CELT document E780002-001

Rev. Daniel A. Beaufort's Tour of Kerry, 1788


Rev. Daniel A. Beaufort's Tour of Kerry, 1788

Daniel Augustus Beaufort (1739–1821), 1 was the son of Daniel Cornelis de Beaufort, a French Huguenot clergyman who settled in London in the 1720s. He subsequently entered the Church of England, serving as rector of East Barnet where his son, Daniel Augustus, was born. Going to Ireland with the viceroy Lord Harrington in 1747, Beaufort senior became successively rector of Navan, provost of Tuam and finally, rector of Clonenagh, Co. Laois, which post he held until his death in 1788.

Daniel Augustus was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he had conferred on him the degree of LL.D. He took orders, and in succession to his father was rector of Navan (1765–1818). In 1790 he was presented by John Foster, Speaker of the Irish House of Commons, to the vicarage of Collon, Co. Louth, where he built a new church and remained until his death. He married Mary, daughter and co-heiress of William Waller of Allenstown, Co. Meath. His elder son, William Louis Beaufort (1771–1849), whose name features in the diary below, became a Church of Ireland clergyman. His younger son was Sir Francis Beaufort (1774–1857), rear admiral and distinguished hydrographer. His daughter Frances became in 1798 the fourth wife of Richard Lovell Edgeworth and the stepmother of the authoress Maria Edgeworth.

Beaufort was a man of many parts. He was prominently involved in the foundation of Sunday schools and in the preparation of elementary educational texts. He is credited, moreover, with a large measure of responsibility for the foundation of the Royal Irish Academy. He is, however, best remembered as a geographer, his most important work being his civil and ecclesiastical map of Ireland which, with an accompanying memoir, was published in 1792 2 under the patronage of the lord lieutenant, the Marquis of Buckingham. This was considered a valuable contribution to geographical studies of the day, though it is worth noting that the eminent antiquarian John O' Donovan commented scathingly on what he considered its shortcomings, particularly with regard to placenames.

Beaufort intended by on-the-spot observation to remove the defects of existing maps, and his tour of Kerry, which was only part  p.184 of a much more extensive itinerary of the entire country, was undertaken with this aim in view. He seems, in fact, to have been a compulsive traveller and diarist. Between 1764 and 1810 he undertook, besides several Irish tours, similar journeyings through the Low Countries, England and Wales. His wife Mary and daughter Louisa, who accompanied him on several of his peregrinations, (his wife was with him in Kerry in 1788 and again in 1810), also kept some travel diaries of their own. The originals of many of these were acquired some twenty years ago by Trinity College, Dublin.

It may be noted that in addition to his travel diaries Beaufort also kept extensive journals of a more personal nature. The originals of these are today in the Huntington Library of San Marino, California, though microfilm copies are available in Trinity College, Dublin. In addition, the National Library of Ireland holds a quantity of Beaufort correspondence, 3 including letters to Daniel Augustus from his future wife and various acquaintances, and also correspondence of his daughters, Harriet and Louisa, and his son William.

Beaufort's diary of his tour of Kerry in 1788 is contained in TCD Mss 4029–30, which also outline the more extensive tour of Ireland which he undertook between 3 July and 17 September of that year. This led him through parts of the north and west to Co. Clare, and thence, via Mallow and Millstreet, Co. Cork, to Killarney. After leaving Kerry via Bantry, he traversed several other parts of Co. Cork, before eventually returning to Dublin. This would seem to have been his first and only systematic tour of Kerry, though he revisited the county, and in 1810 updated some of the earlier entries in his diary.

Beaufort was clearly a methodical and disciplined observer. At the commencement of his journal for 1788 he sets out an elaborate series of objectives which he hoped to achieve in the course of his tour. He proposed to obtain information on a wide range of subjects, including such diverse topics as the quality of the soil in each locality, state of the poor, details of antiquities “in anybody's possession”, condition of the corporate boroughs, traditions of the “antient Irish”, and names of the Church of Ireland clergy in each parish. Given the limited time and resources at his disposal and his evident lack of contacts outside the rather narrow ambit of Ascendancy Ireland, such a programme would seem to have been somewhat ambitious. A reading even of the Kerry portion of his diary, however, shows that he achieved some degree of success with  p.185 regard to all his objectives and his diary provides, in fact, many valuable insights into social and economic conditions in the Kerry of his day. Considering the primitive state of the Irish roads at this period, and the often unsavoury condition of available accommodation, one can only marvel at the hardihood and enterprising spirit displayed by such an intrepid inquirer.

A few points should be noted concerning the text. Beaufort's frequent abbreviations of words and, on occasion, entire sentences, have been silently expanded. Where, however, his abbreviations give rise to doubt this is clearly indicated. His occasional arbitrary switches from past to present tense have, where appropriate, been silently amended, and in a few places the order of his sentences has been changed to provide a more logical sequence. In addition, some repetitive or inconsequential material has been silently suppressed. The manuscript includes some marginal notes dated 1810 and a few which are undated. In the case of most of these undated notes it is possible from an examination of the original manuscript to distinguish those which are contemporaneous with the main text from later entries. The former have been silently incorporated at the appropriate points in the main body of the text; the latter are clearly indicated in the footnotes. Finally, the page references of the original manuscript have been incorporated in square brackets in the printed text.


I wish to thank the Knight of Glin for drawing attention to Beaufort's manuscript and the Board of Trinity College, Dublin, for permission to publish it. Dr Pádraig de Brún of the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies read the typescript and offered many helpful suggestions. The following also helped: Dr Breandán Ó Cíobháin, An Coimisiún Logainmneacha; Maura Scannell, Head of Herbarium, National Botanic Gardens; Fergus Gillespie and Gerard Long, National Library; Dr Michael Ryan and Mary Cahill, National Museum; Judith Cuppage, Dingle Archaeological Survey; Rev Bartholmew Egan, O.F.M., Franciscan House of Studies, Killiney; Daniel Moriarty, Kenmare; Brian Fitzelle, Ardilaun House, Dublin; Mrs K. Brown and Mrs M. O'Riordan, Kerry County Library; Mrs Valerie McK. Barry, Callinfercy House; Mrs Jane V. Spring, New South Wales, Australia.

Daniel A. Beaufort

Edited by Gerard J. Lyne

Rev. Daniel A. Beaufort's Tour of Kerry, 1788



 88 August 14
Set out early from Millstreet (at 7) & at 11 ½ [o'clock] reached Killarney. We had desperate heavy rain. The road is through a dreary but very improveable Mountain. One mile from Killarney are fine oak Woods. The great Inn — Mrs Hamilton's — was full so we went to the second — Coffee's — & were obliged to take lodgings for Mary 4 & William 5 & me. The Bishop of Limerick's 6 visitation was held here this day. He sent to ask me to dinner twice but I did not hear the message till 6 o clock. I went in the evening to see him.


 1 August 14 Killarney 7
We arrived here before twelve & walked a little about the town. After breakfast saw the Church, which is very shabby, & transcribed a curious epitaph that is to be seen there on marble tablets. 8 After dinner I waited on the Bishop 9 who had sent several messages to ask me to dinner, but which were not delivered to me till 6 o'clock. At 8 I found him still at the bottle. There I met Dean Graves 10 & Dr Day 11 & Mr Huson 12 — old acquaintances. Day promised to introduce me to Lord Kenmare 13 tomorrow.

An assembly tonight at our Inn not very numerous but the  p.187 women mostly very pretty, particularly Mrs Herbert 14 of Cahirnan & Mrs Dunlavy. 15 The Kenmare family w[ith?] la Marquise de Severac 16 were there but retired early. Cornet Stapleton was very civil & attentive to us. He will procure us the band & a boat. 17


[August] 15
Dean Graves breakfasted with us and invited me to go and spend some days at Sackville. 18 He offered to introduce me to Lord Kenmare & we  2 walked up there but the family were at prayer. Dr Day went with me after 12 when we were politely received & asked to dine tomorrow. Lord Kenmare shewed [us] a curious Gorget of pure gold, 9 Inches in Diameter, found a few days ago under a rock, as his men were making a road. Weight 4ozs., I hear. The fretted borders are evidently done with a stamp, not with a chisel. 19 He asked me to dine tomorrow but I refused the honour to go on the Water.

My party went out to ride in Lord Kenmare's park & I met them between that & Mucruss, a very pretty ride along the River Flesk, which we crossed on a Bridge of 24 arches, 20 then passing by  p.188 Cahirnane — Mrs Delanys 21 — come to the Abbey of Mucruss. 22  3 A few years ago a hermit dwelt in the Abbey having roofed part of the refectory with broken Coffins. He was teised & plundered & he went away, about 10 years ago. A woman who attends for the friar, to whom the key of the place is entrusted, told us that Mass is celebrated here on a temporary altar with great pomp on the 3d of August, St Jingler's day, when 4 or 5 other friars attend & all the country come here to confess & do penance. 23 From hence we crossed into the beautiful grounds of Mucruss, & walked along a terras of uncommon magnificence over hanging the lake to the house of Mr Herbert, 24 a very mean & ruinous structure. 25 The family [are] just gone to England. In Mucrus House is a very fine picture by Hudson 26 of Lady Emily Butler sister to the last Duke of Ormond who survived both her brothers, & died at 99 Years 11 Months, as Lord Kenmare told us. 27 The Hall is flagged with the red & white marble of Mucruss, of which there is  p.189 a great Quarry. 28 Near Mucrus is a small Village of Cloghreen, many protestants, & a ruined church. 29


 4 August 16
The weather still continuing very showery and a large party from Waterford having engaged the great boat & the Regimental Band we were a good while in doubt whether we should follow them in another boat & so hear the Musick, etc. At last it was decided that we should not to on the Water. Mr Caldwell, 30 Mr Walsh 31 & I paid a visit to Lord Kenmare, where I made a sketch of a gold breastplate found about a month ago under a large rock, as his men were making a new road here. It is 9 Inches in diameter, & 3 broad at bottom, but very thin. Lord Kenmare says it weighs 14 Guineas.

Lord Kenmare assured us that we might stay here long enough before we should find a better day, & insisted on ordering his boat for us to explore the lake. This we could not reject so the boat was got ready, & my two companions & William rode down to Ross Castle32 to embark while Robin 33 & I drove on to Mucrus to  5 collect the rest of the party. We drove thro the woods & found them at a stand by a new unfinished bridge. Here with difficulty the Carriages were turned about and we all returned to Mucrus house & at the Quay found our friends who had rowed round. 34 From thence we returned to Ross Castle where Mr Newport's postilion had like to be drowned by attempting to water his horse in the lake at a place where the bottom is soft  7 Bog. Wet & tired we got to our Inn at ½ past 7 & as soon as we had dined, the ladies went  p.190 to bed. And so ended a Day, very like this weather, rather dull & stupid, with a few gleams of pleasure & Sunshine.

Lord Kenmare's house is an old plain rough stone building — not lofty but having 13 Windows in front — with very extensive offices as wings on each side. In it are some very good pictures — a beautiful group of elegant figures by Amicdi 35 over the Chimney, and a large Vestumnus & Pomona by Sr Peter Lily, 36 with his name to it — of more curiosity on account of the painter, than merit from the painting.

His Gardens, of which I saw but little, appear to be in the old stile — fine broad Gravel walks & hedges. There was a canal in the middle but he has long ago converted that to grass. The lake can only be seen from his upper Windows or Garrets.


 8 August 17
Sunday — a delightful fine day. I went to Church where Mr Dunlavy read prayers & Herbert 37 preached 12 Minutes without being heard or understood by me. After Church Mrs Young 38 & I took an airing thro Lord Kenmare's park, saw his Glynn which is exceedingly beautiful & had from the terras in the park a fine view of the lake etc. In this park stands a large Stone upright which seems to have been the back of a Judgment Seat.


[August] 18
This morning we assembled at 7 ½ [o'clock] for our grand boating party but the day being extremely wet we sat down to Vingt un39 after breakfast. At Eleven it began to clear up, the boatman urged us to go, & we all drove down to Ross Castle. We were all very conveniently in the Barge of 8 Oars with a part of the band which Col. Jacques of the 51 [st Regiment]  9 lent us, & in  p.191 another boat were our Servants & provisions. We reached the Eagle's nest, & were put on shore opposite to it, while our band went into a recess behind it. We heard their musick reverberated from the rock & quite softened, but loud enough & very true. From the rock above our heads some small cannon were fired, precisely opposite the Eagle's nest which repeated the report enlarging it to that of a rowling peal of Thunder. Poor Mrs Pennyfeather 40 was obliged to stop her ears so afraid she is of a Gun  10. A very heavy shower assailed us, & determined us to return to Dinas. On our way we saw a pair of Eagles soaring above us & at the Eagle's nest the royal bird itself upon it which our repeated shouts put to flight. 41 It was half after Six when we arrived at Dinas. We dined heartily & merrily on our cold repast & when the musick, the boatmen & servants were all replete set off for Ross Castle, by the brightest Moonlight. The water was smooth, the night calm & our passage delightfully harmonious in every sense. William in landing his aunt out of the boat fell on his head in the water. Our boatmen plied their oars so lustily that we reached shore by 9 & got  11 drest quick & went to the Assembly which was much larger than the last. Mrs Pennyfeather being extremely well dressed made an elegant appearance and we afterwards supped together. Did not get to bed till two.


[August] 19
Showery again this morning yet we got to breakfast by 9 & at ten set off for Ross Castle, embarked again in two boats & proceeded to the foot of Glena near Dinas, where a large company was assembled in boats to see a Staghunt, with which O Donoghue 42 complimented Mrs Pennyfeather. As soon as we arrived a gun was fired & the hounds laid on. We soon heard their tongue, & by the  p.192 course of the sound in the wood, and that of the men who were placed to man the Mountain, we were guided on Westward, and the whole fleet of fifteen sail was in motion. In about an hour we perceived the stag  12 come down from the wood, refresh himself in the lake, and then run along the shore for a mile, when he turned again into the wood. Our Boatmen anxious to catch him if he should take Sail rowed with such spirit as to pass all the rest. But they also passed the stag, for he had doubled, & tho we made haste back we were only in time to see him once more take sail, when he was soon taken up by Mr Galway's 43 boat, & tied there. The whole party attended him from hence to Stag Island near which he was untied & thrown into the lake, from which he swam to the shore of that Island, & lay down.

The boats dispersed now different ways — we to Innisfallen, where we had a cold dinner prepared, & fared sumptuously after walking round that Beautiful Island & observing the noble trees that adorn it, particularly a vast holly and a great Yew, the former large & lofty as an Oak & measuring 10 feet in circumference 44  13. While we were here Mr Mahony 45 brought over the hunted stag to this Isle in his boat to secure him from the Mountaineers who would have slain him for his hide. He had been hunted once before, the tip of one ear being cut off — & now the tip of each is gone. We passed our time here agreably till near 9 when we returned as before. When we landed at Innisfallen a crowd of apple women & nutsellers etc. were assembled there before us, just as if it were a fair, or rather like the savages coming down to barter with our ships in distant Islands.


[August] 20
Mr Caldwell & Mr Walsh agreed to accompany me to Dingle, etc. & so round to Cork  14. Mr Caldwell having obtained leave from Mrs Delany to see Mr Herbert's collection of drawings we called on her at her very neat English looking house 46 near the lake, & went thence to Mucrus, where we were well entertained for  p.193 two hours with some elegant works of Sandby, 47 Rowlandson, 48 Calendar, 49 Tomkins 50 & Dom. Serres51 & thro' some beautiful glades with the Gardener who laments that his present master has so different a taste from his father 52 that to make the most of the grass he suffers cattle here to browse on the trees & shrubs that clothe these wonderful rocks. In a glade here, the Gardener assured us that abundance of Morilles53 grow every year. He shewed us Pears grafted on Quickbeam. There are here some very large Cypress, & great Arbutus. At 6 we got back to dinner  15. After dinner we amused ourselves correcting the numerous errors in Col. Vallancey's map of the Lake. 54 At Mucrus & in Ross Island are mines of Copper & lead-worked till very lately. 55 Much of the Ore lies on the Ground. In Mucrus there is a smelting furnace and fine Marble quarries. In Ross are also several quarries of Marble, some shaded & speckled red & white — some grey & white — with other varieties to be seen in chimney pieces all over this town.

There are great numbers of Red Deer always in Mucrus who eat up the corn etc. unless it be watched very close, as the Gardener told us. The country hereabouts is, in general, but poorly cultivated. 56 Saturday is Market day in Killarney but there are a vast number of hawkers selling things in the street every day — particularly under the Market house — where also our Carriages stood, & we paid a man to watch them every night. Over this Market house is the Ballroom.

In Killarney are quartered, on the town, 2 troops  16 of  p.194 Dragoons, & 2 Companies of foot, besides 2 Companies more stationed in the Barrack at Ross Castle. 57


[August] 21 To Dingle.
The first 8 Miles [are] well planted & beautiful, affording many fine views of the Lake. We then turn off Norwards thro a dreary country & by a strait road. Slieve na Miss [Slieve Mish] stands in front of us & the two ridges leave an opening for Castlemain harbour. Descending into the Vale which the Maing [Maine] waters, the Country seems rich & capable of great Improvement at a very small Expense.

Milltown, a small markettown 1 mile South West of Castlemain belongs to Sir William Godfrey 58 who lives close to it & it is likely to become a thriving place as Sir William told us that to encourage inhabitants he gives them ground to build on rent free for ever.

There are here 3 Saltworks. The Rock salt & all heavy matters are, brought up narrow  17 Channels, like the Welsh pills, 59 to within ½ a Mile of the Town where there is a quay. 60 We saw there a vessel of 70 tons burden discharge her cargo & another taking in Copper Ore from Killarney. They get also by this conveyance great quantities of rich sand filled with Muscles & other shells, from the Peninsula of Inch Island about 8 Miles navigation, with which they manure their land, at the rate of about 10 boat loads to an Acre, & a boatload sells for 6 shillings. But it is also retailed in horseloads for the convenience of the poor. 61 The Church stands on the West of the town. Here is also a ruined Abbey, 62 of which a long Church only is remaining — remarkable  p.195 for the excellent plan of its large Course & for a parapet all round it.

Mr Caldwell & Mr Walsh on their horses & William & I in my chaise had left Killarney at 8 & came here to breakfast in a very poor Inn. After our Meal we walked  18 about — saw a beautiful wood of 100 acres of Sir William Godfrey's copsed & growing well on the fine round hill. As we returned to our Inn the Baronet came to see us, asked us to stay & dine with him — offered us fruit — & actually detained us half an hour to give us a fine apple. He is member for Tralee.

Castlemain is now a most wretched village, only a few cabbins at each end of a very long bridge over the Maing. On the East side of this bridge are large ruins of a Castle, 63 & on the West some also, with several marks in the battlements where the gate that defended this pass antiently stood. A singular situation for a Castle, in the midst of a river in which the tide might bring large vessels. Yet there is a Constable of this Castle with a Salary of 10 sh[illings] per day besides a considerable piece of land near it: Capt Botet, 64 who lives at  19 Kinsale, is the present Constable & Sir William Godfrey says it is altogether worth £300 a year. 65 In the flats about this river I observed a number of navigable streams that fill with the tide & bring up boats.

[I] observe in this country Wooden Mugs of all sizes neatly turned, with handles of the same piece, a difficult work. 66

Here we turn due West with Slieve Miss on our Right which continues under different names such as — [sic] etc. to the head of Donmore. The road runs pleasantly along the harbour of Castlemain which is formed by Inch Island. The river Inch tumbles down a wonderfully rocky channel, thro a gap in the Mountains. Here we leave the coast & turn to the Left  20 Breach Innis on our Right  p.196 & Mam Inch on our Left — wild Mountains. 67 This road leads us to a nice fertile vale amidst these hills where we took notice of some huge Druidical Stones on the side of Mam Inch, one of which we made a drawing of 14 feet high & ½ Circumference. On the Eastern angle there seem to be some Ogham Characters. About half a mile farther we saw another on our left 68 but it rained so desperately we could not stop.

We soon came to an old house called Hamiltons Inn — worse than any Spanish posada69 — yet kept by a man who lived 14 years coachman to Dr Andrews 70 the Provost, & in other elegant houses. It was dark before we reached Dingle & took up our lodgings in a very poor dirty inn, kept by Alexis Moriarty. 71 I sent Lady Anns 72 letter to Mr Hicksons, 73 but  21 he was gone to Tralee. However, his Wife  74 invited me to sleep there which I declined.


[August] 22
Having come in so late it was near two before we got to bed last night. We rose late therefour this very wet morning. We could not get a ride it rained & blew so hard but about 2 it cleared up enough for a walk about the town & round by the shore of the Harbour  p.197 which is stony not sand. We saw also another great Stone a mile West of the town. 75 Paid a visit to Mrs Hickson & walked about Lady Anne Fitzgerald's improvements, which never were much & are now much neglected.


A long street on a rising hill, with one cross down to the Quay. Several good houses & some new ones, but all look délabrés. All the antient buildings mentioned by Smith 76 have been pulled down within 30 Years — but I suspect that what they called balconies were only large stone windows as in Galway  22.

The inlet into the harbour between two high points is very pretty. That on the East side is called Nancy Browns parlour 77 from a small cave in it, dry at low water & into which the sea flows. Near it were dug out of the sand some years ago 3 very long Cannon which are set up as posts for lamps at the Knight of Kerry's Gate. 78 They probably belonged to the Spanish armada of which a great ship was wrecked on the coast. 79 Fewer shops in Dingle in proportion to its size than I have seen any where else. A Barrack here for 2 Companies.

The Church 80 was very large & consisted formerly of two long paralel Aisles. The East end of the South aisle stands & has a very fine window — the rest is destroyed, and the East end of the North aisle is also cut off by a wall with a mean window which bounds the present church. The South side of it has the Arches which communicated between the two aisles barely stopped up. The Roof is  p.198 new but not close at the Bellfry. Inside there are neither Rails nor Desk nor Pulpit nor floor nor ceiling nor plaister on  23 the walls — but 3 large fine Canopy seats, supported by Corinthian columns — one for Mr Mullins 81 & two for the Knights family, which are still hung with black (for Lady Anne continued to live here after his death till some ill treatment drove her away). The windows are all broke & there is no door to the Church Yard, but the passage is the filthiest part of the whole town, over shoes every where. In short this is the worst Church I ever saw. Mullins is Rector & — [sic] Vicar; 82 Mr Goodman 83 curate.

At this town is a bleach green & some linnen weaving carried on by Mr Moriarty. 84 Dominick Trant 85 has an Estate here. Market on Saturdays. Fish very plenty — I bought a great Turbot [of] 15 lb for 4s./6d. The borough belongs to Townsend. 86 50 or 60 freemen [reside] in Co. Cork — not one resident here. 87 No Magistrate or any thing else — 2 only at an Election. 88 The borough belonged formerly to the Mullins family  24.

Vast quantities of Herrings are caught here. The Gourdet 89 exists, & we might have had some but for the bad rough weather. Their excellence Alexis vouches. Ti-vouria 90 is a little village larger than Ventry. So is Smerwick.


[August] 23 To Tralee
Disappointed by the bad weather of yesterday, but unable to remain here longer, we set off at 9 — William & I in the chaise by the great road, Mess[rs] Caldwell & Walsh by the Connors, a Mountain 5 or 6 miles off which is so perpendicular on the North side that they descended by 13 flights of steep narrow road, just wide enough for one horse, but having a good parapet of sods, yet infinitely too steep to ride it. From thence they crossed for some miles the most beautiful Strand that could be seen 91 & saw both Kerry head & Loop head. On this road they met a common fellow with a pack of hounds which he said were his own & that he was paid by the country folks for going about killing the foxes with them.


From the hills on this side of Dingle we saw Ventry bay very distinctly across a very narrow istmus between it & Dingle bay just beyond Mr Mullins new house. 92 At 1 ½ Miles we came to a great Stone a little off the Road on the right hand. Its dimensions were 14 ½ feet hight & 16 in circumference. 93

We returned the same road we had come  25 for 8 Miles. The Mountains on our Right & Left are well expressed in Sk[inner?] & T[aylor?]. 94 On the sides & in the Vallies there is a good deal of poor tillage — the Crops good & harvest forward — much Wheat & Flax. Some of the highest hills are green to the top. But not a tree anywhere to be seen.

At the fort of Cahirconree 95 the View of Kerry head & Tralee bay opens to us. Here we stopped at a cabbin to feed & William & I walked on. The place is called Glandine. From the high ground under Cahirconree saw St Brandons Mountain & head, bluff & boldly projecting a Cliff into the Sea — as also Kerry head from whence low Mountains rise & coast the Shannon for 8 or 10 Miles. Kilgobbin Church & Glebehouse 96 [were] on the Shore quite under us.

The Rock of Muccollogh 97 which stands in Tralee bay, single, is placed too much to the East in Kitchin's map. 98 The West Terminus of Tralee bay is a continuous heap of sandhills. Off that point lie the Maghery Islands, where much fine corn grows & Barley is frequently ripe in 6 Weekes from Sowing.

 26We pass by a very small ruinous Church of Killeltin. 99 A mile  p.201 farther at Derrynane where there are a few trees 100 the Chaise overtakes us.

The Road to Tralee is very dull & flat. A mile & half from it a bridge crosses the River, close to which are Saltworks, & an embankment forming against the Sea. Here the Town ought to have been built.


The entrance is very dirty, the town very rambling in its plan. Some good houses on the Mall, a broad street by Sir Barry Denny's 101 frightful old Castle. 102. A Square very small & irregular. The Church is large & decent but never painted. A large new Jail 103 is building. Many houses building so that half the streets are in rubbish. 104

The husbandry seems wretched all round this town, tho' the ground is exceptionally good, & lets near the Town for £4 — and at some miles off for 2 Guineas — per Acre.

 27The Riders did not arrive till past 6 very weary. Dean Graves called on us & asked us all to breakfast & dinner tomorrow.


[August] 24 Ardfert
In our way we resolved to see the Spa 105 so went round by the bay which, the tide being full appeared to the best advantage, but very bleak & dreary. At last we arrived at a little walled enclosure  p.202 on the beach in which is a small well just rudely covered over, with sod benches round the wall. The fair dispenser of these Hygeian Waters soon appeared — a little old woman who could not speak a word of English. But she lifted the water in a tin can & poured it in a rinsed glass, much cleaner than at Mallow. The water much as that of Castle Connel 106 to the taste, but leaves no Sulphurous tack.

From hence 4 Miles dreary enough to Ardfert, a very small ruinous village. Sacville is ½ m from it on a very small  28 eminence — in this flat Country an exceeding pretty one — just built by himself [Dean Graves] but yet bleak. Here we found his Mother, Wife & Sister — Mrs Drought (Graves), 107 Master Doyle, 108 etc. Breakfasted & then to Church.

The Church 109 is small, with a great pew for Lord Glendore, 110 a Throne for the Bishop & a few others, added to the South side of the old Cathedral which is a large ruin, very lofty & very antient. The arches [are] chiefly round particularly the West door which is very antient & very curious, of soft red stone well carved, but mostly worn out by the weather. The East window [consists] of 3 long ones 30 feet high. The whole South side overhangs & threatens ruin, & they are now undermining it for graves.

There are here several other old walls, one very antique with round arches & carvings round the windows & heads for a cornice or eve house. No traces of the Round tower left. 111 Much fine milkthistle grows here in the Church yard.

 29 After hearing an excellent Sermon from Dean Graves we went to Lord Glendores thro a large Gothick gateway not of a piece with  p.203 the rest of his old fashioned place. The House, built 1722, 112 is extremely low, illcontrived & ugly, the furniture mean & the prospect bad. In the Gardens are some shady walks, clipt arcades, weeping willows in abundance — & every thing inspires la melancholie to which the ruin of a large fine Abbey 113 contributes its share. Tho none bury here now yet Sculls & bones lie about it. In the grounds, however, are very fine double rows of trees, Beech etc., which finely shelter the ground & make noble shady walks. At Lord Glendore's is a monstrous picture of Macbeth by Fuselli. 114

After this we drove to the Strand & so to dinner by 6 o'clock  30 where Richard Graves, F.T.C.D., 115 made another at a handsome entertainment with much good fruit. At ten we left him & got home by eleven to the Inn.


[August] 25 Tralee
A new Jail now building here seems very ill contrived — the staircases of timber — the lower rooms dungeons with little light or air, too large for one, too small for many. No communication between the Jailers house & the Jail. The windows of the cells open to the Street. Yet Mr Jerom has approved this plan of Mr Lorby a Carpenter who built  31 it by Contract.

We walked into Sir Barry Denny's house 116 which is much better than it appears outside. The grounds behind are well wooded &  p.204 have a pretty walk round them. After breakfast my companions set out in their Cabriole for Killarney where I was to follow after paying two visits. My first was to Mr Blennerhassett 117 of Elm grove, whom I found now to be the Collector 118 & to live in the town opposite the Inn. When I called he had been gone to Elm Grove some hours. I ordered my chaise & followed but on the road was stopped by Col. Blennerhassett 119 of Arbela & Counsellor Frankland 120 who knew me and as they were going to see me at [?Ardarty] they turned back to the Grove, where the Collector has almost finished an immense house, 121 in a low situation, close to the river Leigh [Lee] tempted by two small offices to prefer this to a noble situation just above it. Here the Colonel made it such a point that I should stay  32 all night at Arbella — & asked the Collector to dinner etc. — that I consented, mounted my horse & rode with them to see several dippings of the River Leigh, and farther on a great Cavern under a ledge of huge rocks, with an open, or window as they call it, upon a perilous abyss. This is called McElligott's prison. 122 The lawn at Arbella [is] beautiful verdure — without seeds in one year [commanding] a fine horizon of great Mountain tops – Musher, 2 Paps, Mangerton, Tork, the Ricks etc.

At dinner were the Collector, Counsellor & Mrs & Miss Frankland, Mrs Letitia Blennerhassett, Miss Leplant & Miss  p.205 Trench from Cork, Mrs Spring & her son Frank 123 who was a lieutenant in the Navey & in all the battles with Suffrein. 124


[August] 26
After receiving great civilities & 5 Subscriptions 125 & a request of Franklands to send him some [?deeds] when term commences I left this hospitable house at 7 with Mr Spring who  33 accompanied me to Killarney on horseback. 4 miles North of Arbella etc. & parallel to Slieve Miss are a range of low Mountains 126 from near Tralee to Castleisland & so to Co. Cork. The vale between [is] exceeding rich fine ground & full of Gentlemens' seats — the whole Arthur Blennerhassett's. No trees but about Seats. Ascend & cross a skirt of Slieve Miss, very wild & neglected. 127 The whole North side [is] Sir Barry Denny's [and a] great part of [the] South Sir William Godfrey's. Near Castlemain we pass on our right Kiltalla Church & glebe house. 128 Bait 129 at Miltown & paye a visit to Sir William Godfrey. His wife is a lunatick, I hear. He showed me a daughter 130 deaf & dumb who draws mighty well without instruction — a curious print very large of Sir Edmundbury Godfrey 131  p.206 and a fine one of Mrs Mathew.  34 His house 132 built by himself is very neat & good. He offered us fruit, etc. Saw in his hothouse the Asclepius or honey tree.

From a hill 3 Miles beyond Miltown [there is] a fine view of Castlemain bay & opposite the Rivers Maing & Lane in their way to it. The Lane, which winds considerably, is very broad at Killorglin & crossed over a bridge of 14 arches.

The Ruin of the Church of Killagh 133 is on our left on the East of the Lane. The small village of old Castlemain now [sic; recte 'not'?] inhabited is on the West side of the river. The whole forms a fine landscape with some wooded seats on the bank [which we viewed] from a hill a quarter mile farther. Two miles farther South we turned East & passed a large rivulet 134 pouring from the vast range of Mountains that run East & West covering the Rickes about 2 Miles from us. One mile farther another river 135 & 2 miles farther still a very broad one. 136 All fall into the Lane.  35 There is a ruined church 137 near the Mountains & not far from Churchtown, Mr Blennerhassett's. This track is very wild, yet has several good Seats — McGillycuddys, 138 etc.

Came to Beaufort where I met James who had lazily gone so late with a message of my intention to wait on Dr Day that he was gone on the lake. Mrs Day was ill & the gate was locked so there was no admittance. We alighted & walked to Dunloe Castle, Mr  p.207 Mahony's 139 — a magnificent situation above the Lane on a high wooded bank, very grand & romantick. From the house a beautiful prospect up the meandering River & of the Lake & on the opposite side of the Lane fine woods of Glenagh [the property of] Mr Saunders. 140 James made a very pretty drawing of Beaufort & Dunloe.

We proceeded to Killarney where I found our Gentlemen were gone to Mangerton & had ordered Dinner at ½ past 5. I asked Mr Spring 141 [to dinner] & kept him waiting till our friends returned at ½ past 7. The whole town crouded with  36 gentlemen & ladies to the Quarter Sessions. I lodge now at Mrs Sweeny's. NB. A Ball last night, one tomorrow, & another on Friday, after the Staghunt.


[August] 27
After breakfast I went to the other Inn to call on Col. [?Mecfayer] who received me very politely. The morning being wet we some way idly did not set off till twelve o'clock, being also delayed by various demands & impositions & losing whips, etc. Then drove to Mucruss, embarked there, sailed thro' Tork lake, landed at Dinas where we met a large party from Mr Herberts, chatted a while & proceeded on our voyage to the upper lake, still in rain & clouds, picked up on the bank Mr Carrol the Painter 142 & carried him with us, [then] landed on Ronan's Isle from the top of which we might see the whole lake of a fine day. Mr Ronan 143 [sic] himself locked his door on our approach & stood outside of it like a great Brute  p.208  37 & would give us no shelter though it rained very hard. 144 We left him & rowing across the lake went up the pretty little river of Derrycunnihy on the retired borders of which Mr Blennerhassett is building a Cottage. Here is a tolerable house of a woodrangers where we eat [sic] our eggs & drank Brandy & gave the Woman a shilling. She had offered us some Nuts which she had pulled for us & said she was glad she had given them before she received any gratuity.

Corrected Wilson's plan 145 of upper lake. Faden's 146 is incorrigible.

Martins are plenty here, & in whatever Islands they have been put they have destroyed all rats, rabbits, & even crows. The boatmen say there are squirrels in the woods, but I doubt it. They say also that there are black hares, & in Winter white ones, in the Mountains.

Donal - a - Neelagh's (the enchanted O'Donaghoe) Room at Ross Castle is still haunted, & they tell dreadful Stories of the consequences of foolhardy soldiers who slept there. 147

It grew a little fairer and we  38 set forward to ascend the Hill, about 1 ½ Miles to the high road where our carriages waited. At one place the River crosses it [the path] & I clambered across  p.209 over a vast ledge of Rocks, not without much difficulty. The rest rode through it. It was past 6 when we got on the High road and had 6 miles to travel to Kenmare. Mr Walsh & James rode on to bespeak beds & dinner but James was soon sent back to us with intelligence that the road was so exceedingly rocky & had such steep sharp hill & short turns that he did not think the carriage could get there till 12 o' clock. Upon this Mr Caldwell, William & I mounted our horses and proceeded riding & walking alternately along this horrid road thro tremendous rocks  39 & Mountains. 148 At last it grew very dark, but the road was good. The descent being steep, however, I alighted & was walking quietly & solitary down when the Chaise to my astonishment overtook us. I got in and at 9 we arrived all safe at Nedeen, 149 where we found but little room at Mrs O Sullivans 150 — one bed for us two; another for Mr Caldwell. Mr Walsh lay on Chairs. After a tolerable supper we got into our poor beds at 2.

Capt. Offley of the 21st [Regiment] — a friend of Mr Caldwell quartered here — came to see him & engaged us to breakfast & dine the next day. There was no bed for the Servants who sat up all night, nor provender for the horses. I wrote to Mr Pelham151 (naming Lady O'Brien) 152 though I knew he was not at home. But  p.210 Mr Stewart 153 the Curate who read my note gave us hay & stabling & Capt. Offley sent oats.


 40August 28
Kenmare or Neddeen consists of a very few houses; one lately taken from Mr Stewart for a Barrack; 154 near the Village a strange illcontrived illexecuted small house 155 for the marquis of Lansdown's agent, which cost £1,000, where the Stewarts live with Mr Pelham.

The rocky grounds hereabouts let for one Guinea per Acre — yet the people are better dressed & Housed than with us. Very little tillage — much oats & potatoes are imported — all owing to smuggling, which is now almost annihilated.

The barracks here [is] not large enough for one Company [and] they have as yet no beds or bedding sent to them. Quartered here now [are] Capt. Offley [and] Lieuts. Darragh & Fitzgerald, with whom we breakfasted, then paid a visit to Mr Stewart, who very civilly offered to ride with us, & accompanied us along the Shore to the West, as far as Blackwater, a rapid river which in a deep Glen partly wooded tumbles from rock to rock & rolls precipitate a foaming torrent under a very  41 lofty bridge 156 which forms the connection between two sloping roads. Along the whole ride [we] had a fine view of Kenmare river, and distinctly saw the Bull, a vast high rock which faces the mouth of the harbour, 10 leagues from Neddeen.

Just near the Village boats come to the Sound, a narrow part of [the] River contracted by a projecting peninsula, on which there are a saltwork & other buildings. Small craft lie in a snug bay behind  p.211 it. The largest Ships come within a mile of it. There are many small Islands here, & the shore being bold shows little strand at low water. Both sides of the River are bounded with very high Mountains. The ruined Chapel of — [sic]157 is very near the River about 2 Miles west from Kenmare town.

Much cotton is spun here & some wove — the towels at the Inn were a very thick Muslin made here. But the principal business is carried on by Geo[rge] Peat [sic], a Quaker from Ballynakill 158 who has invented a machine by which  42 he reduces into cotton tow vast quantities of bad or notty cotton yarn, & then cards & spins it over again. This rubbage is bought at 8d [? per pound]. The working stands him in about [?½ d] & the spinning ½ d per pound and is then worth 18d [?per pound]159.

As we rode we saw on the South Coast about 6 miles from Kenmare Clonee [Cloonee] lake, a little Killarney, being adorned with arbutus & other trees & full of Islands. Mr Stewart says Valentia is a fine fertile hilly Isle, but without Rock or Mountain. Much flax is cultivated & linnen made there.

We returned & dined at the Barrack at ½ past 5. Afterwards Mr Caldwell & Mr Walsh went & lay at Mr Stewart's.

There is a patent for markets here but none held as yet. The town belongs to Lord Lansdown, who does not sufficiently encourage it, by what I hear.


 43August 29 To Bantry.
Breakfasted by invitation at Mr Stewart's where we had the best bread I ever saw. A Miss Irwin was there, from Donegal, niece to Dr Irwin of Clones. At 12 we set out by the short road to Bantry, Mr Stewart assuring me that John Kenny 160 travelled it lately with his wife in a Cabriole. Others told us it was not very bad, but the  p.212 generality declared it impassable & warned us not to engage in it — that is, in one half mile called the Priest's leap, on the top of the Mountain which separates Kerry from Cork — the rest being good road. 161

We adventured. Near Neddeen passed the Church on R[ight?] of road surrounded by Elm trees. 162 The old site 163 is on the opposite side of the River. Here is a fine Vale with rich Orchards & some Seats — two of [them] Mr Orpin's [?&] many [? stone houses etc.]. A mile from the town we quit it [the vale] & turning Southward crossed a bridge & entered the College Estate 164 which extends over a great tract of Country here. There are some considerable woods on it well preserved, because they give their tenants  44 a third part Interest in them — & indeed these tenants seem to plant a good deal besides, & have snug habitations. All the under tenants seem well housed also. But the College cut their Woods too often — every 14 years, I hear.

About a mile farther [we] turned off the road on a boggy hill on the right, one or two hundred yards, to see a remarkable Rock that lies on the Surface, about 7 Yards cube, all limestone, whereas this South side of Kenmare is all brown stone without exception & every stone on the North of it Limestone. Upon this Rock grow plants of various kind — Arbutus, Quicken, Holly, Hawthorn, Ivy. What is still more remarkable is that exactly opposite to this rock on the North side of the River there is brown rock. 165

Here Mr Stewart who had accompanied us so far took leave & we proceeded by a very good road thro very rough Mountains. At a place called Gheragh Diveen we turned round  45 a most extraordinary ledge of brown stone ending in a fine rounded slope  p.213 of immense size, 166 just near which is a decent Cabbin, some plantations & an improving farm of Robert Downey's. 167 A little farther on these lands we turned off to the right to examine a great Cataract which we saw from the road. 168 The River Shehan [Sheen] falls about 30 feet over very fine black rocks. There are only symptoms of wood about it but if it were let to grow up the scene, closed as it is by huge Mountains, would be truly magnificent. This river forms the bounds between the College & the Marquis of Lansdowne's estates. Just beyond this place the road is quite cut across by torrents to a great depth, yet our carriages had passed the holes (for I rode this morning). The road continued good & the country as savage as possible  46. On our right at some distance we saw a high waterfall (of the same river I believe) 169 which William & James stopped to sketch. Then passing between 2 high ledges of perpendicular rock for a good way we began to ascend towards the Priest's leap. 170 A young man who had accompanied us on horseback for some miles left us here & promised to send us men immediately to help the Chaise over the bad stages. But he disappointed us and when we got to the Priest's leap we were astonished to see how far the Chaise had been carried by the assistance of the 3 Servants only — for this Leap is the most crooked, narrow, intricate, irregular path between & over vast crags of rocks on the top of a high Mount broken into hollows — to go a yard of which the Carriage was to  p.214 be held up by strength, or lifted over obstructions. No man in his senses would ride it — few horses could carry a rider safe over. Yet our  47 excellent Charioteer had, with incredible labour, got nearly half way when he was stopped by impediments which seemed insurmountable. I begged he would desist till we could send him help & for that purpose Mr Caldwell & Mr Walsh rode on. William & I stuck to the Carriage. A small rivulet 171 here divides the counties, & forms a horrible bad steep.

It now began to rain very hard. William & I went on to look for Shelter which we found under a rock just where the road begins again. Having got there over such difficult rocky ways I was unwilling to turn back, so we proceeded on foot along a new made road, with some very bad sloughs, winding along the side of a high wild Mountain — a pernicious height above an ill cultivated narrow valley on the Right. 172 In about two miles walking, sometimes in the clouds & almost in darkness,  48 we overtook our gentlemen, who had stopped to call up men & then proceeded all together to a cabbin about a Mile farther, where we obtained with some fear & caution of the poor inhabitants, some Brandy, very necessary for persons wet & worn. It was now near 6, so the horsemen went on to Bantry, & William remained with me to wait the event of our chaise & pay the labourers of whom we sent 3 or 4 more from hence. None of the Inhabitants could speak English, but one little girl of 10 years, but they were very civil, gave me milk, potatoes & one egg. They had butter, but neither salt nor bread.

At half past 7 the Chaises & men arrived quite safe, but very tired. We refreshed them with Brandy & potatoes & milk, & then set forward for Bantry — 5 Miles we were told of excellent road  49 but ½ a Mile off we came to a rapid River, the Comhola, where we crossed a deep & dangerous ford, nearly in the dark. We got safe [across] but the Cabriole had nearly suffered, for the horse being restif fell & the servants (James & Mr Caldwell's man) were obliged to light in the middle of the river.

About nine we reached Bantry, the night growing very bright with Northern lights. Mr Young's 173 Inn is an old fabrick, not over good or comfortable, but we were glad to find ourselves there by a good turf fire.

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Title (uniform): Rev. Daniel A. Beaufort's Tour of Kerry, 1788

Editor: Gerard J. Lyne

Author: Daniel A. Beaufort

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Electronic edition compiled and proof-read by: Beatrix Färber

Funded by: University College, Cork, School of History

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1. First draft

Extent: 19040 words

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Publisher: CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts: a project of University College, Cork

Address: College Road, Cork, Ireland—http://www.ucc.ie/celt

Date: 2014

Distributor: CELT online at University College, Cork, Ireland.

CELT document ID: E780002-001

Availability: Available with prior consent of the CELT project for purposes of academic research and teaching only.

Notes statement

We are very grateful to Gerard Lyne, formerly Keeper of Manuscripts at the National Library of Ireland, and the Board of the Kerry Archaeological and Historical Society for their kind permission to publish this material in electronic form on CELT.

Source description


  1. Trinity College Library, Ms. 4029–4030.
  2. See also: Trinity College Library, Ms. 4031: Daniel Augustus Beaufort, mapmaker, vicar of Collon, 1739-1821. Diary vol. V, 19 November 1786 to 30 April 1790.
  3. See also: Trinity College Library, Ms. 4033: Daniel Augustus Beaufort's journal of a tour in the north of Ireland, 9 October to 8 November 1807; journal of a tour in the west of Ireland, 9 August to 8 October 1808 with a few added entries of October 20.
  4. Huntington Library of San Marino, California, Papers of Sir Francis Beaufort, 1710-1953 (bulk 1780-1890): mssFB 1-1920 (see http://catalog.huntington.org/record=b1552512~S0).

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Internet resources relating to placenames

  1. The LOCUS Project, UCC (http://www.ucc.ie/locus/).
  2. Hogan's Onomasticum online (http://publish.ucc.ie/doi/locus).
  3. http://www.logainm.ie (the website of the Irish Placenames Commission).

About Daniel A. Beaufort

  • See Oxford DNB online: http://www.oxforddnb.com for entry on 'Beaufort, Daniel Augustus' written by Toby Barnard.

The edition used in the digital edition

‘Rev. Daniel A. Beaufort’s Tour of Kerry, 1788’ (1985). In: Journal of the Kerry Archaeological and Historical Society‍ 18. Ed. by Kieran O’Shea, pp. 183–214.

You can add this reference to your bibliographic database by copying or downloading the following:

  editor 	 = {Gerard J. Lyne},
  title 	 = {Rev. Daniel A. Beaufort's Tour of Kerry, 1788},
  journal 	 = {Journal of the Kerry Archaeological and Historical Society},
  editor 	 = {Kieran O'Shea},
  address 	 = {Naas},
  publisher 	 = {Leinster Leader},
  date 	 = {1985},
  volume 	 = {18 },
  pages 	 = {183–214}


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Creation: By Daniel A. Beaufort (1739–1821)

Date: August 1788

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Keywords: travel; description; prose; Kerry; manners and customs; 18c; Daniel A. Beaufort

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  1. See Dict. of Nat. Biog. under 'Beaufort, Daniel Augustus'. 🢀

  2. D.A. Beaufort, Memoirs of a man of Ireland ... containing a short account of its present state, civil and ecclesiastical (Dublin 1792). Several later editions appeared. 🢀

  3. NLI Mss 8778–8783 🢀

  4. His wife. 🢀

  5. His son. 🢀

  6. William Cecil Pery (1721–94) bishop since 1784 of the united Church of Ireland dioceses of Limerick and Ardfert; former chaplain of the Irish House of Commons and brother of Edmund Sexton Pery, Speaker of that House; created Baron Glentworth, 1790. (R. B. Leslie, Ardfert and Aghadoe clergy and parishes (Dublin 1940) 7–8. 🢀

  7. The foregoing portion of Beaufort's diary is contained in the first volume (Ms 4029). At this point he commences the second volume (Ms 4030), hence the element of repetition in what follows. 🢀

  8. The epitaph commemorates Francis Bland, Esq., who died in the 43rd year of his age at Dover on 2 Jan. 1778. The memorial was erected by “Sir F. L., Bart”. 🢀

  9. That is, Bishop Pery. 🢀

  10. Rev. Thomas Graves, Church of Ireland dean of Ardfert from 1785 (Leslie, op. cit., 19). 🢀

  11. Rev. Edward Day. LL.D (1738–1808); Church of Ireland archdeacon of Ardfert from 1782 (ibid., 37–8). 🢀

  12. Probably Rev. Francis Hewson, son of John Hewson of Ennismore, Listowel; rector of Kilgobbin, Co. Kerry (1772–1801) and sometime sovereign of Dingle (ibid., 117). 🢀

  13. Thomas Browne (1726–95) 4th Viscount Kenmare. 🢀

  14. Jane, second wife of Richard Townsend Herbert (b. 1754) of Cahirnane and Currens, M. P. for the Borough of Ardfert; she was daughter of Anthony Stoughton of Lixnaw. 🢀

  15. Probably Charlotte, wife of Rev. Stephen Dunlevie, who became rector of Ventry in 1789. She was youngest daughter of William Townsend Gun of Rattoo. (Leslie, op. cit., 61, 101, 162). 🢀

  16. Catherine (d. 1823), daughter of Thomas, 4th Viscount Kenmare, whose husband was a French nobleman named, according to different sources, de Syvrac, de Civrac or Severac. She features in the contemporary Kenmare correspondence as the Countess de Civrac. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage also states that she was a countess. According to another source, however, her husband was, as Beaufort implies, a marquis (See E. Mac Lysaght (ed), The Kenmare Manuscripts (Dublin 1947) 185, 188, 477; also, Mrs M. J. O'Connell, The last colonel of the Irish Brigade, I (London 1892) 184). 🢀

  17. That is, for an excursion on the lakes. 🢀

  18. See below, p. 202. 🢀

  19. The object in question was in fact a lunula, or lunette. It was subsequently presented by Lord Kenmare to the Royal Irish Academy. Published catalogues of the Academy's collections, however, state mistakenly that the presentation was made in 1778. (For an illustration and description of the piece see W. R. Wilde (ed), A descriptive catalogue of the antiquities of gold in the museum of the Royal Irish Academy (Dublin 1862) 10–11; also E. C. R. Armstrong (ed) Catalogue of Irish gold ornaments in the collections of the Royal Irish Academy (2nd ed., 1933) 50. Wilde agrees with Beaufort's opinion of the ornamentation round the edges, stating that it would “appear to have been produced by the graver”. 🢀

  20. For an illustration of the bridge in in question see I. Weld, Illustrations of the scenery of Killarney (London 1807) facing p. 39. 🢀

  21. Cahirnane was, in fact, the property of the Herbert family (see above, n. 14). Mrs Delaney lived in a nearby cottage adjacent to Castlelough, a ruined stronghold of McCarthy More. Writing c. 1806, Weld observes: “The name of Castle-lough is at present given to a neat little villa belonging to Mrs Delaney, the grounds of which are prettily disposed” (op. cit., 34). 🢀

  22. Muckross was in fact a friary for Observantine Franciscans founded in 1448 by Donall Mac Carthy More (T. J. Barrington, Discovering Kerry ... (Dublin 1976) 206–8) Beaufort's description of Muckross is here largely omitted as containing little original information. He found the cloisters well preserved and remarks that “The arches of the cellar show that they were turned upon hurdles of which the impression is, still apparent”. In a marginal note dated 1810 he writes that the diameter of the ancient yew tree, measured at three feet from the ground, was nine feet, and that the boughs “extend about 45 feet [in] Diameter”. Under this date also he notes that “In the choir is a large marble tomb lately erected to O'Donoghue who died at 31 in 1808. The large slab at [the] top is polished and the inscription on it — though 6 feet high from the ground”. 🢀

  23. The feast day referred to fell in fact on 2 Aug., a major date in the Franciscan calendar marking the dedication of the Church of the Portiuncla at Assissi. Since 1622 all visitors to Franciscan churches between midday on 1 Aug. and midnight on 2 Aug. could gain a plenary indulgence known as the Portiuncla Indulgence or “Pardon of Assissi”. Beaufort's reference to St Jingler is apparently facetious, implying mercenary motives to the officiating friars (I wish to thank Rev. Bartholomew Egan, O.F.M., of the Franciscan House of Studies, Killiney, for the foregoing information). 🢀

  24. Henry Arthur Herbert (b. 1750). 🢀

  25. The house in question stood near the present Muckross House, which was completed in 1843 (Barrington, Discovering Kerry, 208). 🢀

  26. Thomas Hudson (1701–79) English portrait painter. He was the master of Joshua Reynolds. 🢀

  27. Lady Amelia Butler, described as "a young heiress of ninety-nine" when she inherited the estates of her brother Charles Butler, Duke of Ormond, who died 1758. See The complete peerage, X (London 1945) 162 nf.) 🢀

  28. The last sentence, above, is a marginal note, n.d. [1810?]🢀

  29. Cloghereen is the old name for Muckross village. The church is presumably that of Killegy, described as 'an old reconstructed church' which an inscription says was built as a mortuary chapel by Maurice Hussey, former colonel in King James's Irish army, in 1714 (Barrington, Discovering Kerry, 206). 🢀

  30. Presumably Andrew Caldwell, M.R.I.A., whose name appears among the subscribers to Beaufort's Memoir. Elsewhere Beaufort states that Caldwell owned the rectorial tithes of Rathkenny (near Tralee?). 🢀

  31. Perhaps Peter Walsh, listed among the subscribers, above. He and Caldwell joined Beaufort in Millstreet. 🢀

  32. Former seat of O'Donoghue More, in Beaufort's day Ross was employed as a military barracks (Barrington, Discovering Kerry, 203). 🢀

  33. Probably Robin Waller, a member of Beaufort's wife's family, to whom Beaufort refers in his travel journal of 1787. 🢀

  34. The party go on to visit “the enchanting island of Dinas” where Beaufort notes is “a large room” made to provide dining accommodation for visitors. They are then landed on the mainland at Weir Bridge and go on to visit Glena, O'Sullivan's Cascade and Innisfallen. Here they are caught by “a desperate long and heavy shower which drove us into the house for half an hour”. 🢀

  35. Perhaps Antonio Federico Amici (not Amicdi), Italian painter of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. There was also both an engraver and a sculptor of the name. (E. Bénézit, Dictionnaire des peintres, sculpteurs ... et graveurs ... 10 vols, (nouvelle ed., Paris 1976). 🢀

  36. Sir Pieter Lely (not Lily ) (1618–80) German artist patronised by Charles II (ibid.) Pomona was the Roman goddess of fruit and fruit trees and Vertumnus her lover. 🢀

  37. Probably the Rev. Arthur Herbert (b. 1755) brother of Richard T. Herbert, M. P., of Cahirnane. 🢀

  38. Probably wife of the Rev. Matthew Young, D.D., F.T.C.D., M.R.I.A., one of the subscribers to Beaufort's Memoir. The Youngs apparently joined Beaufort at Mallow, where they seem to have had a house, though it is not clear whether they resided permanently in the town, or were merely visiting the spa there.  🢀

  39. Vingt-et-un: a card-game. 🢀

  40. Mrs Pennyfeather's husband seems to have had a house in Mallow. Earlier, referring to Dromore, seat of Sir Robert Deane, first Baron Muskerry, situated a few miles from Mallow, Beaufort remarks: “One of our party, Mrs Pennyfeather, has spend some days in gayety & amusement there — and she is not above 22”. 🢀

  41. Beaufort should, perhaps, have written “shots” rather than “shouts”. Elsewhere at this point he talks of their party being joined by another member “just as we had done firing at the Eagle's Nest”. Eagles survived in Kerry for nearly a century after Beaufort's day. A brood of them was killed as late as 1870 at Glanrastel in the parish of Tuosist (The [Sixth] Marquis of Lansdowne, Glanerought and the Petty-Fitzmaurices (Oxford 1937) 179). 🢀

  42. Daniel, O'Donoghue of the Glens (d. 1791), of Cloghereen and Mount Meredith, Killarney; cousin and heir of Charles, the last Mac Carthy More; m. Margaret, daughter of Murtagh McMahon of Clonina, Co. Clare (Burkes's Irish family records [London 1976]. 🢀

  43. Probably Thomas Galway who occupied a small demesne near Killarney in 1789. His family were earlier agents to Lord Kenmare (Mac Lysaght, Kenmare Manuscripts, 266, 282, 439, 456). 🢀

  44. In 1810 he revised his estimate of the holly's circumference which he found in fact to be eight feet four inches. 🢀

  45. Daniel Mahony (died 1832) Brigade Major, of Dunloe Castle (see Journal of the Kerry Archaeological and Historical Society, 15–16 (1982–3) p. 92 n. 26. Lewis Dillwyn's Visit to Kerry, 1809, available online at CELT.).  🢀

  46. See above, n. 21🢀

  47. Paul Sanby (1721–98); English artist; published many drawings. 🢀

  48. Thomas Rowlandson (1756–1827); English caricaturist. 🢀

  49. Joseph Callender (1751–1821); Boston engraver. 🢀

  50. The English landscape painters William Tomkins (1730–92) and Charles Tomkins (1750–1805) were both already established as artists at this period. The English engraver P. W. Tomkins (1760–1840) was probably also active at this time.  🢀

  51. Dominique Serres (1722–92) French artist who became marine painter to George III. His son Dominic, a landscape artist, exhibited in the 1780's.  🢀

  52. Thomas Herbert. 🢀

  53. Either Morchella esculenta or Morchella vulgaris, commonly called Morel, an edible fungus. 🢀

  54. The map in question was no doubt compiled by Charles Vallancey (1721–1812), engineer and later general, who conducted a military survey of Ireland some years earlier. 🢀

  55. According to Barrington mining for copper and cobalt was carried on at Muckross from c. 1750 until some time in the last century. Copper mining is known to have restarted at Ross Island in 1804 but was again abandoned in 1808. Flooding from the lakes made the industry erratic (Discovering Kerry, 209, 212). 🢀

  56. In a marginal note dating from his second visit Beaufort remarks “The hus[b]andry and verdure about the town seem to be very greatly improved in 1810.” 🢀

  57. It would be interesting to know what relations were like between this garrison and the local population in 1788. Twenty years later there was considerable hostility between them. (See G. J. Lyne Lewis Dillwyn's visit to Kerry in 1809, in Journal of the Kerry Archaeological Society, 15–16 (1982–3) 96–7, 101). 🢀

  58. Sir William Godfrey, Bart. (died 1817); elevated to Irish peerage (1785); at this period M. P. for Tralee; married Agnes, daughter of William Blennerhassett of Elm Grove (see further, below, pp. 205–6). 🢀

  59. Local name in Devon and Cornwall for a tidal creek. 🢀

  60. In a marginal note apparently contemporaneous with the main body of the ms. Beaufort remarks that this salt is sold for twelve shillings per ton in Liverpool. 🢀

  61. He notes that for this reason no lime is burnt locally. 🢀

  62. Killagha Abbey, founded c. 1215 by Strongbow's nephew, Geoffrey de Marisco, justiciar. It was reputed one of the richest foundations in all Ireland. Substantial rebuilding occurred in 1445. Only the church and “a few indications” of the priory now remain. Its lands were granted to the Cromwellian major John Godfrey. The nineteenth-century Godfrey seat, Kilcoleman Abbey, the ruins of which can still be seen in Milltown, was apparently named from an earlier Irish monastery thought to have existed here (Barrington, Discovering Kerry, 226–7; also, M. Bence-Jones, Burke's guide to country houses: Vol I: Ireland (London 1978) 165. See further below, n. 132🢀

  63. This stronghold of the Earls of Desmond guarded their borders against Mac Carthy More (For its history see J. Carmody, Story of Castle Mayne ..., in Kerry Archaeological Magazine, I (1908) 17–37, 49–79; 119–41). 🢀

  64. Major William Botet, the last constable but one of Castlemaine, who held the sinecure until his death in 1810. According to Carmody Botet was “the son of a clerk ... who lived in Callinafercy”. Hickson, on the other hand, claims he was “descendant of a chaplain of the house of Lixnaw” (Carmody, op. cit., 140–41; also, M. A. Hickson, Selections from old Kerry records ... Ser. I (London 1872) 192–3). 🢀

  65. Carmody says the post was worth in actual cash 2s/3d (not, as Beaufort says, 10s) per day. Godfrey's much higher estimate resumably included income from the castle lands and other perquisites attaching to the post. 🢀

  66. He notes in a contemporaneous marginal entry that these are called “methers” (from Irish meadar). In another such note he states “Carrs are called Truckles [from Irish trucail] in all this Country.” 🢀

  67. Breach Innis refers to Brickany mountain. The other mountain on Beaufort's left was in fact Knockafeehan. Mam Inse (Mam Inch) is the name applied to the pass between them over which runs the back road from Inch to Anascaul. 🢀

  68. There are today only two standing stones on this route and both correspond with Beaufort's descriptions and locational information. The first is in Ballintermon townland about a half mile west of the crossroads at the summit of the pass. It bears an ogham inscription on its ENE edge. The other stone is situated in Brackloan townland, about one km further west, c. 150 m to the left of the road leading to Anascaul. I wish to thank Judith Cuppage of the Dingle Archaeological Survey for identifying this and the other prehistoric remains referred to by Beaufort on the Dingle peninsula). 🢀

  69. Spanish for an inn. It is possible, however, that the word in question should be transcribed porada, meaning a staging post. 🢀

  70. Francis Andrews (died 1774) provost of Trinity College Dublin; noted for his elegant lifestyle and his taste for “the pleasures of accomplished society, witty discourse and a good table”. (W. Mac Neill Dixon, Trinity College Dublin (London 1902) 108–9. 🢀

  71. The Moriartys were an old Dingle family and appear earlier in the century to have intermarried with the Trants, local landed proprietors. (See J. King, King's history of Kerry ... 2nd ed. iv (c. 1912) 349–50; also, below n. 85). Alexis was perhaps a relative of Matthew Moriarty, Esq., who bequeathed a house in Dingle in perpetuity rent free for the use of eight poor widows (S. Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, I (Dublin 1837) 462). 🢀

  72. Lady Anne Fitzgerald, widow of Maurice Fitzgerald, Knight of Kerry; she was the only daughter of William Fitzmaurice, second earl of Kerry (Burke, Landed gentry; I (London 1846) 416). 🢀

  73. Robert Hickson of The Grove, Dingle, deputy lieutenant and later (1794) high sherriff of Kerry. 🢀

  74. Hickson married (1776) Judith, daughter of William Murray. 🢀

  75. Probably Gallán na Cille Brice or the Milestone, situated in Milltown townland about 1 ½ miles west of Dingle a little to the right of the road (See OS 6" map). There is another standing stone about 250 m to SSW but it is not so noticeable from the road and is less likely to be that seen by Beaufort. 🢀

  76. C. Smith, Antient and present state of the county of Kerry (Dublin 1756). 🢀

  77. For a note on this placename see An Seabhac [pseud i.e. P. Ó Siochfhradha] Tríocha-céad Chorca Dhuibhne ... (Baile Átha Cliath 1939) 138. 🢀

  78. The Knights of Kerry formerly resided at The Grove, a demesne immediately adjoining Dingle town. The Grove would seem by this time, however, to have passed into the hands of the Hickson family. (Lewis, Topographical Dictionary, I, 461). 🢀

  79. A reference to the Santa Maria de la Rosa, a ship of the Armada which foundered in Blasket Sound. In a marginal note Beaufort adds “Alexis [Moriarty] says they [the guns] had been planted at the harbour's mouth for a defence”. Moriarty was referring to a small fort which formerly defended the entrance to the harbour. In 1841 no trace of this fort remained it being by then “many years demolished”. (J. O'Donovan, Letters ... relative to ... Kerry collected during the ... Ordnance Survey in 1841 [typescripts in National Library of Ireland] p. 54). 🢀

  80. The old church of Dingle, dedicated to St. James, said to have been built by the Spaniards, was originally a very large structure. Part of it called St Mary's Chapel was kept in repair by the local Protestants until the erection of a new Protestant church on the site in 1807 (ibid., also, Lewis, Topographical Dictionary, I, 461. 🢀

  81. Thomas Mullins (1736–1824) of Burnham, (formerly called Ballingolin, now Coláiste Íde); later first Baron Ventry. 🢀

  82. The rectory of Dingle was impropriate in the Mullins family. There was apparently no vicar, the only clergyman attached to it being an impropriate curate. 🢀

  83. John Goodman (b. 1756) son of Thomas Goodman of Kerry, farmer; appointed to the curacy, 1780 (Leslie, Ardfert and Aghadoe, 82, 84). 🢀

  84. Dingle was from c. 1760 the centre of an extensive linen industry fostered by the Knight of Kerry with the aid of the Linen Board. Flax was grown extensively in the peninsula and on Valentia Island. The linen was spun domestically, woven in a Dingle factory and sold in Cork (Barrington, Discovering Kerry, 234–5). 🢀

  85. Dominick Trant (d. 1790) of Dunkettle, Co. Cork, celebrated lawyer and sometime M. P. for Dingle. His father, Dominick, of Dingle, merchant, acquired extensive lands in Kerry, Cork and Tipperary. His second wife was Eleanor, sister of John Fitzgibbon, Lord Clare. The Trants, who were allegedly of Danish origin, had connections with Dingle extending back at least to the thirteenth century (See O'Connell, Last colonel, I, 306–13; also, The Trant family, in Kerry Arch. Mag. 2 (1914) esp. 246–52). 🢀

  86. Richard Boyle Townsend of Castletownsend, Co. Cork. The borough returned two M. P.'s at this period, both Townsends, of whom one was Richard, above. Townsend received £15,000 in compensation on the abolition of the borough in 1800 (Barrington, Discovering Kerry, 233). 🢀

  87. In 1800 Dingle had a total of 74 freemen elected by the corporation. In 1833 the officers of the corporation did not know how many freemen there were but the only one resident in Dingle was the town clerk (S. Ó Luing, Local government in Dingle, Ardfert and Tralee in 1837, in Journal of the Kerry Archaeological and Historical Society, 12 (1979) 119–37). 🢀

  88. Presumably Beaufort is here referring to the number of magistrates required to attend at elections. 🢀

  89. A reference to a bird which Smith says was peculiar to the Blasket Islands and was called by the Irish a gourder. He states: “It is somewhat larger than a sparrow, the feathers of the back are dark, and those of the belly are white, the bill is strait, short and thick; and it is web-footed ... ” He adds that “they are almost one lump of fat, when roasted, of a most delicious taste, and are reckoned to exceed an ortelan, for which reason the gentry hereabouts call them the Irish ortelan ...” (Smith, Antient and present state of the county of Kerry, 186). The Oxford dictionary identifies the gourder with the stormy petrel. It is not to be confused with the gannet (guinéid) which was hunted for its feathers (see S. Ó Duilearga (ed) Seanchas ón Oileán Tiar (T. Ó Criomhthain, R. Flower, Baile Átha Cliath 1956) 10–19. See also reference to the gaurder in P. de Brún, 'John Windele and Father John Casey...' in Journal of the Kerry Archaeological and Historical Society, 7 (1974), 102–3). 🢀

  90. The only modern village in this immediate neighbourhood is Dún Chaoin. Smith notes of the parish of Dún Chaoin that “the outward point ... is called Dunmore head and is the most western point of all Europe; the Irish call it Ty Vorney Geerane, or Mary Geerane's house, a point as much celebrated as John of Grote's house, which is the utmost extremity of N. Britain” (op. cit. 182; for a somewhat degenerate folk tale concerning the origin of this placename see also T. Crofton Croker, Legends of the lakes at Killarney ... I (London 1829) 74–80). The true placename is Tigh Móire (colloquially Tí Móire). It is of archaic origin, deriving from the pagan Irish goddess Mór Mumhan, a sovereignty figure of the Eoghanacht. (For an informative note on this complex subject see Ó Siochfradha, Tríocha-céad Chorca Dhuibhne, 75–6). It is worth noting in connection with Beaufort's reference, above, that an alternative (albeit somewhat unflattering) name in local tradition for the village of Dún Chaoin is Tóin Mhóire, which no doubt has similarly archaic connotations. (My thanks are due to my colleague F. Gillespie for allowing me access to his unpublished M.A. thesis, 'Mor of Munster and the violent death of Cuanu Mac Ailchim (U.C.D., 1985). 🢀

  91. Presumably the Maherees. 🢀

  92. Burnham House (modern Coláiste Íde) situated on the southwest side of Dingle Harbour home of Thomas Mullins. (See further Bence-Jones, Country houses: Ireland, 50).  🢀

  93. At this point Beaufort was leaving Dingle on his return journey to Tralee via the Lispole-Annascaul-Camp route. The istmus to which he refers must be the Reenbeg peninsula which divides Dingle and Ventry harbours, Burnham House being on its western extremity. On this route he would have passed the standing stone known as An Gallán Mór which is situated in Ballineetig townland and fits his description. 🢀

  94. Taylor and Skinner's maps of the roads of Ireland (Dublin, 1783). 🢀

  95. Caherconree (Irish Cathair Chon Raoi, i.e. the stone house of Cú Raoi Mac Daire) is a striking inland promontory fort situated on the mountain so called at an elevation of some 2000 feet near the modern village of Camp. It is associated in Irish legend with Cúchulainn and the Red Branch folk tales (Barrington, Discovering Kerry, 237–8). See also Rudolf Thurneysen, Die Sage von CuRoi, available online at CELT. 🢀

  96. Beaufort's map of Ireland (1797 ed.) shows Kilgobbin rectory at the northern foot of Cahirconree. It is, however, one of those rectories which he indicates had at that time neither church or glebehouse. 🢀

  97. There are two rocks so called, Mucklaghmore and Mucklaghbeg, at the mouth of Tralee Bay. 🢀

  98. Thomas Kitchin published a map of the Irish coast in the 1760s. 🢀

  99. Killeton dates from the seventh or eight century. It is described as “a tiny rectangular church, much ruined ... from its size and simplicity one of the earliest stone rectangular churches built in Ireland” (Barrington, Discovering Kerry, 237. 🢀

  100. Thirty years earlier Smith referred to improvements made here by “Mr Daniel Connell” (i.e. Dónal Mór O'Connell) comprising “the only plantation hereabouts”. (Smith, Ancient and present state of the county of Kerry, 94). 🢀

  101. Sir Barry Denny Bart; M. P. for Kerry; colonel of the Tralee Volunteers; major, Kerry militia; married (1767) Jane, daughter and co-heir of his uncle Sir Thomas Denny of Tralee Castle. 🢀

  102. Tralee grew up round its thirteenth-century Geraldine castle. The castle was destroyed in the Desmond wars and in 1587 was included in the grant to Sir Barry Denny of the former Desmond lands. Denny rebuilt the castle in the 1620s. It appears to have stood on the western side of Denny Street (Barrington, Discovering Kerry, 224). 🢀

  103. The old gaol stood beside the court house on the northern side of the town square (Smith, Ancient and present state of the county of Kerry, 161). It was described in 1782 as being “the worst Jail in Europe” (Dominick Trant to John Fitzgibbon, 31 Dec. 1782, quoted in O'Connell, Last colonel, I, 310). 🢀

  104. In Oct. 1810, however, Beaufort notes of Tralee that it is “much enlarged and improved by the addition of several handsome new houses and of a large and well appointed Inn, kept by one Binner [sic, recte Benner, which in Kerry parlance would sound as Beaufort writes it] who with his wife attended us both on our arrival and at our departure at 7 the next morning”. This inn was no doubt the predecessor of the modern Benner's Hotel. 🢀

  105. Situated three miles west of Tralee town. It reached the heyday of its popularity some fifty years after Beaufort's time (Lewis, Topographical Dictionary, I, 461). 🢀

  106. There was a noted spa at Castleconnell (modern Stradbally) on the Tipperary-Limerick border, which Beaufort visited en route to Kerry. 🢀

  107. See below, n. 115🢀

  108. Among the subscribers to Beaufort's Memoir were William Doyle, LLD, MRIA, and Major John Doyle, secretary to the Prince of Wales. Presumably “Master Doyle” was a relative of one or other of these. 🢀

  109. The protestant church to which Beaufort refers would appear to be that which had been housed since 1670 in the south transept of the ruined thirteenth-century cathedral. (For an excellent synopsis of the various architectural remains at Ardfert see Barrington, Discovering Kerry, 252–5). 🢀

  110. John Crosbie (1715–1815) second earl of Glandore; on his death without issue the earldom became extinct. 🢀

  111. The cathedral's ancient round tower, which was 120 feet high, collapsed in 1771 (op. cit. 252). 🢀

  112. The house to which Beaufort refers was a small Georgian-style building the ruins of which can still be seen. According to Barrington it was built by Sir Maurice Crosbie, first Lord Branden (died 1762). Lewis, however, states that Crosbie merely “modernised” an already existing house in 1720 (Topographical Dictionary, I, 50). In the nineteenth century the Crosbies built a new residence called Ardfert Abbey, which was burnt in 1921. The family derived from John Crosbie, second reformed bishop of Ardfert (said to have been originally a McCrossan from Laois) who secured the local church lands for himself (Barrington, Discovering Kerry, 254). 🢀

  113. A reference to the Franciscan friary of Ardfert, founded by Thomas Fitzmaurice, first Lord of Kerry, in 1253, and largely rebuilt in 1453. 🢀

  114. The artist, above, whom the English called Fuseli, went under variant christian names and surnames. Born in Zurich in 1741 he specialised in painting subjects from English literature. The original of his Macbeth is known to have been purchased by the English ambassador to Prussia, Sir Robert Smith (Bénézit, Dictionnaire des peintres). It is not clear whether the work referred to by Beaufort, above, was the original or an engraving. 🢀

  115. Richard Graves, D.D. (1763–1829); son of Rev. James Graves, vicar of Kilfinnane and Darragh, Co. Limerick; he later had a distinguished academic career holding several professorships, including those of Laws, Greek, Divinity and Oratory, in Trinity College, Dublin; author of many religious works; married (1787) Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. James Drought, F.T.C.D. (see Dictionary of National Biography under 'Graves, Richard'). 🢀

  116. Tralee Castle. 🢀

  117. William Blennerhassett, high sherriff of Kerry (1761); married (1765) Catherine, daughter of Noble Johnson of Cork (Burke's Irish families). 🢀

  118. He was collector of customs for Tralee (ibid.). 🢀

  119. Colonel Arthur Blennerhassett (1731–1810) of Arbela and Ballyseedy: colonel, Ballymackelligott Volunteers; married (1) his cousin Arabela, daughter of John Blennerhassett, after whom he named the house which he built near Ballymackelligott (ibid., 141). 🢀

  120. Perhaps Richard Frankland, son of Richard Frankland, M. D.; enrolled Middle Temple (1776) (E. Keane, P. B. Phair and T. U. Sadleir edd., King's Inns admission papers 1607–1867 (Dublin 1982) 176). No other contemporary Irish lawyer of the name has been traced. 🢀

  121. Elm Grove, a property of the Blennerhassett family, was situated adjacent to their main seat at Ballyseedy. It may originally have been built as a dower house and certainly pre-dates 1783 (see Taylor and Skinner's Maps, 81) though probably of much earlier origin. Presumably it was undergoing reconstruction at this time. (I wish to thank Mr. Brian Fitzelle, an authority on the Blennerhassett family, for the foregoing information). 🢀

  122. “John McElligott's Prison”, situated in the N.W. corner of Carrignafeela townland, parish of Ballymacelligott. It consists of “a circular hole about two chains in diameter and 40 feet deep ...” It is said to have been the prison used by the McElligott “an arbitrary and tyrannical chieftain of old ...” (Typescripts in National Library of O. S. Name Books, Kerry, I, p. 251.) 🢀

  123. Perhaps Francis, eldest son of John Spring (died c. 1785) of Lecarhoo (Kilnanare parish, Killarney?) by Mary, daughter of Rev. W. Collis, of Dingle (Information of Jane Vivien Spring of New South Wales, Australia, who is currently preparing a publication on the Spring family). Another prominent branch was the family of Thomas Spring (born c. 1735) of Ballycrispin, Co. Kerry, described as “a lawyer of great eminence”, who was an ancestor of the Lords Monteagle. For notes on the Spring family, see Smith, Ancient and present state of the county of Kerry, 57; also, King's history of Kerry, III, 233–4. 🢀

  124. Pierre André de Suffrein (1729–88) celebrated French admiral. Between 1781–83 he fought several engagements with the British in Indian waters. Beaufort refers at this point to an “Anect[dote?] of Murry a Tralee barber then purser to S. E. Hughes and worth a plumb [?and] of Capt. Moriarty and Moutray”. These references have not been elucidated. 🢀

  125. The list of subscribers to Beaufort's Memoir includes several of the Kerry residents referred to in his diary. 🢀

  126. The ranges known as Stack's and the Glanaruddery mountains. 🢀

  127. In October 1810 he notes “We found the descent of this mountain toward Tralee very long, very steep and very rugged. But Binner (see above, n. 104) tells me they are about making a level road for [the] Mail Coach round the East end of the mountain which will, however, be two miles longer”. 🢀

  128. Kiltallagh was the site of an early Irish monastery. 🢀

  129. Verb tr., meaning to feed a house, esp. on a journey. 🢀

  130. Possibly Mary, who d. young, but was alive in 1787. None of her work survives. (Information of Mrs. Valerie Bary, Callinafercy House Stud, Miltown, Co.Kerry, who is engaged on a study of the Godfrey family). 🢀

  131. Sir Edmund Berry (or Edmondbury) Godfrey (1621–78), English magistrate allegedly murdered by Catholics involved in the Titus Oates “conspiracy”. He was at one time a popular subject for portraits, medals, etc. 🢀

  132. In October 1810 Beaufort notes: “This house is nearly a ruin now — the offices all destroyed, the lawn and shrubberies all defaced and the garden waste, the house and demesne having been given up 9 or 10 years ago to his eldest son Lt. Colonel [John] Godfrey of the Kerry militia [later 2nd Bart.] upon his marriage to Miss Cromie [daughter of John Cromie of Cormone, Co. Antrim]; and the Colonel being chiefly with his regiment while Sir [William] G[odfrey] lives at an indifferent farm house two miles off with a kept woman. The Village exhibits the same symptoms of decay as the Landlord's Mansion”. Beaufort appends a very rough sketch plan of the house. The original Godfrey seat at Miltown was Bushfield, shown on an estate map of 1750 as a “long, low, two-storied farm house with dormer windows, three chimneys and, according to family tradition, a thatched roof”. A new house is thought to have been built on or near the site of the later family seat, Kilcoleman Abbey, c. 1774. Presumably this was the house to which Beaufort refers. (Information of Mrs. Valerie Bary). 🢀

  133. See above, n. 62🢀

  134. Probably the Cottoners river. 🢀

  135. Probably the stream flowing through Meanus. 🢀

  136. Presumably the Gaddagh river. 🢀

  137. Churchtown is situated just west of Beaufort. The O.S. map of 1841 shows a church a little to the north of it. 🢀

  138. Perhaps the same residence sold in the course of the present year by the McGillycuddy family, namely, The Reeks, Beaufort, which is of late Georgian design (Bence-Jones, Country houses in Ireland, 241). 🢀

  139. The present remains of Dunloe castle are mainly of sixteenth-century origin. The original castle here is alleged to have been Norman. The site later became the seat of O'Sullivan More from whom it came by marriage in the mid-seventeenth century into the hands of the Mahony family (Barrington, Discovering Kerry, 220; see also Kerry Archaeological Magazine (1913) 80–81). 🢀

  140. Arthur Saunders was barrack master at Ross Castle c. 1760 when he held a bog on Ross Island and some other property from Lord Kenmare (Mac Lysaght, Kenmare Manuscripts, 216, 218, 229). Presumably this was the same man or one of his family. 🢀

  141. See above, n. 123🢀

  142. William Carroll, thought to have been Irish. In 1790 he sent to the Royal Academy in London views of Ross Castle and Muckross Abbey (W. J. Strickland, A dictionary of Irish artists ... I (1913) 159). 🢀

  143. This was presumably the only son of Philip Ronayne (1683–1755) the eminent Cork mathematician, who earlier had a residence on the island. Weld states in 1807 that an Englishman (sic) named Ronayn had lived there who was “morose and extremely jealous of the approach of strangers” (See F. M. Hilliard, Philip Ronayne, Gent, in this journal, I (1968) 41–5; also, Weld, Killarney, 142–3). Tradition would seem to have confused the mathematician with his son or successor, encountered by Beaufort above. 🢀

  144. In a marginal note dating from his second visit Beaufort adds: “Ronan's [sic] Island belongs now, 1810, to Lord Kenmare and the late Lady Kenmare has built a tolerably neat cottage upon it, but with little taste, as no part of the beautiful views either East or West can be seen. I suggested to the old man who takes care of the place to build a seat for that purpose round a fine [?oak] [?tree] which grows just before the door, and he said he would call it the Doctor's seat. At the west end of the lake, in a wood, Mr Crosby has lately built a snug house, and near it a diminutive round tower, embattled at top, with a door many feet from the ground which is a good object from Ronan's [sic] Island when the sun shines on it”. The ruined cottage now on the island would seem, from what Beaufort says, to be that built by Lady Kenmare. See also Weld, who says that every vestige of Ronayne's original cottage had been destroyed by the time of his writing, c. 1806 (op. cit., 141). 🢀

  145. A reference, perhaps, to William Wilson, who published a map of the roads of Ireland in 1784. 🢀

  146. William Faden, Survey of the lakes of Killarney ... (London 1786). 🢀

  147. A reference to Donall na nGeimhleach (“of the Fetters”), a celebrated figure in Irish folklore, associated with the family of O'Donoghue More (i.e. Ó Donnchadha Locha Léin) who resided at Ross Castle. It is not clear if the figure is historical but the only O'Donoghue chieftain named Donall was slain in 1015 long before the family's coming to Killarney. According to the legend, O'Donoghue sleeps under enchantment in Loch Léin, but awakens every May morning and passes over the lake with his retinue. According to one authority the legend “is that of the hero who waits under enchantment for the opportune time to return in order to free his people from bondage”, and it derives from a fusion of old Celtic and Norman folk motifs (D. Ó h-Ógáin, 'An é an t-am fós é?': staidéair ar fhinnscéal Barbarossa ... in Éirinn", in Béaloideas, 42–44 (1974–6) 213–308). For a version of the tale which connects O'Donoghue's enchantment with a room at Ross Castle see Croker, Legends of the lakes at Killarney, I, 48–9. 🢀

  148. At this point Beaufort adds the following curious marginal note: “In the mountains Mr Walsh and James saw a young woman milking Kids that never had one — and I hear it is common here”. 🢀

  149. Renamed Kenmare in 1775 by its proprietor the Earl of Shelburne (Lansdowne, — Glanerought, 66). The new name was slow to catch on. 🢀

  150. This was presumably the forerunner of the “comfortable Inn ... kept by a Mrs Sullivan”, built by Lord Lansdowne, in which a later visitor to the town stayed (Lyne, Dillwyn's visit to Kerry, Journal of the Kerry Archaeological and Historical Society, 15–16 (1982–3) 89–90. It stood on the site of the present Lansdowne Arms Hotel. 🢀

  151. Henry Pelham (1749–1806); born Boston, but as a loyalist fled the American Revolution; agent (1787–98) to William, second Earl of Shelburne; cartographer, miniature painter and amateur antiquarian; engaged by the Royal Dublin Society to make a survey of Kerry, he also began a history of the county, but neither was ever apparently completed; met his death by drowning (Lansdowne, op. cit., 78–9, 88, who says he drowned in Bantry bay; see also Strickland, Dictionary of Irish artists, who says he drowned “by the upsetting of a boat” in Kenmare bay; see further, M. G. Moyles and P. De Brún, 'Charles O'Brien's agricultural survey of Kerry, 1800', Journal of the Kerry Archaeological and Historical Society I (1968) 73–6. 🢀

  152. Nichola, wife of Sir Lucius O'Brien of Dromoland, Co. Clare (see Dictionary of National Biography under “O'Brien, Sir Lucius”). She was daughter of Robert French, of Monivea Castle, Co. Galway. Beaufort, who had earlier visited Dromoland, notes of Lady O'Brien that she “has been very handsome, talks a good deal & ... offered to write to Mr. Pelham the painter and surveyor to meet me at Killarney...” 🢀

  153. Rev. Walter Stewart; graduate of Glasgow university; at this time precentor of Ardfert; married Agnes, daughter of Rev. Thomas Orpen, Killowen, Kenmare. He does not appear ever to have been curate of Kenmare, the rector of which at this period was Rev. Luke Godfrey (Leslie, Ardfert and Aghadoe clergy, 24, 101). 🢀

  154. A barrack with accommodation for a half company was first built at Kenmare in 1735 but was occupied only intermittently throughout the eighteenth century. It stood on the site of the modern courthouse (Lansdowne, Glanerought, 71). Troops were again stationed at Kenmare in the 1780's to help Shelburne's agent Pelham put down smuggling (ibid., 76–9) and also perhaps to suppress local discontent caused by rent increases, etc. (see Journal of the Kerry Archaeological and Historical Society, 12 (1979) 30). Presumably the Rev. Mr. Stewart had been leasing the vacant barrack. 🢀

  155. The present Lansdowne Lodge, built between c. 1764 and 1775. Contemporary plans show it substantially as it is today, i.e. “a cruciform structure flanked by some outbuildings which have since disappeared” (Lansdowne, op. cit., 60–61; Bence-Jones, Country houses: Ireland, 182). 🢀

  156. The National Library holds a coloured illustration of this bridge engraved by Francis Jukes from an original painting by Thomas Walmsley, pub. 1801. 🢀

  157. The ruined church of St Finan (or Finian) situated at Kenmare Old. A modern plaque on the ruin states that the church dates from the seventh century, but there is no authority for this assertion. The building is probably quite ancient and there is evidence that it was added to at different periods. It belonged to the priory of Innisfallen (for description see O'Donovan, O. S. Letters (Kerry) pp. 85–6; also, Lansdowne, Glanerought, 142–5). 🢀

  158. In 1775 Shelburne prevailed on Peet, “an Honest Quaker”, to come to Kenmare from Killarney, where he then resided, in order to “employ the Poor there in spining Coton for Manchester and Norwich” (Lansdowne, op. cit., 67-8, quoting Shelburne's diary). Around 1785 Peet built a water mill for carding the cotton (ibid.). 🢀

  159. In 1797 the local cotton spinners earned only 1 ½ d to 2d per day (ibid., 68 n.). 🢀

  160. Probably the Rev. John Kenny, V.G., Church of Ireland diocese of Cork, one of the subscribers to Beaufort's Memoir🢀

  161. The road in question had been completed in 1785 (Lansdowne, op. cit., 102). 🢀

  162. The Protestant church at Killowen, now a ruin. 🢀

  163. Presumably Beaufort is here referring to St. Finian's (see above n. 157) the ancient parish church at Old Kenmare. 🢀

  164. Having travelled one-and-a-half miles from Kenmare to Cross Roads village, on the Trinity College estate, Beaufort at this point took the road to the right, leading southwards and crossed over the old Roughty Bridge. 🢀

  165. The geological curiosity to which Beaufort refers (a relic of the last Ice Age) is situated in the townland of Gortalinny North. It is clearly visible near the skyline to the south (i.e. the left) when approaching Cross Roads village on the main road to Kenmare. It was brought to Beaufort's attention by Smith who refers to it as “Clough-Bearradh” which he defines as “the Stone Slice” (Kerry, 82). It is marked on the O. S. map of 1841 as “Cloghvorragh”. I am advised, however, by Dr. Breandán Ó Cíobháin, an authority on Irish place-names, that the true form of the name is probably Cloch Chorrach (i.e. the moving or rocking stone). Beaufort provides a rough sketch of the feature in question in the margin of his diary. (I wish to thank Mr. Daniel Moriarty, Kenmare, for information as to the location of this feature, and other local topographical information, below.) 🢀

  166. Quitting Cloch Chorrach Beaufort next followed the road through Currabeg to the townland of Gearhadiveen. On the lefthand side of the road stands Carrigeileen, a brownstone or sandstone rock, terminating, as he states, in “a fine rounded slope”. The O. S. map of 1841 shows some plantation still surviving in this area. It was formerly the site of a cattle pound, and a building, now derelict, known as the Pound House, still stands there. 🢀

  167. The Tithe Applotment List for Kenmare parish (1824) shows no Downeys in Gearhadiveen. The surname Downing was, however, well represented at that period in the adjoining townland of Lackaroe, a few hundred yards from Carraigeileen. 🢀

  168. Proceeding from Gearhadiveen through Lackaroe and Cappagh, Beaufort turned off to the right to view Dromanassig waterfall at the point where the Sheen river is now spanned by Dromanassig bridge. 🢀

  169. Presumably the high waterfall visible from Dromagorteen, Bonane, some two miles beyond Dromanassig. This waterfall, however, is fed by the Coomeelan, a tributary of the Sheen, flowing from the Priest's Leap. For someone not familiar with the source of the Sheen Beaufort's error was understandable. 🢀

  170. According to popular tradition recorded early in the last century the priest commemorated in this placename is the sixteenth-century Dominick Collins, S.J., whose horse, it is alleged, at this point miraculously leaped over the mountain from Kerry into Cork thus enabling his rider to escape from Carew's soldiers [C. Otway], Sketches in Ireland descriptive of interesting and hitherto unnoticed districts in the north and south (Dublin 1827) 278–81. I wish to thank Dr P. de Brún for drawing my attention to this reference. For a further note on the name, which certainly predates the year 1600, see Journal of the Kerry Archaeological and Historical Society 15–16, 1982–83, 87, n. 7). 🢀

  171. Beaufort was probably referring to a tributary of the Coomeelan which flows through the townland of Cummeenshrule close to the road approaching the summit of the Leap on the Kerry side. 🢀

  172. Coomhola. 🢀

  173. Perhaps a descendant of John Young, who was tenant on the Kenmare estate adjoining Bantry town in the mid-eighteenth century (Mac Lysaght, Kenmare Manuscripts 232, 236). 🢀


2 Carrigside, College Road, Cork