CELT document G600021

An Irish Version of Gualterus de Dosibus

Introduction: Walter of Agilon (fl. 1250) and his works.

Not much is known about this author. His name has many variants: Galterius Agilus or Agilinus, Gualterus (de) Agilis or Agilinus or Agilonis or Agilon or Agulum, Agulinus, Gautier d'Agiles, Gualterus de Afguillo, Valtherus Agilo, Walter de Agilon, Walter of Agilon, Walter Agilo, Walter de Agelon, Walterus Agulinus, Walterus Agulum, Waltherus Medicus, Waltherus Salernitanus have all been used.

In Alcuin and MIRABILEWEB we find the following medical tracts, all undated, attributed to him: Compendium urinarum; Contenta urinarum; De contentis urinarum; De dosi medicinarum; De urinis; Febres (=Tractatus de febribus); Glossule super versus Egidii; Liber pulsum (=Liber de pulsibus); Modus iudicandi urinas; Summa medicinalis (=Practica medicinalis). The Compendium urinarum was edited by J. Pfeffer in 1891, and the Summa medicinalis by Diepgen in 1911. For the remaining tracts there are no editions recorded. Even the new focus of popular wisdom, Wikipedia, has as yet (December 2017) no entry on him. So when Diepgen complained, over a hundred years ago, that Walter of Agilon was neglected this still rings true.

His nationality is uncertain, and Diepgen hinted at a Spanish background, based on the name Aguilon “which is very common in that peninsula, and the mentioning of Spanish coins” (5) in the Summa, though Francesco Puccinotti in Storia della Medicina suggested that he was French. There is in fact a community of Aguilón in Zaragoza, Aragón, which settlement was established by the 12th century at latest, but no research has been done in this respect. (As Michael McVaugh has pointed out (1), due to the existence of a medieval papermill in Xàtiva (Valencia), which was part of the Kingdom of Aragón, there was a “remarkable series of royal and municipal records” made for the crown of Aragón still extant in the archives.) Walter was given the epithet “Salernus” in Clm 325, fol. 36v–38v. He is accepted to have been active between 1240 and 1250, and according to De Renzi (Collectio Salernitana, I, 293) he may have been a witness in a document written in 1272. Diepgen characterises the De Dosibus as a pharmacological tract in the arabistic manner, written before the Practica medicinalis, as it is cited there. The editors of Arnaldi de Villanova Opera medica omnia call it “simply a close paraphrase of Haly Abbas' rules in the Pantegni for compounding medicines” (29). This may be one of the reasons why it has not attracted more interest.

Diepgen names Walter's Summa as his longest and most important work, as Walter strove to provide a practical guide for treating all illnesses, diseases and ailments, including the most pertinent sections of surgery and obstetrics, at a time when the teaching of the scholastics began to gain ground in the art of healing (6). The Summa shows strong Arabic influence.

However, from an Irish perspective De Dosibus holds a lot of interest, too, firstly for the terminology that has been used, or even created, by Cormac Mac Duinnshléibhe. He participated in shaping and consolidating Irish medical, anatomical, pharmaceutical and botanical terms, being a prolific translator whose works were often copied. But there is quite a number of terms that have not yet made their way into Irish dictionaries. Terminology appearing in Sheahan's glossary on pp 147–178 was not excerpted to add entries in the Royal Irish Academy's Dictionary of the Irish Language (edited between 1913 to 1976, when it was finally published). This is evinced by the fact that De Dosibus does not appear in the sources listed there.

Secondly, it tells us a lot about the reception of medieval medical literature. De Dosibus was just another work that was copied, and copied again, be it in compendia, or in an Irish doctor's vademecum, to be studied in conjunction with similar works. Sometimes digests and extracts of longer works were added to thematically related tracts under the direction of an ollamh leighis, or professor of medicine, in a medical school, as Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha has observed. There is much more to be explored to find out how the Irish doctors shaped and assimilated the learning gleaned from scholastic teaching on the continent which included both medicine and natural philosophy. Since there were no universities in Ireland at the time, the medical schools had a similar function to universities on the continent and in England. Pupils from the hereditary families of healers would learn their art there for many years, serving the master as his amanuenses, and travelling with him, assisting him on his travels through the country when he was called to patients.

When cataloguing Harley 546, O'Grady stated (177) that the medical tract was written by Cormac himself, based on the colophon on f. 11, col. 2: “Táirnic ann sin libhur Galteruis do dosisib na leigheas. Cormac Mac Duinnthshléibi do cuir in thsuim so a nGaeidheilg do Diarmaid mac Domnaill hí Leighin ocus gur fhoghna dosan ocus dá cloind a tarbhaigi do comáin et rel. In cethrumhadh lá do Kl. april do críchnaighedh in forcedal so a Cluain Uamha sa bliadain darb annala don Tigerna in nuimhirsi do bliadnaib 1459.” This means Cormac translated it, but not that he wrote the manuscript text.

Among the five manuscripts Sheahan used, he found none to be the original. He concluded this from a comparison of the hand with that in London BL Arundel 333, which contains text written by Cormac, according to a colophon on folio 113b. Sheahan's stemma (32) shows the original copy O from which two intermediate copies branch off, X and X1. From X, two intermediate copies Y and Y1 derive. From Y, the existing B (=RIA 445) and H (=TCD 1326) are derived. From Y1, H2 (=TCD 1312) is derived. From X1, two intermediate copies Z and Z1 are descended. From Z, E (=TCD 1436) is derived, and from Z1, Har (=BL Harley 546).

Concerning the language, Sheahan (33) stated “the language of the fifteenth century does not differ much from that of the present.” For a study of the grammatical forms, he referred to Eleanor Knott's Bardic Poems of Tadhg Dall Ó Huiginn (1550-1591) (London 1926) and James A. Geary's doctoral dissertation An Irish version of Innocent III's De contemptu mundi, (Washington D.C. 1931). The latter contains a translation of the Latin text into Irish by William Mac Givney (Maguibhne) completed by 1443.

At Sheahan's time of writing, and before, the perception that the language of the fifteenth century was not much different from that of the “present day” seems to have been common among scholars in the field who were familiar with literature from this transitional period. An infamous example was Osborn Bergin, who deemed even a translation of the Irish Grammatical Tracts unnecessary. However, modern scholarship has abandoned those notions of oligarchic hegemonial knowledge. It is hoped that making available this edition electronically will instead contribute to a more nuanced understanding of Early Modern Irish, certainly in the genre of medical literature where a lot of work still awaits.

Beatrix Färber, School of History, University College Cork.

Walter de Agilon/Galterius Agilinus

De Dosibus Medicinarum

Edited by Shawn Sheahan

An Irish Version of Gualterus de Dosibus

1. De Dosibus Medicinarum

MEDICINARUM QUEDAM SUNT SIMPLICES quedam composite: .i. ata cuid dona leigheasaibh aenda cuid ele comsuigigthi. Et is iat so is leighis aenda ann mar adeir Avicenna, na leigis ag a fuilid oibrighti uilidhi no rannaidhi, no oibrighti cosmaile re h-oibrightibh uilidhi. Oibrighti uilidhi mar teghadh, fuarad, innarbad, tarraing, a cosmaile.


Oibrighti rannaidhi, iomorro, mar is follus a n-aloe sicotrinum ag denum furtachta don cannscer, a n-athair talman san emoroides, rostrum porcinum .i. scariola ag denamh furtachta san ícteiricia, a cosmaile. Oibrighti cosmaile re h-oibrightibh uilidhi mar ata an leigheas toghairmios an fual lagas an bru a cosmaile. Et is uime sin aderar oibrighti cosmaile re h-oibrightibh uilidhi riu ar a mbeith in a n-oibrightibh neithed is comcoitcinn sochar no urcoid don corp uile.


Et nod let go fuil cuid dona leigheasaibh aenda do míanach, cuid ele do plandaighaibh cuid ele d'áinmintibh. Leighis aenda do mianach mar ata smaraigd, safir, niamhainn a cosmaile. Do planndaibh, iomorro: mar ata duilleabar, silta, fremha, slata, blatha, tortha, gran. Et nod let gurob amlaidh dlegar an duilleabar do gnathugadh in tan tinnsgnaid cainndigeacht dleisdinach do beith co h-imlan acu, mairid in a cruth fein gan claochlod datha gan tuitim. Na silta, iomorro: is and dlegar a tinol an tan cricnaightir a cainndigeacht, tirmaigtir a n-omhacht, a rigneacht. Na frema, iomorro, as ann dlegir an ghabhail in tan tuiteas an duilleabar. Na torta, iomorro, is ann dlegir a tinol sul tuitid no sul bid ullam cum tuitme ar cricniugad a n-imlaine oir is ann as du a timargad in tan is imlan a nert.


An leigheas aenda, iomorro, gabar ona  p.48 h-ainmintibh ata no bid cuid de do ballaibh na n-ainmnidheg cuid ele da flighaibh cuid da n-imurcachaibh. Da mballaibh, mar ata an domblas ae na h-aé féin na boill ar ceana. Do na h-imurcachaibh, mar ata an fual, an firadh. Do na fligaibh mar ata an fuil, an bainne, binit. Et nod let ag togha na leigheas aenda gabar o na h-ainmigibh co ndlegar na h-ainminti do thoga ga mbid cuirp slana laidre, baill imlana ais og.


Et is e is leigheas comsuigigthi ann, iomorro, an legheas comsuigigtir o leigheasaibh aenda, no o leigheasaibh comsuigigti ele, mar adeir Avicenna ór as mor dona comsuigigtibh do-nitir o leigheasaibh aenda agus comsuigigthi mar is follus isin triacla do-nitir do leigheasaibh aenda agus do leigheasaibh comsuigigti mar atait na tri troisisi teid innti noch ata na leigheasaibh comsuigigthi agus is uime sin bis breitemneas ag an legeas comsuigigthi o na leigheasaibh aenda, agus breitemneas ona foirm uilidhe. 1


Et nod let mar adeir Avicenna, no Constantinus a tosach a Anntidara fein co fuil comsuigiugadh na leigheas aenda eiginteach ar son nac leor e do slanugadh na n-uile galar ar tri cuisibh. Ar cead cuis dib: do leith naduire na ngalar. An dara cuis: do leith na mball eslinn. An tres cuis: do leith naduire an leighis aenda. Agus uime sin do rinnidar na seinleagha arna comheigniúgadh on eiginteas so leigheas comsuigigthe dona leigheasaibh aenda, innus co fedfaidis a n-inntinn do coimlinadh a ngach uile easlinn aenda, agus comsuigiugadh co foirbfe tarbach.


Oibrigti an leighis comsuigigthi do leith naduire na ngalar, tuictir sin o ceithre modhibh no o ceithre cuisibh. An cead cuis dib: o exsamhlacht cainndigachta an droc coimplexa. 2 An dara cuis: o meit an galair. An tres cuis: o cailibh exsamhla an galair. An cetharama cuis: o catugadh galar egsamhail.



Comsuigigtir an leigheas ar son cainndigeachta na ngalar ndroch coimplex amail exsamail mar is follus an tan do-gabar droch complex te, no fuar an cuirp, maille re canndigacht eigín nac eidir do claoclod ó aen legeas aenda; as uime sin as eigin aen leigheas comsuigigthi do denamh o leigheasaibh aenda exsamla sa cainndigeacht ceadna noch fedeas cathugadh re caindigeacht droc complexa an cuirp. Verbi gracia, ma ta an corp arna ainmesrugadh a tesaigheacht sa dara ceim, agus nach fagtar leigheas aenda fuar contrarda sa ceim sin, gabhthar dá leigheas aenda ann .i. leigheas te sa cead ceim agus leigheas fuar sa tres ceim agus ar na comusg agus ar na comsuigiugadh so beid fuar sa dara ceim.


Ar son meide an galair consuigigtir an leigheas oir an tan bhis an galar mor laidir as eigin da leigheas aenda no ni as lia do comsuigiugadh innus co sgrister an galar leo arna comsuigiugadh. Do leith contrardachta caile an galair comsuigigtir an leigheas oir in tan bid brigha contrarda ag an galar dlegar an leigheas do comsuigiugadh o neitibh contrarda. Virbi gracia mar as follus a fledmon darob imcubaid leigheas comsuigigthi mar ata leigheas discailteach, agus leigheas innfuartha.


Ar son cathuigthi na ngalar exsamail comsuigigtir an leigheas oir an tan bes aen galar arna denamh o neitibh exsamla do reir naduire agus caile, as eigín a dícar le h-aen leigheas inann beas exsamail do reir naduire agus caile, agus is i so an cuis do reir Constantinus ma comsuigigtir an triacla o leigheasaibh aenda imda ar son go fuil brigh aice do catugadh ris na galaraibh pestilensaca, agus risin neim marbthaigh.

An dara cuingeall [cuis H] dona ceithre cuingeallaibh noch do-gabar o na ballaibh easlana comsuigigtir an leigheas da leith so ar da cuisibh. An cead cuis dibh do leith inaidh na mball. An dara cuis do leith a n-uaisleachta.



Do leith imgeine an inaidh, imorro, comsuigigtir an leigheas mar is follus da mbia an ball easlan a fad on gaile an a ngabtar an leigheas ar tus as eigin an leigheas do beith comsuigigthi gu nach anbfuinntir go mor he on n-imgeine innus nach feadfad tolladh d'innsaighi an boill agus as uime sin curtar an croch oirrtirac is na leigheasaibh oir do beir orra tolladh co luath agus o h-urasa cum na mball.


Ar son uaisleachta an boill comsuigigtir an leigheas mar is follus da mbia nesgoid ar na h-aeibh ata n-a mball uasal. Oir adeir Galen curab eigin leigheas do comsuigiugadh o neithibh disgailtaca ded-baladh agus o neithibh sdipicda innus co coimetar brigh an boill uasail o neithibh deg-balad agus nac ligid na neithe stipacda substaint an boill uasail do disgaileadh o neitibh disgailtaca.


In tres cuingill dona ceithre cuingeallaibh do-gabar o naduir an leighis aenda tuctir e o h-ocht cuisaibh. An cead cuis dibh: aduathmairacht an leighis aenda. An dara cuis; d'isliugadh a laidireacht. An tres cuis: do certugadh a urcoidighi. An cethramad cuis: do nertugadh a brigh. An cuigeadh cuis: do turnam no do laigdiugadh a foireignidi. An sémadh cuis: da coimed i na cail fein. An sechtmad cuis: exsamhlacht na neithe le ndentar an t-oibriugadh. An t-ochtmad cuis: esbadh furtachta an aen leighis ina h-aenar .


Ar son aduatmairachta an leighis comsuigigtir an leigheas oir an tan is aduathmar blas an leighis agus nac eidir a gabail na a connmail isin gaile cumusgtir leigheas ded-baladh ded-blasda ris do claoclod a aduathmaracht agus is uime sin adubairt Ipocras an milbocain do cumusg re h-eliborus nigir agus adubairt Galen anís do cumusg re sgamonia.

Do turnamh ro laidirechta an leighis, comsuigigtir an leigheas oir an tan bis an leigheas ro-laidir, mar ata an t-opium noch ata fuar sa cethramad ceim go cumusgtir castorium noch ata te ris do turnam a fuara imarcaidhe.



Do certugadh urcoidi an leighis comsuigigtir an leigheas oir in tan bis an leigheas contrarda don eslinn agus brigh urcoidighthi don ball a fuil an eslinn aigi mar ata scamonia noch urcoidigeas don goile agus dona h-aeibh gurob eigin pibur dub agus anis do cumusg ria.

Do neartugadh an leighis comsuigigtir an leighis in tan is anfann é mar as follus isin irios ga cumusg risin triacla agus accorus3 risin n-agairg.


Do laidiugadh a brighi cumuissgtir an leigheas, oir an tan bis an leigheas ro-te ro-geir cumuisgitir leigheas ele ris turnes a teas agus a geire mar as follus a n-gum arabicum ga cumusc risin triacla.

Do coimed brighi an leighis innus nach morga se comsuigigtir an leigheas, oir is eigin don liaig uarainn an leighis do coimed agus re h-aimsir fada agus is uime sin comsuigigtir an leigheas co nach decha a mbrigh asdu, as eigin ni do comusg riu do coimed a mbrigh mar is follus an opium ga cumusg ris na leigheasaibh comsuigigthi ele.  4


O examlacht na neithe le ndentar an t-oibriugadh comsuigigtir an leigheas oir in tan nach fagann an liaigh aen leigheas ana aener contrarda don eslinn, cumuscter leigheas ele ris mar as fiolus is na tretadhaib gurob eigin ceir, agus ola, agus pic do cumusg innta innus co a dh-usaidi, no go mu moide do bedais lenamhnach don ball.


O easbadh furtachta an leighis aenda comsuigigtir an leigheas oir in tan nac faghtar furtacht uilidhi a n-aigidh na h-eslinni a n-aen leigheas aenda as eigin leighis exsamla contrarda do comsuigiugadh agus aen leigheas do genam dib mar is follus is na cnedaibh inab eigin leighis cnedsaighti agus leighis fasda feola do comsuigiugadh mar ata in leigheas comsuigitir o mírr agus o tuis cona cosmaile. Ma isead as follus gurob eigin do  p.56 na leagaibh resunta leigheas comsuigigthi do denamh dona leighis aenda agus is leor duinn ar trachdamar dona leigheasaibh aenda agus labram dona leigheasaibh comsuigigthi is eigin ar tus labairt do cainndighacht medaighti na leigheas aend noc as incuir sa leigheas comsuigigthi, oir mar adeir Constantinus o bis an leigheas examail ina cailib agus ina furtachtaibh agus ina brioghaibh is eigin becan do cur do leigheasaibh ann agus moran do leigheasaibh ele, agus meid medhonach do leigheasaibh eli.


Et atait da cuis ma n-ordaigtir dosis ag an leigheas aenda curtar is in leigheas comsuigigthi .i. cuis do leith an leighis aenda, agus cuis do leith an leighis comsuigigthi fein.

Do leith an leighis aenda fogailter sin a secht cuisibh. An cead cuis dibh: laidreacht no anfainne brighi an leighis. An dara cuis: met no loiged a furtachta. An tres cuis: uaisleacht no anuaisleacht a furtachta. An cethramad cuis: coimceangal an leighis re leigheas ele a denamh furtachta, no beith ina aenar. An cúigedh cuis: inad an baill easlain. An sémadh cuis: urchoid an leighis aenda. An sechtmad cuis: an tan bis ni cumuisgi is in leigheas comsuigigthi loigdigheas furtacht an neith ele bis ann.


As mar so do-gabar dosis do reir brighi an leighis aenda oir da mbia an leigheas ro-te mar ata euforibium no ro fuar mar ata opium is eigin began do cuir isin leigheas comsuigigthi de, agus da mbia anfand an a teas mar ata reubarbrum no n-a fuaireacht mar ata mirbulaini sitrini as eigin moran do cur ann de.


Dosis o met no o loighed an furtachta oir da mbia leigheas aenda agus furtacht mor aigi dlegar moran do cur is in leigheas comsuigigthi de mar as follus isin ireos do cur faris an agairg, agus mad beg a furtacht as beg dlegar do cur ann de.



Dosis o uaisle an furtachta oir is mo go mor dlegar do cur de sa leigheas in tan sin na in tan is anuasal a furtacht agus aderar furtacht uasal an leighis in tan calmightir boill oireaghda no uaisli leis mar ata smaragdus a calmugadh an cride agus an galingan a calmugadh an gaile; agus spodium a calmugadh na n-ae, oir is eigin moran dib so do cur isin leigheas comtsuigigthi.


Dosis o coimceangal an furtachta mar as follus in tan bis leigheas aenda sa leigheas agus nac bi disleacht aigi acht fare leigheas ele, dlegar moran don leigheas sin do cur sa comsuigiugadh mar ata uiola ag nach fuil disleacht an aigidh ainnteasa na n-ae, acht maille re sandaile agus re ros agus is uime sin dlegar moran do sanndaile agus do ros do cur faria.


Dosis an leighis o inad suighti, an boill, exsamhailtir hi oir da mbia an ball eslan a fad on gaile is eigin moran don leigheas fognus do cur sa comsuigiugadh agus mbia a ngar do as bec a sin curtar ann de.


Dosis an leighis ona urchoid: examaltir sin oir da mbia aen leigheas inann ag furtacht ball airithi agus ag denamh urchoidi do ballaibh ele as becan dlegar de mar ata campora ag denamh tarba dona h-aeibh agus ag denamh urchoidi don incinn.


Dosis do leith comsuigigthi an leighis: examailtir hi oir da mbia an leigheas comsuigigthi a mbeid neithe contrarda agus ni dib ag laigdiugadh brigh a neith ele is eigin moran don leigheas furtachtach agus becan don leigheas urchoidech de cur ann agus iat so cuisi dosisi na leigheas aenda curtar is na leigheasaibh comsuigigthi; agus reir na cuisinn so oirdeochum n-ar ndiaigh.

Et nod let curob inann na cuise as coir dfecain a ndosisibh na leigheas enda, agus a  p.60 ndosisibh na leigheas comsuigigthi. Nod let, fos, co fuil cuid dona leigeasaib lagtaca aenda, agus cuid ele comsuigigthi.


Na leighis aenda lacacha, iomorro ata cuid dibh lagus ag tarrang mar ata sgamonia, agus cuid ele ag fasgadh mar ata mirbolani agus cuid ele a miniugadh mar ata casia fisdola. Et gac uile leigheas mar adeir Constantinus noch folmuiges o brigh atarrangtaigh ata substaint ro-nemhneachcontrarda don naduir aigi, agus is uime sin as eigin don liaigh in tan do-bera he gac aen ni do denamh maille re raesun, agus a tabairt do reir na brighi, agus na h-aimsire, agus egoisg agus na h-aisi, agus a tabairt co h-innill resunta go nac caocloidtir an corp o na coimplex fein cum complexa ele as measa, agus nac fagha bas.


Virbi gracia da tuctar sgamonia a med ro-moir, no i fein, do beith olc no a tabairt co h-aenda, no ar na comsuigiugadh le leigheas ele, furtachtaigheas a geire, no a tabairt a n-aimsir samhraidh folmuighidh go mor agus laidir, agus laigdigh an tes nadura agus treoraigh singcopis, agus cumgaidh bel an goile agus co h-airidhti mad linn fuar tiagirnios ann. Gidhed, da tuctar hi a med measardha agus hí féin do beith measra mait agus arna srianugadh le h-ainís no le masdix no arna berbadh a pastae minighios a geiraighacht, agus a tabairt do mnaibh agus a n-ais oig, agus do droing a tiagirnnind linn ruad agus is tarbach an tan sin hí, agus is raesunta do-bertar, agus tuic mar an ceadna dona leigheasaibh lagtaca ele.


Nod let co fuil cuid dona leigheasaibh aenda folmuiges maille re brigh attarrangtach ag folmugadh leanna ruad mar ata sgamonía agus reubarbrum agus reuponticum ma seadh an uair bus ail leat leigheas do tabairt do sgamonia dena mar so .i. gab da scrubul no a tri do sgamonia agus dena pudar de, gideadh na bris go ro min mar na spisartaib  p.62 ele oir do leanfadh do uillibh an gaile ona seimhe agus on a righne, agus do fedfad urchoid do denamh mar sin, agus tabair sa dosis deram inar ndiaigh ar na cumusg mar a dubramar romaind.


SCAMONE QUIDEM EST SUCUS CUIUSDAM UOLUBILIS5 .i. iseadh is sgamonia ann sugh gne feithleogi .i. luib fasas leathatoir do muir agus is gne don titimallus hí agus mairidh a brigh co ceann deigh mbliagan fichet innti. ELECIO: .i. togha, asi gne as ferr disleacht di in gne bis examail ag dul a ngili agus hi so-briste no so-disgailti co luath.


Natura: .i. as i a naduir beit te tirm sa tres ceim, agus folmuigidh linn ruadh o na ballaib a ceim agus o urchoides don gaile agus dona h-aeibh, agus don droing ag a mbi naduir anfann. Certaightir hí re na tabairt maille re scrubul do mastix ar ndeanamh pudar de, agus ar na cumusg ria. No ma sa nec (i.e. nech) ag a fuil complex te e curtir an sgamonía a peiri no a n-ubhall omh ar na folmugadh co h-inmedhonac, maille ris an pudar adubramar agus curtar pastae n-a timcill agus curtar a n-uamhaidh no a teinidh da rostad. Agus beantar as an ubaill da eisi hi, agus tirmaigtir a n-inad dorca, agus tabartar as a h-aithle, agus o sa luath do-ni disintiria, agus cumgach gaile, agus is uime sin nac dlegar a tabairt a n-eslinnibh an gaile no na n-ae, munba ro arrsaidh iat. Ma sead toghtar an gne as ferr di.


Riaghail annso .i. nach dlegar an leigheas ina mbia sgamonía do tabairt a ndroch-coimplex te an gaile no na n-ae no an domblas ae, no na n-arann. Dosis: as i a dosis ro-beg, scrubul agus a dosis as mo da scrubul. Et nod let go n-abuir Galen gurob i gne as ferr di an gne tig o Antiochia ag a mbi a dath a dul a ngile agus is urusa a brisidh agus in an brister hí a dath do beith a cosmaileas gloine. Et nod let mad le fein  p.64 no maille re leigheas ele gurob sa dosis adubramar dlegar a tabairt. Feineit.


REUBARBARUM QUIDEM UT quidam dicunt est radix cuiusdam arboris: iseadh is reubarbarum ann do reir droinge eigin premh croinn, agus do-gabar hi a cosmaileas cnapain. Et nod let go fuil reubarum ann re n-aberar barbarum noch do gabar a tiraibh barbardha mar ata a n-Innia agus na tirtha o muir soir. Agus reubarbarum ele re n-aberar ponticum ar son gurob isin n-oilen re n-aberar Ponntos do gabar no ar blas poinnticdha do beith air agus ata gne ele buidhe do cumusgi maille re duibhe eigin, agus bidh daingen agus poinnticacht agus seirbi agus geiri ann. Natura: as inann naduir doib uile agus ataid te tirm sa dara ceim agus folmuigid linn ruadh on gaile agus o na h-aeibh agus as uime sin as imcubaid iat an eslinnibh an goile agus na n-ae mar ata an fiabras. Dosis: as leor mar dosis as mo di leis fein no a siroip agus co leith unsa agus mar dosis as lugha de co da dragma.


REUPONTICUM: te tirm sa dara ceim agus is ro-cosmail e re reubarbram agus is amhlaid as fearr, e a beit trom cruind agus cuisleanna eidirdeilighti ann mar bis sa reubarbrum agus folmuigidh linn ruadh on goile agus o na h-aeib gideadh ní dathaigeand mar do ni reubarbrum agus as imcubaid e an eslinni an gaile agus na n-ae agus a tuctar he maille re sud feineil osclaiti duinti na seilgi, agus as leor mar doisis as mo de leis fein no maille re leigheas ele gu unsa no co let unsa no mar dosis as lugha co da dragma.


DICTO DE MEDICINIS SIMPLICIBUS atractiuis purgantibus coleram dicendum est de medicinis simplicibus atractiuis purgantibus flema: .i. ar labairt dona leigheasaibh aenda atarrangtaca folmuiges linn ruad is innlabartha dona  p.66 leigheasaibh aenda atarrangtaca folmuiges linn fuar mar ata colacuintida agus turbid agus agairg agus ermodactaile agus esola euforbium agus eliborus albus.


Colacuintida quidem est pomum cuiasdam arboris et cetera .i. isead is colacuintida and .i. uball cuasacach, no torad croinn fasas isin doman toir a timcill Ierusaleim agus do-bertar cucurbita alaxandrina d'ainm ele air. Natura: as te e sa tres ceim, agus tirm sa dara ceim agus folmuigidh linn fuar remra rigin go h-oirida o na h-altaibh maille re geire agus le brigh atarrngtaigh agus folmuigidh linn dub co tanaiste on incinn agus is uime sin as imcubaid e on eslinn an cinn mar ata melangcoilia agus epilepsia agus cosmaile agus o do ni docamal mor sa gaile re na tabairt agus sceatrach agus singopis agus as uime sin, sul tuctar e, dlegar a certugadh le scrubul do dragantum ar ndenamh pudar de, agus ar na cumusg ris agus na tabartar a n-aimsir te e, agus na cumusgtir re leigheas lactach laider ele e. Dosis: as i a dosis ro-mor ana aenir no maille re leigheas ele dragma; agus is i a dosis ro-beg go sgrubal go let, agus is amlaidh is ferr he smir continoidech geal imda do beith ann.


Turbid quidem est radix cue ultra mare reperitar: .i. iseadh is turbit ann frem do-gabar let atoir do muir agus amlaig is togaidi hi a beit inmeadonach idir remar agus cael agus a beit gel agus gumamail 6 in a cendibh agus urusa re na brisid agus in tan curtar sa bel hi go ngorthigind an teanga agus co nach leana don gaile agus dona h-aeibh . Dlegar do certugadh a malisi a coimilt ar tus a n-olaidh roise7 is a n-olaidh na n-almont milis. Natura: te tirm hi sa tres ceim agus folmuigidh linn fuar gan athmaltas on gaile agus is na hinnib agus o na h-aebh agus on lesrach. Dosis: as leor mar doisis as mo di ina h-aenar no maille re leigheas ele go ceithre agus dragma agus mar dosis as  p.68 luga di o dragma co da dragma agus co nach gorthaiginn an gaile ona geire cumusgtir dragma do siucre ria maille re dragma seinsire.


AGARICUS EST SICUT FUNGUS: .i. isead is agairg and .i. ni bis a comaileas fungus agus ann sa Babiloin do-gabar e. Agus atait da gne air .i. gne ferrda agus gne bannda. An gne ferrda, bid foirm fada aige agus ni com geal hi risin ngne mbannda. Et bid an gne bannda di geal edrom so-bristi, agus bid cnapanaighi amuich agus astig innti, agus bith ni a cosmaileas ruainig innti. An gne ferrda bith continoidech agus ni bi com brisg na com geal ria sin, agus as amlaidh dlegar a togha .i. a beit geal so-bristi; agus ni maith an gne ferrda di, gidhidh adeir Avicenna gurob ro-olc araen iat. Is amlaid tuicter an rad so Avicenna sa talamh a roib se fein, oir do budh mailisach urchoideach ann sin hi, et do reir Iohanne Ebemisue is ro-tarbach an leigheas so, oir folmuigidh o gac ball do ballaib an cuirp a coitcinne.

Natura: te sa dara ceim hi agus tirm sa tres ceim agus folmuigidh linn fuar co h-oirida on gaile agus linn dub co tanaiste agus is uime sin is imcubaid e a cotidiana do-nitir o linn fuar nadura agus a n-aigidh disintiria no disuria do-nitir o linn fuar, maille re digh ar a mbeirbtir saxifrage .i. eigreim. Agus do togairm na fola mista maille re dig ar a mbeirbtir buafallan.

Dosis: as i med as mo dlegar do tobairt di ina aenar, no maille re leigheas ele co ceithre dragma; agus as i med as lugha dlegar do tabairt di o dragma go leith go dragma agus sul tuctar hi dlegar a certugadh le dragma do shudh licorisi.


ELLEBORUS QUIDEM EST RADIX calida: .i. iseadh is eliborus and .i. frem te, agus ataid da gne urre .i. gne geal agus gne dub. In gne geal,  p.70 imorro croicinn freime hi noch as cosmail re freim altea agus amlaidh as ferr hi foirimill reidh do beit aici, agus a beit geal so-bristi.

Natura: is te tirm hi a medhon a dara ceime agus folmuigidh linn fuar remar agus glanaidh an incinn ag innarbad na n-imurcach agus da ndeartar pudar di agus a cur sa sroin, agus glanaidh an gaile o linn fuar maille re sgeatrig. Et do gnataigdis na sendaine eleborus dub is na purgoideachaibh, mar gnatigimidne anois an sgamonia.

Dosis: is leor an meid as mo de leis fein, no le leigheas ele gu scrubul co leith; agus an med as lugha gu let scrubul. Agus certaigtir hi o na malis sul tuctar hi le dragma d'origanum, no do neft ar ndenam pudar de agus ar na cumusg ria.


ESSULA QUIDEM EST FRUCTEX: .i. iseadh is esola and, craibech agus as i a prem fognas cum an leigis. Natura: is te tirm sa tres ceim hi agus ata brigh folmuighti na lennann flematicda innti co h-oirida. Agus as uime sin foghnas a n-aigidh gac uile eslinne do-nitir o linn fuar nadura, mar ata aritetica agus podagra agus siragra agus parilis agus iliaca pacio agus leucaflemancia.

Et nod let idir na neitib folmuiges ona ngeire gurob i an esola, tar eis na sgamonia, as ferr is innille dib re na tabairt oir is ro aduathmar hi agus is uime sin gac leigheas folmuiges linn fuar geiriter e no fedtar a gerugadh le h-esola. Dosis: as leor mar dosis as mo di na h-aenar, no maille re leigheas eli dragma; agus an a aonar in med as lugha o scrubul go da scrubul.


EUFORBIUM QUIDEM EST GUMMI arboris: .i. iseadh is euforbium ann guim croind fasas is in India cuireas gumamlacht8 trid an aimsire an tsamhraid agus ar teachtad n-a timcill claoclodtir a substaint euforbium hi.


Natura: te tirm hi ann sa cethramad ceim agus folmuigidh linn fuar go h-oirida agus linn dub co tainiste agus is uime sin fognus an aigidh gac uile artitica agus podagra agus seirigra agus ilica agus litargia agus na h-eplinncia. Agus na pillini do-nitir di fognaid an agaidh na parilisi agus da cumusgtir iat maille re spisraduibh examla fognaigh an aigidh na n-eslinn adubramar agus is amlaid as ferr hi a beith solus ur buide ag dol a nglaisi.

Dosis: as leor mar dosis as mo di o scrubul go leith scrubuil agus as i dosis as luga go cetrama scrubuil oir adeir Avicenna go marbann tri dragma di nech re tri la agus a creachtnugadh an gaile agus na n-innid agus dlegar pudar do ceandsugad le h-ola roisi.


UT DETERMINATO DE MEDICINIS simplicibus atractiuis que fledma evacuant, et cetera: .i. ar trachtad dona leigheasaibh aenda atarrngtaca folmuiges linn fuar is coir tractadh dona leigesaibh aenda atarrngtaca folmuiges linn dub mar ata polopodium agus lapis lasali agus lapis armenicus agus sene agus eliborus niger.


POLIPODIUM QUIDEM EST HERBA similis filici: i iseadh is polopodium and .i. luib a cosmaileas ratnighi fasas ar dairighib, ar cairgi agus ar ballaibh agus ar clochaibh agus is i an gne fasas ar na dairigibh as feir di agus as i a fremh as ferr, agus as amlaid as amlaid as mait í a beit a dul a n-uainigacht agus aderar do reir Anntidaire maide cnapanach a ndat luata ria, bis a dul a nduibe no a ndeirgi agus as ferr a beit a dol a ndeirgi no a mbughacht agus hi daingin uaine ur.

Natura: te sa dara ceim agus tirm sa tres ceim folmuigidh linn fuar co h-oirida agus linn dub co tanaiste gan gontac gan gortughadh agus  p.74 da mbrister maille re siucra hi lagaid an bru gan teinneas. Et nod let mar a mbeirbtir hi co ndlegar ní eigin brisis an gaetmaracht do cur maille ria mar ata anis no sil feneil, oir sgailidh an polopodium na leanna a n-gaetmaracht imarchaig. Et as imcubaid hi an aigidh codidiana, agus iliaca passio, agus allapisia agus artetica. Dosis: as leor mar dosis as mo di unsa; agus mar dosis is luga co let unsa.


Lapis Lasuili: .i. cloch gorm fuar tirm sa dara ceim agus is ro-cosmail a dath risin stuaigh nemda agus bit cuirp beca an dath ordaighi innti. Agus folmuigidh linn dub d'airithi agus is uime sin is imcubaid hi do lucht cartana agus do loacht embroideis agus an aigidh eslinne na seilgi agus h-acamair an aigidh gac uile gne eslinne lenna duibh, agus is olc don gaile hi agus arna nighi togairmigh an sgetrach gan docamal. Dosis: as leor mar dosis as mo di da scrubul agus mar dosis as lugha scrubal. Et nod let gurob e mod a nighi agus a cur a copan airgid no a soithach daingen ele agus a brud le pistil a mortar agus a cumusc le h-uisgi sa h-aithle no go mbuaigirtir é agus doirtir e an tan sin agus curtar uisci ele na cend agus dentir mar sin fa deich uaire no fa fiche. Agus adeiridh droinge ele a nighe deich n-uaire fiche, agus is e comarta a nighi foirfe gan aen buaigirt do beit ar an uisci. Et nod leat nac dlegar lapis lasuili do tabairt a ndig or do rachadh a n-ichtar an deoch do tabairt ar tus agus ar n-oibriugad di, cúig uaire no a sé an lapis lasuili do tabairt arna ndighi le siroip na uiola agus is ingintach folmuiges linn dub fan tan sin.


Lapis Armenicus: .i. cloch an a mbi ret eigin do dath an lasulus agus bidh min re n-a taghall agus is uime aderar lapis armenicus ria oir is a n-Armeina do-gabar hi agus dath fo-geal  p.76 bis uirthi agus is lugha do talmaigeacht bis urre no aici na ag lapis lasuli.

Natura: fuar tirm hi sa dara ceim agus folmuigidh linn dub nisa laidiri na lapis lasuili agus is uime sin is imcubaid hi an aigidh cartana agus gach uile eslinni lenna duib agus as olc don gaile hi mar adeir Avicenna gidid da nightir hi ni dein urlugad, agus muna deirntir do-ni. Agus is ininn dosis di agus lapis lasuli do reir meide agus loighed.


Sene quidem est herba que intrans marinus partibus cresgid:.i. iseadh is sene ann .i. luibh no crann fasas leath atoir do muir agus co h-airighti timceall na Babilone agus na h-Araibi.

Natura: te tirm sa dara ceim agus folmuigidh linn dub co dilis agus linn ruadh co tanaiste agus is uime sin folmuiges no fodhnus an agaidh eslinnidh leanna duibh agus agaidh epelinncia agus singopus, agus colica pacio, agus calmuigidh an craidhe, agus as imcubaid hi an aigidh eslinn na seilghi agus na n-ae agus a n-aigidh emorodes agus cuartana. Et nod let gurob ferr duilleabar an t-sene cum gnathi agus na leigeas na a blath. Dosis: is leor mar dosis is mo de in tan do-beirar ina aenar e unsa, agus da tuctar le leigheasaibh lacacha ele o tri dragma gu ceithre dragma.


Elleborus nigir, et cetera: .i. is amlaidh bis elleborus dub ina slisnigh arna ngeirrad agus as treisi a geiri na geiri eliborus albus. Agus as amlaidh tesairgtir an drong bis ag a buanadh ar a h-urchoid, gairleog agus fin do catem. Agus is amlaidh is ferr hi a beit inmedonach idir beith og arsaidh, agus dath buidhi do beith urre agus a beith so-bristi.

Natura: te tirm hi sa dara ceim. Agus folmuigidh linn dub, agus as uime sin as imcubaid hi a n-aigidh impetigo agus seirpigo agus na lubra. Dosis: as leor mar dosis as mo di co let dragma agus mar dosis as luga go leth scrubuil. Agus dlegar a certugadh sul tuctar hi le h-origonum no le neft.



DE MEDICINIS SIMPLICIBUS atractiuis, et cetera: .i. ar labairt dona leigheasaibh aenda folmuiges maille re brig atarrngtich is innlabarta dona leigheasaibh aenda folmuiges na leanna ag fasgadh mar ata mirabolaim. Agus atait cúig cinil dibh .i. citrini agus siebuli agus indi agus emblici agus bellerici. 9 Natura: fuar tirm uile iat sa tres ceim agus is toradh crann examail iat is amlaidh as maith iat a mbeith gumamail oir is on gumamlacht lagaid agus aderar gurob teo citrini na indi, agus gurob lugha is fuaire indi na siebuli. Agus as iat citrini is mo lagus dibh; is uime sin as coir labairt ar tus dib.


Citrini solunt coleram rubiam: .i. folmuigid citrini linn ruad co h-oirida agus began de linn fuar do reir Avicenna, agus is uime sin as imcubaid iat do lucht ictericia agus terciana agus disinteria ar na tabairt maille re h-uisci ar a mbeirbigtir ros agus mirtilli. Gidead mad eigin folmugadh do denam le mirbulani, dentar e maille re h-egla agus re h-innilleas. Agus is uime sin dlegar dragantum do cumusg ris go nach urchoidighi do creactaibh na n-inneadh. Dosis: as i a dosis gu ceithre dragma in tan do-berar an dig an aigidh disinteria e. In tan, imorro, do-berar an aigidh terciana é gu unsa an med is mo.


Et nod let nach dlegar mirbolani do tabairt a n-duintib na n-ae ná na seilge. Ar son na stipacdachta ata innta, mar adeir Avicenna, oir folmuigid an rann as seime don adbar agus anaidh an rann as reimhe agus inntaigtir a clochamlacht he agus medaigtir na duinte mar sin.

Et nod let co n-examailtir dosis mirbolani do reir mar curtar iat a ndeochaibh no a pillinibh oir mad a pillinibh curtar iat dlegar a cur go da dragma agus mad a ndeochaibh dlegar a cur go h-unsa co leith agus an tan do-beirtir a pillinibh iat dlegar a tabairt sa n-oidche agus mad a ndig sa maidin agus adeir Rasis da mbia an aimsir te mar ata dies caniculares co ndlegar na deocha do tabairt sa  p.80 n-oidhci.


Siebuli: fuar tirm iad agus is fuaire iad na citrini oir is lugha rann cuidigid do seirbi agus is lugha is lagtach agus is mo as stipacda iad agus folmuigid linn ruad agus linn dub ona ndislect agus do reir Constantinus agus Avicenna folmuigid linn dub agus linn fuar agus tirmaigid flux an gaile ar mod eigin agus is uime sin is imcubaid iad a n-agaidh cuartana co h-oirida, agus co tanaiste in aigid terciana agus is imcubaid iad do flux a n-daergalair .i. emeirodes ar na rostad agus ar na tabairt maille re sud aitre talman agus glanaid fuil dearg agus is uime sin as imcubaid iat do teimel na sul, agus d'anbuinne in radairc, do-nitir o deadaigh leanna duib agus dlegar conditum do denamh dib le siroip na uiola agus mad a ndigh na a pillinibh do-beirar iat is inann dosis doibh agus o mirbolani citrini.


Indi: as fuar tirm iad mar an ceadna agus is gar do cebuili iad ina n-oibrigtibh agus ina m-brighaibh aseadh gurob mo folmuigid linn ruad na cebuli agus is uime sin as inann eslinni d'a foghnait agus is inann mod tabarta doibh.

Dosis: as leor mar dosis as mo di mad a ndigh do-berar iat o h-ocht ndragma co deich ndragma; agus mad a pillinibh o da dragma gu tri dragma.


Emblici: fuar tirm iat agus cosmaileas ina m-brig agus ina n-oibrigtibh re cebuli agus re h-inndi agus as uime sin as inann a mbreitemnas agus a ndosis agus as inann eslinni da fognaid agus is mar an ceadna do bellirisi.


DE MEDICINIS QUE LAXANT comprimendo dicendum est de medicinis que laxant leniando: .i.e. ar labairt dona leigheasaibh lagus ag fasgad is innlabarta dona leigheasaibh lagus ag sleamhnughad mar ata uiola agus pruna agus cassia fistola agus manna. 10



Uiola, .i. blath na saili cuach, fuar fliuch sa cead ceim agus folmuigidh linn ruadh on gaile agus o na h-aeibh agus o na h-innibh oir ata bri fliuchaide agus t-shleamnaighti agus fuarta agus lagta and agus uime sin as mor fognus a n-aigidh ainntesa na n-ae, da nderrntir siroip di, agus as imcubaid fos a siroip a n-aigidh na cosachtaighi troma agus slemnaighidh an t-ucht agus ceannsaighidh teinnus agus lasadh an cuirp a coitcinne agus an cenn co h-airighti agus is uime sin as imcubaid he a n-aigidh teinnis an cinn do-niter o linn ruadh, no o fuil derg.

Dosis: as leor mar dosis as mo de go ceithre unsa agus mar dosis as luga co da unsa. Et nod let go n-exaimailtir a dosis do reir meide no do reir loighid linta leanna ruaidh agus do reir brigi an othair agus do reir lacaidhi no fostuigi an inmeadhain. Et nod let na neithe folmuiges linn ruadh gu nglanaid fuil derg do reir Avicenna agus as imcubaid sirop na uiola an aigidh gac uile eslinne do-niter o linn ruadh.


Pruna, .i. na bulaisighi. 11. is aithnigh iat. Natura: fuar a tosach an dara ceim, agus fliuch an deirigh in tres ceime, agus isi an gne as duibe dibh as ferr cum an leighis agus h-airighti an gne re n-abrur damasenica agus o tir aderar hi in tan cnuasaightir abaidh iat bidh brigh fuarta agus sleamnaighthi na n-innid innta[ad] 12 agus as uime sin is imcubaid iad is na fiabrasibh gera agus an aighaid constipacion na brond in tan do nitir o linn tirm no te. Et adeir Avicenna gac millsecht bid gurob laidre oibrighit, no folmugaid leanna ruaidh agus is luaithi folmugaid fliuch na tirim agus fedtar a cur an deochaibh fa ímad no fa tirci leanna ruadh. Agus mad tirc é tabartar a deich dib mar dosis agus mad imda o deich is dachad gu ced do reir stipacdachta .i. fastuige in inmeadoin.



CASI FISTULA alia est cebula alia innda:. .i. ata gne don casi fistula re na n-abair cebula agus gne ele re n-abair innda agus is amlaidh is fearr hi a gabail as a feadanuibh is i sin is meithe agus deallraigti agus is reidhe dibh.

Natura: ata si inmedhonach idir te agus fuar agus is fliuch hi agus folmuigidh linn ruadh loisci on gaile co h-oirida, agus linn fuar co tainiste agus sleamnaighidh lagaidh an bru gan urchoid gan gontaigh innus gurob imcubaid dona mnaib torrca hi agus glanaidh na h-ae agus is uime sin as imcubaid í do lucht ictiricia, agus o lucht teinnis an cinn, agus do lucht terciána, agus dona h-eslinnibh gera agus a n-agaidh gac uile eslinni do-nitir o linn ruadh do reir Avicenna. Agus folmuigidh na rainn ichtracha.

Dosis: as i dosis as lugha di leth unsa agus dosis as mo go dha unsa.


Manda quidem est ros cadens super lapidem aut araboren: .i. iseadh is manda ann ros no dructh tuitis ar clochaibh, no ar crannaibh a cosmaileas meala, agus do-ni milis de agus teachtaidh, agus tirmaigidh mar gum.

Natura: is cudruma he idir te agus fuar agus lagaidh an bru agus muchaidh geraighecht an fiabrais coilera do reir nadura, 13 agus is imcubaid e dona dainibh tinnis coilera agus is ininn dosis do agus casia fistula.


Tamarindi, na dactali goirti agus is amlaidh as ferr iat a mbeith maeth ur agus goirteas firinnach inntu agus folmuigid linn ruadh agus is imcubaid is na fiabrasaibh iat agus co h-airithi in tan is eigin an meadon do slemhnugadh agus is inann dosis doibh a ndeochaibh agus do casia fistola, agus do manda.


DETERMINATO DE MEDICINIS simplicibus laxatiuis et de dosi earum et cetera: .i. ar trachtadh dona leigheasaibh aenda lacaca agus da ndosisibh as inntrachta dona leigheasaibh comsuighti lacaca agus dileghtaca agus ndosisibh.  p.86 Et nod let go fuilid ceithre cuingill eigintaca cum folmuigti an droc leanna. An cead cuingill dibh: na leighis do togha le foilmeochar e. An dara cuingill; uair dileagada an leanna dfechain. An tres cuingili; caindighacht an leanna agus an folmuigti dfecain. An cetramad cuingill; an ball a n-a fuil an droch-linn dfecain. Maseadh adeirim curob eigin don liaigh an leigheas do togha ar tus. Et atait da leigheas ann .i. leigheas dileagtach, agus leigheas folmuigteach, agus o sa tusga dlegar an leigheas dileagtach do tabairt na an leigheas folmuigtach is uime sin as coir agus labairt as tus de.


Et examailtir an leigheas dileagtach fo examhlacht an leanna agus an boill oir mad ta an linn reamer dlegar a dileagadh le leigheas seimighteach mar as follus co ndleagar linn fuar nadura do dileagadh le h-oximel simplex agus da mbia reamar no righin talmaidi dleagar a dileagadh le leigheas geirigheas e. Et mad é linn dub nadura bias ann dileagir le h-oiximel scilliticum. Et mad linn te e dleagar a dileagadh le leigheas innfuarta mar ata linn ruadh ga dileagadh le h-oxisacra. Et mad fuar na leanna dleagar a ndileagadh le leigheas teigheas iad, mar ata linn fuar do dileagadh le h-oximel aenda. Et nod let da mbid na leanna bus ailt do dileagadh comsuigigthi co ndlegir an dileagadh do beith comsuigigthi agus mad cudruma comsuigiugadh na leannann dlegar na leighis dileagaca do comsuigiugadh go cudruma innus nac bia ni as mo do ni dib ann, na a mbia do ni ele, mar is follus a linn fuar aigeddithi agus a linn fuar saillti.


Do reir examailachta na mball, iomorro, examailtir an leigheas dileagtach, oir da n-imaighid (i.e. imdaighid) leanna fuara sa ceann agus is na ballaibh fethaca mar as follus sa parilis agus a n-epilepsia agus a n-apoplexia agus a n-emighrania14, and dlegar a ndileagadh le  p.88 leigheas as mo disleacht don n-incinn agus don droch linn tiageirnes innti. Maseadh, an linn fuar do-ni parilis dleagar a dileagadh leisin oximel so .i. gab acorus, agus maratrum, agus lauendola, agus isoip, agus policaria mor, agus gac gne do nasturcium, agus edira teirestris, agus bitone, agus origanum, agus pulegiam, agus sabhrae, agus macall, agus magiorana, agus pione, agus ruib garrda, agus buafallan agus scuilla, leth lan duirn do gac ni; sauina, agus saibairgin, tri lan duirn do gac ni; mil da punt. Dentar oximel dib.


Et nod let curob inann leigheas dileagtach le fedtar adbar, eplipsia agus apoplexia agus emigrania o cuis fuair do dileagadh; gidedh dlegar nis mo do cur a n-dileagadh adbair epilepsia do pione agus ruib agus do bitone agus d'eigheann talman na do neithibh ele, agus mar an ceadna d'apoplexia, agus is leis an leigheas ndileagthach ceadna dlegar adbar emigrania fuaire do dileagadh; gideadh dlegar nis mo do policaria mor .i. millsean monad do cur ann na dona neithibh ele, oir as iat na luibhi curtar a cainndigacht is mo ann as daingne sa comsuigiugadh, agus is mo disleacht cum an inaigh a fuil an t-adhbar. Agus is uime sin curtar ni sa mo dibh ann na dona neithibh ele.


Et da mbia linadh leanann bhfuar, is na ballaib spioradalta mar ata an t-ucht agus in sgamham agus a cosmaile, gan fiabras, dileagtir iad leis an leigheas comsuighti so .i. gabh cailmint, agus origanum, agus frema lilii, agus ireos, agus poliol ruadh, agus capillus ueneris, lan duirn do gac ni; licoris ar na glanadh, agus maratrum, agus sil cadais, unsa do gac ní;blatha camamille, agus millilotum, leth unsa do gac ni; uiola da unsa; siucra da punt. Dentir siroip dibh.


Et mad leanna tiorma imaighes (i.e. imdaighes) ann dileagtir iad leisin leigheas so .i. gab  p.88 capillus ueneris, agus maratrum, agus sil feneil agus anis, agus endiuia, agus scariola, agus isoip ur, agus scolapeindria, agus setirac, agus polotricum, agus adianntos, lan duirn do gac ní; agus iuiube, agus sebesteacht15, agus na ceithre sila fuara16 arna nglanadh, leth unsa do gac ní; candi, agus penidie, agus sil popin ghil gab unsa do gac ni; dragantum geal, agus gum arabicum, agus blat borrage, ceithre dragma do gac ní; uiola da dragma; siucra da punt. Dentir siroip dibh.


Et da n-imdaighid leanna coilera sa gaile agus is na h-aeibh go na cosmaile dileagtir iat leisin leigheas son .i. gab aendiuia agus scariola agus epatica agus rostrum porcinum agus cicoria tri lan diurn do gac ní; acorus, agus capillus uenerís agus ceterac agus politricum lan duirn do gac ni uiola tri unsa; pruna a deich agus dacad; ros agus sil lactuca agus sil endiuia, agus sanndaile geal agus derg, agus spodium unsa da gac ní, na ceithre sila fuara leth unsa do gac ní; berbireas .i. crann leth unsa; blatha borrage da unsa; fin uball ngranach leth unsa; siucra da punt. Dentir siroip dibh.


Et mad leanna fuara imdaighes inntu dileagtir iad leis an leigheas so .i. gab eupatorium .i. mongach measga, agus satsi, da lan duirn do gac ní; camamil agus mellelotum agus frema finel, agus persille agus bruscus agus sparaghus agus pentofilom .i. in cuigidheach17, agus gramen .i. fer firind, agus camedreos, agus camepiteos, agus ireos, agus pes columbe .i. gne don ruel agus iringi goirti agus consolida mor agus bec, agus scariola agus capellus ueneiris, agus eillidi agus linga bouis, lan duirn co leth do gac ní; mil agus siucra punt do gac ní; fin na n-uball ngranach leth punt. Dentir siroip dibh.


Et da n-imdaighi linn dubh nadura sa seilg, no is na ballaib eli dileagtir e leis an leigheas le ndileagtir na leanna fuara bis is na h-aeibh no is na h-airnn, gideadh curtar ni as mo ann do sgolapendria, agus rusg inmeadonach tamarisgus, agus do rusg fuinnsinne, agus gilcaidhe, agus  p.92 eupatorium, agus do preamaibh caparis.


Et da mbid leanna loisgi sa seilg dileagtir iad leisin leigheas so .i. gabh sug sgabiosa, agus sug fumitir, agus sug borrage, da punt da gac ní scabiosa, agus fumiter, agus afodillus agus tím ur, agus corrcopog, agus buglosa, agus linga canis, agus cicoria, agus scolapendria, agus endiuia, agus scariola, lan duirn do gac ní; frema caparis, agus da gne an sticados ros18, agus sil endiuia, agus sil lactuca, leth unsa do gac ní; uiola, agus blath borrage, tri unsa do gac ní; siucra, da punt; fin na n-uball ngranach leth punt. Agus dentir siroip dib.


Et da n-imdaighid leanna fuara is na h-airnib agus sa lamhannan, agus na ballaib as cosmail riu, dileagtir leisin leigheas so iad .i. gab premha pursille, agus elistront, agus filipendola agus creata marina, tri lan duirn do gac ni; da gne an pipracais, agus fofannan mara agus macaire, agus pentafilon, agus gramen, agus celedonia garrda lan duirn do gac ni, grumaill19, agus sil feineil, leth unsa do gac ní; sil pursille, agus elistroint, agus brusgus, agus sparagus, agus sil hocuis20, unsa do gac ni; do mil agus siucra, punt do gac ni; d'fin na n-uball ngranach, leth punt. Dentir siroip dibh.


Et mad leanna teo imdaiges is na ballaib ceadna dileagtir iat leis in leigheas le ndileagtir na leanna teo tigirnighes is na ballaib, no is na h-aeibh gidedh curtir ní as mo an a leigheas san do fremhaibh pursile, agus cuigedaigh, agus sparaguis, agus brusguis, agus feineil.

Et da n-imdhaighid leanna fuara ann sa macclog dileagtir iad leisin leigheas le ndileagtir leanna fuara na n-arann, gidhedh curtir ní as mo ann sin do buafallan, agus calmint, agus d'iringi, agus d'ireos, agus do lilii, agus do bitone.

Et mad leanna teo imdaighes ann dileagtir iat leisin leigheas le ndileagtir na leanna te bis is na h-airnib, gideadh curtir ní as mo do buafallan ann.


Et da n-imdaighid leanna fuara is na h-altaib dileagtir iat leisin leigheas so .i. gab  p.94 sudh iua, punt; erba iua, agus buafallan lan duirn do gac ní; ireos, agus iringi, agus frema lilii, agus acorus, agus endiuia, agus capillus ueneiris, agus adiantos, leth lan duirn do gac ní; blatha camamilla, agus millelotum, agus maratrum, agus sil brusguis, agus sparagus, unsa do gac ní; ros, agus licoris arna glanadh, agus sil lactuca, leth unsa do gac ní; mil, agus siucra, punt do gac ni. Dentar siroip dib.


Et mad leanna teo bes ann dileagtir iat le leigheas ar na cumusg d'endiuia, agus scariola, agus do scolapendria, agus do sudh íua, agus d'erba iua21, agus do uiola, agus do blathaibh camamilla, agus do mellelotum, agus do ros, agus do sil lactuca. Agus dentir siroip dibh. Et nod let da n-imdaighid leanna comsuigigthi is na ballaibh ceadna go ndlegthar a ndileagadh le leigheasaib comsuigigthi do rer examailachta na leanann agus na mball. Agus is leor so re rad ar na leigheasaibh dileagta anois.


DE MEDICINIS DIGESTIUIS dicendum est de medicinis laxatiuis composites: .i. ar labairt dona leigheasaibh dilegthaca is innlabarta dona leigheasaibh lactaca comsuigigthi. Et nod let co n-examaltir na leighis lactacta comsuigti do reir examalachta na leannan, oir ata cuid dibh folmuiges linn fuar co h-oirida, mar ata hiera pigra, agus benedichta, agus blanca, agus teodoricon ancardia, agus stomaticon laxatium, agus pillini artetice, agus pillini aurie, agus pillini fetite, agus pillini de euforbio, agus electubarium dulce22, agus pillini cocie, agus paulinum.


Et atait leighis ele ann folmuiges linn dub co h-oirida mar ata catarticum imperiali, agus hiera Rufiní, agus diasene, agus trifera saraceníca, agus hiera logodion, agus teodoricon euperiston. Et atait leighis ele folmuiges linn ruadh co h-oirida mar ata elictuarium de suco rosarum agus diaprunis. Item examailtir na leighis do reir examalachta na mball. Oir ge ata do dilis ag benedicta, agus ag hiera pigra  p.96 linn fuar d'folmugadh, gided is se linn fuar na n-arann is disle folmuiges benedicta, agus is uime sin fognus a n-aigid nefresis23, agus linn fuar an cinn folmuiges hiera pigra, agus is uime sin foghnus a n-aigidh eslinn an cinn do-nitir o linn fuar.


Et is uime aderar benedicta ar son co mbendaightir hi o gac nech caithis hi agus is imcubaid hi a n-aigidh guta agus artetica, agus podraga do-nitir o linn finn, agus glanaidh na h-airne, [agus an les,] agus an lamannan.

Hiara pigra, iomorro, is uime aderar hi oir as inann hιαρα agus sacra: .i. coisrica; agus is inann πιγρα agus amara .i. searb. Agus imcubaid hi a n-anaigh eislinnibh examala an cinn, agus na cluas, agus na sul, agus glanaidh an gaile agus na sule agus agus leigeasidh cruas na seilgi go ro-maith, agus easlainni an macluic mar an ceadna.


Blanca is uime aderar hi .i. oir is inann blancam agus ní geal, oir folmuigidh si na leanna geala .i. na leanna flematica agus is uime sin as imcubaid hi a n-aigidh cefalea do- nitir o linn fuar agus an aigid teinnis na sul agus parlisi, agus epilipsia.

Teodoricon anacardi is uime aderar hi on torad re n-abrar anacardi teid innti agus folmuigidh co dilis linn fuar an cinn; agus co h-airighti sa leith iartaraigh, agus uime sin atnuaiges an cuimhne, agus leigesaidh uertigo, agus as imcubaid hi mar an ceadna d' eslinnibh an macloic tic o cuis fuair.


Stomatticom laxatium et electuarium dulce folmuigid leanna fuara an gaile co dilis.

Pillini artettice folmuigid linn fuar na n-alt go dilis agus uime sin foghnaid a n-aigidh arttetica, agus sirgra agus podagra.

Pillini auree folmuigid linn fuar an cinn go dilis agus geraigid an radarc go dilis, agus uime  p.98 sin as imcubaid iat a n-aigidh eslinni na sul.

Pillini fettide folmuigid linn fuar remar imdaiges is na h-altibh, agus uime sin foghnaid a n-aigidh artetica agus siettica.


Pillide de euforbio folmuigid na leanna flegmatica silis on ceann cum na fededh agus is uime sin is imcubaid iad a n-aigidh na pairilisi, agus do-gabar a comsuigiugadh o Avicenna a n-a Anntitair fein.

Pillini cocie folmuigid na leanna o sialladhaibh na h-incinne, agus uime sin as imcubaid iad a n-aigidh epilepsia.

Paulinum aderar annti[d]otum magnum ria .i. leigheas comsuigigthi mor ris ar son go fuil brigh mor aige, agus foghnaidh go dilis a n-aigidh na cosachtaigi nua agus na sean-cosachtaighi do-nitir o linn fuar no o rit leanna fuair on cend cum an ochta. Agus is uime sin fognus a n-aigidh eslinní an cleibh do-nitir o linn fuar, agus glanaidh an cend agus in t-ucht agus in gaile o linn fuar co h-oirida agus o linn dub co tanaiste agus as i a dosis da dragma.


Et nod let da n-imdaighid leanna examla a mballaib examla leth amuch do naduir, gu cudruma co ndleagar leighis examla do cumusg co cudruma agus n-imdaighid co h-egudruma dlegar a cumusg go h-egudruma innus go ma 24 mo bes do leigheas dib ann na don leigheas ele. Et nod let co ngeraigtir na leigis comsuighti le geraightib examla innus co ma laidiridi oibreochaid agus examaltir na geraighti fo examlacht na leannann agus na mball agus is uime sin an leigheas folmuiges leanna fuara an cinn dlegar a ngerudh le scrubul gu leth do colacinntida ar na certugadh le dragma do dragagantum, no le scrubul gu leth do scamonea ar na certugadh le mastix no le pastae mar adubramar tuas, no le dragma d'esola no ni as mo.


DE MEDICINIS EVACUANTIBUS flegma dicendum est de medicinis evacuantibus melancoliam: i. ar labairt dona leigheasaibh folmuiges  p.100 linn fuar is innlabarta do agus dona leigheasaibh folmuiges linn dub co h-oirida agus agus ar d'yara Rufini noch folmuiges linn dub co h-oirida agus is uime sin fognus co dilis do lucht na sgabiesi do-nitir o linn fuar saillti no loisgithi agus elefancia agus do morfia.


Diasene .i. lictuare folmuiges linn dub imdaighes sa t-sheilg agus annsa croidhi agus is uime sin foghnus co dilis do duintibh na seilgi agus do lucht mania agus do lucht na tuirrsi.

Trifera sarracenica o na serristinibh aderar hi. No as uime aderar trifera ria ar son go tabarar do neach beith og agus folmuigadh linn dub an gaile agus na n-ae agus uime sin as imcubaid e do duintibh na seilge agus na n-ae agus d'ictericiat do-nitir o linn ruadh loisgi.


Yera logodion memphitum is uime aderar hi oir as ininn hιερα agus sacra: .i. coisrica, agus inann λογος agus sermo: .i. comradh agus ininn memphitum agus impedimentum: .i. toirmesgi oir leigisidh sisi toirmesg na h-urlabra gid be cuis o mbia no o ndentar. Agus folmuigidh linn dub an cinn go dilis agus is uime sin as imcubaid hi d' epilepsia agus do uertigo agus d'emigrania agus do cefalea agus o gluasachtaib an cinn mar is follus is in droing ag a sailtir demonium do beith.


Catarticum imperiale .i. leigheas lactaca do frith hi ar son na n-impiredh, agus na ndaine leagamhail ele agus folmuigidh na leanna melancolia imdaiges is na h-airnib agus uime sin foghnas do lucht nefrisisi, agus disgailidh gaetmaracht an gaile, agus na n-innid, agus uime sin as imcubaid e do lucht iliaca agus do lucht an thsifailia.


DE MEDICINIBUS EVACUANTIBUS flegma, et melancoliam dicendum est de medecinis evuacuantibus coleram: .i. ar labairt dona leigheasaib folmuiges linn fuar agus linn dub is innlabartha  p.102 dona leigheasaibh folmuiges linn ruadh, mar ata diaprunis agus electuairum de suco rosarum. Et is uime aderar diaprunís ar son gurob mo gabus don torad re n-abrur pruna ann na dona neithibh ele agus folmuigid leanna colerdha in gaile agus na n-ae agus is uime sin do-berur i a n-aigidh terciana fire agus a n-aigidh ainntesa na n-ae.


Electuairum de suco rosarum: agus is derbta hi a n-aigidh an guta tesaighi agus folmuigidh na leanna colerda agus linn ruadh nadura agus is uime sin foghnus an aigidh eslinni, na n-alt do-nitir o linn ruadh agus o na dainibh eirgeas a terciana. ltem nod let go n-examailtir do dosis na leigheas comsuigigthi so fan med no fan loighid ted ina comsuigiugadh do sgamonia agus do leigeasaibh foreignaca neimnaca ele mar ata elleborus no turbit no agairc no euforbium no colocuintida no aloe cona cosmaileibh.


Masead as i dosis yera pigra tri dragma agus dosis yera Rufini da dragma ar son gurob mo gabas si do leigheasaibh foreignaca neimnaca na yera pigra agus is uime sin as lugha a dosis.

Dosis benedicta tri dragma. Dosis blanca tri dragma. Dosis pillini artetice da dragma go leth. Dosis pillini auree tri dragma. Dosis pillini d'euforbio da dragma. Dosis teudoricon anacairdi tri dragma.


DICTO DE DOSI MEDICINARUM evacuancium flegma dicendum est de dosi medicinarum evacuancium melancoliam: .i. ar labairt do dosisibh na leigheas folmuiges linn fuar25 is innlabartha do doisisibh na leigheas folmuiges linn dub agus o dubramar dosis yera Rufini is coir duin doisis na leigheas ele do radh agus fechum ar tus do diasene. Agus as i a [e] doisis leth unsa.  p.104 Dosis trifera sarrasenica tri dragma. Dosis teudoricon euperiston da dragma. Dosis yera logodion da dragma go leth. Dosis catarticum imperiale dragma.


DICTO DE MEDISINE ET DE DOSI medicinarum evacuanciam melancoliam dicendum est de dosi medicinarum evancuancium coleram rubiam: .i. ar labairt do dosis na leigheas folmuiges linn dub is innlabarta do dosis na leigheas folmuiges linn ruadh, agus ar tus do diaprunis, agus as i a dosis leth unsa. Dosis electuarium de suco rosarum tri unsa, agus is iat so dosisi as mo ag na leigheasaibh comsuigighti.


Bith a fis agat na leighis folmuiges leanna fuara an ochta agus na mball spioradalta mar ata paulinum co ndleagar a ngerugh le dragma d' agairg ar na certugad le dragma do licoris. Na leighis, imorro, folmuiges leanna fuara an gaile agus na n-ae dlegar a ngerugadh le dragma do turbit ar na certugad maille re dragma do pudar pibuir no le mirbolaní indi, no cebuli do reir na ndosisi adeirar tuas no le cassia fistola no le h-esola do reir a dosisi fein.


Na leighis lagacta imorro folmuiges na leanna teo dleagar a ngerugadh na le leigheas ele mar ata mirbolaní citríní no le reubarbarum, no le reuponticum, no le sgamonia ar na certugadh, no le casia fistola, no le manna, agus le tamarindi maille re sgamonia. Da mbia eslinni na n-ae arrsaidh gidedh na geraigtir leigheas le scamonia san ydropis26 oir sgrisid na h-ae acht dentar sin le h-esola, no le reubarbarum, agus curtar na geraighti sin is na leigheasaibh do reir na ndoisisi do sgribamar tuas.



Item na leighis lagthaca folmuiges leanna fuara na seilge geraigtir iat maille re da scrubul do lapis lasuli arna nighi go maith, no le lapis armenicus, no le sene, no le h-agairc, no le h-esola do reir a ndosisi fein.

Na leighis folmuiges leanna fuara na n-arann agus an lamhannain agus an macloic geraigtir iat le lapis líncis27 no le cloich an spongia, 28 no le h-agairg, no le scamonea, no le h-esola, no le lapis iudaicus .i. iulaigi 29 arna nighi go maith. A meid da scrubul. Et mad leanna teo imdaighas is na ballaibh ceadna geraigtir he le sgamonea, no le reubarbarum, no le reuponticum, no le casia fistula do reir a ndosisi fein.


Et da n-imdaighid leanna fuara is na h-altaibh geraigtir na leighis le hermodachtuili no le turbit, no le h-esola do reir a ndosisi fein. Et mad leanna teo bes inntu geraigtir na leighis le sgamonea, no le reubarbarum, no le reuponticum, no le casia fistula. Et nod let na leighis bis ro-foreignech ro-neimneach mar ata sgamonea agus turbit agus agairg cona cosmaile go ndlegar a certugadh leis na leigheasaibh aderar thuas sul cumuisgtir ris na leigheasibh comsuigigthi iat, do reir a ndoisisi fein. Et nod let go ndliginn dosis na ngeraighacht curtir is na leigheasaibh comsuigigthi beit mar aderar a trachtadh na leigheas aenda.


Et nod let mar atait ceithre neithe dlegar dfechain ag tabairt na leigheas aenda .i. brig, agus aeis, agus aimsir, agus eccosg, is mar sin dleagar na neithe ceadna dfecain ag tabairt na leigeas comsuigigthi maille ris na ceithre cuingillibh dlegar d' fecain ag folmugadh na ndroc-leannann.  p.108 An cead cuingill dib uair an proxsisimuis, .i. na h-aixisi. An dara cuingill: uair an dileagtha. An tres cuingill: aimsir na bliadna. An cetramad cuingill: caindighacht an leanna as infolmuighthi. A n-aimsir na h-aixisi dlegar an linn d' folmugadh d' uairib ann mar adeir Haili da mbia an brigh laidir agus an t-adbar beg edrum folmuigter he le leigheas ailginach mar ata casia fistola, agus manna. Agus is uime sin do gnathuighedar na sendaine a lo na h-aixe mar is follus a cuartana pudar lacach do tobairt roimh uair na h-aixisi agus leigheasthi moran leis sin.


Uair an dileagta, iomorra, oir is ar ndileagadh an adbair dleagar an leigheas do tobairt d'folmugad an leanna cinntegh mar adeir Ipocrates, “Digesdio medicaire et cetera.” (.i.e. “Digesta medicare”.) agus is uime sin adeir Avicenna co fuil da ní forfidhes oibriugadh an leighis .i. dileagadh an adbair agus fairsingí na sligteadh. A n-aimsir na bliadna, iomorro, dlegar a fecain mar adeir Avicenna cum an folmuighthi oir an aimsir an a n-eirginn an relta re n-abrar cánís mar is follus isin tsamhradh no a n-aimsir an fuachta laidir mar ata an geimreadh agus ni h-ingabhta leigheas lagacta ann agus uime sin adeir Ipocras “Sub cane agus ante canem, et cetera.” Gidedh as imcubaid an leigheas do gabail san errach agus sa fogmar, gideadh do mbia an folmugadh eigintach agus an brig laidir ni fecthar do toirmesg én neth, agus uime sin is eider an folmugadh do denam sa samrad agus sa geimred. Gidhed is leigheasaibhe ailginaca dleagar sin, mar ata casia fistula, agus manna, agus tamarendi.


An cetramad cuingill .i. cainndiacht an leanna as infolmuighthi agus ata sin dublaighti mar adeir Avicenna .i. caindighacht medaighti agus caindighacht cailedh, no caile. Caindiacht medaighti mar ata unsa no dragma. Cainndigacht  p.110 caile mar ata med ardugadh an ceime.


Et is re cainndigacht an medaighthi adeir Galen a Meoteigne; (Megategni) “Canditas eorum que oferuntur letiris non est determinata:” (“Quantitas eorum qui offertuntur letteris non est determinata” .i. ni fuil caindighacht na neithe do-berar criocnuighti o leitreacaibh .i. o céadfaid, oir ni so-athanta o ceadfaid cainndiacht medaighthi in leanna na caindigacht brighi an leighis acht do reir breitheamhnais no baramla an leagha bis a ngar d'firinne agus is uime sin adeir Hali, “Oportet quod medicus sit bone rememoracionnis, velocis solercie, sani intellectus, et cetera:” .i. is eigin don liagh cuimhne maith do beit aigi, agus glicas luath, agus tuicsin tshlan, agus radarc maith, agus moran stuideir. Gidhedh adeir Avicenna co n-aithintir tomas na caindighachta meide o da ní do reir muidh tomuis na h-ealadna .i. o naduir an boill agus o caindiacht na h-eslinni, agus o imcuibhdeacht na neithe rannaighi, mar ata cinel, agus áis, agus gnatha agus aimsir, agus fonn, agus ealada agus briogh agus fuirm.


Caindighacht caile an ceime, iomorro; oir da mbia an linn te dlegar leigheas contrarda do reir caile agus ceime do tobairt do; agus a mbia fuar dlegar leigheas te do tabairt do sa ceim a mbia.

An cúiged cuingill dlegar d'fecain cum folmuighti an leanna .i. in t-inad ina mbia an t-adhbar, oir da mbia a m-mbel an gaile dlegar a folmugadh le scetraig, agus mad a n-ichtar an gaile bes, no is na h-innibh bes dlegar a folmugadh le leigheas lactach agus is mar sin dona h-inadhaib ele co ndlegar an folmugadh do deanamh tri regeonaib imcubaidhi.


Not let co fuil cuid dona leigheasaibh do-bearar a substaint daingin agus cuit ele a substaint maeith. Na leighis do-berar a substaint daingin bid ana pillinibh no na lictubairibh, agus ma sa pillinibh iat dlegar a tabairt  p.112 a tosach na h-oidche maille re fin agus re h-ablain agus dlegar codladh orra oir rigid a leas teas laidir dá ndisgaileadh agus inntaighidh in teas cum na mball inmedonach sa n-oidhchi agus is uime sin adeir Avicenna: “Cum aliquis medicinam solutivam biberit melius est si medicina fuerit fortis ut super eam dormiat;” 30 .i. in tan ibes neach leigheas lagthach as e as fearr do, mad laidir an leigheas, codladh air sul oibrigis, oir bud ferrdi a oibriugad agus mad anmann an leigheas is ferr do gan codladh air oir do dileagfadh an naduir e. Agus is uime sin an leigheas do-berar a substaint maeith, ar son gurob anmfann é, dlegar a tabairt sa maidin ar cricnugadh an codalta. Gidh adeir Hali da mbia an t-othar legamail no anfbhann, no aimsir samraid do beith ann, co ndleagar leigheas bes a folmuigadh maeth d'ol mar digh re ndul do codlad agus ni dlegar codladh air a h-aithli an folmuighthi agus an tan tinnsgnas an leigheas oibriugadh as e as fearr gan codladh do denum air gibe leigheas e.


Et nod let mar adeir Avicenna nac dlegar na pillini do tabairt tar eis tirmaithi doib agus a mbeith mar clocaibh na in tan bid bog acht an tan tinnscnait tiormugadh agus tiagait roim na meraibh an tan faisgtir iat.

An lictubaire, iomorro, a medhon oidhce dlegar a tabairt idir uair na pillini, agus uair in leighis maeith, oir is usa an lictubhaire do disgaileadh ná na pillini agus is decra na an leigheas maeth.


Et nod let co fuilid ceithre gnethi ar an leigheas maeth oir ata gne de re n-abrar colagogum noch folmuigios linn ruad agus gne ele re n-abartar melanngocum noch folmuiges linn dub, agus gne ele re n-abrar flegmagogum  p.114 noch folmuiges linn fuar, agus gne re n-abrur emagogum noch folmuiges fuil derg.

Et is amlaidh do-nitir colagogum .i. gab blatha uiola, agus blatha borrage, ceithre unsa do gach ní; pruna a deich is dacad; mirbolani citrini, da unsa co leth; casia fistula arna glanadh, agus tamarendi, agus reubrarbrum, agus manna, da dragma do gach ní agus sitoiltir an reubarbrum, agus an mirbolani.

Et is do na neithibh ceadna do-nitir emagogum acht gan mirbolani na reubrarbrum do beith ann or adeir Avicenna na leighis folmuiges linn ruad con nglanaid fuil derg.


Melagogum: is mar so do-nitir e .i. gab tim, agus epitimus, 31 agus da gne in sticadois, da do gach ní, blatha borrage, agus uiola, da unsa do gach ní; mirbolani indi, agus cebuli, unsa do gach ní, trifera sarrasenica, leth unsa; lapis lasuli arna nighi co míníc, leth unsa. Sithoiltir in mirbolani, agus lapis lasuli; no tobair tar eis cuig n-uairedh no a se don n-oibriugadh hi mar adubramur tuas.

Fleghmagogum: is mar so do-nitir e .i. gab anís, agus maratrum, agus ameos, unsa do gac ní, mirbolaní cebuli, da unsa; turbit, let dragma. Agus fetar do reir examalachta an inaidh benedicta, no yera pigra arna maethugadh, no neithe ele do cur ann gidh sitoiltir an mirbolani, agus in turbut, mar adubrumar.


DICTO DE MEDICINIS LAXATIUIS decendum est de opiates: .i. ar labhairt do na leigheasaibh lagtacha as innlabarta dona h-opiata. Agus is uime aderar opiate riu on opium teid in a comshiugiudh. Et nod let co fuilid tri brige ann ag na oipiate .i. brigh coisgi fluxa na leannann rithis cum an boill easlain agus brigh calmuigthi an boill cum a silid, agus brigh cnaiti na leannan. Et nod  p.116 let co fuilid opiata ann do-berar roimh an leigheas lagtach mar ata diamoron32 oir da cumusgtir í le ní ar a mbeirbter ros agus licoris arna glanadh coisgidh flux na leannan cum lacerti na bragat. Agus is uime sin as imcubaid hi a n-aigidh scuinancia.


Tyriacla .i. in triacla33 da cumusgtir hí re fin ar a mbeirbtir saitsi agus a tabairt da ol coiscid neim do tollad cum cridhi, agus as uime sin as imcubaid hi a n-aigidh na neime.

Atanasia: 34 da cumusgtir hi re sugh cruaichi Padraig agus a tabairt da h-ol agus coisgidh in fuil agus taithighidh in cuisle agus as uime sin as imcubaid í annsa flux fola. Et is i dosis na n-opiata so co dragma, no co da dragma. Na h-opiata, iomorro, do-berar d'aithle na leigheas lagtach mar ata aurea alexandrine. 35 Tabair i ar na cumusg maille re h-uisci te, agus dentar gairgreisim36 di. Agus is imcubaid hí an aigidh easlinn in cinn co h-uiligi agus a n-aigidh fluxa an rema cum na sul agus cum na cluas agus cum feola na fiaclac. Gidhed mas d'eis leigheas do-berar hi, tabair ar fagbail fotraici hi. Agus is imcubaid mar sin a coddidiana rigin hi.


Metiratum37 agus mus enea38 adhon tabair iat tar eis in leighis roimh an aixus arna cumusg maille re fín bog ar cur uisci trit agus cnaighit na leanna. Agus is uime sin as imcubaid iad do lucht cuartana roimh uair na h-aixisi ar an modh adubramar.

Rubea trosicata39 agus recuies dlegar a tabairt ar na cumusg maille re h-uisci te d'aithle leigis, agus roim uair na h-aixisi oir coiscid flux na leannan coilera cum inidh an morgaid, agus cnaidhit in t-adbar. Agus is uime sin as imcubaid do lucht terciana iat.



Micleta: 40 da tuctar da hol hi maille re sugh cruaiche Padraig no le siroip an mírtuis d'aithle leighis is imcubaid agus is mirbuilech foghnus a n-aigidh emorrides bis a silidh co h-ainmasarda. Agus is ro-maith hí a n-aigidh disinteria agus leinnteria agus is i dosis as mo ag na h-opiataib so co da dragma agus dosis as lugha co dragma, agus is leor so de dosisibh na leigheas ⁊ rl.

Finit. Amen.

Document details

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Title statement

Title (uniform): An Irish Version of Gualterus de Dosibus

Title (original, Latin): De Dosibus Medicinarum

Author: Walter de Agilon/Galterius Agilinus

Editor: Shawn Sheahan

Responsibility statement

Translated into Irish by: Cormac Mac Duinnshléibhe

Electronic edition compiled and proofed by: Beatrix Färber

Funded by: School of History, University College, Cork

Edition statement

1. First draft.

Extent: 19950 words

Publication statement

Publisher: CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts: a project of University College, Cork

Address: College Road, Cork, Ireland—http://celt.ucc.ie

Date: 2018

Distributor: CELT online at University College, Cork, Ireland.

CELT document ID: G600021

Availability: Available with prior consent of the CELT project for purposes of academic research and teaching only.Copyright for this edition lies with the estate of Shawn Sheahan.

Notes statement

*The original title is 'An Irish version of Gaulterus de Dosibus'. This contains a typo, 'Gaulterus', and has been corrected in the electronic edition to 'Gualterus'.* I am very grateful to Mrs Maureen Crowley, Leap, Co. Cork, a niece of Shawn Sheahan, who donated a copy of the book, for her kind permission to publish this material in electronic form on CELT, and to Professor Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha who made it possible. The book can be considered a rare book: a search on Copac shows that within The UK and Northern Ireland it is listed in only seven libraries. (Irish Libraries apart from TCD have not joined COPAC.) My sincere thanks are also due to to Dr Mirko Hanke, Academic Librarian of the Leopoldina in Halle, Germany, for sending me the introduction of Paul Diepgen's Gualteri Agilonis Summa medicinalis (Leipzig 1911). I have not been able to locate a printed Latin edition of the De Dosibus; however for digital images of the Latin manuscript Sheahan consulted, see below under 'Manuscript sources for De dosibus medicinarum', no. 12. The work is regarded as mainly derivative. (See Introduction).

Biographical Note: “Shawn Sheahan was born in Ashford, County Limerick, Ireland, on January 21, 1901. Having at the age of fourteen completed his course in the national school he devoted six years to helping on his father's farm; a year to farming among the Gaelic speakers of Ballyferriter, where he became conversant in his native tongue; and a year in Musgrave's School, Newcastlewest, County Limerick, and Ring Gaelic College, County Waterford. Afterwards he became a pharmacist's apprentice for a period of three years. In January, 1927, he came to Washington, D. C, where, in October of that year, he passed the Board of Pharmacy Examination. In September he entered George Washington University as a part-time special student from which he graduated in June, 1934. The following September he entered the Catholic University of America, where he pursued courses in Philology under doctors Geary, Lane, and Fry.”


Title (book): Trotula

, 67, translates the weights and measures given in the

Title (book): Antidotarium Nicolai

(see van den Berg, p. 191) as follows “A scruple is the weight of twenty grains. Two scruples equal forty grains, and three scruples equal sixty grains. Three scruples collected equal one dram. (...) Eight drams make one ounce. And 108 drams make one pound.”

Source description

MS sources for Irish translations of 'De Dosibus Medicinarum'

  1. British Library, London, Harley 546, ff1–11. (For details see Standish Hayes O'Grady, Catalogue of the Irish Manuscripts in the British Library, reprint, 2 vols (Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1992), 171–177. It is complete. A colophon is added naming Cormac Mac Duinnshléibhe as the translator who put the summary into Irish for Dermot mac Donall O'Lyne, in Cloyne (Co. Cork), in 1459. For sample pages see http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?ref=Harley_MS_546.
  2. Trinity College Library, 1326 (H. 3. 7.), ff 1–15b5. It is complete. For details see ISOS Project. Digital images of this manuscript are available on the ISOS Project, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, see: http://www.dias.ie/isos/.
  3. Trinity College Library, 1436 (E 4.1.) pp 296–310a. It is complete. For details see ISOS Project. Digital images of this manuscript are available on the ISOS Project, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, see: http://www.dias.ie/isos/.
  4. Trinity College Library, 1436 (H 2 12), no. 13. It is incomplete. For details see ISOS Project. Digital images of this manuscript are available on the ISOS Project, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, see: http://www.dias.ie/isos/.
  5. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy, MS 445 (24 B 3) (17–28).It is incomplete. For details see ISOS Project. Digital images of this manuscript are available on the ISOS Project, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, see: http://www.dias.ie/isos/.

Manuscript sources for De dosibus medicinarum [incipit: Medicinarum quedam sunt simplices.] See http://www.mirabileweb.it/calma/galterius-agilinus-fl-saec-xiii-med-/2578.

  1. Cambridge, King's College 21 [sec. XIII–XIV (1272–1327)], f. 88.
  2. Dublin, Marsh's Library Z.4.4.4 [sec. XIV first half], ff. 185ra–192ra.
  3. El Escorial, Real Biblioteca de San Lorenzo de El Escorial p.II.5, ff. 74–79.
  4. Firenze, Biblioteca Riccardiana 878, ff. 5ra–8vb.
  5. Kraków, Biblioteka Jagiellonska 778 [ca. 1425], ff. 59r–64r.
  6. Kraków, Biblioteka Jagiellonska 823 [post XIV med.], ff. 98r–101r.
  7. Leipzig, Universitätsbibliothek 1166 [sec. XIV first half], ff. 78v–87r.
  8. Leipzig, Universitätsbibliothek 1227 [a. 1474], ff. 168r–172r;.
  9. London, British Library, Harley 3371 [sec. XV ex.]
  10. London, Wellcome Library (olim Wellcome Historical Medical Library) 559 [sec. XV med.], f. 9.
  11. München, Universitätsbibliothek, 2576 [a. 1383].
  12. München, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 325. USED BY SHEAHAN. Provenance Northern Italy. It contains the De Dosibus on ff 79r to 83ra, 238r to 246v. Digital images are available at the Digitalisierungszentrum of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München (Munich) http://daten.digitale-sammlungen.de/0007/bsb00073571/images/index.html?fip=
  13. Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat. 14026 [sec. XIV], ff. 89v–90v.
  14. Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat. 16191 [sec. XIV], ff. 202–207.
  15. Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat. 6957 [a. 1429], ff. 100v–108.
  16. Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat. 6964 [a. 1305 Montpellier], ff. 93v–96.
  17. Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat. 7051 [sec. XIV], ff. 56–62v.
  18. Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France. Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal 1025 [sec. XIV], ff. 141–144v.

General background and works by Walter of Agilon (Gualterus Aguilonis)

  1. Bartholomew Parr, The London Medical Dictionary (Philadelphia 1819).
  2. Francesco Puccinotti, Storia della Medicina (Livorno 1855).
  3. Salvatore De Renzi, Collectio Salernitana, 5 vols, (Naples 1852–1859).
  4. Robley Dunglison, Medical Lexicon: A Dictionary of Medical Science (London 1860).
  5. Julius Pfeffer, Das Compendium urinarum des Gualterus Agulinus. Inaugurtal-Dissertation (Berlin 1891) [Nach einer Handschrift der Amploniana].
  6. Paul Diepgen (ed) , Gualteri Agilonis Summa medicinalis: nach den Münchener Codices lat. Nr. 325 und 13124 erstmalig ediert mit einer vergleichenden Betrachtung älterer medizinischer Kompendien des Mittelaters (Leipzig: Barth 1911).
  7. Heinrich Schipperges, Die frühen Übersetzer der arabischen Medizin in chronologischer Sicht. Sudhoffs Archiv f. d. Geschichte der Medizin 39 (1955) 53–93.
  8. Heinrich Schipperges, Zur Rezeption und Assimilation arabischer Medizin im frühen Toledo. Sudhoffs Archiv f. d. Geschichte der Medizin 39 (1955) 261–283.
  9. Heinrich Schipperges, Die Assimilation der arabischen Medizin durch das lateinische Mittelalter. Wiesbaden 1964 (= Sudhoffs Archiv, Beiheft 3).
  10. Danielle Jacquart and Agostino Paravicini Bagliani (eds), La Collectio Salernitana di Salvatore De Renzi. (Florence 2008).
  11. Peter Wyse Jackson, Ireland's Generous Nature. (Missouri 2014).
  12. Gian Carlo Garfagnini, Claudio Leonardi, Michael Lapidge (eds), C.A.L.M.A.: Compendium Auctorum Latinorum Medii Aevi: 500–1500. 5 vols. (Florence 2000–2017.)

A selection of secondary literature (suggestions are welcome)

  1. Lynn Thorndike and Francis C. Benjamin (eds), The Herbal of Rufinus (Chicago 1946).
  2. Francis Shaw, S. J., 'Irish medical men and philosophers', in: Seven Centuries of Irish Learning, 1000–1700, ed. by Brian Ó Cuív (Cork: Mercier Press 1971).
  3. Dietlinde Goltz, Studien zur Geschichte der Mineralnamen in Pharmazie, Chemie und Medizin von den Anfängen bis Paracelsus (Wiesbaden 1972).
  4. L. García-Ballester, J. A. Paniagua, M. R. McVaugh (eds), Arnaldi de Villanova Opera medica omnia, Volume 2; Volume 5 (Barcelona 1975).
  5. Dietlinde Goltz, Mittelalterliche Pharmazie und Medizin. Dargestellt an Geschichte und Inhalt des Antidotarium Nicolai. Mit einer Druckfassung von 1491 (Stuttgart 1976).
  6. Nessa Ní Shéaghda, 'Translations and Adaptations in Irish' (Statutory Lecture 1984, School of Celtic Studies), (Dublin: Institute for Advanced Studies 1984).
  7. Tony Hunt, Plant names of Medieval England (Cambridge 1989).
  8. A. Bauer, 'Gualtherus Agulinus'. In: Lexikon des Mittelalters, IV, 1989, column 1760.
  9. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha, 'Irish medical manuscripts', Irish Pharmacy Journal 69/5 (May 1991) 201–2.
  10. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha, 'Irish Pharmaceutical Texts', Irish Pharmacy Journal, 69 (1991), 274f.
  11. W. F. Daems, Nomina simplicium medicinarum ex synonimariis Medii Aevi collecta. Semantische Untersuchungen zum Fachwortschatz hoch- und spätmittelalterlicher Drogenkunde (Leiden 1993).
  12. Michael Rogers McVaugh, Medicine before the Plague: Practitioners and Their Patients in the Crown of Aragon: 1285–1345, Cambridge Studies in the History of Medicine (Cambridge 1993).
  13. Michael Rogers McVaugh, 'Medical Knowledge at the Time of Frederick II', in: Le scienze alla corte di Federico II. Sciences at the Court of Frederick II = Micrologus. Natura, scienze e società medievali. Nature, Sciences and Medieval Societies. Rivista della Società Internazionale per lo Studio del Medio Evo Latino Firenze 2 (1994) 3–17.
  14. Margaret R. Schleissner (ed), Manuscript sources of medieval medicine: a book of essays (New York: Garland 1995).
  15. Mirko D. Grmek, Bernardino Fantini (eds), Western Medical Thought from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. [Translated from the Italian by Anthony Shuugar.] (Cambridge, Massachussetts: Harvard University Press 1999).
  16. Jerry Stannard, Herbs and Herbalism in the Middle Ages and Renaissance; edited by Katherine E. Stannard and Richard Kay. (Aldershot 1999).
  17. Jerry Stannard, Pristina medicamenta: ancient and medieval botany; edited by Katherine E. Stannard and Richard Kay. (Aldershot 1999).
  18. D. R. Langslow, Medical Latin in the Roman Empire, (Oxford 2000).
  19. Fergus Kelly, 'Medicine and Early Irish Law', in: J. B. Lyons (ed), Two thousand years of Irish medicine (Dublin 1999) 15–19. Reprinted in Irish Journal of Medical Science vol. 170 no. 1 (January–March 2001) 73–76.
  20. Monica H. Green (ed) and trans, The Trotula: a medieval compendium of women's medicine (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania 2001). See especially the Appendix on Compound medicines, pp 193–204.
  21. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha, 'Medical writing in Irish', in: J. B. Lyons (ed), Two thousand years of Irish medicine (Dublin 1999) 21–26. Published also in Irish Journal of Medical Science 169/3 (July–September 2000) 217–20.
  22. Christopher J. Duffin, 'Lapis Judaicus or the Jews' stone: the folklore of fossil echinoid spines', Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 117:3 (2006) 265–275.
  23. Peter E. Pormann and Emilie Savage-Smith, Medieval Islamic Medicine (Washington D.C. 2007).
  24. Wolfram Schmitt, Medizinische Lebenskunst: Gesundheitslehre und Gesundheitsregimen im Mittelalter (Berlin 2013).
  25. Peter Wyse Jackson , Ireland's generous nature: the past and present uses of wild plants in Ireland (St. Louis, Missouri 2013).
  26. NB: A short text by Iohannes Ibn Mesue is in parts very similar to this. See Traducciòn catalana anònima Ms. Paris, BN, Español 508, ff. 57a–61a, inc. 'Practica segons Johan Eben Mesue' (available at sciencia.cat/biblioteca/documents/Parma_Ferre.pdf
  27. Juhani Norri, Dictionary of Medical Vocabulary in English, 1375–1550: Body Parts, Sicknesses, Instruments, and Medicinal Preparations (Oxford 2016).
  28. John D. Comrie, History of Scottish medicine (London, published for the Wellcome historical medical museum by Baillière, Tindall & Cox 1932). Available at: https://archive.org/details/b20457273M002.

Internet resources

  1. Dictionary of the Irish Language, mainly compiled from Old and Middle Irish materials: eDIL. See http://www.dil.ie/.
  2. Francisco Cortés Gabaudan, Jesús Ureña Bracero, Dicciomed.eusal.es. Diccionario médico-biológico, histórico y etimológico. 2004. Universidad de Salamanca. See http://dicciomed.eusal.es/comosecita.php.
  3. MIRABILEWEB: Archivio Digitale della cultura medievale (Digital Archive for Medieval Culture) http://www.mirabileweb.it/index.aspx.
  4. LOGEION, A Dictionary incorporating several dictionaries of Greek and Latin at the University of Chicago http://logeion.uchicago.edu/.
  5. Alcuin Infothek der Scholastik: a database about scholastic authors, their works and reception. Intended as a research tool and hosted at the University of Regensburg (in German) http://www-app.uni-regensburg.de/Fakultaeten/PKGG/Philosophie/Gesch_Phil/alcuin/index.php.
  6. The Jesuatti Book of Remedies, or, Libro de i Secretti con Ricetti. Compiled by Friar Giovanni Andrea of the Order of the Jesuati Friars of Saint Jerome in Lucca, Italy in 1562. Translated and with notes by Stata Norton. Electronic edition published by the Center for Digital Scholarship, University of Kansas Libraries, 2010. Available at ttp://etext.ku.edu/view?docId=jesuatti/jesuatti.xml;brand=jesuatti;route=jesuatti;.
  7. Johan Yperman (c. 1260– c. 1331), a Flemish surgeon and the first medical writer in Dutch, wrote a 'Cirurgie' that was edited in 1912 by E.C. van Leersum. Pages 234ff. of this edition contain an explanatory glossary. The work is digitally available at the Digitale Bibliotheek voor de Nederlandse Letteren (http://www.dbnl.org/) see http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/yper003ecvl01_01/yper003ecvl01_01_0204.php
  8. The Digitale Bibliotheek voor de Nederlandse Letteren (http://www.dbnl.org/) also has an edition of the Antidotarium Nicolai (including a Middle Dutch version) online. This was edited from Mss 15624-15642 from Brussels, Kon. Bibl. by W.S. van den Berg (Leiden 1917); see http://www.dbnl.org/titels/titel.php?id=_ant004anti01.
  9. Dioscórides Interactivo: the Salamanca Dioscorides (De materia medica), Unversidad de Salamanca. Estudios y Traducción del Dioscórides, Manuscrito de Salamanca. Traducción: Antonio López Eire y Francisco Cortés Gabaudan. Con estudios de Bertha Gutiérrez Rodilla y Maria Concepción Vázquez de Benito. Editor y coordinador Alejandro Esteller. Available at http://dioscorides.usal.es/.

The edition used in the digital edition

Sheahan, Shawn, ed. (1938). An Irish Version of Gualterus de Dosibus‍. 1st ed. 1 volume; 185 pages. Preface 9–13; Signs 15 (i.e. variants common to a particular group of manuscripts); Abbreviations 17–19; Specimen pages of the MSS 21–25; Corrections 26; Introduction 27–44, Irish text with facing English translation 46–119, Variants and Notes on Text 121–145; Glossary 147–180; Bibliography 181–183. Washington, D. C.: Catholic University of America.

You can add this reference to your bibliographic database by copying or downloading the following:

  title 	 = {An Irish Version of Gualterus de Dosibus},
  editor 	 = {Shawn Sheahan},
  edition 	 = {1},
  note 	 = {1 volume; 185 pages. Preface 9–13; Signs 15 (i.e. variants common to a particular group of manuscripts); Abbreviations 17–19; Specimen pages of the MSS 21–25; Corrections 26; Introduction 27–44, Irish text with facing English translation 46–119, Variants and Notes on Text 121–145; Glossary 147–180; Bibliography 181–183.},
  publisher 	 = {Catholic University of America },
  address 	 = {Washington, D. C.},
  date 	 = {1938}


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Correction: Text has been checked and proofread twice. All corrections and supplied text are tagged. Note: the variant readings have not been provided since their manner of recording, explained by 27 different signs by the editor (15) is rather cumbersome in the edition. Therefore, what is presented here is a reconstruction of the Irish text by the editor, a textus conflatus, including all manuscripts. As the editor remarked (27), the original translation by Cormac Mac Duinnshléibhe is not extant. A number of explanatory footnotes have been added at CELT.

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Creation: The Latin original was written c. 1240–1250; the Irish translation by 1459.

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  • The text is in Early Modern Irish. (ga)
  • The introduction is in English. (en)
  • Some words and phrases are in Latin. (la)
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Keywords: medical; pharmacy; dosage of medicine; prose; medieval; scholarship; translation; Gualterus Agilonis; Galterius Agilinus; Gualterus Agilinus; Walter of Agilon; materia medica; Schola Salernitana; translation

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  1. 2018-01-17: File proofed (2) online. More encoding applied for medical, botanical and pharmaceutical terms, explanantory footnotes and bibliographic items added; file reparsed. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  2. 2017-24-10: File encoded in accordance with CELT standards: encoding and numbering of divisions, subdivisions and headings. Limited amount of content encoding applied for personal names, book titles; place names, Latin phrases, Greek words, supplied text, footnotes; minor changes made to spelling. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
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  4. 2017-12-06: Introduction written using information from Paul Diepgen's preface. File parsed and validated. SGML and HTML versions created. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  5. 2017-12-05: TEI header created with bibliographical details. (ed. Beatrix Färber)

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T600021: An Irish Version of Gualterus de Dosibus (in English Translation)

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  1. L a tota specie. 🢀

  2. In the language of Galenism, the mala complexio, or imbalance of the humours within the body. 🢀

  3. Accorus, Acorus verus or Calamus aromaticus. Bauh. Acorus Calamus L. Sibthorp, Iohannes: Florae Graece, London 1806, 1.239. Diepgen op. cit. 55. Other views prevail as to the identity of accorus. It is identified by Montigiano in dealing with Dioscorides as Iris pseudoacorus, having as synonyms Chorus, and Aphrodisia. Discorides: Materia Medicinale; Firenze 1547 1.2. This view is held also by Miss Wulff (op. cit. 365). The species Irish pseudoacorus Sibthorp identifies as nerokrinós of Dioscorides. Others hold the view that Galingan is the true acorus of the ancients.(...) [Shawn Sheahan]. 🢀

  4. uair an leighis E. The other manuscripts agree on “uairann an leighis”. The Latin reads: “... ut virtus medicine conservetur et non putrescat componitur medecina quia necesse est medico medicinae longo tempore servare ne virtutes medecinarum deficiant.” Agilon: Medicinae quidam sunt simplices, or Gualterus de dosibus: clm 325, 78r–83ra, Staatsbibliothek Munich, f. 79v.] 🢀

  5. Scamonea est succus volubilis cuiusdam, cuius virtus durat per triginta annos. Alberti Magni de vegetalibilibus p. 564, line 437. accessed 231017 from Librería Digital, Jardín Botánico de Madrid CSIS. 🢀

  6. This adjective is not cited in eDIL; however gum and gumamlacht are. 🢀

  7. Green, Trotula, 196f, translates the relevant passage from the Antodotarium Nicolai sv Oleum rosaceum: “Oleum rosatum has a cold and styptic power and thus is the best thing for head pains from fever or from the heat of the sun. Moreover, it takes away burning and heat when the stomach is full of bile [and when] its windiness fills the whole head or just part of it. It is good for those pains which happen sometimes in the whole head or part of it if the head is anointed with this. It also is good for pains arising in the stomach or intestines from sharpness of the humors if it is mixed with two drams of mastic and enough wax dissolved in it and then anointed on the affected parts. It is useful against erysipelas that does not appear on the surface [of the skin] and for many other conditions of this kind. This oil is made in the following manner. One and a half pounds of slightly crushed fresh roses should be placed in two pounds of common (and in our opinion, cleaned) oil; these should be placed in a full pot suspended in a cauldron full of water. And let these boil for a while until they are reduced to a third of their original quantity. Only then should this be put into a white linen cloth and squeezed through a press. The liquid should be saved. In the same manner oil of elder, violet, and sweet gale is made, that is, those oils which are good in acute diseases; anointed on the liver, pulse points, temples, and palms of the hands and soles of the feet, they extinguish heat completely.” Cf van den Berg, p. 105, no. 62. 🢀

  8. Gumamlacht nom. sg. Gumminess. section 41,48. Note: the form 'gumammlacht' occurs in section48 suggesting that the word may not after all contain the nominal suffix "-amlacht" (NIr. -amhlacht) = Eng. "-iness". If the double "m" is the correct form, it may be a compound form "gum a mblacht" with dropping of the "b" and and doubling of the "m" of nasalisation which follows the preposition "a" (=i). Should "gumammlacht" be, therefore, the correct form, the word might be translated as "gum-milk" or "milk-like gum". Latin "gummo(s)itatem", however, fixes the Ir. form as gumamlacht. Aguilon op. cit. 80r. (Shawn Sheahan p. 162) 🢀

  9. A description of the five kinds is found in The London Medical Dictionary by Bartholomew Parr (1819) , available online at http://chestofbooks.com/health/reference/London-Medical-Dictionary/Myrobalani.html sv Myrobalani: “... myrobalans, a dried fruit of the plum kind, brought from the East Indies, of which three kinds are brought from Bengal, faba Bengalensis, Cambaia, and Malabarica. (...) They have been recommended as somewhat astringent and tonic, but are not now in use. Myrobalanus means nux, or glans unguentaria, a nut or acorn, fit for making precious ointments; for from the myrobalans described by Dioscurides, Pliny, and Galen, they used to express a fragrant oil used in ointments. All the different kinds, which we hasten to describe, are probably varieties of the phyllanthus emblica Linné Species Plantarum, 1393.
    Myrobalanum belliricum, belleregi, bellegu, belliric myrobalans, are of a yellowish grey colour, and an irregularly roundish or oblong figure, about an inch long, and three quarters of an inch thick.
    Myrobalani chebulae (=chebuli) resemble the yellow sort in their figure and ridges, but are larger and darker coloured, inclining to brown or blackish, and with a thicker pulp.
    Myrobalani citrini, vel flavi, are somewhat longer than the belliric, have generally five large longitudinal ridges, and as many smaller between them, somewhat pointed at both ends.
    Myrobalani emblici, ambegu, are of a dark, blackish grey colour, roundish, about half an inch thick, with six hexagonal faces opening from one another.
    Myrobalani Indici, vel nigri, asuar, are of a deep black colour, oblong, octangular, differing from all the others in having only the rudiments of a stone, and supposed to have been gathered before maturity.
    All the sorts have an unpleasant, bitterish, austere taste, strike a black colour with a solution of vitriol, contain tannine, are gently purgative and astringent. ...” Several varieties of myrobalans (now known as Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Phyllantus emblica) have in recent years been investigated for their potential pharmaceutical and therapeutic uses.  🢀

  10. 'Manna' is not in Sheahan's glossary. It is translated 'manna' in the Irish version but not related in any way to the biblical manna. The eDIL entries do not cover this medical sense of a specifically lubricating laxative. Green, Trotula, 283, has 'gum from the flowering ash-tree? Fraxinus ornus L.' and cites it as an ingredient of trifera saracenica. John Redman Coxe, The Philadelphia Medical Dictionary, Philadelphia 1808, sv manna has 'a mild laxative exuding from a species of Sicilian ash' (Fraxinus ornus, manna ash or South European flowering ash). It is a sugary extract of its bark sap, on which the sugar mannose and the sugar alcohol mannitol are based. 🢀

  11. This word, translated as “plums”, is neither listed in Sheahan's glossary nor in eDIL. A search in eDIL does not yield any results for the English term “plum”. However, sv bolas, bolás? H. Cameron Gillies, Regimen Sanitatis, p. 25, “na bolais” “the bullaces” is cited. Also cf. Micheál P.S. Ó Conchubhair, An Irish Materia Medica, part 1, p. 136: “duillebar crainn na mbulas”, “leaves of bullace”. Variants of “bulaisigi” are recorded in Dinneen sv “boláiste”, and O'Dónaill sv. baláiste, “bollace, wild plum”. John F. L. S Cameron, The Gaelic names of plants has p. 24, “Prunus institia — bullace, Gaelic and Irish bulastair.” From Old French beloce “prune sauvage”, from L *bulluca, FEW 1, p. 623–4; and cf. Du Cange, sv bulluga: “Pomi species. Jonas in Vita S. Columbani cap. 19: Bullugas appellant.”, and cf. sv bolluca. In An Irish Corpus Astronomiae (G600031), written 1694, the equivalent of English “almond and plum trees” is translated “crann almonds, plumaidhe”. In Carney, Regimen na Sláinte, (c. 1415) “pruna” occurs once (L600009C) and is rendered “mirabolani”. In Wulff, A Mediaeval Handbook of Gynaecology (G600011), dated to 1352, the Latin “pruna magna, rubra” p. 57 is rendered “airneda mora derga”, and pruna p. 82 is translated “airnedha”, too. See also Stokes, Three Medical Glossaries, p. 327, no. 65: “Pruni .i. Airni.” From this it may be perhaps inferred that “áirne” was used originally to cover both the native sloe and the plum. To denote the tropical myrobalans, “mir(a)bolani” was used. The Latin word pruna may have been used for a variety that was novel to Ireland. “Bullace” was adapted from French fairly early, but used variously to denote either a different fruit (bulluca/bulluga), or a different species of plum, “prunus institia”. At a later stage, the English word “plum”, which is in use now, was adapted for the garden variety or varieties. 🢀

  12. 'Ad' is an interpolation here. B. 🢀

  13. 'do reir nadura' occurs before the last clause in B H Har. (Shawn Sheahan, p. 132) 🢀

  14. This word, translated 'migraine', is neither recorded in Sheahan's glossary, nor in eDIL. It is found once in Carney, Regimen na Sláinte, G600009A, as emigrania. 🢀

  15. Sebesten, the fruit of black jujeb. Sebesten plum, Cordia Myxa L. Diepgen op. cit. 75. Myxaria; Nicholas Lemery, Woordenboeck of Algemene Verhandeling der Enkele Droogeryn, Rotterdam 1743 (...) (Shawn Sheahan). 🢀

  16. The four cold seeds were well known in the Renaissance and Early Modern period. The four greater cold seeds are “those of cucumber, gourds, citrals and melons. The four smaller [ones] are those of endive, succory, purslain and lettuce.” Both kinds were used to “cool and thicken the humours” Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, Materia Medica; or, a description of simple medicines generally us'd in physick (...) London 1716, 390. They are also cited in Stokes, Three Irish Medical glossaries, p. 326: 46. “Melones ⁊ s[i]truilli, cuquirbita ⁊ cuqumiris i. na .4. silta mora fuara.”  🢀

  17. Identified by Sheahan p. 155, as Pentafolium (Cinquefoil), Potentilla reptans. (Another plant called Pentaphyllum is Gynostemma pentaphyllum, which grows in China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea and and India; but an identification may be excluded, as this was not part of the medieval materia medica of the West and first described in 1406.) 🢀

  18. Sheahan has a note on sticados p. 175. Stoechas in general is Lavandula stoechas, or French lavender. However DMLBS sv stoechas (=sticados) differentiates and tentatively identifies “sticados, a kind of plant.; b (spec., also w. citrinum) houseleek (Sempervivum tectorum) or similar. c (w. citrina) kind of daisy (Chrysanthemum); d (w. Arabicum or Arabicus)? hyssop.” 'Sticados rose' makes no sense, and the reading may be an error. Clm 325 folio 243v column b has id. instead of ros. 🢀

  19. Identified by Sheahan as Lithospermum officinale. 'Grumaill' is not cited in eDIL; however cf eDIL sv gurmaille, which is glossed as two different plants, Centaurea benedicta (Cnicus benedicta, Cardo benedicta) and Cauda porcina. Cauda porcina is explained in Simon of Genoa, Clavis Sanationis (13th century) as “Cauda porcina vocatur a quibusdam milium solis.” (=Lithospermum) By others it is equated to Peucedanum (Foeniculum silvestre). Cauda porcina is rendered 'cankirworth' in MS Arundel 42 (c1400) in Tony Hunt, Plant Names of Medieval England. The word grumaill is obviously a loan from English 'gromwell', which is not stated in the eDIL entry for gurmaille. 🢀

  20. Sheahan has no note on this word. According to eDIL sv hocus, it is an English loanword (hollyhock is probably derived from Old English holi “holy” and hoc, “marsh mallow” (13th c.); the word hoc is of unknown origin), cited in Carney, Regimen na Sláinte, G600009A, ll. 1008–1010, “hocus ⁊ holihoc .i. curthar an hocus ann do measrugad tirmaideachta [l 1010] na mball ...” Sil hocuis is also cited in G600011, p. 40, section 22, under the heading “De retencione secundine”: “No gab luaith fuinnsinn ⁊ si fuar ⁊ sil hocuis ⁊ cuir scrubul do pudar shinnseir trit ⁊ tabuir ar digh da ól di iat ⁊ slanaighter an uair sin hi.” The term “holihoc” is found ibid. p.48, section 32. “Sil hocus” is found in Wulff, Rosa Anglica, p. 218, section 76, and Stokes, Three Irish Medical Glossaries in G600018, p. 330, no. 131 has the gloss “Malua uisgue (leg. uisque, i. e. uisce) .i. hocus mor. ” 🢀

  21. Sheahan has a note on iua, “Irish yew, Taxus fastigata.” “Erba iua” is the yellow bugle, Ajuga chamaepitys, or ground pine, which is rendered camepiteos above, section 67. Hunt, Plant names of Medieval England, p. 317 lists under Ajuga chamaepitys the variants “camepitis, camepiteos, herba Ivonis, iva, quercula maior”. 🢀

  22. Sheahan has the following note on this: “Electuarium ducis. Commander's electuary. This was made by Commander Robert for indigestion. Nicolaus Praepositas, Incipit Antidotarium Venetiis: Per Nicolaum Jenson, 1471, 14.” Cf van den Berg, p.65, no. 40 sv “Electuarium ducis dicitur quia abbas de curia illud composuit ad opus ducis Rogerii filii Roberti Viscardi propter indigestionem et ventositatem stomaci et intestinorum: et ilii dolorem: et vitium lapidis.” Roger Borsa (Ruggero Borsa) (d.1111) was the son of Robert Guiscard (Roberto il Guiscardo), Duke of Apulia and Calabria and Duke of Sicily (d. 1085), and Sikelgaita, a princess of Salerno (1040-1090), and benefactress of Montecassino. 🢀

  23. Nephritis; this term is not in eDIL. See also par. 84 lucht nefrisis 'those having nephritis'. 🢀

  24. 'go ma' for older 'go mbadh'; go mad B. 🢀

  25. linn finn H2. 🢀

  26. Sheahan has a note on this. He took sanydropis for one word, thinking of a variety of scammony, but did not find the term cited in the literature he used. The text in clm 325 fo. 245r near the bottom is “in ydropisi non acuamur medicinam cum scamonea” 'let us not sharpen (intensify) the medicine in dropsy with scammony'; thus the correct reading is 'san ydropis'. 🢀

  27. “Lynxstone, or Belemnites, from the crystallized urine of the lynx.” (Shawn Sheahan, p. 165) 🢀

  28. See Robley Dunglison (ed), Medical Lexicon: A Dictionary of Medical Science .... (Blanchard & Lea, 1860) p. 864, sv. “Spongiae lapis: A name given to small friable stones found in sponge. They were formerly deemed lithontriptic.” Also called sponge-stone.  🢀

  29. “Jew stone, Lapis iudaicus. Fossil spines of sea urchin found in Judea” (Sheahan p. 165). See also Christopher J. Duffin, 'Lapis Judaicus or the Jews' stone: the folklore of fossil echinoid spines', Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 117:3 (2006) 265–275. 🢀

  30. Fen. quarta primi, doctrina 5. cap. 5. 🢀

  31. Identified by Sheahan as “Clamhán, Thyme dodder of the wild thyme, Cuscuta epithymum L.”. This is a parasitic plant and often takes its name from the host plant it infests. It is interesting to note that the translator did not use the Irish term here, although it was commonly known, and for example, “sugh clamhain lin” is cited in eDIL from RIA 23 K 42; and “claman lin” appears in Stokes, Three Irish Medical Glossaries, p. 327, no. 81, and as “clamān līn” in Carney, Regimen, line 1284/1285. 🢀

  32. A compound medicine prepared with mulberry juice and other ingredients. Cf van den Berg, p. 30/31, no. 16. 🢀

  33. Theriac, (thyriaca, tyriaca) A famous compound medicine used as a panacea. See Green, Trotula, 200f. There were two kinds, the thyriaca magna Galeni which was ascribed to Galen himself (see also van den Berg p. 144–145, no. 106, 111), and the thyriaca ditessaron (see van den Berg p. 146–147, no. 107, 112). 🢀

  34. A compound medicine prepared with Tanacetum vulgare (Tansy) and plaintain juice. Tansy is toxic. A stimulant of the menstrual flow (emmenagogue) but also an abortefacient. See van den Berg, p. 10/11, no. 4: “immortalis proprie valet ad fluxum sanguinis mulieris. datur cum succo plantaginis: qui succus debet prius duci super lapidem molarem cum lapide emathitide tamdiu donec in sanguineum colorem vertatur: et cum tali succo distemperata medicina detur. et eadem bombice intincta et sepius in vulva missa sanguinem constringit. hoc quidem facit emothoicis cum tali ordine distemperata. et naribus actracta fluxum sanguinis narium sistit. Sexta pars confecta est libra.” 🢀

  35. A compound medicine used as an antidote based on opiates which contained gold, it is said to have been invented by Nicolaus Myresus Alexandrinus; also see van den Berg p. 5, no. 1: “Aurea alexandrina dicta est ab auro alexandrina ab Alexandro peritissimo philosopho inventa est. proprie valet ad omne capitis vitium ex frigidate maxime: et ad omnem reumaticam passionem que a capite ad oculos et aures et gingivas descendit: et ad gravedinem omnium membrorum que fit de eodem humore. datur eunti dormitum cum vino calido .xviii. pars confecta est libre .ii.”. 🢀

  36. A gargle. Sheahan does not have a note on this word, which is not cited in eDIL. From L 'gargarismus' of the same meaning, which is derived from Greek 'gargarismátion'. 🢀

  37. Sheahan does not have a note on this. The compound medicine mentioned here is Metridatum, called 'mother of all antidotes', according to Greek mēter, 'mother', or alternatively derived from the name of King Mithridates, used against all headaches in men and women if due to a cold cause. It is said to help the sad and timid, epilepics, and those suffering from mania; and is wonderful against migraines, irritated and watery eyes, and ear complaints. Likewise it helps against toothache and all mouth and jaw problems if applied on the hurting place. In the Antidotarium Nicolai, many other benefits are listed. Cf van den Berg p. 88–90 no. 62. 🢀

  38. Musa Enea in the Antidotarium Nicolai, said to be invented by a most famous philosopher. For details see van den Berg p. 93 no. 57 and Norri, Dictionary of Medical Vocabulary in English, sv musa enea. 🢀

  39. Rubea trosicata in the Antidotarium Nicolai, mentioned in passing, see van den Berg p. 94/95 and Norri, Dictionary of Medical Vocabulary in English, sv rubea trociscata. 🢀

  40. See van den Berg, p. 93, no. 58 and Norri, Dictionary of Medical Vocabulary in English, sv micleta. 🢀


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