CELT document G600019

On the Qualitees, Maners and Kunnynge of a Surgean


On the Qualitees, Maners and Kunnynge of a Surgean

The following text is taken from 23. N. 16 (=MS 443), a small quarto paper MS. in the Royal Irish Academy, and forms three and a half chapters of Lanfranc's Chirurgia Magna. The MS contains 138 folios written in a clear, neat, small hand, with many contractions. It contains a number of Early Modern Irish translations of Latin Medical works as follows:

  • Aphorisms of Hippocrates
  • Circa instans, etc. (fol. 1–33 )
  • (fol. 33–40)
  • (fol. 41–55)
  • (fol. 56–58)
  • (fol. 58–60)
  • (fol. 60–73v)
  • (fol. 74–106)
  • (fol. 107)
  • (fol. 107–124)
  • (fol. 124–126)
  • (fol. 126–127)
  • (fol. 127–129)
  • (fol. 129–133)
  • (fol. 133v, l. 17–138v.) See infra.


These translations are masterly and faithful renderings of the original, and show the skill and ease which whith the early Irish doctors could reproduce technical and philosophical Latin treatises in their own tongue. These works were used as text books in the Medical Schools, and the large number of copies preserved in libraries throughout the world prove how extensively they were used. As I do not know of any other copy there are no variants.

23. N. 16 was one of the MSS. in the collection of Sir William Betham, the then Ulster King-of-Arms, and was acquired by the Royal Irish Academy in 1850, by subscription (Proceedings 1850–1853).

The MS. was written between the years 1597 and 1601, but the name of the scribe was unfortunately lost. In a note on fol. 122 the scribe asks a blessing on the translator, i.e. Séamus Mac Gearóid Uí Fiongaini. On fol. 123 there is a similar prayer, but here the name is Donatus Juvenis, so apparently the various treatises were translated by different scholars. The text abounds in contractions and abbreviations, almost every second word being illegible to the uninitiate. These contractions formed a medical code which was in use throughout the Middle Ages, and was very difficult to interpret. Many scribal notes and colophons occur throughout the MA., which are interesting from a topographical, historic, and human point of view. The following are some examples:

fol. 11v. “O Mary (Virgin)! Often have we had to complain of you, Kate. Because you found no coin in my purse, small is your care for me today.”)

fol. 22v. “Great is your drunkenness and your chatter, Tadg mac Chriosdora, you disgusting mercenary churl.”

fol. 23v. “In the room of the friars I am now, St. John's Eve, 1597.”


fol. 61. “Finis Anno Domini 1596. — On the 22nd of May in Achaidh mhic Áirt (a ruined church north west of Ballyragget in Co. Kilkenny bordering on Queen's Co.). A skirmish took place between Uaithni mac Ruruighi Í Mhordha and Master Framhas, Uaithni having the protection of the Council and the Justice, and Master Framhas had the misfortune to fall thereat and if reports are true that was no great loss for the Irish; many English fell too, and whether they did or not, Uaithne would not have minded killing them. And it is related that Seoirse mac Seamus fell on that day, and if it's true it is a sad tale because he was learned, noble-minded and honourable. And it is no lie that Seoirse fell.”

fol. 83. “I am weary today from all I endured in the heat yesterday.”

fol. 122. (End of Egidius on contents of urine). “Since the remaining words of the author are easy to understand, for that reason we shall put an end to the work in honour of God and of Mary our Queen and of the Court of Angels.”
Finis anno Domini 1610 — The 22nd of June in Edarguil in the presence of Donnchadh og Ó Conchubhair. May God give his grace to the soul of the person who put Irish on this, that is, Sémus mac Geroid Ui Fiongaini. And at that time the final rout and banishment of the inhabitants of Laoighis took place, men, women and young people small and big. And Sir Henry Power, president of the County of Laoighis and the Sheriff of the same county, Piggott, are destroying and plundering everywhere that they can find cattle, horses or sheep or any of their property in their own  p.252 county. And those people (Power and Piggott) have authority to hang everyone they can catch.”

The MS is in a very bad state of repair. Both corners are much damaged and some pages are missing at the beginning and end.

The language is Early Modern Irish, such as was used in all Irish Medical MSS, bearing no trace of Middle Irish peculiarities. The value of the tract is largely lexicographical — it would be of little use from the modern medical point of view — and as such is very great, as it contains many unrecorded medical and philosophic terms, both native and adapted from Latin. I have not altered the spelling and I have italicised only the most unusual contractions, leaving the ordinary abbreviations expanded without much comment.

The translation is of the opening chapters of the Chirurgia Magna of Lanfrancus de Mediolano.

Lanfranc was born not later than 1245, and was probably a member of the noble and well-known family of Lanfranchi. He studied in Bologna under William of Saliceto, who was professor at that university from 1269 to 1275 and left in that year for Verona. In 1270 Lanfranc wrote his Chirurgia Minor. In one of the innumerbale squabbles of the Italian city states he took the side of the De la Torre family against the Viconti. When his party was overthrown Lanfranc was  p.253 expelled, or fled, from Milan about the year 1294. He was in Lyons in 1295, and went on to Paris in 1296. Here, being a friend of William de Brescia he was received at the Collège of St. Côme (founded 1260), and was taken up by the Parisian surgeon Jean Pitard (died ca. 1330). Later he became surgeon to Philip le Bel.

While he was still at Lyons he began his Chirurgia Magna and finished it in Paris in 1296. This is an expansion of his earlier work. Lanfranc died about 1306. He stands with Guy de Chauliac, who is said to have been his pupil, as amongst the greatest surgeons of the Middle Ages. Jehann Ypermann, the greatest of mediaeval Flemish surgeons, is also believed to have studied under him. The well-known French surgeon, Henri de Mondeville, was present at some of his operations.

The chief interest in Lanfranc's work is his treatment of wounds. He taught that in the case of a wound involving a bone the latter must be completely mended before the surrounding flesh might be sewn up—as otherwise it would never heal — for its matter is created from the seed of the father and the mother. (See paragraph 7 infra.)

He held that cancer of the breat was incurable and refused to operate.

The Chirurgia Magna
The Chirurgia Magna contains five treatises (tractatus) each of which is divided into teachings (doctrina) and again subdivided into chapters (capitulum). The following fragment contains merely the first three chapters of the first teaching of the first treatise, and part of the beginning of the second teaching which is not divided into chapters.

The first Treatise is of general rules of surgery, etc.: the second of wounds and of anatomy; the third of cures for diseases which are not wounds; the fourth of algebra(?) i.e. broken bones and dislocations; the fifth deals with cures and is an antidotarium.

Lanfranc claims that his book covers the whole field of surgery, as is shewn by the name he himself gave it,  p.254 Ars completa totius chirurgiae. The Chirurgia Minor is a much smaller book containing only sixteen chapters, the last of which is an antidotarium.

The opening of the fifth book of the the Chirurgia Magna is a typical example of Lanfranc's quietly ingenuous style: “Tractatus quintus huius libri est antidotarium. In quo intendo ponere medicinas tam simplices quam compositas: quae huic arti, quantum ad chirurgiam spectat: sunt necessariae: quanquam non omnes ponam: quoniam infinitae sunt: & ab intellectu humano incomprehensibiles: nec est aliquis quantumcunque expertus: qui millesimam partem sciat earum, quae valent ad chirurgicum instrumentum. Nullas enim in eo ponemus: nisi illas quibus longo tempore sumus vsi: quas a reverendis doctoribus medicis, ac etiam mulieribus habuimus; quae omnes sine dubio in casibus suis sunt expertae.” (fol 255v.)

The Chirurgia Magna was printed first in Venice in 1490. As there is no copy of this edition in Ireland I have used  p.255 the reprint of 1546, which forms part of a collection of the works of famous surgeons entitled: Ars Chirurgica, Guidonis Cauliaci {} Bruni, Theodorici, Rolandij {} Lanfranci et Bertapaliae, Rigeri et Gulielmi Saliceti.

The Irish text occupies fol. 208–210.

The editions of Lanfranc's works are as follows: Chirurgia Magna; Chirurgia Minor: Venice 1490, 1519, 1546. Lyons 1533.

The Chirurgia Magna has been translated into various languages, French translation by Guillaume Yvoire, Lyons 1490; German translation by Otto Brunfels, Frankfurt am Main 1566; English translation from two MSS. Bodleian Ashmole 1396 (ca. 1380). British Museum Additional 12056 (ca. 1420) edited for the Early English Texts Society as Lanfrank's Science of Cirurgie by Dr. Robert v. Fleischhacker, 1894, original series 102.

Irish translation 1606 (see infra).

Lanfranc of Milan

Chirurgia Magna Lanfranci [Fragment]

From RIA MS 443 (23 N 16)

Edited by Winifred Wulff

On the Qualitees, Maners and Kunnynge of a Surgean


[1]  133vOmne quod volumus investigare uno trium modorum investigari potest .i. gach ní bhus ail linn do lorguirecht is ar modh eigin dona tri modhuibh so fédmuid a lorguirecht .i. ona ainm no ona ghniomh no ona deffinition fhirinech eisidha fhoillsighes esse an ráoda. Et fedmuid an tshiruircecht do lenmuin arna tri modhuibh sin agus ar tús do leith in anma, oir is innann cyros agus lamh agus gyos agus oibriughthóir. Is inann sciruirci re radh agus oibriughadh lamh, oir is annsa tshíne laimhe ata crich tharbhtha na hoibri so. Et fedmuid ar in mhodh cedna aithne an raoda dfhaghail do leith an ghnímha, oir is o ghníomh na lamh doniter an toibriughadh so agus adeir Galienus nach i an aithne do ghabur do leith an anma aithne is forfuidh ann. Do reir an úghdurrais so: Qui veritatem rerum perpendere voluirit non eum ex suo nomine sed sui essensia investigare conatum .i. gidh bé lenab áil firinne na ráod do thabuirt da uigh, ni hona ainm do gabur an fhirinne  p.256 sin acht trialltur a lorgairecht a hesse na ráod agus is trid sin adeir Avicenna: Noticia nominis impositi non tollit ignoranciam, quam dat extraneitas rei .i. aithne in anma do curadh ar an ráod ni thógbhann se an tainbhfhios do beir esse rannaighthi in ráoda. Ar in adhbur  134r sin ni maith an aithne do ghabur do leith an anma agus is bec in aithne do leith an ghnímha mar sin. Mas edh fágmuid curob í an aithne fhoillsighes diffinition agus essensia ráoda is ferr ann. Ar in adhbur sin adermuid curob edh is cyrurgia ann .i. egna leighis teaguisgis dúinn oibriughadh le lamhuibh ar an ccorp ndaonna ag sgaoiledh na continnoidighi agus ag treorughadh sgaoili na continóidighi cum na staide a raibhe ar tús ina bheither a treorughadh, agus do scris na niumurcach do reir inntinne theoruice in leighis. Ar an adhbur sin an uair adermuid curob egnuidh in síne laimhe contraramuid don druing adeir curob oibriughadh rannaighthi an sínedh laimhe ata ina ráod nach crichnuighthi sho-truaillighthi, oir ni labrann an egna dhibh sin, agus an uair adermuid leighis, ni co dilios aderar egna leighis, acht co coitchind gabur hí, mar is follus a t-Tegni. Et an uair aderur teagusg is duin oibriughadh .i. da dhechfriughadh on theoruic aderur sin, agus an uair aderar maille re lamuibh is da dhechfriúghadh ó ghneithibh eile na praitici aderur é. Et an uair aderur ar an gcorp ndaonna is da dhechfriúghadh ona marusgaluibh oibrighis le lamhuibh ar na hainmhinntibh bruidemla aderar é. Et is mar sin fedtur tri dechfricha na sciruirgidh, no gach dechfer dhibh ar leith do tharruing cum deiffinitioin na praitici, agus is iad so na dechfricha sin .i. in chointinóidighi do sgaoiledh agus sgaoiledh na cointinóidighi do dhaingniugadh agus in iumarcach d'innarbadh. Et in uair aderur cum na staide ina raibhe ar tús no ina beithear a treorughadh, ni tuicter as sin nach sciruirghid é da tteagmhadh nach cuirfedh se an ball annsa cruth ina raibhe ar tús, oir is lór a cur annsa cruth is ferr ina bfhédfuighter a cur, gion co mbia deaghmhaisech no iomlán do reir mar do bhí ar tús. Et in uair aderar do reir inntinne na teoruicthi, tuicter as sin curob eigin don tshiruirgidh beith ina theoruicthid do reir mar fhoillsigher sin ina ninadaibh fein.

[2] Et is iad so rainn gheneralta na siruirci, gidh be ni aderid morán dona doctuiriph .i. tri hinntinni na siruirghidh  p.258 do reir mar foillseochamuid ina gcaibidhliughuibh disle fein. Et is iad so suibidhechta foicsi na siruirghid .i. in corp daonna agus na boill comchusmhaile agus na boill oifigecha, oir is orra sin co huilidhi oibrighis an siruircidhi.

Necessarium est quod cirurgicus et cetera .i. is eigin don tsiruirci cumachtadh cudruma do bheith ina corp agus coimplex mesurdha do bheith aige. Ar in adhbur sin adeir Raisis gidh be ag nach bía adaigh scothamail na dheaghmhaisech is decair dhó bheith deaghbhésach. Et adeir Avicenna gidh be aga mbia drochcoimplex co ndlighinn sé bheith drochbhesach, agus adeir co ndlighinn lama cruthamhla do bheith aige agus meóir chaola fada agus corp laidir nemhcrithanach agus ball chalma iomlana do crichnuighedh deagh-oibrecha in anma, agus co ndlighinn inntlecht seimh do bheith aige, oir ni heidir gach ní badh eigin cum na noibrighthi so do chomurtughadh le leitrichibh, agus bí sé umul co nadurdha agus bí menma laidir aige agus na raib laidirecht aicidech í agus bí sé egnuidhi agus ni hannsa leighis amáin, acht in gach áonrann don fheallsamh nadurdha, agus bí se ina loicicidhi, innus co ttuigedh  134v {} na {} agus na leitreacha agus bí na gramatuidhi, innus co laibheóradh co cert agus bí ina achtaighidh innus co ttuigfedh se na harrguminti do dhénadh do derbadh le resún, agus bí ina raetoirici innus go bfhédfedh in ní do veith ina inntinn dfhoillsiughadh le briathruibh maithi, agus foghlumuighedh sé etheica, innus go ttuigedh tatháir ar na lochtuibh, agus co mbeith féin déaghbhesach, agus na bí se cráosach, na druith, na formadach, na sanntach, agus bí innruic, agus is mar so do beith sé ar bith an otuir, innus nach curfadh sé a nadaigh áonnech teagmhasaidh da tteagmadh etturra co follus obonn, agus na habradh briathradh leighis nach benfadh ris a ttigh in otuir, agus na fecadh sé co morrgánta ar aonmhnaoi da mbia a ttigh in otuir, agus na tabhradh sé comuirle bhenfas re tarbhaidh in otuir no in comuirle iarrfaidhter air, agus na troidedh risin otur no re háoinnech da mhuinntir, acht labhradh co milis riu, agus gealladh sé sláinte in gach éneaslainti dho, gidh edh da mbe  p.260 midhochus aige a sláinti in otuir foillsighedh da gháoltaibh agus da chairdibh mur do cithfidhter dhó. Et na gnathuigedh sé cur cum na leighis ndocumlach, agus na hotuir na bia doigh asdu, na benadh riu, agus gabadh ag na bochtaibh mar bhus eidir leis, agus na coigledh spensa maith do bhein dona daoinibh saidhbri, agus na moladh é féin agus na tabhradh tatháoir ar nech ele (ele), agus tabhradh onoir do gach uile liaigh agus cleirech, agus na tabradh se cúis fhuatha do áon liaigh ele agus is mar sin vhias se subiltach agus clú maith air agus ainm maith a gcoitchinne. Et as í ethica teaguisgis sin dó agus foghluimighed se fisigecht, innus co mbeith fis gach innstruminti dfhoigheonadh cum gach aon oibre dó bhenfadh risin siruirci aige, agus a mbeith arna mberbadh le riaghlachaibh na theoraice, mar derbhas an silogismus so, oir gach uile shiruirci is praitici é agus gach uile praitici is teoruici é; da reir sin gach uile theoruici is teoruici é (sic). Derbhtur an maior mailli re tex Avicenna, adeir go ccoimhliontur ráod an leighis .i. na praitici leis na tri neithibh so no le ní dhibh, mar ata regimen no oileamhuin. An dara ní tabairt na leigheas. An 3 ní oibriughadh laimhe, mar adeir Galienus agus Constantinus agus Hailiabas, oir ní curand sé (sic) acht dá ní dhibh so ann .i. regimen agus leighes, oir adeir curob ní ele an toibriughadh lamh. Derbhtur in minor le diffenicion na theoruice agus na praitici agus iad féin ac fregradh da cheile, oir is edh is teoruic ann, aitne forfuidh na ráod gabur annsa tuicsin amáin ac dénam chuimhne ar oibrightibh in ráoda ata fuithe .i. Do reir uird na mbrigh is túsga ghabur ráod annsa tuicsin na tidhluicter don chuimne é. Ar an adhbur sin is eigin co madh túsga do denadh duine foghluim na teoruice, na badh eidir a tidhlacadh don chuimhne. Et is edh is praitic ann, foillsiughadh na teoruice annsa cedfadh ghabaltaigh, agus a noibriughadh na lamh do reir tuicsina na teoruice tic roimpe. Ar an adhbur sin is follus curob tri shuibidhecht aithne na teoruice oibrighis an praitic, agus is mar sin is follus in silogismus so, oir is eigin co ttuicter an conchlúid so asna hainntisedensaib aderur.

[1] Et bi a fis agad{}  135r agad co tteaguisginn innstrumint na siruircecht {} gi na siruircecht, as eigin dó sin do tuicsin agus {} ainbhfhis ar an liaigh ar an egna labrus dona duilibh {} neithibh nadurdha agus dona gallraibh, bíadh  p.262 ainbfhis uilidhi air agus is eigin {} bheith follus do reir mar fhoillseochamuid in ar ndiaigh. Et bí a fhis ag an tsiruirci co ngeinter gach uile corp cumusgtha da bfuil fan cercaill lunardha a 4 corpaibh áonda brisis a foirminnibh a {} cheile, mar ata teine agus aer, uisgi agus talamh, gidh edh do suigighedh(?) iad a bfhad ona corpaibh a bfuil {} ar son adultrais agus contrardhachta na ndúl do leith a gcaile, gidh edh tigid siad maille re na gcailibh annsa comshuigiughadh, innus co ttéíd rann robec dúla aca a rann robec dula ele, ar chor co mbrisinn an comcumasg sin contrardhacht a foirminn, agus co ttic foirm ele o comcumasg na substainti sin agus co ttic coimplex nuadh mur in cedna o comcumasg na caile agus gach fad da mbe an comcumasg o contrardhacht na ndúl, agus bhes sé a bfhogus do coimplex inmedonach as í an méide sin bhes an ni cumuscthed(?) ullamh do ghabail foirme uaisle na betha, agus as i in foirm sin áonní is uaisle do ghabur idir na corpaibh cumusgtha annsa spirid daonna, gidh edh na caile thic le corpaibh na ndúl annsa comcumasg, is ní nach eidir dealughadh ris na corpaibh cumusgtha sin agus na cuirp do bheith ar marthuin, agus atáid a ceathrur dhibh ann .i. teasaidhi agus fuar, fliuch agus tirim agus is uatha sin cruthuigter an coimplex. Ar in adhbur sin dob eigin 4 coimplex dfhagail isna corpaibh cumasgdha ata innuinn co huilidhi do ghabur o ghniom agus o fulang na caile contrardha tic ona duilibh, mar ata rann ro-bec dúla aca do dul a rann ro-bec dúla ele agus techt mar sin annsa cumasg. Et uair ele coirighter na 4 coimplex so .i. te agus fuar, fliuch agus tirim innus co gcruthadh 4 coimplex ele uatha mar ata teasaidhi agus tirim, teasaidhi agus fliuch, fuar agus fliuch, fuar agus tirim, agus is mar sin ata a hocht dibh ann .i. a 4 áonda agus a 4 comsuigighti. Et bí an tochtur sin uair ann co adhburdha agus uair ele co nemhadhpurdha agus ataid siad a 16 mar sin ann agus ataid in 16 sin do reir tuicsina druinge ele nadurtha do druing eigin agus minadurtha do druing ele, agus ataid sin a 12 ar 20 dibh mar sin. Et is eigin éncoimplex cudruma dfagail idir na corpaibh cumasgdha cum a ndéntur na coimplex ele do compraid, agus do frith in coimplex cudruma sin a nduine eigin, gidh edh is da compraid ris na corpaibh cumasgdha ele do ghabur é, agus ni cudrumacht do reir truime no etroimi na ndúl sin, na cudrumacht do reir thomais, acht cudrumacht  p.264 eigin do reir chora, oir teaguid na duile a nduine eigin cum in mhedhoin ata a bfad o contrardhacht, ar chor nach eidir leo techt cum cuirp ele agus is mar sin ainmnighter gach ní ele do beith te no fuar, no fliuch no tirim a naithfhégadh in coimplexa daonna, agus fédadh an ní sin bheith mesurdha, masa ní leighes amain é, no mas biadh a naithfhégadh in cuirp daonna, oir bí an ní sin fuilingtach on tes nadurtha ata innainn, gidh edh ní théiginn agus ni  135v {} agus e so curob tégadh amáin doní no curob fuaradh amáin {} cailibh ele agus adermuid an ní sin do beith teasaidhi sa cedceim {} ata innainne agus é ag tégadh ar gcuirp, gidh edh ni theighinn {} urcoid duinn, agus ata an ní sin teasaidhi sa dara ceim agus ata tes ele téi {} co huilidhi agus ni fhédann ar ttégadh gan urcóid do dhenamh dhúinn, agus adermuid curob i sin {} ata in tes sin. Et an uair téighter sinn agus urcóid fhollus do dhénam dhúinn, adermuid co bfuil {} é sa 4 ceim oirinn doní scris follus agus is inann ferc agus al doibh sin agus dona tri coimplexuibh ele.

[4] Et bí a fhis agad curob eigintech don tshiruirci aithne coimplex na mball agus na ccorp agus na leighes do bheith aige, agus derbhtur so co follus mar so .i. coirighim co bfuilid cneadha ar dhís ata a naonáois agus a ttabairt orra a náonuair agus a naoininadh o chloidemh cona chosmbaile, gidh edh teagmhaidh co bfuil nech aca aga bfuil coimplex teasuidhi fliuchaidhi agus nech aga bfuil coimplex fuaraidhi tirim agus as í baramail na ttuathadha ar na fhaicsin, curob leighes inann fhodhnus doibh, gidh edh teaguisgidh aignedh in coimplexa ata ar na derbadh le resún nach cóir áonleighes doibh ar áon, oir is cóir dhuinn egla do vheith oruinn co ngeinfidhi neasgoid ón chneadh ata annsa coimplex teasuidhi fhliuchaidhi no fiabhras, oir adeir Galienus na baill teasaidhi ina teagmaid neasgoidi co bfuilid siad ina mbunait ag an fiabhras, mar ata in uamha cum in arain do berbadh. Et adeir Galienus agus Ysac agus Avicenna nach fuil dona coimplexuibh coimplex is ullmha cum na bfiabhrasadh do ghabail na an coimplex teasaidhi fliuchaidhi, mas edh da tteagmad cneadha inntu coimédtur iad co maith. Ni ele teagmhas doibh .i. fliche fola, agus legur cuisle a laimh contrardha an táoibh sin no a cois an táoibh crechdnuighthi da bfhuilingedh an bhrigh agus an  p.266 áois agus na neithe rannuighthi ele agus da mbia an bhrigh anbfhonn curtur fásadharc ar agaidh in da shliasad agus folmuighter uair sa ló le supositorium no le clisdiri muna bfuigha se fein folmughadh nadurdha, agus dluitighter buird na cnedhi re cheile re fuigil no le hadhartanaibh no le ceangal ele munba heigin a fuagáil, agus leighester na cneadha mar aderam don táoibh shis dínn.

[5] Et curem leighes coimédach arna cneadhaibh toirmisges rith na leanna, mar ata bolus arminicus agus ola roisicda agus becán finegra. Et na tabhradh fín da ól doibh na feoil na uighe na énbhiadh ghinfis morán fola agus is lór mar bhiadh doibh sugh coirci no eórna maille re sugh almont agus is riagail gheneralta gan acht becán do bhiadhaibh seimhe do thabairt dóibh, no co mbeit siad innill o nesgoid agus ó fiabhras agus leighestur ainnsein iad mar is luaithi fhedfuighter. Et madh fuar tirim vias an coimplex na legur cuisle doibh agus na curtur fasadharc orra, oir is innmhas in coiméd a fuil derg innsa coimplex fuar tirim agus taburtur fín agus feóil doibh ar son nach fuilnginn an gaile na a mbrigh dhileghach diét séimh, oir is eigin diét o ngeintur moran fola do thabairt do leighes na gcoimplex fuar tirim ara mbid cneadha, oir ni egail linn fiabhras doibh ar son nach fuil a gcoimplex ollamh cum a ghabhala. Praeterea fédmuid áonleighes inann ata arna ullmhugadh a náonmodh do tabart  136r a gcneadhaibh ata a gcoimplexuibh examhla, gidh edh n{} vitriolum romhanach re nabruid na Francaigh co c{} il innta agus ni fliuchaidhecht amáin gheinis acht cnaidedh, gidh edh ni bfuil acht {} ataid eifechta examhla aigi, do reir examhlacht na gcoimplex ai{} ata gnimh na greine examuil agus ni har son na greine sin, acht ar son exa{} noibrighinn, oir tirmuighi an vitreolum co mór annsna corpaibh tirma agus calmuightur na sesmuighidh ag connmail a nert fein innta. Da reir sin ni fhédann sé acht an fed do g{} se annsa chneadh da tirmughadh agus is feoil ghinis. Annsna cneadhaibh fliucha, imorro, bí coimplex anbfonn aca agus ni heidir leo sesmhugadh do dhénam le nert an vitriolum, innus co ngabadh {} vatha le ndentur a legadh, innus co méduighter siledh, no mar annsna cneadhaibh on vitreolum, mar adubrumar romuinn annsna coimplexuibh examhla.


[6] Et adeir Galienus da mbia inannus silidh a da ccneadhaibh, agus cneadh dhibh a mball teasaidhi agus cneadh ele a mball fhliuchaidhi curob tirma in leighes dleghtur do thabairt annsa chneadh vhís annsa ball teasaidhi na annsa chneadh vhís annsa ball fliuchaidhi. Et da mbeith cneadha a dha mballaibh agus coimplex inann aca agus moran siledh ag cneadh dhiph agus becan ag cneadh ele, curob don chneadh ina mbia morán silidh dlegtur an leighes as tirma do thabairt, do reir fhiadhnise Iohannes Damasenus, oir adeir: Medicamina et emplastra debent esse homogenia membris quibus aponuntur, oir adeir co ndlighid na leighes agus na ceirinecha bheith homogenia dona ballaibh re gcurtur iad. Et adeir co ndleghtur na neithe nadurdha do coiméd ona gcosmuiles agus co ndleghtur na neithe ata a nadhaidh na nadura do scris ona contrarda. Da reir sin da mbia an liaigh ainbfhisach a gcoimplex na mball, cinnus bhus eidir leis leighis examhla do thabairt a gcoimplexuibh examhla, mar dleghur a ttabairt agus co ro-mór da mbia se ainbfhisach a gcoimplexuibh agus a gceimenduibh na leighes. Et is eigin dona legaibh a fhis do bheith aca cinnus gintur na lenna is rann dona neithibh nadurdha masa eigin dó scians agus leighes na nesgoidi do tuicsin, mar foillsighter a ttrachtaidh na nesgoidi in ar ndiaigh. Et dlighid a fhis do bheith aige ce hiad na baill ata examuil annsna corpaibh, agus cad hí an tarbhaidh agus an oiffic ata aca, innus co mbeith a fhis aige cia hiad na baill aga bfuil brigh mor sa corp, agus cia na boill ina bfuil mothughadh mor leis nach eidir leighes laidir dfulang. Et is eigin dó aithne na mbrigh do bheith aige innus co bfeicfedh sé an bhrigh arna hanbhfhuinniugadh isna ballalbh, oir dleghur furtacht do thabairt don ball ata arna ghortughadh do calmughadh a oiffigi agus a ghnimha nadurdha, agus madh aithne dho egna na mbrigh agus na noibrighthed agus na spirad, badh aithne dhó an ní do dhénadh díth doibh. Et ataid na neithe so adubrumar romhuind nadurdha agus is iad cedboill na cedfoghla do berar lesin retoiric a nealadhain leighis iad.

[7] Et is eigin dó ar an modh cedna aithne na neithe nach nadurdha do bheith  136v {} cneadh no nesgoid, oir ni tirmuighter na cneadha annsa {} naiterrach on aer tirim soluis ghlain deaghbalaidh {} annsa geimhredh, oir ni  p.270 urcóidighinn áonni do lucht na ccneadh agus dona {} doni an fuacht. Annsa tshamhradh, imorro, ni heigin an taer do mhesrughadh {} sa geimhredh, gidh edh is eigin do an diét imcubhaidh do thabairt ann. Item is eigin dó {} anadh imcubaidh dordughadh dho, oir da mbia cneadh annsa cend no goin annsa bfeith is eigin do {} agus silens do thabairt don othur agus leabaidh bhog shocur innus nach gluaisaid agus nach gortuighthi an ball tinn, agus gidh edh da mbeith seinchneadha gan teinnes annsa laimh, is maith don eslán siubal do dénam {} a lamh ar iomchur fana braghid. Et da mbeith na cneadha annsna luirgnibh no annsna troighthibh is na luighi is coir doibh bheith agus saotur do dhenam lena lamaibh. Item dlighid an shiruircidhi codladh mesurdha do thógairm an meid fhédfus, oir doni an codladh imurcach in eslainti do mhédughadh agus anbhfhuinnighidh na brigha. In nemhcodladh, imorro, dísgaoilidh agus cnaoididh na spirid agus gérighi na lenna agus treoruighidh na cneadha cum tirmuighachta minadurdha agus is cuis teinis é. Item is deghmhaisech dó an linadh dfolmughadh agus in riachtanus a les do coimlionadh, innus co ttreorocadh sé in teslán cum fliuchuidheachta mesurdha agus muna derntur sin ni cnesuighter an chneadh ar áonmodh. Et is eigin na tedhmanna ainmighid do mhesrughadh, oir ritidh an spired co himurcach cum na mball bforimillech on ferg. Ar an adhbur sin lasaidh an ball crechdnuighthi co minic. An egla agus in dobrón, imorro, agus midhochus as a shlainti toghairmid siad an spired an in medhon agus anbfhuinniughter na brigha uatha sin, innus nach eidir leó adhbur in athnuaigighthi do gheinmuin isna cneadhaibh. Et is iad so na .6. neithe nach nadurdha is dara rann do theoric an leighis.

[8] In galur, imorro, agus na neithe bhenus ris, mar ata cneadh agus crecht agus fistula agus cancer agus nesgoid agus moran do neithibh ele, is eigin don liaigh fis do bheith aige, innus co mbeith a fhis aige cia ara ndingnedh sáothur, no a nagaidh a ndingnedh no créd cum a ndingnedh, oir ataid so uile examail agus is so an examhlacht so examhluighter an ní furtachtuighis iad. Cuis an galuir agus ma cneidi dleghur a aithne verbi gratia, oir ni hinann an leighes is cóir do  p.272 dhénam don chneadh do ghéntur le cloigemh agus don chneadh do géntur le bualadh cloichi, no o tuitim, agus ni hinann modh ara leighister gerradh in mhadra áonda agus gerradh in mhadra gháoithe, agus do gébhtur so annsna hinadaibh bhenus riu fein. Et is eigin doibh aithne na naicidi vhis a ndiaigh na cneidi do bheith aca, oir muna hinnarbtur na haicidi, ni leighester na cneadha, agus do gébhtur sin ina gcaibidliughuiph dísle fein. Et crichnuighter teoric an leighis co huilidhi annsa tri neithibh so .i. annsa galur agus annsa chúis agus annsa naicid, agus mar adubrumar romhuinn, annsna .7. neithibh nadurdha agus isna .6. neithibh nach nadurdha. Et ni heigin don tshiruirci innstrumint echtrannach dfhagail a negmuis an dara innstrumint adubrumar romhuinn, gidh edh is eigin in diét dordughadh  137r innus co {} do a fis do bheith aigi {} aige cinnus do béredh sé purgoid agus scethrach don druing {} in adhbur ona cneadhaibh an uair folmuighter na droclenna on corp, agus i {} adhbur sin, gidh be thuigis agus smuainis gach uile rann don leighes {} don tshiruirci dfoghluim don ealadhain leighis agus is an {} maithe ele thosguighes on naduir crichnuighter an prohemium so etc.

An .3. caibidlech do {} hinntinniph dhlighes an siruirci do bheith aige

[9] Sciendum est quod omnis intencio ciruirgici agus cetera. .i. bi a fhis a {} inntinn dlighis in siruirci {} aige co bfuil si examuil co rannuighi agus do crichnuighthi o aonduine, gidh edh connmuidhter iad fo tri hinntinnibh co generalta. An cedinntinn dibh scáoiledh na continóidighi. An .2. hinntinn in sgaoile sin do shlanughadh. An .3. inntinn inurbadh na nimurcach. Et o dhoniter so uile le laimh conmuighter gach inntinn vhis ag an tshiruirci fona tri hinntinnibh so, no fa chuid dibh. Et scáoilid an sciruirci an continóid le cuislinn, no le scarification, no le cauterium, no le sanguis sugibh do cur a lenmuin don ball. Et ge légmuidne so uile dona barbuiribh agus dona mnaibh le huadhbur agus le midhingmaltacht, as dobuir in tshiruirci iad, oir do rinne Galienus agus Raisis na hoibrecha so lena lamaibh fein, mar is follus ina leabhruibh fein agus is cuisleóir gnathach misi fein, oir legim cuislinna  p.274 nach fétuid na barbuiri ro-oirrderca do légin. Et sgaoilter an continóidighi an uair scoilter cuislinna na narac agus in édain, agus doniter cauterium co minic orra sin i nadhaidh eslainti na súl, agus doniter cauterium a ninadaibh iomdha annsa chend agus annsa corp ar son morain desláintibh, do reir mar fhoillseochas forcedal caibidligh na cauterium isna caibidliughuibh labrus dibh fein, no sgaoilter an continoidighi an uair gerrtur ar lucht na hydrópisi, agus in uair bhenmuid na clocha fuail as an lamhonnán le gerradh sgaoilimid an continoidighi agus ni hinnta sin amain scáoilimid í, acht ac dénam chneadh a ninadhaibh imdha annsa corp, agus foillseóchamuid so a moran dinadhaibh annsa leabur so. An .2. hinntinn .i. na cneadha agus na crechta agus in fistula agus in cainnser do chnesúghadh, agus in brisedh cnamha dhaingniugadh le hoibrechadh an tshiruirci, agus ni hedh amáin acht morán doibrechaibh examhla ele do dhénamh leis an inntinn so, agus do ghebhtur forcedal imslán annsa leabhur so orra so. An .3. inntinn .i. in imurcach dinarbadh, mar ataid scrophuili an chinn agus in mhuinil agus na mball ele, agus cataracta agus ungula agus pannum agus sebel agus feóil imurcach agus nodi agus moran dimurcachaibh ele bentur as na suilibh, agus polipus  137v {} agus imurcha herm{} isach é.

An cedcaibidlech don {} techt.

[10] Quoniam ut dicit Galienus: necessarium est cirurgico scire anathomiam .i. adeir Galienus curob eigin don liaigh {} do bheith aige ar chor na haibeoradh sé curob sreabann an liga. {} an ligamentum cruinn agus muna bhia fis anathomia aige {} a oibriughad. Ar an adhbur sin do shanntuighis caibidlech dilis do denam don naduir agus dfoirminnibh {} arbadh na mball comchosmuil, oir adeir Avicenna: Noticiam rei quae causam habet non potest haberi nisi per suas causas sciatur .i. ni heidir aithne an ráoda aga mbí cúis dfaghail acht muna {} é ona chúisibh. Ar in adhbur sin is eigin duinn aithne chúise na mball comchosmuil do veith aguinn {} Ar an adhbur sin curfid suiminna so-creidemhna ar thosaighedh in leighis, innus co ttuicfid na legha iad, agus ar tus curfad ann geinemain embrio do reir mar creiter o doctuiribh in leighis é.


Et da mbeith nech badh airde na liaigh le madh ail eolus badh mó na sin diarraidh saothruighed sé as muchtsa agus a hucht na druinge do rinne eolus damh a ngnimh na hegna leighis.

[11] Et ataid .4. silbha a geinemain embrio, mas fír don lucht iarrus an fhirinne, agus ataid triur diph sin nach tic le cheile a náonfhírinne agus ataid cuid ele aca tic le cheile ina mbriathribh acht becán, agus nach tic annsa bhfírinne, oir adeir an fisigi ro-árd curob o shilne an fhir agus o fuil mista na mna geinter embrio, agus curob amhail foirme ata síl an fhir agus amhail adhbuir ata fuil na mna, agus is mar so do tuic Averoes nach téid sperma in fhir na na mna a substaint embrio, agus is amhlaidh chredis Galienus so, curob o shil an fhir agus na mná ag gnimh agus ac fulang ara cheile geinter embrio .i. an gnimh is laidire a síl an fhir agus an ghnimh is anbfhuinni a sil na mná. Avicenna, imorro, do shaotruigh ar mo shonsa a morán do raidhtibh agus lenus opinion Galienus agus scrisadh sé opinion Averoes co huilidhi, oir adeir curob ón da shilne sin adubrumar romhuinn geinter embrio. Da derbadh sin da mbeith gan síl na mna do bheith ann ni geinfidhi ann. Et mar vhis an bhinid cum in cháisi a slighi chenguil ghnimaigh is mar sin vhis sil an fhir cum embrio amhail bhinide fuilingtighi, agus is mar sin vid an da bhinid vhis ina rannaibh a substaint in cháise doniter uatha, is mar sin vhid an .2. sperma ina rannaibh ag embrio, agus ni fuil an briatur so asáontach risin bfeallsamh, oir ni fuil sperma na mná in méide so égcosmail re naduir fola ar da adhbur. An cedadhbur dhibh ar son fuaire na mna agus nach fédann sí a berbadh co maith. An .2. hadhbur ar son fhoicsi shoithighi in sperma agus in macluig da cheile ni dingmhalach nach sperma is cóir do radh ris, agus is ar an adhbur sin ghairis an feallsam embrio, agus is as sin geinter gach uile bhall comcosmuil a négmuis na feóla agus an {}  138r ata foirm agus in {} ball chum a ngnimha dilis {} nnighedh se é fein co nadurtha ina timchill agus {} An brigh cruthuigtech, imorro, ata dílis cum na hoiffigi so {} mhuighter, oir is do sheicreidiph Día an ní so, agus glántur a {} spiruduibh agus téid sís cum an da sperma sin .i. cum sperma in fhir in {} sperma sin trina cheile, agus  p.278 do beir da uigh gach aonspirad do gheinemain .i. {} oduighthi agus na brighi ainmighi agus na brighi nadurdha, agus doniter iad sin annsna .6. {} ní don fuil mista san aimsir sin cum an .2. shilne sin, oir ni bhí disgaoiledh ann {} a suim, gidh edh tinnsgnaidh ina dhiaigh sin, fuil mista do tharruing chuige agus is a {} attractiva .i. an bhrigh attarruingtech, agus a gcend tri la ina dhiaigh sin ti{} agus linedha. A gcend an .6. la ina dhiaigh sin téid an fuil mista a gcend an sperma {} sin dealuigter a .5. rannaibh re fedh aimsiri an toirrchis. An cedrann dibh claochluighter a {} tinnsgnedh médughadh ar ngabáil tosaigh on .2. sperma aderur. An dara rann .i. fail reamur {} claochluighter a bfheóil í. An .3. rann .i. fuil tsheimh téchtuighter o fuacht agus claochluighter a methradh í {} fuil maith iomduighes ona gneithibh sin uile agus téid sin cum na gcich agus inntighter an gn{} An .5. rann is imurcach doibh sin uile, mairidh sé annsa maclach1 co ló beirthi an toirrchis {} .15. lá o lá ghabála in toirrchis, bí se re fedh .12. la ele ag géinemuin na fheola {} a fhliuchidhechta agus a smeara smeanntain aga fhaidiughadh. Et a gcend tri la ina dhiaigh sin a {} a craidhi agus a inchinn agus a ae, agus ina dhiaigh sin a imlican, agus gach ni ele bhus follus ina dhiaigh sin, agus is {} rompa thinnsgnus se. Et a gcend .9. la ina dhiaigh sin thinnsgnus an cend sínedh ona guaillibh agus in bhrú ona táobaibh agus na boill foirmillacha on broin. Et a gcend .4. la ina dhiaigh sin crichnuighter an corp uile. Et a gcend .5. la ina dhiaigh sin, innus curob inann sin agus .5. lá agus .40. {} gabhus sé mothughadh chuige, agus sin arna dhubladh is ann gabhus se gluasacht chuige agus is inann sin agus .90. la agus sin arna dhubladh fa tri, innus curob inann sin agus .9. mí {} ann bertur é, agus {} nighter sin a ndruing dona mnaibh, gidh edh is mar sin is minca berar iad.



  1. {} recipit matrix generando spermata patrum.
    Sex in lacte {} linea punctus.
    Incipit agus sanguis .6. post in spermate t{}
    {}tas agus caro fit sequentibus in duodenis
.i. in uair ghabhus  138v {} gcend in sperma {}
  1. Nuchaque longiatur {}
    {}reliquis novem extremis latera distant.
    {} [vente]rque sequentes.
    Perficiunt totum dant m[otum] {}
    [Dup]lica scique dies dant nonagessima totum.
    Si {} [tem]pus triplica totum.
Et a gcend tri la ina dhiaigh sin faidighter {} tigher na tri boill oiridha. Et a gcend .9. la ina dhiaigh sin tinnsg{} a guaillibh. Et a gcend in .4. lá ina dhiaigh sin cruthuighter cúl in chinn {} .5. Et a gcend .5. la ina dhiaigh sin cruthuighter é uile. Dubuil sin uile agus as inann {} .80. Et mas é fis breithi an toirrchisa iarraidh tri-dhubuil sin uile.

[13] Et {} agus methradh amáin on fuil mista, agus geinter na cnamha agus na maothain agus na liga. {} feithe agus na cordaidhi agus na hairteri agus na cuislenda agus na sreabhuinn agus in croicend on da {} mar sin is ail le hAvicenna agus leis na hughduiribh uile é, mar derbhus innstrumint na {} da ngerrtur áonball dona ballaibh spermatica ni hathnuaigighter co fírinnech {} curob é sperma na matur agus in atur ar ngabáil foirme ele is adhbur doibh, gidh edh gabaidh athnuagadh chuice ar son curob on fuil geinter hí, agus curob é a foirm connmhas.

[14] Et a {} coimplex agus furtacht examuil ag na ballaibh comchosmuile so, do reir examlacht phoirsioin {} sa gcoirighter iad, oir ge coirighter in obuir so uile o áonadhbur cumusgdha, gidh edh atá poirsion cinnti ar leith ag gach áonball comchosmuil díph don adhbur le ndlighinn se foirm examail agus furtacht examail do ghabáil chuige, oir do beir Dia cumachtach, nach fuil formadach na sanntach, foirm do gach aonní do reir mar dhleghas meid no loiged in adhbuir.

[15] An cnaimh, imorro, is é is tosach dona ballaibh comchosmuile agus ata fuar tirim agus ataid foirmenda examhla ar fhud an cuirp air, agus ata foirm iomdha exam{} ar son examlacht na bfurtacht ata aige annsa corp. Et is ime sin do himdaighed furtacht na gcnaimh {} ar son gurob eigin  p.282 ball do ghluasacht gan ball ele, agus ni fédfuighi so da madh áonchnaimh do bheith annsna ballaibh {} ata cuid ele dhibh mar sgeith a goin na mball mar ataid cnamha in chloiginn, agus ata cuid ele ina {} mar ataid cnamha in droma agus na gcos agus na lamh, agus ata cuid ele mar armaibh agus ina {} cnamha a táobaibh alt in droma agus ata cuid ele linus na cabhain vís a ce{} vis follus isna lamaibh agus isna cosaibh. Et ata cuid dona cnamaibh sin cruinn ag {} na mball le gcengultur iad, agus ní luguide ata gluasacht aca sin, mar ataid {}

Document details

The TEI Header

File description

Title statement

Title (uniform): On the Qualitees, Maners and Kunnynge of a Surgean

Title (supplementary): From RIA MS 443 (23 N 16)

Title (original): Chirurgia Magna Lanfranci [Fragment]

Editor: Winifred Wulff

Author: Lanfranc of Milan

Responsibility statement

translated into Irish by: Séamus mac Gearóid Uí Fiongaini

Electronic edition (based on a file donated by Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge) compiled by: Beatrix Färber

Funded by: School of History, University College, Cork

Edition statement

1. Second draft, revised and enlarged

Extent: 8730 words

Publication statement

Publisher: CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts: a project of University College, Cork

Address: College Road, Cork, Ireland—http://www.ucc.ie/celt

Date: 2016

Date: 2020

Distributor: CELT online at University College, Cork, Ireland.

CELT document ID: G600019

Availability: Available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike (cc by-nc-sa). More information about Winifred Wulff's Life and Work is available on the CELT website at https://celt.ucc.ie//wulff.html.

Notes statement

This text was first made available in electronic form by Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge on http://www.ria.ie/research/focloir-na-Nua-Ghaeilge.aspx.

Source description

MS sources

  • Dublin, Royal Irish Academy, MS 23 N 16 (MS 443), fol. 133v, l. 17–138v. This is described by Wulff as 'a small quarto paper MS'. Digital scans of this manuscript are available on the ISOS Project, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, see: http://www.dias.ie/isos/.

Printed source for Latin text

  • Lanfranc, Chirurgia Magna, Venice 1490; reprinted Venice 1546. Wulff used the Latin reprint for the facing text on the odd pages of her edition.

Select bibliography

  1. La cirugia de maestre lanfranco mediolanense, Sevilla 1495. (A Spanish translation of Chirurgia magna and Chirurgia parva.) Available at http://fondosdigitales.us.es/fondos/libros/463/4/la-cirugia-de-maestre-lanfranco-mediolanense/.
  2. Robert v. Fleischhacker, (ed and trans.), Lanfrank's "Science of cirurgie". Edited from the Bodleian Ashmole Ms. 1396 (ab. 1380 A.D.) and the British Museum Additional Ms. 12,056 (ab. 1420 A.D.) D1. I: Text. An edition of a middle English translation. Published 1894, available at https://quod.lib.umich.edu/c/cme/AHA2727/1:;view=fulltext.
  3. Robert Ritter von Töply, Studien zur Geschichte der Anatomie im Mittelalter (Leipzig 1898).
  4. Karl Sudhoff, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Chirurgie im Mittelalter. Part II (Leipzig 1918). Available at; https://archive.org/details/BIUSante_24437x11_12/mode/2up/search/Beiträge+zur+Geschichte+der+Chirurgie+im+Mittelalter?q=Beiträge+zur+Geschichte+der+Chirurgie+im+Mittelalter.
  5. Paul Walsh, 'Notes of two Irish medical scribes', Irish Ecclesiastical Record 5:20 (July–December 1922) 113–22.
  6. John D. Comrie, History of Scottish medicine (London, published for the Wellcome historical medical museum by Baillière, Tindall & Cox 1932). Available at: https://archive.org/details/b20457273M002.
  7. H. E. Sigerist, A History of Medicine, 2 vols. (London 1951–1961).
  8. Eduard Seidler, Die Heilkunde des ausgehenden Mittelalters in Paris. Studien zur Struktur der spätscholastischen Medizin. Wiesbaden, 1967. Sudhoffs Archiv - Beihefte 8.
  9. Enrica J. Ardemagni (ed) Guido Lanfranc of Milan. Texto y Concordancias de Compendio de cirugía. Biblioteca Nacional MS. 2147 (Madison: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies 1988).
  10. Guadalupe Albi Romero, Lanfranco de Milán en España: estudio y edición de la Magna Chirurgia en traducción castellana medieval, coll. "Acta historico-medica Vallisoletana", Valladolid 1988.
  11. Nancy G. Siraisi, Medieval and Early Renaissance Medicine (London: Univ. of Chicago Press 1990).
  12. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha, 'Irish medical manuscripts', Irish Pharmacy Journal 69/5 (May 1991) 201–2.
  13. Willem Frans Daems, Nomina simplicium medicinarum ex synonymariis Medii Ævi collecta. Semantische Untersuchungen zum Fachwortschatz hoch- und spätmittelalterlicher Drogenkunde (Leiden: Brill, 1993). (Studies in Ancient Medicine 6).
  14. Cornelius O'Boyle, The Art of Medicine: Medical Teaching at the University of Paris, 1250–1400. (Leiden: Brill 1998). (Education and Society in the Middle Ages and Renaissance 9.)
  15. Joris Reynaert, 'Over medische kennis in de late Middeleeuwen. De Middelnederlandse vertaling van Lanfrancs Chirurgia magna', in: Millennium. Tijdschrift voor middeleeuwse studies 13 (1999) 21–30.
  16. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha, 'Medical writing in Irish', in: J. B. Lyons (ed), Two thousand years of Irish medicine (Dublin 1999) 21–26. Published also in Irish Journal of Medical Science 169/3 (July–September 2000) 217–20 (available online at http://www.celt.dias.ie/gaeilge/staff/rcsi1.html).
  17. Michael R. McVaugh, "Surgical Education in the Middle Ages" in DYNAMIS, Acta Hispanical Medical Science 2000, Hist. Illus. 20: 283–304.
  18. Erwin Huizenga and Joris Reynaert, De Middelnederlandse vertalingen van de Chirurgia magna van Lanfranc van Milaan: Een vergelijkende editie van de preliminaire hoofdstukken, in: Verslagen en mededelingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Nederlandse taal- en letterkunde (2002), 229–369. Available online at Digitale Bibliotheek voor de Nederlandse letteren, at https://www.dbnl.org/tekst/_ver016200201_01/_ver016200201_01_0010.php (with bibliographic details).
  19. Leonard D. Rosenman and Robert von Fleischhacker, The Surgery of Lanfranchi of Milan. A Modern English Translation. Philadelphia (2003). (See also item 2.)
  20. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha, 'Téacs ó scoil leighis Achaidh Mhic Airt', ed. by Pádraig Ó Macháin, Ossory, Laois and Leinster, 1 (2004) 50–75.
  21. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha, 'Winifred Wulff (1895–1946): beatha agus saothar', in: Léachtaí Cholm Cille 35 (Maigh Nuad [Maynooth]: An Sagart 2005) 191–250.
  22. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha, 'The medical school of Aghmacart, Queen's Co.', Ossory, Laois and Leinster 2 (2006) 11–43.
  23. Michael R. McVaugh, The Rational Surgery of the Middle Ages, (Florence: Sismel/Edizioni del Galluzzo 2006).
  24. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha, 'On stretching and yawning: a text from the medical school at Aghmacart, Queen's County', Ossory, Laois and Leinster 3 (2008) 239–69.
  25. Michele Goyens and Pieter De Leemans (eds), Science Translated: Latin and Vernacular Translations of Scientific Treatises in Medieval Europe. Mediaevalia Lovaniensia. Series 1, Studia 40 (Leuven: Leuven University Press 2008).
  26. Anathomia Gydo, ed. Eithne Ní Gallchobhair (Dublin: Irish Texts Society, 2014).
  27. Beatrix Faerber (=Färber), 'A text preserved at the Aghmacart Medical School: Bernard de Gordon's De Prognosticis, Book II, 9', in: Ossory, Laois and Leinster 7 (2019) 100–122 (cf especially paragraph 3 of Lanfranc's treatise).

The edition used in the digital edition

‘On the Qualitees, Maners and Kunnynge of a Surgean’ (1930). In: Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie‍ 18. Ed. by Rudolf Thurneysen, pp. 249–286.

You can add this reference to your bibliographic database by copying or downloading the following:

  editor 	 = {Winifred Wulff},
  title 	 = {On the Qualitees, Maners and Kunnynge of a Surgean},
  journal 	 = {Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie},
  editor 	 = {Rudolf Thurneysen},
  number 	 = {18},
  address 	 = {Halle/Saale},
  publisher 	 = {Max Niemeyer},
  date 	 = {1930},
  pages 	 = {249–286}


Encoding description

Project description: CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts

Sampling declarations

The present text represents Wulff's Introduction and the Irish text, covering pp. 249–255, and even pages 254–282. Wulff's glossary on pages 282–286 was omitted. Footnotes are omitted. The Latin text, printed by Wulff on the odd pages, will be made available in a separate file in 2020.

Editorial declarations

Correction: Text has been checked and proofread twice.

Normalization: The electronic text represents the edited text. Where the hardcopy uses italics to denote expansions in the electronic text ex tags are used instead. However, Wulff marked only a small number of expansions of the manuscript abbreviations. The translation comprises only a small part of Lanfranc's Chirurgia Magna.

Quotation: Direct speech is rendered q.

Hyphenation: Soft hyphens are silently removed. Words containing a hard or soft hyphen crossing a page-break or line-break have been placed on the line on which they start.

Segmentation: div0=the whole text; div1=the Tractatus; div2=the Doctrina; div3=the Capitulum. Paragraphs are numbered in line with the printed edition, page-breaks are marked pb n=""; milestones are marked mls unit="MS folio" n="".

Standard values: Dates are standardized in the ISO form yyyy-mm-dd.

Reference declaration

A canonical reference to a location in this text should be made using “Capitulum”, eg Capitulum 1.

Profile description

Creation: The text was translated by Séamus mac Gearóid Uí Fiongaini.

Date: 1606

Language usage

  • The text and footnotes are in Early Modern Irish. (ga)
  • The front matter is in English. (en)
  • Some terms and phrases are in Latin. (la)
  • Two words are in Greek. (gr)

Keywords: medical; prose; medieval; 14c; surgery; Lanfranc of Milan; Chirurgia Magna; scholarship; translation (17c)

Revision description

(Most recent first)

  1. 2020-02-17: File parsed and validated, updated SGML and HTML files created. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  2. 2020-02-03: Poem on p. 282 re-encoded according to Latin model. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  3. 2020-01-31: Bibliographical references added, new word count made. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  4. 2020-01-29: Header modified. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  5. 2018-03-26: Bibliographical references added; new wordcount made. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  6. 2017-02-17: Note added regarding contraction of 'maclach', p. 278 and bibliographical reference. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  7. 2016-05-17: SGML and HTML files created. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  8. 2016-05-16: File proofed (2); TEI header created, file parsed and validated. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  9. 2016-05: Introduction typed in; file encoded in accordance with CELT standards: encoding and numbering of divisions, subdivisions and headings. Encoding of Latin text where necessary, limited amount of content encoding applied for personal names and book titles; correction of some typos. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  10. 2016-04: Proofed text with basic XML encoding donated. (ed. Foclóir na Nua-Ghaeilge, Royal Irish Academy, Dublin)

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  1. This word is contracted in the manuscript: m, superscript c, l, suspension stroke. [BF] 🢀


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