osborne's, Colonel Wallis and John Bailey accompanying me. The Colonel, Lady Tynte, Major [?] Smith, Richard and E. Hull etc. were very civil. I agreed with Smith, Osborne is security, the price is 4s. 6d. We returned to Shanagarry.

1670.30. 30We stayed at Shanagarry. I proceeded…


We stayed at Shanagarry. I proceeded in my business, in order to depart the next day. I wrote a letter (very smart) to Francis Smith.

1670.31. 31We departed. Came to Captain Bent's.…


We departed. Came to Captain Bent's. Lay there that night.

1670.32. February 1stMajor Farmer and Major Woodley…

February 1st

Major Farmer and Major Woodley came to Captain Bent's. I spoke to them. From thence we went to Cork, John Boles being with us. We met Colonel Phair, his wife and several of his family.

1670.33. 2From Cork we went to Kinsale.…


From Cork we went to Kinsale. I was at the Fort, was visited by Gookin and others. George Webber and George Gamble came to me about the burying place, bought of Jo. Galway. 83

1670.34. 3Several dined with us at Kinsale,…


Several dined with us at Kinsale, at the Green Dragon. I went to see Robert Southwell, who received me civilly. We returned to Cork.

1670.35. 4I went from Cork to William…


I went from Cork to William Lawford's; George Gamble, Philip Ford and John Penington being with me.

1670.36. 5From Clogheen we came to John…


From Clogheen we came to John Fennell's and there  p.38 met with Solomon Eccles and Lucretia Cooke. We went thence to Cashel, to George Baker's.

1670.37. 6We had a meeting there, being…


We had a meeting there, being First Day. Solomon spoke, then I, then Lucretia. Solomon and I prayed. M. Martin and her sister were there and many of the townspeople. We returned to John Fennell's. 84

1670.38. 7We returned thence to William Lawford's,…


We returned thence to William Lawford's, and thence to Kilworth, had a meeting there. Solomon Eccles and I spoke.

1670.39. 8We went to Tallow, called at…


We went to Tallow, called at Captain Campane's, a friend, by the way. Had a meeting at Tallow where we were disturbed by a busy constable; we refused to go unless he produced his commission. I spoke much with him; at last the man was smitten and departed. Solomon Eccles prayed and spoke, so did I. I had much discourse with Robert Cook. 85

1670.40. 9Robert Cook, P. Cook [?], Solomon…


Robert Cook, P. Cook [?], Solomon Eccles, William Hawkins [?], his daughter, John Penington, George Gamble and myself came to Youghal. I visited and invited Edward Landy to the meeting. He did not deny me, yet came not. We had a blessed meeting. Both of us spoke. Supped at the Inn.

1670.41. 10We left Youghal and William Hawkins,…


We left Youghal and William Hawkins, his daughter, Robert Cook, and P. Cook and the rest of us came to Major Farmer's, and thence to Shanagarry, where we lay, being civilly treated. 86

1670.42. 11We left John Penington at Shanagarry…


We left John Penington at Shanagarry ill of a stoppage in his throat, at Shanagarry [sic], and Solomon Eccles, George Gamble and myself came to Colonel  p.39 Phair's and so to Captain Bent's where we dined; and I left my chestnut nag, taking his daughter's mare, and came that night to Cork and lay at George Gamble's where Friends came to see us, Susanna Mitchell, George Webber, Henry Faggoter, Joan Cook, Richard Brocklesby, etc. 87

1670.43. 12We contined at George Gamble's that…


We contined at George Gamble's that day. I shaved my head, dined there, did something about my book. Supped at George Webber's with George Gamble, his wife, Susanna Mitchell, Solomon Eccles etc.: returned to George Gamble's, lay there.

1670.44. 13We went to George Bennett's, five…


We went to George Bennett's, five miles off to meeting. Had a precious one. Solomon Eccles, Susanna Mitchell and myself spoke. Returned and supped at George Gamble's. Had a meeting at Richard Brocklesby's; Solomon Eccles, Susanna Mitchell and I spoke. It was a large convincing meeting. Lay at Elizabeth Erbury's. 88

1670.45. 14We dined at Elizabeth Erbury's, came…


We dined at Elizabeth Erbury's, came to Joan Cook's, supped there. George Webber spoke. Susanna Mitchell prayed. Solomon Eccles spoke.

1670.46. 15I wrote for England to Guli…


I wrote for England to Guli Springett and Alexander Parker. Dined at Susanna Mitchell's and lay there. Several Friends came to town.

1670.47. 16We had a great meeting, being…


We had a great meeting, being the Six Weeks meeting for Cork. Solomon [Eccles] and Susanna Mitchell spoke and some others. Things were well ordered as to Truth's affairs. We lay at George Gamble's.

1670.48. 17Captain Phair and I ended Prigg's…


Captain Phair and I ended Prigg's and Gale's business  p.40 Solomon Eccles, John Hull, William Morris, John Penington, Philip Ford and myself went to Kinsale. Bought some of William Mask's baskets. 89

1670.49. 18We went to Bandon. Only William…


We went to Bandon. Only William Morris and William Mask went with us to Bandon. We had a meeting there. Solomon Eccles spoke. I also spoke. We were at the end disturbed, for the Provost and the Priest with three constables came to us. I satisfied the Provost, non-plussed the Priest. Wrote him a challenge and got the victory. 90

1670.50. 19We came to John Allen's. Lay…


We came to John Allen's. Lay there. 91

1670.51. 20We had a large meeting there.…


We had a large meeting there. Solomon Eccles and myself spoke. We lay there that night.

1670.52. 21We came to William Morris's, that…


We came to William Morris's, that is Solomon Eccles, George Webber, John Penington, Philip Ford and I. John Allen came with us and returned. We lay there.

1670.53. 22We went to Skibbereen; William Morris,…


We went to Skibbereen; William Morris, Paul Morris, etc. with us. Solomon Eccles spoke. We returned that night. That is William Morris, Paul Morris, John Penington, Philip Ford and I, but Solomon Eccles and George Webber went with John Hull to his island. 92

1670.54. 23Captain Moore, Abel Guilliams, P. Maddox,…


Captain Moore, Abel Guilliams, P. Maddox, Adam Clark, Walter Harris, William Berry, Ed. Nuce, and old Frankland, also Philpot, Hundall [Arundal?], Crowley, Hart, German, O'Hea, and others. I bargained with Abel Guilliams; Captain Moore and the rest  p.41 parted civilly; having appointed them their respective days to balance accounts and to article for the time to come. Several dined at William Morris's with me. William Morris, John Penington and Philip Ford and I went that afternoon to John Hull's island to Solomon Eccles and George Webber. Lay there. A pleasant and retired place. Given me a Greek psalter.

1670.55. 24We all of us went to…


We all of us went to Baltimore. 93 Had a meeting at J. Fenn's. Solomon Eccles and I spoke; he and George Webber stayed, but the rest returned. We to William Morris's, John Hull to his island.

1670.56. 25George Webber and Solomon Eccles came…


George Webber and Solomon Eccles came to William Morris's. I went to see the lands.

1670.57. 26George Webber went to Cork. Solomon…


George Webber went to Cork. Solomon Eccles and [sic] went with him. Saw John Stubbs's farm, we returned. I could not agree with P. Maddox nor Ed. Nuce.

1670.58. 27Several came to meeting from several…


Several came to meeting from several parts, Captain Moore's children and many others. Solomon Eccles and I spoke. It was as precious a meeting as I was ever in. Solomon Eccles went to John Allen's.

1670.59. 28Paul Morris, John Penington, John Hull…


Paul Morris, John Penington, John Hull and I went to Bandon. We went to meeting. I was called out by the Provost's man; I had three hours discourse with the Provosts [sic] very near, and praying with many of the dirtiest people of the town. My staying prevented the breaking up of the meeting. I endured much in spirit, in reproaches, slanders, and the wickedness of the multitude; yet in the end they were trampled upon in the dominion of the truth. We lay at Sarah Massey's. 94


1670.60. March 1stWe returned to Captain Moore's…

March 1st

We returned to Captain Moore's at Rosscarbery by Martha Allen's. We dined at his house and supped there. Thomas Gookin came with me from Rosscarbery to Captain Morris's. 95

1670.61. 2I finished with Jo. Woods, and…


I finished with Jo. Woods, and Thomas Gookin went to Rosscarbery. I settled some of the proprietors; Warner was with me, but nothing concluded. D. Crowley and David German signed their articles.

1670.62. 3Adam Clark came to me. I…


Adam Clark came to me. I wrote a letter to the Earl of Barrymore by him. His business is unconcluded about Carrigroe. Walter Harris came in the afternoon, he engaged to discharge arrears, but agreed not for the future, only left it in suspense. John Hull came and lay with me. 96

1670.63. 4I went to Rosscarbery, and John…


I went to Rosscarbery, and John Hull, John Penington, Philip Ford, William Morris, and Paul Morris, to Captain Moore's. There breakfasted, and thence to Lieutenant Ed. Clark's, thence to Clonakilty. Met with Maddox, concluded not. From thence to Bandon, many accompanying me a good part of the way. From thence to Cork. I had the priest's letter and shall answer it. 97

1670.64. 5We and many Friends to the…


We and many Friends to the number of twenty-three from Cork to Youghal; others came from other parts in order to [be at] the next day's meeting. Solomon Eccles and I lay at Robert Sandham's. 98

1670.65. 6We had an exceeding great meeting…


We had an exceeding great meeting and the people sober, and several reached, all peaceable, and the Mayor himself said had he not been Mayor he would have  p.43 come. We supped at the two Inns, being divided and too many for one. Solomon Eccles, Susanna Mitchell, Joan Cook, George Webber, Philip Ford and I went to Edward Landy's, we much reached his love and hopes were begotten of him and so returned, he accompanying us a great part of the way.

1670.66. 7I visited M. Newlon's father, a…


I visited M. Newlon's father, a fine old man and civil. He lives highly as to the outward, also J. Gerald. Met Governor Osborne, Captain Hull, Ensign Russell, and Owen Silver, ended the controversy with him, but Woodley flinches. We left Youghal. I brought Friends to Carrigtuohill. By the way at Corabby I changed my dun nag for a fleabit mare. Returned to Colonel Phair's, supped there, and then to Captain Bent's to bed. 99

1670.67. 9 [sic]Wrote for England, to Father,…

9 [sic]

Wrote for England, to Father, Guli; Philip Ford went to Cork. I went to Colonel Phair's. Stayed till evening, then returned to Captain Bent's. Captain Bent was come home. He has almost done his business with Barrymore.

1670.68. 10We stayed at Captain Bent's, went…


We stayed at Captain Bent's, went over to Colonel Phair's with Captain Bent and dined there. Returned to Captain Bent's. I wrote a sheet or two against Priest Moore; and purpose, effective.  100

1670.69. 11Philip Ford came from Cork. The…


Philip Ford came from Cork. The Judge was come to Cork. Friends imprisoned. Great severity expressed.

1670.70. 12Captain Bent's man went to Cork…


Captain Bent's man went to Cork to excuse his master's not coming to town to the Earl of Barrymore.

1670.71. 13Philip went to Cork again for…


Philip went to Cork again for Captain Rooth. Came not that day, but Bent's man came. He brought me a  p.44 packet. One letter from my father, one from Guli, one from T. Firm., one from my sister. Wrote to the Judge.

1670.72. 14Philip came with my cousin Rooth…


Philip came with my cousin Rooth from Cork. Friends barbarously dealt with. Mayor and Judge agreed. Many appear for them. My cousin Rooth and Captain Bent agreed as far as could be. I have bought his stone horse for £15, at is my black horse of John Fennell's, and £9 sterling.

1670.73. 15We came all to Cork; Cousin…


We came all to Cork; Cousin Rooth, Captain Bent, and myself etc. I alighted at Thomas Cook's, wrote letters, went to the prison and saw dear Friends. Many Friends were at the Assizes.

1670.74. 16I went to the Judge. Could…


I went to the Judge. Could not speak to him in the morning. I went to George Webber's. Saw Lord Shannon, went with him, Sir St.John Broderick and Redmond Barry to the Judge, discoursed with him. Effected but little, but cleared Truth and came over the Judge. 101

1670.75. 17William Morris carried my letter to…


William Morris carried my letter to the Judge; he seemed civil but dealt wickedly. He affronted Jonathan Dempsey on our account, and in the County Hall finished the matter against Friends, that he should have done in the City Hall. 102 Many appeared for us, but nothing done for us. We waited to speak with the Judge, prepared Earl Barrymore, Lord Shannon, and Captain Moore; and wrote a letter delivered by Lord Shannon but nothing done, only the tools are not to be taken away, and room to be given for lodging. The Judge went out of town and left the prisons full, and Friends were fined £195 besides fees; one Friend was beaten in the Court but was not regarded by Judge or  p.45 Jury. A wickeder Mayor nor Judge has not been in the city of Cork since Truth came. We went to prison, informed Friends, and went to our lodgings.

1670.76. 18I left Friends in prison. Philip…


I left Friends in prison. Philip Ford, John Penington and I went to Imokilly by Lord Shannon's, Captain Rooth and John Gay accompanying us. Lord Shannon made us welcome. From thence over both passages to Captain Bent's. 103

1670.77. 19I went to Colonel Phair's. Returned…


I went to Colonel Phair's. Returned at evening. I set about a book against persecution called 'The Great Case of Liberty of Conscience Debated and Defended.'

1670.78. 20I wrote much that day of…


I wrote much that day of the said discourse. Stayed at Captain Bent's all the while.

1670.79. 21I went, Philip with me, to…


I went, Philip with me, to G. Fitzgerald's, and signed articles with him, cleared arrears with Captain R. Smith. Went to Lady Tynte's. Ended with Colonel Osborne for himself and Captain Smith. We dined there. Returned by Shanagarry. Colonel Wallis brought us beyond Captain Boles's. We called there. We found at Captain Bent's Major Woodley, at last concluded with him and passed articles between us.

1670.80. 22I proceeded with my discourse, much.…


I proceeded with my discourse, much. Colonel Phair and Captain Gale came to me. The business in suspense with Captain Gale still, and Colonel Phair also.

1670.81. 23I proceeded and almost finished my…


I proceeded and almost finished my discourse against persecution. 104 Philip went to Rous, nothing done with him. Still at Captain Bent's.

1670.82. 24I proceeded still with my book.…


I proceeded still with my book. Colonel Phair ended  p.46 with me. We left Captain Bent's and came to Cork. I went to visit Friends whose tools are taken from them. Lay at Thomas Cook's.

1670.83. 25I spoke with J. Gould, did…


I spoke with J. Gould, did nothing. Sent one sheet of The Great Case to Dublin. John Gay gave order for my little wig to be made into two cap borders. Went to prison, thence to George Gamble's. His child just then expired. Went to Bandon, saw Sarah Massey and Thomas Davis, and lay at Dashwood's. 105

1670.84. 26We went to William Morris's. Called…


We went to William Morris's. Called at Clonakilty. 'Twas very stormy. Sent for Captain Moore. He came, partly agreed with him. Lay at William Morris's.

1670.85. 27We had a very good meeting.…


We had a very good meeting. William Morris spoke three times, and myself twice and once called on the Lord God of life. Captain Moore's wife, Nuce's son and daughter were there. Parted with G. Bale.

1670.86. 28William Morris went towards Maryborough upon…


William Morris went towards Maryborough upon Truth's account. Abel Guilliams came but refused his arrears and so parted. His distress was sent for by F. etc. O'Hea. P. Maddox was here. He was himself still and so he parted. No sheaf [?] without arrears. Abel Guilliams came again, the business off still; the cattle violently rescued. David German had his lease. J. Southwell signed articles for Carhoo at £2 6 per annum. 106

1670.87. 29We went to David German's, dined…


We went to David German's, dined there. Walter Harris and his brother James Martin came thither. We agreed not. All of us went to Creaghbeg to view the Irishman's farm. Thence to Thomas Gookin's who was  p.47 not within and so to Lieutenant Ed. Clark's and agreed with him at £40 per annum, a great bargain in consideration of old friendship, service done my father and his own great charge. Thence to Adam Clark's to whom I gave a letter to be sent to the Earl of Barrymore, and so home by Rosscarbery to William Morris's where we lay. 107

1670.88. 30We stayed at home. I wrote…


We stayed at home. I wrote much of my Great Case of Liberty of Conscience. Nuce came, nothing done.

1670.89. 31We went to Thomas Gookin's. Spoke…


We went to Thomas Gookin's. Spoke with P. Maddox; he was rude and surly. We passed thence to the Sleevens, Geiragh and Kyle and so home again. 108

1670.90. April 1stEm. Nuce came to me…

April 1st

Em. Nuce came to me but the leases were not come. I wrote more of my book. We stayed at home. John Hull came. Walter Harris and J. Martin ended with me.

1670.91. 2Ed. Nuce and D. Crowley came;…


Ed. Nuce and D. Crowley came; the first had his lease. The last could not, it was not come. We stayed at home. I did proceed with my book. 109

1670.92. 3We had a good meeting at…


We had a good meeting at William Morris's. Captain Moore's wife was there and John Hull.

1670.93. 4I went to Captain Moore's. All…


I went to Captain Moore's. All of us went with Abel Guilliams to Aghamilla. He had distress [?]. We returned to Captain Moore's and there lay. 110

1670.94. 5We all went to Ed. Nuce's,…


We all went to Ed. Nuce's, then Captain Moore and I went to P. Maddox. He was not at home. We returned to Ed. Nuce's, there dined, and so came to  p.48 Captain Moore's. I got my quitrent of the man of Geiragh, but did not agree with him about the sale of his lease.

1670.95. 6P. Maddox came. I offered him…


P. Maddox came. I offered him his farm at £24 per per annum if J.S. would give way. He would not and said he was resolved in his mind. Lieutenant Colonel Mead came and dined at Captain Moore's. Martha Moore, her daughter, little Manne [Marie?], Philip, John and I walked to William Morris's but returned at night.  111

1670.96. 7Captain Moore, John Hull, Philip, John…


Captain Moore, John Hull, Philip, John and I went to Bandon. Visited Friends. Earl Barrymore was not there. Lay at Lieutenant Dashwood's.

1670.97. 8We went to Cork, saw Friends…


We went to Cork, saw Friends in prison, took fresh horses and so for Castle Lyons. Adam Clark and T. Hungerford with us. From Castle Lyons we went to Shanagarry, in all 38 Irish miles. 112

1670.98. 9We went to Lady Tynte's. Agreed…


We went to Lady Tynte's. Agreed with the Earl of Barrymore for £20 to have Carrigroe, the Nine Greens free, only quitrent excepted. Colonel Osborne and his lady not being at home came into the yard as we were going out to take horse. We rode to Frank Smith's, he was not within. We dined there. So over the ferries to Cork. Took our horses and so for Bandon that night, being 12 Irish miles after 6 p.m. Lay at Dashwood's.

1670.99. 10George Gamble came to me. We…


George Gamble came to me. We breakfasted and I mounted for Rosscarbery. Overtook a burying, barbarous like the heathen. Came to Rosscarbery. John Hull was there. We lay there. 113


1670.100. 11We continued there. The Surveyor General…


We continued there. The Surveyor General of the Harbours came, went to Baltimore. John Hull accompanied him. The young Gookins came. W. Berry came. We concluded on £22. 10. for to release his farm, but to have it one year.  114

1670.101. 12W. Freke came. W. Berry came,…


W. Freke came. W. Berry came, for £6 he surrendered his year's lease, that is he promised to do it. I was to meet him the day following at Clonakilty to resolve. W. Freke took Killeene at £22 per annum for Captain Freke. Adam Clark took Derryduff at £24 per annum and £22 fine.

1670.102. 13We left Rosscarbery, went to Thomas…


We left Rosscarbery, went to Thomas Gookin's, sent for Berry. He came not. We went to him at Clonakilty. He boiled. I fell out with him and so returned to Rosscarbery to settle that business. I overtook Bohun, the Irish tenant. Brought him to Rosscarbery. Sent J. and L. Hart to distrain the cattle on Berry's farm.

1670.103. 14The distress came early, the money…


The distress came early, the money paid and engaged for to be paid. Berry came, was as before. I offered him what I at first did and he demanded [sic]. He refused it before Captain Moore. He bid him begone.

1670.104. 15Philip went to Cork. Met Berry;…


Philip went to Cork. Met Berry; he submitted and left himself at my mercy. I met him at Banduff, paid him £6 and 20/- over and above and finished our difference. He acknowledged his fault and so William Morris, John Hull and I came to Rosscarbery. William Morris returned. We stayed.

1670.105. 16We went up to Mount Salem,…


We went up to Mount Salem, lay there. 115


1670.106. 17Philip Ford returned from Cork. We…


Philip Ford returned from Cork. We had a very good meeting. Several strangers came. James Martin Moore stayed and supped at William Morris's. We returned to Rosscarbery, lay there. Received a letter from my father.

1670.107. 18Captain Moore and we went to…


Captain Moore and we went to Enniskean, spoke to Ruddock, did nothing, and so to Macroom by E. Powel's island. Stayed there that night. Lay at Chris. Gould's. 116

1670.108. 19Stayed there that day by reason…


Stayed there that day by reason of rain. Saw the Castle and gardens. Was at the widow Gould's, bespoke 7 and 3 gallons of usquebaugh. 117

1670.109. 20We came to Kinsale. Left Captain…


We came to Kinsale. Left Captain Moore at Ballinglass to return homewards. We were wet. Saw Thomas Gookin, Captain Rooth, Cousin Penn, etc.

1670.110. 21I went to see old Robert…


I went to see old Robert Southwell, stayed two hours with him; he and his wife were civil to me; found no papers but Ruddock's. Dined at my lodging. Came to Cork. Saw Friends. Lay at the Slows.

1670.111. 22Went to the prison again and…


Went to the prison again and so into Imokilly.

1670.112. 23Captain Boles and his son came…


Captain Boles and his son came and signed their lease.

1670.113. 24I followed my book of Liberty…


I followed my book of Liberty of Conscience. John Boles came hither.

1670.114. 25I went to Ladysbridge. Colonel Osborne…


I went to Ladysbridge. Colonel Osborne and Major Woodley came and took their leases, two to Osborne, one for himself and one for Smith, and Woodley one for  p.51 himself; went to Rous, gave order that he and Walkham should come on 27th inst. 118

1670.115. 26Philip Ford went to Cork. John…


Philip Ford went to Cork. John Boles came. Joshua Mantle and his wife. I followed my book.

1670.116. 27I went to Ballicrenane, John Boles…


I went to Ballicrenane, John Boles with me. Called at Colonel Fitzgerald's, and at G. Fitzgerald's, at Ladysbridge and saw Sir F. Hanley. I could do little with Osborne about Captain Bent's business. 119

1670.117. 28Valentine Greatrakes, Colonel Phair, etc. dined…


Valentine Greatrakes, Colonel Phair, etc. dined here. Captain Rous and Captain Walkham. I ended with Rous at £33 per annum. Dismissed Joshua Mantle. Philip came from Cork and Alderman Langer lay here. 120

1670.118. 29I went to meet Colonel Osborne…


I went to meet Colonel Osborne at Corabby. Concluded on nothing. He said it was in agitation since the last 6th month, called August. John Boles was with me. I went thence to Captain Boles's barn and so to Colonel Phair's where I dined.

1670.119. 30William Freke came hither. Philip went…


William Freke came hither. Philip went to Cork. James Gould and Thomas Frankland came for a surcease of the arrest, stayed that night.

1670.120. May 1stThey went to Cork. Gale…

May 1st

They went to Cork. Gale struck up [sic] and concluded.

1670.121. 2Philip came home. Went with me…


Philip came home. Went with me to Inch and Walter Croker took possession. Returned by Cloyne. There dined and so home. 121

1670.122. 3The Irish inhabitants came. They had…


The Irish inhabitants came. They had their houses  p.52 and gardens as before. Two were made sergeants to keep the grass etc., Croning and Pierce. J. Walkham came, Thomas Frankland and his son. I bought his son's horse, gave one guinea of earnest for eleven. Sir F. Hanley and G. Fitzgerald came. The last had his lease. They supped and so returned. 122

1670.123. 4Captain Walkham went with me and…


Captain Walkham went with me and Philip Ford to Tallow. Met Colonel Osborne but not the Earl of Barrymore. From thence we went to Sir Boyle Maynard's, so to Walter Croker's, there Lord Broghill met us. Went with him to Castle Lyons. Lay there.  123

1670.124. 5I was at the Castle. I…


I was at the Castle. I spoke with Lord Shannon and Lord Barrymore and his lady. Did my business as well as I could, and so returned to Captain Bent's. Captain Walkham went to Aghada. I wrote away to Castle Lyons to Lord Barrymore and Lord Shannon.

1670.125. 6Received letters from Lord Shannon and…


Received letters from Lord Shannon and Lord Barrymore. Stayed at Captain Bent's. Walter Croker went away. I made the steps into the private walk. Philip and I had some words.

1670.126. 7Philip went to Cork. Frankland came.…


Philip went to Cork. Frankland came. I enjoyed the Lord that night.

1670.127. 8I enjoyed the Lord that day.…


I enjoyed the Lord that day. John Penington and I waited in my chamber together. I went to Captain Boles's. Had W.R, H.G., and J.O.

1670.128. 9Philip Ford came from Cork. We…


Philip Ford came from Cork. We went to Rous, ended with him. Had his security of 30 beasts and 2  p.53 leases for the payment of £43. 10. Returned to Captain Bent's to meet Thomas Mitchell and J. Haman.

1670.129. 10We came to Cork. I wrote…


We came to Cork. I wrote to B., to Lord Shannon, to my dear B. twice, to the Count [or Countess] of Clancarty, to Elizabeth Bailey, to Thomas Lower [?] to Thomas Ellwood etc. Philip Ford went post to Dublin. I saw Captain Moore. 124

1670.130. 11We had a precious meeting. Philip…


We had a precious meeting. Philip Dymond, Susanna Mitchell, George Webber, William Hawkins [?] John Hull and myself spoke. I prayed.

1670.131. 12We went to prison, stayed mostly…


We went to prison, stayed mostly with Friends. J. Gould and John Boles were here. I lay at prison.

1670.132. 13I stayed the morning at Thomas…


I stayed the morning at Thomas Cook's about business. Went to prison at night, spoke a few words. Lay at home. I was with the Mayor about my books. He abused me with names, as Cockscomb, Jackanapes, fellow, fool, etc. 125

1670.133. 14I wrote by Captain Moore to…


I wrote by Captain Moore to the Provost and Burgesses of Bandon in answer to the priest. I went to see Friends. Lay at prison all night. Disputed with the collector.

1670.134. 15We had a good meeting. We…


We had a good meeting. We were disturbed. John Hull and three more were stopped. They missed me, though they saw me and came for me. I came home. I spoke twice. 126

1670.135. 16Went to Friends. Sent a letter…


Went to Friends. Sent a letter to Charleville. Disputed with Aldermen Coult and Dunscomb. Returned to my lodging at Thomas Cook's. 127


1670.136. 17I was at prison all day.…


I was at prison all day. We drew up a paper of Friends' sufferings to be sent to Dublin. I received an express from Cousin Crispin.

1670.137. 18Went to Kinsale. Lay at The…


Went to Kinsale. Lay at The Fort.

1670.138. 19With old Robert Southwell, disputed with…


With old Robert Southwell, disputed with him. Ended with Cousin Penn. Dined with Cousin Rooth, disputed much at table. Returned to Cork. Philip came from Dublin, nothing done. Lay at Thomas Cook's. 128

1670.139. 20I received a packet from Lord…


I received a packet from Lord Bryan from Charleville. The Mayor upon a letter to him returned the books. We went to meeting. Lay at Thomas Cook's.

1670.140. 21We went into the country at…


We went into the country at Captain Bent's. Fixed Thomas Frankland's leases and signed John Boles's. Wrote to the tenants.

1670.141. 22John Boles came to see us.…


John Boles came to see us. We stayed there.

1670.142. 23Captain Gale had his lease finished.…


Captain Gale had his lease finished. Colonel Phair came and his wife to see us.

1670.143. 24Jo. Rous came about his bond.…


Jo. Rous came about his bond. We ended the scruple. We came to Cork. Saw Friends. Lay at Thomas Cook's. Disputed with a Popish Colonel.

1670.144. 25I was at prison for the…


I was at prison for the most part this day.

1670.145. 26The tenants came to town. Signed…


The tenants came to town. Signed G. Bale's leases, D. Crowley's lease, Lieutenant Clark's, J. Southwell's, two of Adam Clark's and Captain Freke's.


1670.146. 27I wrote to William Morris. I…


I wrote to William Morris. I gave George O'Hea a note for £4. per annum, and young T. O'Hea forty shillings. I received a statute staple from James Gould for to secure a rent charge of £ 20 per annum. Signed Walter Harris's lease and James Martin's. Did much other business. Went to prison and so to my lodging, and about 12 at night took post for Dublin. Got to Tallow.

1670.147. 28Got to Clonmel. Rode that night…


Got to Clonmel. Rode that night to Bennett's Bridge. 129

1670.148. 29Got to Carlow and thence to…


Got to Carlow and thence to Kilcullen and so to Dublin by break of day following being the  130

1670.149. 30Thomas Fearon and Robert Turner came…


Thomas Fearon and Robert Turner came to see me. An order obtained but to be on bail not accepted. 131

1670.150. 31I wrote to the Lord Lieutenant…


I wrote to the Lord Lieutenant and to Sir Ellis Leighton, the secretary, to have admission to the Lord Lieutenant. It was promised the next day. Visited Friends. I also wrote to the Chancellor.

1670.151. June 1st I was with the…

June 1st

I was with the Chancellor. Discoursed with him. Much promised. I was with the Lord Lieutenant. Met the Earl of Arran there. I had kind admission. He promised me fair. We were called into the Council; Lord Arran came for me, having first carried in our papers. An order of reference was granted to several to enquire about Friends' sufferings. 132

1670.152. 2I was with Lord Arran. We…


I was with Lord Arran. We went to the meeting, had a good one.


1670.153. 3We went again to Council. I…


We went again to Council. I was with Lord Arran at the Red House; his coach brought me home. An order granted for the release of Maryborough Friends.

1670.154. 4Lord Arran, Lord Shannon, Lord Kingston,…


Lord Arran, Lord Shannon, Lord Kingston, Major Fairfax, Buckly, Sesser, Sheifield, etc. dined with me. I wrote for England to o.b.ff.  133

1670.155. 5We had a large but hard…


We had a large but hard meeting, being First Day. Several great ones, the Countesses of Mount Alexander and of Clancarty, Lady Harney, etc. God's power was over them all and they were reached. Had another meeting at my lodging, Thomas Fearon and I spoke.  134

1670.156. 6I was with the Chancellor, also…


I was with the Chancellor, also with Lord Arran, and the Lord Lieutenant in his closet alone. He promised to release our Friends and did so by order of Council in the afternoon. My father's business is also done.

1670.157. 7I was with Lord Shannon and…


I was with Lord Shannon and Sir St John Broderick. They ate with me.

1670.158. 8I was at Council, we obtained…


I was at Council, we obtained an answer, but Barry was safe [base?] to us. Lord Shannon went to take the air, supped with me.

1670.159. 9I was at the meeting, spoke…


I was at the meeting, spoke there. We returned. I was with Lord Shannon.

1670.160. 10I was with the Lord Lieutenant.…


I was with the Lord Lieutenant. Shannon also at Council. We were nothing better.

1670.161. 11Thomas Fearon and I were together.…


Thomas Fearon and I were together. I wrote to my o.d.ff. twice.


1670.162. 12We went to meeting. I and…


We went to meeting. I and Thomas spoke. We had a precious and powerful meeting. Afterwards another at our house.

1670.163. 13I was with the Chancellor and…


I was with the Chancellor and Lord Arran, gave him John Hull's letter. We had an order for John Hull at Council. We waited there. Lord Shannon was with me at supper.

1670.164. 14The Jesuit would not meet me…


The Jesuit would not meet me according to promise. Lord Shannon and I were together.

1670.165. 15I was at Lord Shannon's. I…


I was at Lord Shannon's. I went to the Council. I was called in, heard. We obtained an order for the release of the remaining nine, also for John Hull. I gave the Chancellor my letter. Dined at Lady Clancarty's. Lord Shannon supped with me.

1670.166. 16I was at Lord Shannon's. Saw…


I was at Lord Shannon's. Saw the Earl of Clancarty. Lord Shannon, Sir St. John Broderick and his wife dined with me. Philip went to Cork with the orders.

1670.167. 17I was with Lord Shannon, disputed…


I was with Lord Shannon, disputed there. Dined at home. He came and St. John Broderick after dinner. Was with Colonel Shapcot and Con. Stephens. Supped at home. Visited by Thomas Fearon and Abraham Fuller. 135

1670.168. 18I was with Lord Shannon, also…


I was with Lord Shannon, also with Colonel Shapcot and O. Stephens. Nothing done yet about the letters. Dined and supped at home.

1670.169. 19We went to meeting. Thomas Fearon…


We went to meeting. Thomas Fearon spoke twice, I twice, two other Friends once apiece, returned, supped  p.58 and met again at the old meetinghouse. C. Buckly ran the meeting.

1670.170. 20I was with Lord Shannon, also…


I was with Lord Shannon, also with old jd [judge?] Fouls [or Bouls]. Dined and supped at home. I was with Lord Ranelagh. 136

1670.171. 21I was at the meeting of…


I was at the meeting of men Friends. We ordered several businesses.

1670.172. 22Lords Shannon and Masserene were with…


Lords Shannon and Masserene were with me. 137

1670.173. 23I was sent for to Lady…


I was sent for to Lady Mount Alexander's. I disputed with the Papists, manifested their great folly. Went home, so to Thomas Fearon's to supper and so to Lord Shannon's.

1670.174. 24I was at home. I saw…


I was at home. I saw Thomas Fearon, heard from Philip from Cork. Received my book of Liberty of Conscience.  138

1670.175. 25I went in coach to Ballymore…


I went in coach to Ballymore Eustace with Thomas Fearon. 139 Philip and John Penington came to town.

1670.176. 26We had a good meeting there,…


We had a good meeting there, being the first. Returned at night. Supped at home. Received letter from my o.b.ff., S. M. and Elizabeth Bailey. 140

1670.177. 27Was at the Council, gave two…


Was at the Council, gave two addresses, one for Cork and one for Maryborough, one to Lord Ranelagh and one to Lord Arran. An order to fetch up Friends by a pursuivant. 141

1670.178. 28We were at a meeting. William…


We were at a meeting. William Edmondson judge [... ?] and Thomas Fearon, but it disgusted Friends.


1670.179. 29I was with the Lord Lieutenant.…


I was with the Lord Lieutenant. He was kind; with Lord Arran, gave him a horse. With the Chancellor, Lord Shannon, etc. Dined with Lord Mount Alexander.

1670.180. 30We went to meeting. Met Soloman…


We went to meeting. Met Soloman Eccles and William Steele Thomas Fearon, Solomon Eccles and William Steele spoke. Supped at my lodging. 142

1670.181. 31 [sic] (July 1st)The Penn Letters…

31 [sic] (July 1st)143

I was with Lord Masserene, dined with M. Forster. Solomon Eccles was at Council, obtained an order.

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Title (uniform): My Irish Journal, 1669–1670

Author: William Penn

Editor: Isabel Grubb

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Electronic edition compiled and proof-read by: Benjamin Hazard

Introduction by: Hiram Morgan

Funded by: University College, Cork, via the HEA (PRTLI 4) and University College, Cork

Edition statement

2. Second draft.

Extent: 26220 words

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Publisher: CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts: a project of University College, Cork

Address: College Road, Cork, Ireland —http://www.ucc.ie/celt

Date: 2013

Date: 2017

Distributor: CELT online at University College, Cork, Ireland.

CELT document ID: E660001-002

Availability: Available with prior consent of the CELT programme for purposes of academic research and teaching only. Copyright for the notes to the text resides with Pearson Education Publishing. Permission to include the notes to the text is granted, subject to acknowledgement of Pearson Education as publishers.

Notes statement

Source description

Original autograph manuscript

  • Philadelphia, PA. Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Granville Penn Collection, Manuscript Division, 'My Irish Journal farthest from London on ye 15 of ye 7th Month 1669', 138pp. 12mo.


  1. 'Journal of Penn's second visit to Ireland,' in: The Pennsylvania magazine of history and biography, 40 (January 1916) 46–84.
  2. My Irish Diary, 1669–1670 by William Penn. Edited by Isabel Grubb with an Introduction by Henry J. Cadbury (London: Longmans, Green and Company, 1952).

Selection of further reading

  1. William Penn, The Great CASE of Liberty of Conscience once more briefly debated and defended, by the authority of REASON, SCRIPTURE, and ANTIQUITY: which may serve the place of a general reply to such late discourses; as have oppos'd a toleration (Dublin 1670).
  2. William Penn, A seasonable caveat against popery (Cork: William Smith 1670).
  3. William Penn, A letter of love to the young convinced (Cork: William Smith 1670).
  4. Thomas Holme & Abraham Fuller, A brief relation of some part of the sufferings of the true Christians, the people of God (in scorn called Quakers) in Ireland (1672).
  5. Samuel Fuller & Thomas Holme, A compendious view of some extraordinary sufferings of the people call'd Quakers, both in person and substance, in the kingdom of Ireland (Dublin, 1731).
  6. John Rutty, History of the Rise and Progress of the People called Quakers in Ireland from the Year 1653 to 1700 (1751).
  7. A. C. Meyers, Immigration of Irish Quakers into Pennsylvania, 1682–1750, with their early history in Ireland (Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 1902).
  8. Robert Murray, Ireland, 1603–1714 (London 1920).
  9. Isabel Grubb, Quakers in Ireland, 1654–1900 (London 1927).
  10. R. B. McDowell, 'The problem of religious dissent in Ireland, 1660–1740,' Bulletin, Irish Committee of Historical Sciences 40 (1945).
  11. Henry J. Cadbury, 'Intercepted correspondence of William Penn, 1670', The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 70 (1946) 349–72.
  12. Mary Penington & Henry J. Cadbury, 'More Penn Correspondence, Ireland, 1669–1670', The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 73 (1949) 9–15.
  13. Thomas E. Drake, (Review) 'My Irish Journal, 1669–1670 by William Penn; Isabel Grubb', The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 77 (1953) 112–114.
  14. Constantia Maxwell, The stranger in Ireland: from the reign of Elizabeth to the Great Famine (London 1954).
  15. Mary Maples Dunn & Richard S. Dunn, The papers of William Penn (5 vols, Philadelphia 1981–87).
  16. Mary Maples Dunn & Richard S. Dunn, The world of William Penn (Philadelphia 1986).
  17. J. G. Simms, War and politics in Ireland: 1649–1730; edited by D.W. Hayton and Gerard O'Brien (London 1986).
  18. Helen Hatton, The largest amount of good, Quaker relief in Ireland, 1654–1921 (Montreal 1993).
  19. Phil Kilroy, Protestant dissent and controversy in Ireland, 1660–1714 (Cork 1994).
  20. W. K. Sessions, 'William Penn's tract printing in Cork in 1670' in idem, Further Irish studies in early printing history (York: Ebor Press 1994).
  21. P. W. Joyce, The origin and history of Irish names of places. Facsimile of the original edition in 3 volumes published 1869–1913 (repr. Dublin 1995).
  22. John McVeagh (ed.), Irish travel writing. A bibliography (Dublin 1996).
  23. Robert L. Greaves, God's other children: Protestant nonconformists and the emergence of denominational churches in Ireland, 1660–1700 (Stanford CA, 1997).
  24. Robert L. Greaves, Merchant-Quaker: Anthony Sharp and the community of Friends, 1643–1707 (Stanford CA, 1998).
  25. Allan MacInnes & Jane Ohlmeyer (eds.), The Stuart kingdoms in the seventeenth century: awkward neighbours (Dublin 2002).
  26. Andrew Murphy (ed.), The political writings of William Penn (Indianapolis 2002).
  27. T.C.W. Blanning & Hagen Schulze (eds.), Unity and diversity in European culture, c.1800 [Issue 134 of Proceedings of the British Academy] (Oxford & New York 2006).
  28. Matthew Glozier and David Onnekink (eds.), War, religion and service: Huguenot soldiering, 1685–1713 (Aldershot 2007).
  29. James Kelly, John McCafferty & Charles Ivar McGrath (eds.), People, politics and power: essays on Irish history, 1660–1850, in honour of James I. McGuire (Dublin 2009).
  30. C. J. Woods, Travellers' accounts as source material for Irish historians (Dublin 2009).
  31. Charles Smith, Natural and Civil History of Waterford, Dublin 1746.

Concise Penn Bibliography, compiled by Ruth Canning [There is some overlap with the above list]

  1. "List of Penn Manuscripts," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 28, No. 2 (1904), pp. 155-168.
  2. Penn, William. A Memoir of William Penn (Philadelphia, 1870).
  3. Bernet, Claus. "Marc Swanner (1639-1713): The Man Behind Fox and Penn," Quaker History, Vol. 99, No. 2 (2010), pp. 20-36.
  4. Brailsford, Mabel. The Making of William Penn (New York: Longmans, Green, and Company, 1930).
  5. Braithwaite, William C. The Beginnings of Quakerism (London: Macmillan, 1912).
  6. Braithwaite, William C. The Second Period of Quakerism (London, 1919).
  7. Broghill, Mary Pennington and Henry J. Cadbury (eds.). "More Penn Correspondence, Ireland, 1669-1670," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 73, No. 1 (1949), pp. 9-15.
  8. Buckley, Eila. "William Penn in Dublin," Dublin Historical Record, Vol. 6, No. 3 (1944), pp. 81-90.
  9. Buranelli, Vincent. The King and the Quaker (Philadelphia, 1962).
  10. Cadbury, Henry J. "Intercepted Correspondence of William Penn, 1670," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 70, No. 4 (1946), pp. 349-372.
  11. Calvert, Jane E. Quaker Constitutionalism and the Political Thought of John Dickinson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
  12. Davies, Adrian. The Quakers in English Society, 1655-1725 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).
  13. De Krey. "Rethinking the restoration: Dissenting Cases of Conscience, 1667-1672," Historical Journal, 38 (1995), pp. 53-83.
  14. Dunn, Richard S. and Dunn, Mary Maples (eds.). The World of William Penn (Pennsylvania, 1986).
  15. Dunn, Richard S. and Dunn, Mary Maples (eds.). The Papers of William Penn (Philadelphia, 1981-).
  16. Dunn, Mary Maples. William Penn: Politics and Conscience (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967).
  17. Dunn, Mary Maples. "The Personality of William Penn," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 127, No. 5 (1983), pp. 316-321.
  18. Endy, Melvin B. Jr. William Penn and Early Quakerism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973).
  19. Fisher, Sydney George. The True William Penn (Philadelphia, 1899).
  20. Ford, Linda. "William Penn's Views on Women: Subjects of Friendship," Quaker History, Vol. 72, No. 2 (1983), pp. 75-102.
  21. Geiter, Mary. "William Penn and Jacobitism: A Smoking Gun?" Historical Research, Vol. 73:181 (2000), pp. 213-218.
  22. Greaves, Richard L. Enemies Under His Feet: Radicals and Nonconformists in Britain, 1664-1667 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990).
  23. Hodges, George. William Penn (Cambridge, 1901).
  24. Holland, Rupert. William Penn (New York, 1915).
  25. Hughs, Mary. The life of William Penn (Philadelphia, 1828).
  26. Horle, Craig. The Quakers and the English Legal System 1660-1688 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1988).
  27. Ingle, H. Larry. First Among Friends: George Fox and the Creation of Quakerism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994).
  28. Janney, Samuel Mcpherson. The Life of William Penn: with selections from his correspondence and autobiography (Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo, 1853).
  29. Leach, M Atherton. "Gulielma Maria Springett, First Wife of William Penn," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 57, No. 2 (1933), pp. 97-116.
  30. Lockhart, Audrey. "The Quakers and Emigration From Ireland to the North American Colonies," Quaker History, Vol. 77, No. 2 (1988), pp. 67-92.
  31. Maloyed, Christie N. "A liberal Civil Religion: William Penn's Holy Experiment," Journal of Church and State, Vol. 55, No. 4 (2013), pp. 669-711.
  32. Morgan, Edmund S. "The World of William Penn," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 127, No. 5 (1983), pp. 291-315.
  33. Moore, Rosemary. The Light of their Consciences: The Early Quakers in Britain, 1646-1666 (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000).
  34. Murphy, Andrew R. "The Emergence of William Penn, 1668-1671," Journal of Church and State, Vol. 57, No. 2 (2014), pp. 333-359.
  35. Murphy, Andrew R. "Trial Transcripts as Political Theory: Principles and Performance in the Penn-Mead Case," Political Theory, Vol. 41 (2013), pp. 775-808.
  36. Murphy, Andrew R. "The Limits and Promise of Political Theorizing: William Penn and the Founding of Pennsylvania,"History of Political Thought, Vol. 34 (2013), pp. 639-668.
  37. Nash, Gary B. Quakers and Politics: Pennsylvania, 1681-1726, (Princeton, 1968).
  38. Neill, Desmond. "The Quakers in Ireland," North Irish Roots, Vol. 6, No. 1 (1995), pp. 9-11.
  39. Newman, Paul Douglas. "'Good Will to all men ... from the King on the throne to the beggar on the dunghill': William Penn, the Roman Catholics, and Religious Toleration," Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies, Vol. 61, No. 4 (1994), pp. 457-479.
  40. Peare, Catherine O. William Penn (Philadelphia, 1957).
  41. Penn, Granville. Memorials of the professional life and times of Sir William Penn, 2 Vols., From 1644-1670 (London: 1833).
  42. Penn, William. A Collection of the Works of William Penn. 2 Vols. (London: 1726) The book can be found on www.archive.org and contains a list of further publications by Penn: https://archive.org/stream/collectionofwork01penn#page/n18/mode/1up.
  43. Pincus, Steve. 1688: The First Modern Revolution (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2009).
  44. Robbins, Caroline. "The Papers of William Penn," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 93, No. 1 (1969), pp. 3-12.
  45. Schwartz, Sally. "William Penn and Toleration: Foundations of Colonial Pennsylvania," Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies, Vol. 50, No. 4 (1983), pp. 284-312.
  46. Sutto, Antoinette. The borders of Absolutism: William Penn, Chalres Calvert, and the Limits of Royal Authority, 1680-1685," Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies, Vol. 76, No. 3 (2009), pp. 276-300.
  47. Vann, Richard. The Social Development of English Quakerism 1655-1755 (Cambridge, Mass., 1969).
  48. Wainwright, Nicholas B. "The Penn Collection," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 87, No. 4 (1963), pp. 393-419.
  49. Wight, Thomas. A History of the Rise and Progress of the People called Quakers in Ireland (1811).
  50. Young Kunze, Bonnelyn. "Religious Authority and Social Status in Seventeenth-Century England: The Friendship of Margaret Fell, George Fox, and William Penn," Church History, Vol. 57, No. 2 (1988), pp. 170-186.

The edition used in the digital edition

Penn, William (1952). My Irish Journal, 1669–1670‍. Ed. by Isabel Grubb. 1st ed. 103 pages; Introduction; background; modernized version of text; pages from Journal; list of Penn’s lands; Notes, index; end papers, two maps of Penn’s lands &. London, New York, Toronto: Longmans, Green and Company.

You can add this reference to your bibliographic database by copying or downloading the following:

  title 	 = {My Irish Journal, 1669–1670},
  author 	 = {William Penn},
  editor 	 = {Isabel Grubb},
  edition 	 = {1},
  note 	 = {103 pages; Introduction; background; modernized version of text; pages from Journal; list of Penn's lands; Notes, index; end papers, two maps of Penn's lands \&.},
  publisher 	 = {Longmans, Green and Company },
  address 	 = {London, New York, Toronto},
  date 	 = {1952}


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The present text consists of Isabel Grubb's modernized version of William Penn's Irish Journal, 1669–1670, corresponding to pp 18–59 of the 1952 edition. The extensive notes by Isabel Grubb which accompany the original text are included, pp 61–94. In the hardcopy these notes are printed after the Journal. For ease of use by readers, the electronic edition presents Isabel Grubb's notes following each relevant Journal entry. Each note is numbered. Copyright permission for the notes is granted by Pearson Education, hereby acknowledged as publishers. The prefatory material to the same edition; the reproductions of pages; index; maps and end papers are not included here.

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Segmentation: div0=the book; div1=the section. The sections are structured by entries given in chronological order; paragraphs are marked; page-breaks are marked pb n="". The editorial note by Isabel Grubb is contained in the front matter.

Standard values: Dates are standardized in the ISO form yyyy-mm-dd. They are those given by William Penn. At the start of each month, Isabel Grubb inserted the usual names of the month rather than the Roman numerals employed by the Quakers.

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Creation: By William Penn 1669–1670

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  • The text is in English. (en)
  • Placenames in Irish, with anglicised spelling. (ga)

Keywords: prose; journal; 17c; Quakers

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  1. 2017-01-12: New SGML and HTML files created. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  2. 2017-01-11: Concise Penn Bibliography supplied. (ed. Ruth Canning)
  3. 2013-11-21: Additions made to bibliographical details. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  4. 2013-09-10: Introduction converted to XML, footnote inserted; footnotes re-numbered; file re-parsed. SGML and HTML files created. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  5. 2013-09-10: Introduction supplied. (ed. Hiram Morgan)
  6. 2013-09-07: Entries numbered; header modified; file re-parsed. SGML and HTML files created. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
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  8. 2013-09-05: File divisions and date values applied and verified. (ed. Benjamin Hazard)
  9. 2013-09-03: Notes inserted into file. (ed. Benjamin Hazard)
  10. 2013-08-30: Remaining notes to the text proof-read; structural and content mark-up added. (ed. Benjamin Hazard)
  11. 2013-08-27: Pages 24–40 of Journal proof-read with the addition of structural and content mark-up. (ed. Benjamin Hazard)
  12. 2013-08-15: Further entries made to bibliography. (ed. Hiram Morgan)
  13. 2013-08-14: File parsed. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  14. 2013-08-14: Data input of editorial notes to the text with mark-up; header adapted with the inclusion of extra bibliographical information. (ed. Benjamin Hazard)
  15. 2013-08-10: Pages 44–59 proof-read (2); content mark-up added. (ed. Benjamin Hazard)
  16. 2013-07-25: Structural mark-up compiled for pages 33–59. Pages 44–59 proof-read (1). (ed. Benjamin Hazard)
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  19. 2013-07-15: Header created and bibliographic details compiled. (ed. Benjamin Hazard)
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  21. 2013-07-01: Text captured. (data capture Benjamin Hazard)


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  1. Ann Merrick (died 1703) was one of two Friends appointed to care for Friends in the Bridewell. She was a widow at this time. Amor Stoddart, who had been a captain in the Parliamentary army, was already known to George Fox in 1648 and travelled with him later. He lived in London and his first wife died of plague in 1665. He died at Watford three months after his marriage with Ann Merrick in September 1670. She married again. Both Amor Stoddart and Ann Merrick were Quaker preachers (The Friend N.S. vol. i, 2mo 1st 1861). John Giggour (Gigger, Jiggour) was servant to Guli Springett at this time. Life of Thomas Ellwood; Minutes of Upperside Monthly Meeting, Bucks. 🢀

  2. Isaac Penington (1616-1679), son of Sir Isaac Penington, married Mary, widow of Sir William Springett in 1654. They lived at Bury Farm near Amersham. He was frequently imprisoned and wrote much mystical literature. Their son John (1655-1710) accompanied Penn to Ireland on this occasion. 🢀

  3. Guilielma Maria Springett (1644-1694) was the posthumous daughter of Sir William Springett; and of his wife Mary, afterwards Pennington. The close friendship between her and William Penn apparent in this Journal resulted in their marriage in 1672. Penn Street is in Buckinghamshire, three miles west of Amersham. 🢀

  4. Penn writes S.H. In Penn Letters, H.J. Cadbury suggests Sarah Hersent, of whom little is known but that she may have had some domestic connection with the Pennington family. Russells Farm was where the Friends first met at Jordans, Bucks. The Monthly meeting books record at length a meeting at the house of William Russell at Jordans in the parish of Giles Chalfont on 24th July 1670 which was disturbed by constables and informers (A Visit to the Grave of William Penn, London 1853, pp 14-16). In 1671 William Russell sold to Friends what became the burying ground in which Penn and most of his family were buried. On an adjacent plot the meeting-house was erected, probably 1687-1688 (ibid. 4, 5). The statement that 'William Penn visited this locality first in the year 1670' and that it was then he was introduced to Guilielma Maria Springett (ibid. p. 19) is refuted by this Journal (Henry J. Cadbury). Philip Ford (c.1631-1701/2) acted as Secretary to Penn and was later his agent in London, but finally proved untrustworthy (Henry J. Cadbury). 🢀

  5. Thomas Ellwood (1638-1700) was tutor to G.M. Springett and a friend of the Peningtons; he was one of those responsible for the first edition of Fox's Journal. He was also for a time Secretary to the poet Milton. He was imprisoned several times, and was a keen controversialist for Friends. Life of Thomas Ellwood, etc. Reading prisoners. Sir William Armorer was a violent persecutor of Friends in Reading and some were imprisoned for years. At one time children kept up the meeting as all adults were in prison. Braithwaite, Second Period of Quakerism. 🢀

  6. Dennis Hollister (d. 1676) was one of the first Friends in Bristol. He had been M.P. for Somerset in 1653. His granddaughter became Penn's second wife. Cambridge Journal. George Whitehead (1636-1723) was a writer of many tracts defending Quakerism. Smith's Catalogue gives over thirty already published by him at this date. He was one of the most prominent Friends after Fox's death. Life, etc. George Fox, Margaret Fell. Their marriage took place in Bristol, 27th October 1669 after Penn had left for Ireland. Among the relatives present were William and Isabel Yeamans, and Thomas and Mary Lower, sons-in-law and daughters of Margaret Fell. Thomas Bisse, merchant of Bristol, is mentioned in the Bristol Quaker records about this time, and in Ellwood's Life. By his marriage with Anne Hersent, a former maid of Guli Springett, he would be a natural host to some of Penn's party. Henry J. Cadbury. Leonard Fell was one of the Fell household but his relation to them is unknown. He was a Quaker preacher. Cambridge Journal. 🢀

  7. William Rogers, merchant of Bristol, afterwards separated from Friends and wrote against them. Francis Rogers, possibly his brother, was married three times. He was a Bristol merchant with interests in Ireland, which he visited more than once. He died in 1694. There was also a Francis Rogers in Cork mentioned in Sufferings from 1660 onwards who died in 1693. Cambridge Journal, JFHS., Register. The substance of what Penn and others said about the marriage of George Fox and Margaret Fell is in manuscript at Friends House Library, London. 🢀

  8. It should be noted that Penn here omits a whole month in his Journal. Apparently he spent the time in Bristol, possibly waiting for a passage. See also p. 2. King Road or Kingsroad is an anchorage off Portishead near the mouth of the Bristol Avon. 🢀

  9. Thomas Speed, Quaker controversialist and merchant of Bristol (d.1703) Cambridge Journal; or Penn may mean Thomas Salthouse (1630-1691) one of the Swarthmoor household when Fox visited it. He afterwards resided in Cornwall and travelled in the service of Friends. Cambridge Journal. Thomas Lower (1633-1720) married secondly in 1668 May (c1644-1719) daughter of Margaret Fell. He was a doctor in Cornwall, and became a Friend in 1656. He was much in prison and sometimes acted at Fox's amanuensis etc. D.N.B. etc. Charles Harford (1631-1709) was a soap maker and merchant; he married twice. He joined Friends about 1656 and was an active and leading Bristol friend in the later part of the century and also a prominent citizen. Henry J. Cadbury. 🢀

  10. The Cove of Cork, renamed Queenstown in 1849 but now Cobh (pronounced Cove). It is the port of Cork, situated on an island in a fine harbour. 🢀

  11. Thomas Mitchell was 'convinced' by Edward Burrough and Francis Howgill in 1655 and was the husband of Susanna. He was ill-used and imprisoned frequently. Sufferings, Rutty etc. Cork prisoners. In 1669 many Cork friends were imprisoned. Friends' children were put in the stocks. Samuel Thornton was taken to prison and when Friends went to hold a meeting with him, eighty of them were locked in without food or drink except what they could get through a hole. The guard made such a smoke that they were nearly smothered. Friends long imprisoned were not allowed tools to work at their trades and servants bringing bedding and food were put in the stocks. Samuel Thornton was a visitor to Cork at the time of his imprisonment. In a fragment of autobiography by Penn quoted in Janney's Life of Penn (Philadelphia 1852, pp. 63 64) Penn says about this visit to Ireland: 'Within six weeks after my enlargement I was sent by my father to settle his estates in Ireland, where I found those Friends of the city of Cork almost all in prison; and the Gaol by that means became a Meetinghouse and a Workhouse, for they would not be idle anywhere. I was sorry to see so much sharpness from English to English, as well as from Protestants to Protestants; where their interest was civilly and nationally the same, their Profession of religion fundamentally so too. Having informed myself of their case, and the grounds of this severity as near as they could inform me (which without doubt was at least as much from envy about trade as zeal for Religion) I adjourned all private affairs to my return from Dublin, whither in a few days I went post, and after conferring with my Friends at that city, and digesting the whole into a general statement of our case, I went with two or three of them to the Castle and...' Here the fragment breaks off. 🢀

  12. Elizabeth Pike, widow of Richard Pike (who had died a prisoner in 1668) was, with her husband, convinced by Edward Burrough in 1655. She died in 1688 aged 53. Sufferings, Register, Life of Joseph Pike, ed. Barclay. 🢀

  13. William Morris (d.1680) was an important army officer and a Baptist who became a Friend in 1656 and was turned out of his offices. At this time he lived at Castle Salem, formerly called Banduff, about two miles to the north-west of Rosscarbery. He was in 1669 perhaps the most prominent Friend in the south of Ireland. The testimony to him say that he was 'serviceable with the Government on behalf of suffering Friends, divers times in prison.' He kept open house for travelling Friends and for a time meetings were held in his house. Sufferings, Manuscript Book of Testimonies to Deceased Friends, Rutty, etc. The Mayor of Cork, 1669. Matthew Deane had become Mayor of Cork at Michaelmas 1669; both he and his predecessor Christopher Rye were violent persecutors of Friends. Deane broke up meetings every Sunday, imprisoned most of the men Friends, multiplying indictments against them so that they were heavily fined. Sufferings. 🢀

  14. Christopher Pennock is frequently mentioned in Sufferings from 1660 onwards. He was imprisoned in 1669. 🢀

  15. F.S. These initials do not occur in the Cork Records; if F were a slip for H, Hugh Scamp may be meant. He is mentioned in Sufferings. 🢀

  16. John Boles was of Charleville, at this time, though the family settled in County Tipperary later. He must not be confused with Captain Boles also mentioned by Penn; they may have been related. Records. 🢀

  17. Both baronies. Admiral Penn's lands were partly in the barony of Imokilly in South East Cork and partly in the barony of Ibaume and half barony of Barryroe in South West Cork. He is also said to have held land in County Waterford. Robert Southwell (1607-1677) was Collector of the port of Kinsale in 1631. He first sided with Charles I and later with the Republicans. He was 'sovereign' of Kinsale October 1657 to October 1658 and soon after he became sovereign General Penn was made a freeman and burgess of Kinsale, on November 4th 1657. After the Restoration Southwell obtained grants of land and was made Vice Admiral of the Province of Munster in 1670. His son of the same name was knighted and succeeded his father as Admiral. One of the two was sovereign of Kinsale at the time of Penn's visit. The father was a personal friend of Admiral Penn's. D.N.B., Bennett, etc. Gerard Roberts (c.1621-1703) was a prominent London Friend, who among other activities acted as Banker for many Friends. Cambridge Journal, Henry J. Cadbury. 🢀

  18. Philip Dymond (1625-1679) of Cork. 'He had long a testimony in meetings, and esteemed a very honest man being of a bountiful and liberal spirit as well where cases of charity called for it as on all other occasions where the public affairs of Truth required it.' (Testimony). He was made a constable of Cork in 1670 and fined £5 because he would not swear. He is frequently mentioned in Sufferings. Kilworth, County Cork, is north of Fermoy from whence Penn would cross the western end of the Knockmealdown Mountains to Clogheen, County Tipperary. William Lawford of Clogheen died 1687 and was buried at Ballyboy near Clogheen. Register. 🢀

  19. John Fennell (1626-1706) lived at Kilcommonbeg near Clogheen, and was the son of Robert and Mary Fennell of Wiltshire. He married Mary Davis of Cardiff. They had numerous descendants some of whom are still Friends in Ireland. Register. 🢀

  20. Cashel. An ancient city and royal centre and an archbishopric. It lies in the centre of the County Tipperary plain. There were Friends there in the seventeenth century. Holy Cross is an old abbey on the banks of the Suir, a few miles south of Thurles. The piece of the true cross from which its name is derived is now said to be in Cork. Clas. town. Thurles. Penn has evidently made a slip here. The Manor House of the Dukes of Ormonde was at Nenagh. There is no place between Holy Cross and Thurles, but travelling from Holy Cross to Nenagh, between Templederry and Nenagh Penn would pass about a mile to the east of a place near the Silvermine Mountains which was once known as Clas nan Gall (the pit of the foreigners). Here were buried the bodies of some English miners, murdered in 1641. The place would be visible from Penn's road and the incident had occurred only twenty-eight years before. The Fitzpatrick family had nothing to do with the murder. Penn uses Fitzpats for the Irish, as Paddies is now used. (Information kindly supplied by Judge D. J. Gleeson, Esq., M.A.) 🢀

  21. James Hutchinson (d. 1689) lived at Knockballymeagher in North Tipperary. 'He was a lover of truth and diligent comer to meetings and his heart and house was open to receive Friends whom he truly loved for he was given to hospitality.' He was captured by Rapparees in 1689 and died soon after. Manuscript Book of Testimonies to Deceased Friends, Rutty, Cambridge Journal. Rosenallis. A village three miles from Mountmellick in Leix. The ruins of William Edmondson's house are still there and the site of his garden and tanpits. Opposite is the burial ground which has been in use by Friends since the seventeenth century. The old name of the place was Tineel. Mountrath. A town in Leix, a few miles from Mountmellick. There is still a Friends burial ground there. The Earldom of Mountrath had been given to Sir Charles Coote at the Restoration. Iron was wrought in the neighbourhood until all the woods had been used for fuel. Lewis, etc. Charles Coote, 2nd Earl of Mountrath succeeded Iiis father in 1661. The father had been among those who invited Charles II back. D.N.B. 🢀

  22. General Meeting. According to arrangements made by William Edmondson and George Fox in 1668/9 men's and women's meetings were held in each group of Friends, and every six weeks General Meetings wrere held by several groups together. These were later known as Province Meetings and were discontinued at the end of the eighteenth century. 🢀

  23. William Edmondson (1627-1712) was the first to become a Friend in Ireland. With a few others he held meetings at Lurgan in 1654/5. He afterwards settled in Rosenallis to bear a testimony against tithes. He travelled extensively in England, Ireland and America ; he remained the most important Friend in Ireland until his death. His journal is most informative. Other writings of his remain in manuscript in Irish Quaker records. Journal, Records, etc. 🢀

  24. Mountmellick was until the nineteenth century the most important centre of Quakerism in Ireland, outside Dublin. It is about sixty miles south-west of Dublin, in Leix. Friends there were much persecuted. 🢀

  25. Naas is in County Kildare about twenty miles southwest of Dublin. John Gay acted as a sort of agent for Penn in London in 1669-1670. When in Dublin Penn lived at his house in George's Lane. He was connected with Friends, and died in 1693. He and his wife Ann and family are mentioned later. Penn Letters, Records. M. Canning, wife of George Canning, aged twenty years, was buried in Friends' Burial ground, Dublin on 6th November 1669. Register. F. Stepny. No trace of F. or Joseph Stepny occurs in the Dublin Friends Records, but Francis and Joseph Sleigh were connected with Friends in Dublin at this time. Joseph was however of an age to be the brother of M. Canning, not her father whilst Francis was his father. It would be strange if there were two couples of closely similar names connected with the small Quaker group in Dublin in 1669-1670, but the surname in the Journal cannot be read as Sleigh. 🢀

  26. George Gregson died in 1690 at an advanced age. He was born a Roman Catholic but was one of the leading Friends in Ulster for many years. He lived at Lisnagarvey (Lisburn), travelled in England and Ireland and suffered imprisonment. Records, Manuscript Book of Testimonies to Deceased Friends, Rutty, etc. 🢀

  27. National Meeting. Just before George Fox left Ireland in the summer of 1669 he attended in Dublin 'the Nationall meetinge ... there being some out of every Province'. This meeting to which Penn refers appears to have been the second held. National meetings were held regularly half-yearly until 1797 when they became Yearly Meetings. Penn's account of this meeting is confirmed by a manuscript book belonging to Munster Quarterly Meeting. Until these statements were noted in 1946 the date given for the first Irish National Meeting of Friends was 1670 as given in Dr. Rutty's History of Friends in Ireland. (See JFHS xxxviii, 1946 p. 19 where the minute book is wrongly attributed to Bandon Meeting and not to Munster Quarterly Meeting). In view of the next sentence and the next day's entry it seems as though Penn omitted a 'not' and that the Ulster record of Sufferings had not been received. Each group of Friends kept a record of 'sufferings' for tithe, for not swearing, speaking in church, etc. from 1655 onwards. These local entries were recorded in one National Book of Sufferings. Cambridge Journal Records. Mayor of Dublin. Lewis Desmynières, probably of Huguenot descent, had become Mayor of Dublin, Michaelmas, 1669. In the Granville Penn Manuscripts (pp. 93-4) belonging to the Pennsylvania Historical Society there is a copy of a letter of Penn's addressed to a Mayor who had refused to release some Friend prisoners. This is attributed to this occasion by the copyist though not by Penn himself. The tone of the letter is much as he might have written but the last sentence indicates a former friendship with the Mayor for which there is no foundation known in this case. Records of Dublin. More Penn Letters. 🢀

  28. Samuel Claridge was an important Friend at this time but in 1677 he was disowned for immorality by the National Meeting itself. Under James II he became an Alderman of the city of Dublin. Records. Records of Dublin. Lord Lieutenant. John Robartes (1606-1685) was Lord Lieutenant from September 1669 to April 1670. He desired public integrity and insisted on good government, but was ill tempered and unpopular. He afterwards became Earl of Radnor. On Penn's next visit to Dublin (see May 31st) Lord Berkeley of Stratton had just become Lord Lieutenant. He was more popular. He had fought for Charles I and was favourable to the Catholic party (d. 1678). C.S.P.I., D.N.B. 🢀

  29. Anthony Sharp (1643-1707) was a Gloucestershire woollen weaver, trained as a lawyer and had become a Friend through the influence of William Dewsbury. He moved to Dublin in 1669 where he re-established the woollen industry. He was one of the most prominent citizens of Dublin, Master of the Weavers' Guild and an Alderman under James II. He became the leading Friend in Dublin, and was a participator in Penn's colonial experiments. He was twice married. Quakers in Ireland. Records. 'The little house,' see also November 14th and 18th. Friends in Dublin met at first in a house near Polegate. In 1657 they moved to a house in Bride's Alley and then to Bride Street (or possibly these two wrere the same). The Bride Street house was the principal meeting-place in 1669. In 1678 they had a second meeting-place at Wormwood (Ormond) Gate. Rutty. Records. 🢀

  30. Joseph Deane a Dublin Friend died in 1694. He had been married four times. Register. Elizabeth Gardiner (1606-1674) a Dublin Friend was the widow of Joseph Gardiner. She is frequently mentioned in Sufferings, Register. 🢀

  31. Theological disputes were a favourite occupation in those days, and Penn seems to have sought to have them wherever he went. Chapelizod is a village on the Liffey a few miles west of Dublin. 🢀

  32. Sir William Petty (1623-1687) had studied on the continent and was interested in applied mechanics. He became a doctor of Physic in 1649 and was one of the founders of the Royal Society. He was employed by the Government to survey the forfeited lands in Ireland, which were to be distributed among the army and Adventurers. His chief survey is known as the Down Survey. He had considerable estates in Ireland and was also interested in Finance and Economics. His Political Anatomy of Ireland is a good description of the land and of its resources. He acquiesced in the Restoration and held many offices. Penn would want his help over the delimitation of his father's land. In the Life of Sir William Petty by Lord Edmond Fitzmaurice a later letter of Penn to Petty is given. D.N.B., etc. Colonel Herle. Penn generally only puts the first letter of military titles so that it is sometimes difficult to know whether the individual was a Captain or Colonel, but Colonels were more plentiful. Colonel Herle seems to have been an official at The Castle, the seat of Irish government. Colonel Robert Shapcot, M.P. was implicated in a plot to seize Dublin Castle in 1663. He was described as a lawyer and very leading man in parliament, 'of a bold seditious spirit.' The evidence against him was slight and he was granted a full pardon in 1669. In 1676 the Bishop of Lincoln and he arbitrated in a matter of debt due to Lord Orrery. Penn was evidently employing him as a lawyer. Orrery, C.S.P.I. Colonel Wallis was the inhabitant of Shanagarry on Penn's estates. He had received the land from Cromwell but it was afterwards allotted to Admiral Penn in compensation for the loss of his Macroom estates. The settlement of Wallis's claim against Admiral Penn had also occupied William Penn on his visit to Ireland in 1667. 🢀

  33. Earl of Drogheda. Henry, Viscount Moore, was created Earl of Drogheda in 1661 and died in 1675. His brother was connected by marriage with the Lord Lieutenant. Burke. Elizabeth Jepson or Jeps is referred to by Elizabeth Bowman in her letter to Penn 15.5.1670. Penn Letters. She apparently belonged to Ireland, perhaps to the Jephsons of Mallow. Henry J. Cadbury, Cork Journal. Elizabeth Bailey married Matthias Bowman in 1670. Died 1675. Penn Letters. 🢀

  34. George Webber, a Cork Friend, was convinced by Burrough and Howgill in 1655 and is frequently mentioned in Sufferings, Rutty. 🢀

  35. A Sir George Askew forcibly seized land belonging to the Bishop of Ossory in 1663 but had to give it up. This may have been the Sir George Ascue to whom Penn refers. Guli's land. In the Index to certificates for Adventurers and soldiers there are four references to G. M. Springett. The name of Thomas Springett of Lewes in Sussex occurs in the original list of Adventurers of 1642. He gave two hundred pounds for the prosecution of the war in Ireland. G. M. Springett may have derived her claim from his. In the only roll of certificates which survived the burning of the Record Office, Dublin, in 1916, there is a reference to her from which it appears she was a subtenant of a James Stopford who was tenant of Sir Thomas Brereton to whom the certificate was granted. G. M. Springett's land by this certificate appears to have been 43 acres, 2 roods, 8 perches in the southwest quarter of the barony of Deece in County Meath. She had also some in Queen's County (Leix) inherited from her father who had bought a share. P.R.O., C.S.P.I. 🢀

  36. The Earl of Arran was Lord Richard Butler, son of James, Duke of Ormonde, one of the most important people connected with Ireland during this period. The Earl of Arran became Colonel of the Guards in Dublin in 1670. He was a Privy Councillor and acted as Lord Deputy in 1682, died 1686. Ormonde. Earl of Roscommon ( 1633 P-1685). His family estates in Ireland were restored to him by Charles II. He was a captain of the Guards, an orator, something of a literary man, but at another time, a gambler and a duellist. D.N.B. Penn's punctuation in the later part of this day's entry is curious. As it reads it suggests that John Burnyeat was related to the Stepnys and also a Captain in the army. I have introduced a stop as I know of no evidence that John Burnyeat was a Captain before he became a Quaker. John Burnyeat (1631-1690) was a prominent Friend preacher who travelled in England, America and Ireland. He settled in Dublin in 1683 and married the widow of William Maine. His writings were published in 1691 entitled Truth Exalted. Records, Rutty, Journal. 🢀

  37. Lord Kingston (d. 1676) was an active Cromwellian but helped to restore the monarchy. From his wife he acquired an estate at Mitchelstown, County Cork, so that he lived not far from Penn. In 1669 he was President of Connaught. C.S.P.I. Barry. He may have been some Court official or lawyer. See also June 8th. Robert Fitzgerald was son of the 16th Earl of Kildare and was Controller of the musters and cheques of the army, and a Privy Councillor. Penn probably had business with him in connection with the settlement of his father's affairs in Kinsale. 🢀

  38. My father. Admiral Sir William Penn (1621-1670) see 'Background' to this volume, pp. 11, 12. Alexander Parker (1628-1688) of Yorkshire was often the companion of Fox and Penn on journeys. He was a considerable writer. Cambridge Journal. The Lord Chancellor was Michael Boyle, Archbishop of Dublin. 🢀

  39. Sir George Lane was Secretary at War to the Forces in Ireland. He had been Secretary to the Duke of Ormonde when Lord Lieutenant. C.S.P.I., Ormonde. Sir Arthur Forbes ( 1623-1696) was a Privy Councillor and was made Field Marshal in 1670. He had large estates in the centre of Ireland. He had been made a Commissioner of the Court of Claims at the Restoration and was afterwards Earl of Granard. Penn would probably have business with him in connection with his father's estates. D.N.B. Sir Theophilus Jones (d. 1685) was a Privy Councillor and Scoutmaster General of the Forces in Ireland. He was son of a Bishop of Killaloe. D.N.B. Priest Yarner. Sufferings mentions Priest Yarner of Bride's Parish, Dublin. In 1669 eight Friends were imprisoned for five weeks for meeting in the meeting-house in Bride Street. Sufferings. Cobbs. A cobb was a name given in Ireland to the Spanish dollar or piece of eight. It was worth about 4s. 6d. 🢀

  40. Sir John Temple (1600-1677) was son of the Provost of Trinity College, Dublin, and was made a Master of Rolls in 1640. He sided with the Parliament and wrote an account of the 'Irish Rebellion' much biassed against the Irish to whose cause it did great harm. After the Restoration he received further offices and grants of land in Ireland. He was a Privy Councillor. D.N.B. Thomas Gookin. Early in the seventeenth century Sir Vincent Gookin had been given land in County Cork on which the Earl of Cork afterwards built Bandonbridge. Thomas Gookin, who lived further south and was probably one of his family, was 'Sovereign' of Clonakilty in 1675. With him on the same Corporation at that date were others of Penn's tenants mentioned later in the diary: David Jerman (German), Abel Guilliams, Walter Harris, John Freke. Bennett. Bonnell. In 1660 Charles II made Samuel Bonnell Accountant General of Ireland with succession to his son James (b.1653). Samuel died in 1664 and the son would be sixteen at the time of Penn's visit but was possibly in England. Probably some other member of the family was acting for him. Penn's business may have been in connection with the rent his father had to pay for his lands. D.N.B. etc. 🢀

  41. Colonel Robert Phair or Phayre (1619-1682) may have been of County Cork origin. In 1658 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Herbert, a friend of Charles I; yet Colonel Phair is said to have been on duty at the King's execution in 1649. Henry Cromwell writes of him and Major Wallis attending Quaker meetings in 1655. He was Governor of Cork during the Commonwealth. In 1668 he was accused of heading an insurrection but was saved from execution by Lord Clancarty. He became a Muggletonian and influenced his son-in-law George Gamble and also Captain Gale to follow the same course. His daughter Elizabeth married Richard Farmer; and his daughter Mary, George Gamble. He was buried in Cork. Cork Journal, 1914, D.N.B. 🢀

  42. Sir St John Broderick (1627-1711), M.P. for Kinsale 1661. Like Admiral Penn he had been an officer in the 'Irish' army of Charles I. In April 1670 he was granted the Manor of Midleton, County Cork, with land in the Barony of Imokilly so that he became a neighbour of Penn's. His wealth and political activity gave him great influence. D.N.B., Cork M.P.s. In Friends House Library there is a manuscript in Penn's handwriting giving a letter (dated 1677) from George Fox to a Friend, defending Penn's use of a wig. Penn had lost his hair by smallpox when three years old and when imprisoned in the Tower he was not allowed a barber and it came out again. 'Since he has worn a very short civil thing and he has been in danger of his life after violent heats in meetings and rideing after them, and he wares them to keep his head and ears warm and not for pride. His border is so thin, plain and short that one cannot well know it from his own hair.' JFHS. vi, 1909, p. 187. See also March 25th. 🢀

  43. 'Went towards The Mole' i.e. to take shipping for England. 🢀

  44. Sir Amos Meredith was a Commissioner of Appeals in connection with the land settlements. C.S.P.I. 🢀

  45. Robert Turner was one of the first Friends in Ulster. He started a meeting at Grange near Charlemount in 1657 and was badly treated in Londonderry the same year. He was living in Leinster in 1670 and one of the most prominent Friends at the National Meeting. He emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1683. See p. 16. Records, etc. William Maine (1637-1673) son of William and Elizabeth Maine of Staines, Middlesex, married Elizabeth Allason in 1664 and had two children. His widow married John Burnyeat. Register. Friends Books. Smith's catalogue of Friends Books gives about 180 leaflets and pamphlets of George Fox's printed before 1670 and others had also written copiously. Edward Burrough (1634-1662) was an ardent Apostle of Quakerism by word and pen for ten years and was one of the first Friends to travel in the south of Ireland where he made many converts. He died in prison in London. Works, Rutty, etc. Ambrose Rigge (c. 1635-1704/5) was a schoolmaster and was imprisoned for ten years in Horsham. He wrote many pamphlets. His Brief and Serious Warning to Such as are Concerned in Commerce and Trading was widely distributed among Irish Friends in the eighteenth century. William Penn himself had already published some books and pamphlets, the chief being The Sandy Foundation Shaken and No Cross, No Crown. He was writing others in Ireland. Of Quaker Primers the most important was a Primer and Catechism for Children published a few months after this date, written by George Fox and Ellis Hookes. John Perrot's A Primer for Children 1660, reprinted 1664 or William Smith's A New Primer 1663, reprinted 1668, may be here intended. Smith's Catalogue, Henry J. Cadbury, Cambridge Journal, etc. 🢀

  46. Rathcoole is a village about twelve English miles west of Dublin. Penn's estimate of distances is sometimes rather wide. 🢀

  47. Blackrath is about eight miles north of Castledermot. It is not now on the main road. C. Chaffin. The Carlow Register mentions a John Chaffin born 1607 at Sherborne, Dorset, who married Anne Clarke who died in 1670/1. C. Chaffin may have been their son. 🢀

  48. Penn seems to have made a slip here. He would pass through Castledermot before reaching Carlow. He probably went through Castlecomer to Kilkenny as this would be one of the best routes. Bat Fouks's house. Foukstown is a short distance south of Kilkenny; in place names 'town' often indicates the farm or homestead of a seventeenth century settler, as the Irish Bally means much the same thing for an earlier period. Bat (short for Bartholomew) Fouks was a High Sheriff, probably for either Kilkenny or Tipperary. 🢀

  49. Callan, County Kilkenny, is about nine miles west of Kilkenny. Ninemilehouse and Grangemockler are on the plateau over which the road passes to reach the Suir valley. There is still a fine building, once an inn, at Ninemilehouse. Thomas Shillitoe preached there in 1809 and it is mentioned in other Quaker Journals. The nine miles would be the Irish mileage from Clonmel. Clonmel was a walled town on the Suir and was one of the few towns which Cromwell did not take by assault in 1650. The name means the 'field of honey' from the fertility of the neighbourhood. It was later an important Quaker centre. 🢀

  50. The term piece of eight was usually applied to the Spanish dollar, called a cobb, but Penn seems to distinguish between them. Fourmilewater is a hamlet, between Clonmel and Cappoquin, where the road crossed the Suir. Cappoquin is a village in County Waterford where the Black water makes a rightangled bend southwards. A few years after Penn's visit an Act was passed for building a new bridge there. The previous one seems to have been destroyed during the wars. Lewis. Slued means slipped round. It is a nautical term. Lismore was the principal seat of the Earl of Cork. Richard Boyle (1566-1643) came to Ireland, a poor lawyer, in 1588, bought confiscated land in Munster and by 'good' business accumulated a great estate. He built the town of Bandonbridge, Lismore Castle, etc. He became Earl of Cork in 1629. Always known as the Great Earl he was one of the most powerful men in Ireland. The second Earl and Lord Broghill were his sons and the Earl of Barrymore his grandson. Cork. Tallow is a small town a few miles west of Lismore. The Earl of Cork had developed it as a mining centre because of the woods near. 🢀

  51. Captain Richard Bent is frequently mentioned by Penn, who often stayed with him. He lived at Carrigacotta, now Castle Mary, l and a half miles west of Cloyne and is buried with his wife Mary in the south transept of Cloyne Cathedral. He died 10th April 1680. See also note on April 27th. Vale of Shanagarry. This is a shallow depression in southeast County Cork opening on to Ballycotton Bay, near which is Shanagarry village. The Boles family lived until late in the nineteenth century at Springfield about ten miles north of Shanagarry. 🢀

  52. Colonel Phair's wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Herbert of Tintern, Monmouthshire. She married in 1658 and died in 1698. She was described as 'the chief lady Muggletonian in the county' of Cork. Cork Journal. 🢀

  53. Kinsale was a strongly fortified town on the coast, west of Cork. It was captured by the Spanish in 1601 but surrendered to the English after a siege. Captain Richard Rooth, who succeeded Admiral Penn as Governor of the fort there, was related to him but the exact relationship is not known. Ensign William Penn is not to be confused with the writer of the Journal. He was a son of Sir William Penn's brother and succeeded his cousin as Clerk of the Cheque at Kinsale in 1670. His will was proved as that of an inhabitant of Kinsale in 1676. C.S.P.I., Penn Letters, Caulfield. 🢀

  54. Captain William Crispin (1627-1681/2) was another kinsman of Penn's, possibly a nephew or brother-in-law of Admiral Penn. Penn Letters. 🢀

  55. Imokilly is the most easterly barony in County Cork. Admiral Penn's lands in the two baronies of Imokilly and Ibaume with Ballyroe amounted in all to more than 12,000 acres, for which he had to pay about £113 per annum rent. The lands returned him an income of about £1000 per annum. P.R.O. First ferry. See note March 18th. Francis Smith's name occurs in the Index of Adventurers. He seems to have lived on the north of Cork Harbour, near Midleton. He also held land from Lord Orrery and was made a Justice of the Peace in 1671. Priest Vowell. As was the custom with early Friends, Penn calls the clergy of the Protestant church Priests. Christopher Vowell lived at Charleville and was Chaplain to Lord Orrery, both when Lord President of Munster and afterwards. His own Bishop described him as a 'hauty, insinuating young felloe.' He also held a number of parishes in the diocese of Cloyne in which Shanagarry was. In 1681 the Earl of Orrery turned him out of some of his benefices for neglect of duty and drunkenness. He continued to hold Charleville where he disagreed with his parishioners, taught a school and refused to pay his rent. In 1673 he had a third of a poor Friend's potatoes dug out of his garden for tithe. Orrery, Brady, Sufferings. A Cornet Crow and others of the name are given in the Index of Adventurers. 🢀

  56. John Gossage, a Cork Friend, was imprisoned in 1669 and is frequently mentioned in Sufferings. Richard Harvey and William Field were Sheriffs of Cork in 1669 in the mayoralty of Matthew Deane. Smith. 🢀

  57. Colonel Osborne. The Osbornes were an important family in County Waterford. The Duke of St. Albans is descended from them. This Colonel seems to have belonged to a Cork branch of the family, who lived at Corabby near Midleton. Henry Osborne was an admeasurer of land under Sir William Petty. One or more members of the family were Friends. P.R.O., Records, etc. Sergeant Rouls became Penn's tenant for lands south of Cloyne. Captain Freke. John and Thomas Freke are mentioned in the Index of Adventurers. The Frekes were an important family in south-west Cork, where Castle Freke still is. The names of Richard Franklin and John Maskall or Muscall also occur in the Index of Adventurers. John Maskall, Muscall or Mascall was rector and vicar of a number of parishes in the diocese of Cloyne including those of Aghada and Inch. In the Book of Survey and Distribution of the Down Survey Admiral Penn's holdings in Ballylowrace and Ballyroe (2 and a half miles S.E. of Cloyne) in the parish of Cloyne are given as 64 acres. They had previously been held by Thomas Fitzgerald of Ballylowrace and Maurice fitz James Gerald, who being Irish were dispossessed. James, Duke of York, afterwards James II, held 48 acres in the same place, which were forfeited in 1688, when Penn's lands were also posted for forfeiture but were afterwards granted exemption. P.R.O., Survey. 🢀

  58. Barries quarter is in the parish of Cloyne. Here Penn held 25 acres. The Irishman who had been dispossessed was Edmund Power of Inch and Shanagarry from whom much of the Penn lands had been taken. P.R.O., Survey. At Lissanly (1 mile S.W. of Cloyne) in the parish of Teteskin Penn held 82 acres taken from Edmund Power. At Ballinwillen miles S.S.W. of Cloyne) he had 83 acres taken from the Fitzgeralds. At the two Ballintobers (3 miles S.S.W. of Cloyne) in the parish of Cloyne he shared with William Lumbard 78 acres taken from Edmund Power and Edmund Fitzgerald. P.R.O., Survey. 🢀

  59. At Geiragh (or Knocknageiragh) and Knocknacaple (1 and a half miles S.E. of Midleton) in the parish of Ballincorra, the Civil Survey gave Penn's lands as 120 acres, previous owner William Colter. There were several surveys made at this time and this item is especially marked in the Book of Survey as Civil Survey. This may be the meaning of Penn's reference to the Line Survey, referring to maps rather than to lists. A special survey of Penn's lands seems to have been made but is now lost. In a letter to Philip Ford dated August 5th 1670 John Kealy asks him for fees for making maps, apparently of Penn's holdings in the baronies of Imokilly and Ibaume with Ballyroe. He says that he could not find the surroundings of Knocknageiragh and Knocknacaple. They had been left unsurveyed as they had been reputed Protestant, but he and a Mr. Taylor had made a book of survey of the Protestant interest in 1659 out of which 'the trace and number of acres' could be taken. This book was then in Cork. From the context it seems as though Francis Smith was the tenant. Survey, Penn Letters. 🢀

  60. Penn wrote 'C.Bs & Came home yt night.' 🢀

  61. A half ploughland. A ploughland was supposed to be the extent of land a six-horse plough would turn up in one year. Lahesheragh the Irish for halfploughland is found as a place name in Munster. Joyce, Irish Place Names, 1901. Richard Penn was William Penn's younger brother who died young. Thomas Cook of Cork and later of Charleville was husband of Joan Cook. They had many children. He was imprisoned in 1669 and is often mentioned in Sufferings, Records.  🢀

  62. John Hull was imprisoned in Cork in 1669. He lived on Ennisbeg, an island at the mouth of the lien river near Skibbereen, but died in London in 1691 or 1692. His wife Elizabeth died in Bandon in 1711. He may have been related to Sir William Hull an important landowner in West County Cork of an earlier generation. Records, Sufferings, etc. 🢀

  63. Aghada is a few miles west of Cloyne near the northeast corner of Cork Harbour. The names of Richard Boles, and Anthony Woodley occur in the Index of Adventurers. Penn varies the spelling of Woodley's name: Woodley, Woodliff, Woodlife. Ballicrenane is about three miles east of Shanagarry and also on Ballycotton Bay. The Tyntes lived there. Part of the Castle still remains. Sir Pierce Smith of Ballynatray was the father of Mabella, LadyTynte, mentioned later. 🢀

  64. Pye Day was a Puritan name for Christmas Day. 🢀

  65. George Bennett of Cork died in 1683. Many of the name of Bennett are mentioned in the Cork registers. John Stubbs was imprisoned in Limerick in 1655 and in Cork in 1669. His namesake, a Quaker minister from England, was with George Fox in Ireland in 1669. Sufferings, etc. Mallow (sometimes written Moyallow in seventeenth century) is about thirty miles north of Cork and famous for its spa. The widow Piasteed. The name does not occur in Cork registers. Could she have been the widow who in 1667 told Penn Thomas Loe was in Cork? (See Background, p. 13). 🢀

  66. To this date Penn had been at the western side of Imokilly, west and south of Cloyne. The ruins of the Castle at Shanagarry which was destroyed by Cromwell's orders are still there and possibly a wall of the house in which Colonel Wallis lived. 🢀

  67. The sea has washed away much of the 'great bog' and there is no trace of Colonel Wallis's double ditch and thorn hedge. 🢀

  68. Major Farmer. Elizabeth, daughter of Jasper Farmer married a Friend, James Dowlan of Youghal in 1669. Penn Letters, Register. Jasper Farmer's son Richard married in 1675 Elizabeth, daughter of Colonel Robert Phair. Jasper Farmer emigrated in 1682 to Pennsylvania with other members of his family and was lost at sea in 1685. Cork Journal. The Jesuits' Book may have been the pamphlet An Explanation of the Roman Catholic Belief to which Penn's Seasonable Caveat Against Popery is a reply. See note January 2nd. 🢀

  69. Gerald Fitzgerald held lands from Lord Orrery. Garrett Fitzgerald lived at Lisquinlan and was made a Justice in 1669. Others of the family lived near by at Ichtermurragh where the ruins of the castellated house of Penn's time still stand. Both places are a few miles north-east of Shanagarry. 🢀

  70. Inch is near the coast, a few miles south of Cloyne. The reference is probably to the house in which the former owner, Edmund Poer (or Power) lived. The headland near is still called Powerhead (Doonpoor). 🢀

  71. The names of Anthony and Peter Gale occur in the Index of Adventurers. The Answer to the Jesuits. This seems to have been Penn's A Seasonable Caveat against Popery, or a Pamphlet intituled An explanation of the Roman Catholic Belief, Briefly examined. The preface of the extant edition is dated from Penn, Buckinghamshire, the 23rd of the 11th month, 1670, but other entries in this journal indicate that Penn was writing it when in Ireland and had it published in Dublin.(See June 24th). A letter from Philip Ford in the Penn Letters shows that copies of the Irish edition were sent after Penn to England in 1670. 🢀

  72. In the parish of Aghada Penn had land (previous owner Edmund Power) in Seskinstown (43 acres), Ballincarrowig (93 acres), Acredoan (38 acres), Carrighticloghy (79 acres). He also had 279 acres at Finure and 42 known as Condon's acres. Finure is on the sea coast a mile or two south of Whitegate on the south-east side of Cork Harbour. Ballincarrowing is close to it and Whitegate. Acredoan and Carrighticloghy were probably near. The Condons held land in that neighbourhood for centuries. Seskinstown seems to be an Anglicisation of Titeskin which is a little north of these places. Survey, etc. 🢀

  73. Penn writes M. Lowr. This was probably his sister Margeret Penn (1652-1718) who married Anthony Lowther in 1667. They had several children. He would be more likely to send Irish cloth to her than to Mary Lower, daughter of Margaret Fell, and wife of Thomas Lower. S.M. might be Susanna Mitchell but more probably an unidentified English correspondent. 🢀

  74. Major Love. Major John Love appears to have been Deputy Governor for Sir William Penn at Kinsale in 1662 and later. In a letter dated October 26th, 1669 Captain Rooth also described him as Lieutenant of the company in Kinsale Fort. (Calendar of Ormonde Manuscripts New Series, Vol. III, Historical Manuscripts Commission, 1904). Philip Ford writes 9th 6th mo. 1670 '... as to Major Love, he was not in a condision to Make any Account keeping his bedd and every day Expecting his Death.' Penn Letters. 🢀

  75. The road from Tallow to Clogheen is over the Knockmealdown Mountains. If they missed the track through the Gap and past Bay Lough they might easily get into the difficulties Penn describes. 29 Irish miles are really only about 37 English not the 50 Penn suggests. 🢀

  76. Solomon Eccles (c. 1618-1683) was a music teacher who became a Friend and travelled in the British Isles and in America. At times he felt it right to pass through towns naked to the waist proclaiming the need of repentance. On 16th 8th mo. 1670 he spoke some words in the Cathedral in Cork, was imprisoned, whipped through the streets and expelled. In spite of his (to us) unusual way of proclaiming repentance he seems to have been of weight among Friends at this time. Cambridge Journal, Rutty, Sufferings, etc. George Baker of Cashel is frequently mentioned in early Records. 🢀

  77. Farmer Landy was probably not Edward Landy of Youghal mentioned later. The strand would be the seashore of Ballycotton Bay close to Shanagarry. 🢀

  78. Lady Tynte was Mabella, daughter of Sir Pierce Smith of Ballinatray and wife of Henry Tynte. They lived at Ballicrenane and had one son and six daughters. She owned a good deal of property in the neighbourhood. Survey, Caulfield, Cork M.P.s. John Phair was probably Colonel Phair's son John by his first marriage. He died intestate in 1677 apparently young and unmarried. Cork Journal, etc. 🢀

  79. Clonmain is to the north of Lisquinlan, a few miles north-east of Shanagarry and is in the parish of Ichtermurrough. Penn held 236 acres there (previous owner Nicholas Meagh). Survey. Vowell. See note December 11th. John Webb was rector of a number of parishes in the diocese of Cloyne including that of Youghal. Brady. 🢀

  80. Penn had a servant of the name of Francis Cook who had proved untrustworthy when his master was in prison. See M. R. Brailsford, Making of William Penn, pp. 259-261. 🢀

  81. On February 29th 1668/9 Sir St.John Broderick wrote to Lord Orrery: 'On Wednesday came Mr. Rouse to me ... being like to be thrown out of Garrymore which he holds from Sir William Penn.' Garrymore in the parish of Ichtermurrough is a few miles north-east of Shanagarry. Penn held 157 acres there which had been taken from Maurice Fitzgerald. Orrery, Survey. 🢀

  82. Susanna Mitchell (d. 1672) was one of the leading Friends in Cork. Like her husband Thomas Mitchell she was convinced of Quakerism in 1655 and often suffered imprisonment and fines; e.g. in 1661 she was put into the Cage for opening her shop on Twelfth Day. The testimony to her says: 'She was a zealous faithful servant of the Lord for many years till her decease, and often bore public testimony to God's everlasting Truth before magistrates, priests and people for which she was often a sufferer in bonds and greatly rejoiced to be found worthy.' Sufferings, Manuscript Book of Testimonies to Deceased Friends, Rutty, etc. Joan Cook, née Harwood, married Thomas Cook of Cork 29th 7th mo. 1661. She died in London 1693. 'Because of her living many yeares in Cork and her known love and integrity to the truth and because her heart as well as her house was free and open to receive and entertain the Lord's servants whose feet (in that sense and of her humility it may be said she spared not to wash and wipe) being also a succourer of many for the Lord's sake. It is thought fit by the friends of Cork meeting to recite this as a memorial of her virtues amongst the Lord's worthies of this nation who also was one of the Lord's handmaids on whom hee had poured forth of his good spirit to speak forth his praise in the assemblies of his people.' Manuscript Book of Testimonies to Deceased Friends, Rutty, Register. Carrigtuohill is a village near Midleton. 🢀

  83. George Gamble was convinced in Cork in 1655. He is frequently mentioned in Sufferings and was imprisoned in 1669. Rutty, Sufferings. See Note November 24th. 🢀

  84. Lucretia Cooke of Bandon was wife of Edward Cooke a gentleman of great local influence, cornet of Cromwell's own troop of horse and land agent for the Earl of Cork. He was the first to receive Francis Howgill in Bandon in 1655. Lucretia Cooke is frequently mentioned in Sufferings and was imprisoned both in Bandon and in Cork. A manuscript book of hers is in Friends House Library, London. Bennett, Sufferings, etc. 🢀

  85. Captain Campane may have been a son of a Dutch pirate named Campane who had been successful off the Cork coast earlier in the century, and with whom even the Government had thought it worth while to come to terms. Cork. Robert Cook lived at Tallow. He was a considerable owner of property and when made a Freeman of Youghal in 1668/9 he is also described as a merchant. He would not eat nor wear any thing derived from animals, and was a teetotaller. He had something akin to Friends' views in his belief in the guidance of the Holy Spirit being given to every man to lead him into truth and help him to overcome evil. He died in 1726. His name occurs in Sufferings for 1655. Smith's History of Waterford 1774, Sufferings, Caulfield, D.N.B. 🢀

  86. William Hawkins of Cork died in 1706 aged 87. Cork Register. Edward Landy was ill-used for speaking in Youghal church in 1655 and for being at a Friends' meeting. From Penn's account there seems to have been some coolness between him and Friends in 1670, possibly because he had become a Freeman of the Corporation of Youghal in June 1669 and Bailiff in September of the same year. He was Mayor of Youghal October 1671-3, and was made a Justice of the Peace in 1674. Sufferings, Caulfield, etc. 🢀

  87. Henry Faggoter was convinced in Cork in 1655. In 1667 he was sued for tithes by John Boyle of Castle Lyons and imprisoned for four years. Rutty, Sufferings. Richard Brocklesby of Cork was imprisoned in 1660 and 1669. Sufferings. There are many of the same surname mentioned in the Cork Register. 🢀

  88. Elizabeth Erbury (d.1687). She was convinced in 1655 and is frequently mentioned in Sufferings. It was at her house that Samuel Thornton was made a prisoner in 1669 and she was herself imprisoned in that year. Sufferings, Register. 🢀

  89. The names of Henry and William Prigg occur in the Index of Adventurers. William Prigg was granted market rights in Skibbereen in 1675. The Bandon Friends Minute Book mentions him twice in 1683 as being entrusted with business for Friends. Caulfield, Records. 🢀

  90. Bandon or Bandonbridge was one of the towns 'settled' and fortified early in the 17th century by the Great Earl of Cork. No 'Papists' were allowed to live there, and its ultra Protestantism made it a difficult place for Friends also. In 1669/70 the Provost was John Poole. Peter Hewitt was Vicar from 1668 to 1675. Cork, Caulfield. The 'challenge' and 'victory' were of course in words only. 🢀

  91. The signatures of John and Martha Allin to a marriage certificate occur in the Bandon Minute Book in 1677. Records. It was on this date that Penn wrote his Letter to the Young Convinced. See Note March 1st. 🢀

  92. Skibbereen is a small town at the head of the estuary of the Ilen, known as Baltimore Bay, and about fifty miles south-west of Cork. Paul Morris was a brother of William Morris. He acted as guide to George Fox when he rode through the streets of Cork unharmed though there were warrants out against him and even the Mayor recognised him. In 1663/4 Paul and William Morris were sued for tithes by the Archdeacon of Ross but the Archdeacon died suddenly under circumstances which so affected his brother clergy that for some years the Morrises were not again sued for tithes. Cambridge Journal, Sufferings. 🢀

  93. Baltimore is a fishing port a few miles south-west of Skibbereen. It had been plundered by Algerine pirates about forty years before Penn's visit. 🢀

  94. Sarah Massey (died 1698 aged about eighty) was one of the first Friends in Bandon. 'A very faithful zealous woman in her place and for her testimony against the priests, persecuting magistrates and bad people. She was a sufferer upon divers accounts. She was [...] greatly exercised with infirmity of body but bore it with much patience. She had been a widow above thirty years in which time (and before it) friends that travelled in the service of truth were entertained at her house.' Manuscript Book of Testimonies to Deceased Friends. 🢀

  95. Rosscarbery (often known as Ross) is the seat of a bishopric, near the coast over forty miles south-west of Cork. Penn dated his Letter to Toung Convinced from Carbery 12th 1669/70. Here is an example of how Penn sometimes calls a Friend by his former military title, Captain not William Morris. 🢀

  96. Richard, 2nd Earl of Barrymore, born about 1635, lived at Castle Lyons, County Cork, and was well known to Penn. He was a great-nephew of Lord Shannon. Cork. Carrigroe is in the parish of Rathbarry about three miles north-east of Rosscarbery. Penn had been granted 219 acres there which had formerly belonged to Ellen Hart, William O'Hea and Daniel McGnogh Hea, 'Irish Papist.' Survey. 🢀

  97. Clonakilty is a small port at the head of a bay of the same name about thirty miles south-west of Cork. The letter may have been the one from Priest Moore to which he replied on March 10th. 🢀

  98. Robert Sandham (1620-1675) was born in Sussex and became a zealous Baptist. He came to Ireland as a soldier in 1650 and married Deborah Baker. They settled at Youghal and were convinced of Quakerism by the preaching of Elizabeth Fletcher in 1655. He and his wife were leaders of the meeting in Youghal and were much persecuted. She died in 1696. Some of their descendants are still Friends. Rutty, Manuscript Book of Testimonies to Deceased Friends, etc. The Mayor of Youghal at this time was John Farthing. Caulfield. 🢀

  99. The name of John Russell occurs in the Index of Adventurers. Owen Silver was M.P. for Youghal in 1661 and its Town Clerk 1664-1688. He was also a member of the Corporation and Recorder in 1668. Caulfield. Cork M.P.s. He was still in arrears in July. Penn Letters. 🢀

  100. Priest Moore. John Moore was Archdeacon of Cloyne (1665-1687) and held a number of benefices near Shanagany. Brady. 🢀

  101. Lord Shannon was Francis Boyle, son of the Great Earl of Cork, created Lord Shannon after the Restoration. 'He spent a useful, busy and dignified life in Munster.' He was a Privy Councillor and lived at Carrigaline south of Cork. Cork. Redmond Barry was M.P. for Fethard in 1666. 🢀

  102. The name Dempsey is uncertain. He may have been some lawyer representing Friends. 🢀

  103. The 'both passages' would be the ferries to and from Great Island on their way across Cork Harbour. The western one is called Passage West and the other East Ferry. 🢀

  104. The Great Case of Liberty of Conscience once more briefly debated and defended ... etc. The lengthy title of this pamphlet ends with the words: From a prisoner for conscience sake, Newgate the 1th of the 12th month called February 1670 (1671) so that it seems to have been nearly a year before Penn finished it, although he wrote a good deal in Ireland. 🢀

  105. James Gould had land in Cork. Survey. The names of Thomas Davis and his wife Ephrah occur in the Bandon records. They had four children. Ephrah died in 1675. From 1677 onwards the meeting in Bandon was held at Thomas Davis's house. Records. Richard Dash wood's name occurs in the Index of Adventurers. 'cap borders.' See Note November 25th. 🢀

  106. Many Friends from Mountmellick were imprisoned in Maryborough (now Portlaoighse) at this time. Sheaf is a doubtful reading. The sense seems to be 'lease.' Penn held 309 acres in Carhoo in the parish of Ardfield two miles east of Castle Freke. The previous owner was Teigue O'Hea. Survey. 🢀

  107. Captain John Martin's name is in the Index of Adventurers. He was made a freeman of Kinsale in 1659. Penn's holding in Creaghbeg was 129 acres. It is in the parish of Rathbarry close to Carrigroe (see March 3rd.). The previous owner was Daniel McGnogh O'Hea. Caulfield, Survey. 🢀

  108. Penn's holdings were 93 acres in Sleiveene (former owner Thomas Kallanan), 172 acres in Sleveen (former owner Daniel O'Donovan). Geiragh and Kyle are grouped with other holdings as 114 and 180 acres respectively; Teigue O'Donovan and Dermot Mahony were the former owners of Kyle, no name is given for Geiragh. All these places are in the parish of Lislee, about six miles north-west of Clonakilty. This Geiragh must not be confused with the place of the same name in Imokilly. Survey. 🢀

  109. Penn usually writes Ed. Nuce but here it is clearly Em. Nuce. His name may have been Edmund. 🢀

  110. Penn had 192 acres in Aghamilla in the parish of Kilgariff about two miles north-west of Clonakilty. Teigue O'Hea was the previous owner. The reading 'distress' is doubtful. It has also been read as '4 trees.' Survey. 🢀

  111. In 1670-1671 John Maddox was Constable of the Corporation of Kinsale. The O'Heas had owned much land in south-west County Cork which had been given to Penn. One seems to have been able to retain some. The will of an O'Hea of Bandon was proved in 1729 and other references show that they continued to hold land, though Irish. Caulfield. The names of Edward Moore, Walter Harris, John Philpot and Captain William Morris occur in the Index of Adventurers. Philpot and Harris also held from Lord Orrery. Caulfield, Index, Orrery. Ed. Nuce. Captain William Newce or Nuce was an Elizabethan settler from whom the Earl of Cork bought the land on which he built Bandon. Newcetown is a few miles north-west of it. This member of the family seems to have lived near Rosscarbery. Cork, etc. 🢀

  112. Castle Lyons near Fermoy in the north of County Cork was the residence of the Earl of Barrymore. T. Hungerford's name is in the Index of Adventurers. 🢀

  113. Possibly the keening, a kind of rhythmic wailing, was one of the reasons why Penn thought the burial barbarous. 12th. Penn had 100 acres in Killeene in the parish of Rathbarry; the previous owner was Daniel O'Hea. He had 386 acres in Derryduff and Killronane about three miles northnorth-east of Rosscarbery, previous owner Teigue O'Hea. Survey. 🢀

  114. Baltimore is a fishing port a few miles south-west of Skibbereen. It had been plundered by Algerine pirates about forty years before Penn's visit. 🢀

  115. Mount Salem is probably a variant for Castle Salem where William Morris lived. Banduff ( 15th) was the former name of the place. 🢀

  116. Enniskean, a few miles west of Bandon, would be on the route from Rosscarbery to Macroom. Macroom was where Penn lived as a boy (see pp. 11, 13). The Penn Letters indicate that he still had interests there. In a letter written by Philip Ford 9th August 1670 to William Penn he states that Captain Crispin 'would not conclude the Improvements at Mack Rume.' He also asked for a writing under Penn's mother's hand that money was due to Powell. 🢀

  117. Usquebaugh. The old name for whiskey. 🢀

  118. Ladysbridge is a couple of miles north of Shanagarry on the way to Castlemartyr. 🢀

  119. Captain Bent's business may have been in connection with Inchnebacka (now Roxborough) near Midleton. In the Penn Letters there is a letter dated 1st August 1670 from Captain Bent asking Penn to ask Robert Boyle to make some provision for him and his family before transmitting the interest of Inchnebacka to Captain Osborne. 🢀

  120. Valentine Greatrakes (1628-after 1681) was Clerk of the Peace for County Cork in 1660. He cured many people of gout, rheumatism and scropfula by 'stroking' (among others Colonel Phair). He visited London at the desire of Charles II and some of his cures were certified by the Royal Society. D.N.B. Alderman Langer. John Langer was Mayor of Youghal in 1663. Caulfield. 🢀

  121. Walter Croker's name is in the Index of Adventurers. Cloyne, the seat of a bishopric, is halfway between Shanagarry and Midleton. 🢀

  122. The Irish inhabitants were possibly a few subtenants who had not been transported to make room for the English. 🢀

  123. Sir Boyle Maynard of Curryglass was probably a relative of the Earl of Cork. He held land in County Waterford near Lismore and Tallow (Survey) and was M.P. for Youghal in 1661. His mother was a Nuce and his wife a daughter of Sir Henry and Mabella Tynte of Ballicrenane. Cork M.P.s. Lord Broghill. Roger Boyle (1621-1679) was the third son of the Great Earl of Cork. He was M.P. for County Cork in 1654. He had been created Lord Orrery in 1660 but in the letter to Penn given on p. 14 he still signs as Broghill. He was a friend of the Penns and on the occasion of his imprisonment in Cork in 1667 William Penn had appealed to him. He did so again a few days after this meeting. Lord Orrery was President of Munster 1660-1668. He was a statesman, soldier and dramatist. It was said of him that he was 'everything which merits the name of great and good.' He fought in Ireland both for Charles I and Cromwell and helped in the Restoration. He built Charleville and rebuilt Castle Martyr. D.N.B., Cork M.P.s. 🢀

  124. William I. Hull in William Penn, a Topical Biography (1937) considers 'my dr B' 'o.d.f.f.' and 'o.b.f.f.' ways in which Penn indicates Guli Springett; cf. June 4th, 11th and 26th. Penn writes 'the C of Clan.' From other entries he seems to have been more intimate with a Countess than with the Count. The first Earl of Clancarty died in 1664 and the second in 1665, both leaving widows. The third was Callaghan, second son of the first. It is not clear to which of the Countesses Penn was writing. 🢀

  125. The books would be some confiscated by the Mayor and not those mentioned in the Penn Letters as having been taken on the way to Ireland. 🢀

  126. The Seventeenth Report of the P.R.O. Commissioners quotes the following: 'On 30 May 1670 the Lord Lieutenant and Council are informed that John Hall, T. Wight, J. Workman and several other persons commonly called Quakers are committed close prisoners in the jail of Cork and not admitted to go out with keepers, and that divers of them by directions of the Mayor of Cork are denied the use of their working tools, whereby though in prison they might work for their living. The Council accordingly directs that they be admitted on Bail on condition of appearing at the next assizes.' This would be the order about the prisoners to which Penn refers on May 30th. John Hall should be John Hull. Thomas Wight, the future leader of Munster Quakerism and the first historian of the Society in Ireland had only just become a Friend. 🢀

  127. Noble Dunscomb was Sheriff of Cork in 1659 and Mayor in 1665. He held land from Lord Orrery. Orrery, Smith. In the collection of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania (Granville Penn Volume p. 11) is the letter (to which reference is made on p. 14) from Lord Orrery answering Penn's letter sent to Charleville on this date. As he was no longer Lord President of Munster he showed William Penn's letter to Murrough O'Brien, Lord Inchiquin, (whom Penn calls Lord Bryan) who was then Vice-President of Munster. He evidently wrote to the Mayor, who returned the books. See May 20th. More Penn Letters. 🢀

  128. In the collection referred to above is a letter from Admiral Penn to William Penn dated 28th Apr. 1670. (Hist. Soc. of Pennsylvania. Penn Forbes Letter Book I, 9). He told his son to settle up things fully as soon as he could with Mr. Southwell, and added 'Mr. Southwell is my good ould friend and I would have you according vallue and respect him.' He also told him to inform Cousin William Penn about everything as he was to be Clerk of the Cheque after his (W.P. jnr's) departure. More Penn Letters. 🢀

  129. Bennett's Bridge is south of Kilkenny. 🢀

  130. Kilcullen is about thirty miles south-west of Dublin. 🢀

  131. Thomas Fearon of Cockermouth, a Quaker preacher, had been a printer and merchant. He probably died in 1704. Cambridge Journal. 'to be on bail.' See note May 15th. Evidently Friends in Cork were not willing to be eleased on bail but wanted to be freed unconditionally. 🢀

  132. Lord Lieutenant Berkeley. See Note November 6th. Sir Ellis Leighton (d. 1685). D.N.B, calls him Sir Elisha Leighton. He fought for the Royalists in the Civil War and was in exile with them. He was secretary to Lord Berkeley. He published the first Gazette to give news in Dublin. He is said to have been a clever but undesirable character. D.N.B. 🢀

  133. A number of men of the name of Fairfax were prominent soldiers in Ireland at this time. Dean Buckeley was Judge of the Consistory Court of Dublin. C.S.P.I. o.b.ff. See note May 10th. 🢀

  134. Catherine, the widow of the 1st Earl of Mount Alexander was a daughter of the 2nd Viscount Ranelagh. Her husband had estates in the north of Ireland. D.N.B. 🢀

  135. Abraham Fuller (1622-1694) of Moate, County Westmeath was born in Amsterdam, married Mary Warren of Colchester, was convinced in 1659 and died at Lismoiney near Clara, where some of his descendants still live. He was one of the compilers of A View of Sufferings of Quakers in Ireland published in 1671 and reprinted by Samuel Fuller (no relative) in 1731. He was imprisoned several times. Province meetings were held at his house. Testimonies, Sufferings, etc. 🢀

  136. Lord Ranelagh (1638-1712) was 3rd Viscount Ranelagh, and a great-grandson of the Great Earl of Cork. He was a great friend of the Lord Lieutenant Berkeley, and Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1668. His later history was not creditable. He lived mostly in England. DNB. 🢀

  137. Lord Massarene (d.1695) was Sir John Skeffington who succeeded his father-in-law as Viscount Masserene in 1665 and obtained large estates and much influence in Ulster. He was conspicuous in the interests of Protestants. DNB. 🢀

  138. For the printing of his book see December 27th and January 2nd. 🢀

  139. Ballymore Eustace is a village on the Liffey about twenty miles south-west of Dublin. 🢀

  140. See Note June 4th. 🢀

  141. A pursuivant is a state messenger. 🢀

  142. William Steele was a Dublin Friend mentioned in the Manuscript Book of Sufferings. Partly printed by Fuller and Holme, 1672; by Samuel Fuller, 1731; and by Joseph Besse, 1753. 🢀

  143. The Penn Letters include one Ann Gay dated July 3rd and addressed to William Penn at George Webber's in Cork, but written to Philip Ford saying she had heard that William Penn was ill of a fever and ague and asking how he was. This may be the reason for the abrupt ending of the Journal. As Penn was in Dublin on July 1st he could not have reached Cork and the news of his fever returned to Dublin in two days. The date of Penn's return to England is not known exactly. In Penn Letters he is addressed in Dublin on July 23rd, at Cork on August 1st, at London on August 9th. At any rate he was in London on August 14th when he was arrested prior to his famous trial at the Old Bailey with William Meade. Source: Henry J. Cadbury. 🢀


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