CELT document T102030

Cáin Lánamna

Unknown author

English translation

Law of the Couple

Pairs in Irish law

Exempt from legal suit for each…

Exempt from legal suit for each is what each may have used or have consumed as against the other, except what . lien, obligation or loan may have imposed, or what one of them may have mis-appropriated from the other. Exempt from legal suit is everything useful to the partnership, everything done in good faith; liable to legal claim is everything done in bad faith in the law of the couple.

Question. How many pairings are there…

Question. How many pairings are there in Irish law? Answer. Eight: a lord and his base clients, a church and its tenantry, a father and his daughter, a girl and her brother, a son and his mother, a foster-son and his foster-mother, a teacher and his pupil, a man and his wife.

Equally exempt from legal suit for…

Equally exempt from legal suit for each is whatever one of them may have given the other, whatever one of them may have used as against the other, without violent crime, without stealth. Everything taken without permission, that is complained about, is repaid by simple replacement of the object until the matter goes as far as the legal remedy of fasting, 1 except in the case of the church. Repayment, by simple replacement, of what is taken without permission and complained about is all that is required until there is evasion of the legal obligations that arise from fasting, or legal default. Anything taken by stealth, by violent crime, anything taken without permission, that is complained about and ignored, is levied with its penalty fine.

Question: how many couples of cohabitation…

Question: how many couples of cohabitation and procreation are there in Irish law? Answer: ten-(1) union of common contribution; (2) union of a woman on a man's contribution; (3) union of a man on a woman's contribution with service; (4) union of a woman who accepts a man's solicitation; (5) union of a man who visits the woman, without work, without solicitation, without provision, without material contribution; (6) union by abduction; (7) union of wandering mercenaries; (8) union by criminal seduction; (9) union by rape; (10) union of mockery.

(1) Union of common contribution: if…

(1) Union of common contribution: if it is a union with land and stock and household equipment, and if their marital relationship is one of equal status and equal propriety-and such a woman is called a woman of joint dominion-no contract of either is valid without the consent of the other, except for contracts that benefit their establishment. These are: an agreement for common ploughing with proper kinsmen when they do not themselves have a full ploughing team; paying for the leasing of land; getting together food for a coshering; 2 getting food for feast-days; paying stud fees; fitting out the household; making an agreement for joint husbandry; the purchase of any essentials that they lack. Every contract shall be without neglect, an advantageous contract, conscientious, in accordance with right and propriety, with acknowledgement on both sides that the ownership of what is acquired belongs to the person whose property was alienated to acquire it.

Anything, the lack of which brings…

Anything, the lack of which brings loss on the household, cannot be sold without common counsel, consultation, and mutual concession. For the impairment of the joint economy in a union of common contribution is not proper without mutual concession.

Putting children in a well-befriended and…

Putting children in a well-befriended and good fosterage is a contract in accord with all propriety that brings well-being into the community of their common household.

Every contract shall be without cheating.…

Every contract shall be without cheating. Either of them may dissolve the bad contracts of the other. The one does not dissolve the good contracts of the other in the case of those matters that have been listed, if the joint husbandry is without mutual friction, without mutual inculpation, in good partnership, in good faith.

If they divorce, each divorce shall…

If they divorce, each divorce shall be without mutual defrauding. If they divorce by mutual consent, let them divide their property in accordance with legal propriety.

A third of all proceeds belongs…

A third of all proceeds belongs to the owner of the land, except for handiwork; 3 a third of the cattle dropped during the union belongs to the owner of the stock from which they are sprung; a third to whoever did the labour. Division is made in proportion to the entitlement of each in regard to land, stock and labour. If the conduct of each is equally good or equally bad, this is the way they divide their thirds.

The third assigned to labour of…

The third assigned to labour of the proceeds of the cattle is further divided into thirds: a third to the master of the house, a third to the mistress of the house, a third to the workers, that is, the herders. 4 .

Likewise dairy produce: it is divided…

Likewise dairy produce: it is divided in three between land 12/36, stock 12/36 and labour 12/36. The labour third: half goes to the woman who does the work 6/36; a twelfth goes to dairy vessels 3/36; 5 two-thirds of the remaining half go to the master of the house 2/36, a third to the dairy workers 1/36. 6

If one of them is ill-behaved,…

If one of them is ill-behaved, the labour portion of the ill-behaved falls to the well-behaved, but the portions due to land and stock are not diminished

The labour third of the fodder…

The labour third of the fodder corn and salt meat: 7 let it be divided in three i.e. a third 1/9 to the wife who is responsible for ploughing and reaping 8 and for looking after the pig-sties, for feeding and for fattening the pigs, unless they are fattened on milk. In that case, the wife gets two-thirds 2/9. For only spring-work in regard to ploughing and looking after the sties, the wife is entitled to two-thirds of a third 2/27.

The wife takes a half of…

The wife takes a half of clothing and of woven fabric, a third of fibre combed and ready for spinning; a sixth of fleeces and sheaves of flax; a third of woad in steeping vats, half if it is caked.

Anything that either of them may…

Anything that either of them may consume that belongs to the other is exempt from liability if it is by mutual consent. Whence is said: Without penalty is anything mutually discussed, mutually conceded.

Every defrauding is paid off by…

Every defrauding is paid off by replacement in kind unless the person entitled waives claim, or else compensation is paid on the day of parting.

Anything taken by stealth, or despite…

Anything taken by stealth, or despite mild or forceful protest, or by violent seizure, is repaid with its interest and with double its replacement if dry goods; if it is livestock, it is repaid with milk and young, 9 with double replacement, and with interest.

Exempt from liability is every loan,…

Exempt from liability is every loan, every lease, every sale, every purchase, without mutual defrauding by either, made with the private property of each up to the amount of the honour-price of each, in accordance with the contracting rights of each.

Hospitality and refection is a duty…

Hospitality and refection is a duty of each of them according to rank. {} Each of them gives hospitality to his/her own lord, to his/her own church and friends and relations.

Union on man's contribution: (2) Union…

Union on man's contribution: (2) Union of a woman on a man's contribution: the man's contract is a valid contract without the wife's consent, except for the sale of clothing and food; and the sale of cattle and sheep, if she is a duly contracted wife who is not a cétmuinter. 10

If she is a woman who…

If she is a woman who is a proper cétmuinter, equally good and equally well-bred — for everyone of equal goodness is of equal birth — she impugns all his contracts if they are foolish — for immunity from suit does not attach to defrauding and to what is forcefully protested against — and her sureties annul them. 11

If he gives bridewealth to acquire…

If he gives bridewealth to acquire another woman, even from his own private property, that bridewealth is forfeit to his cétmuinter if she carries out her marital obligations. Every secondary wife 12 who comes 'over the head' of a cétmuinter is liable to penalty: she pays the honour-price of the cétmuinter.

The wife gives hospitality to half…

The wife gives hospitality to half as many people as her husband, in accordance with the social status of her husband.

Everybody is fed and hospitality is…

{}Everybody is fed and hospitality is not refused up to the legal number of his/her retinue. Refusal of hospitality in the case of a guest accompanied by a excessive retinue does not damage one's honour for, though one refuse, this is not deemed refusal of hospitality if the retinue is excessive.

If they divorce and the divorce…

If they divorce and the divorce is by mutual consent and their behaviour is equally good at the time of parting, what the one may have freely consumed as against the other is without penalty at the time of parting if it is done without bad faith and with consent, so that they may not defraud each other. Every replacement in kind shall be as that consumed, with milk and young and dung and with interest. Everything taken by stealth, by force, by secret removal, without consent, without recompense, without asking pardon, is levied with its penalty fine.

The wife receives half the handiwork,…

The wife receives half the handiwork, as we said in the first type of union we discussed; a sixth of the dairy produce with the same proportions as previously between land and cows and vessels and servants. She receives ~a ninth of the cattle dropped during the union, a ninth of the corn, and a ninth of the salt meat, if she is a great worker.

She receives a sack of corn…

She receives a sack of corn for every month that remains until the year end i.e. until the first of May next, following the time they part. 13

Union of an heiress: (3) Union…

Union of an heiress: (3) Union of a man on a woman's contribution: in that case, the husband goes in the track of the wife and wife in the track of the husband. If he is a man of service he receives a ninth of the corn; and of the salt meat, if he is a 'head of counsel' who controls the people of the household with advice of equal standing. The sixth of milk produce is divided in two: one half (1/12) goes to the vessels; of the other half, the husband receives two-thirds (1/18). He receives a ninth of the handicraft when they divorce. If they divorce by mutual consent, they part in this way.

If either of them is badly…

If either of them is badly behaved, the labour third of the badly-behaved partner is forfeit to the well-behaved one. In the case of a cétmuinter, everything is forfeit to the party that carries out his/her marital duties, apart from what the other is entitled to in respect of land and breeding stock. 14 But they part as they came together: what survives of what each brought in to the other, that is what each brings away on parting, or its replacement out of the profits if it no longer survives.

But he is a husband who…

But he is a husband who is paid honour-price in accordance with his wife's status if she holds all the property, unless he has higher property qualifications in his own right than his wife or is more godly, more high-born or more estimable than she.

Other Unions: (5) Union of a…

Other Unions: (5) Union of a man who visits the woman, without provision without work: a fifth of the handiwork is the portion of the man (i.e. of the partner) when they part if the handiwork is hers to dispose of-for a fifth is the proportion of the compensation due to him for her being dishonoured; 15 if an offence is committed against her, that is the compensation he is paid for it.

(4) Union on accepting the inducement…

(4) Union on accepting the inducement of the man: in that case the man receives a quarter of her handiwork. If it is a union with stock on land, let them divide by the proportions of land, labour and breeding stock, in accordance with what each owns.

(6/8) Union by abduction and union…

(6/8) Union by abduction and union in secret: they have no stock or dry goods to divide on parting, only offspring. If a woman abducted from her family grants property to her partner who has abducted her, that grant is invalid from the point of view of her family and it is thus repaid: it is paid off with half penalty-fine if what was given belonged to the woman; if a third party owns a share in it, it is paid off with full penalty-fine. The same holds good for union by criminal seduction in secret.

(9) Union by rape or by…

(9) Union by rape or by stealth: they the partners possess nothing but offspring. Full éraic is paid for a virgin, for a young nun who does not reject her veil, 16 and for a cétmuinter; half éraic for secondary wives— all this is without the cooperation of the woman— together with the full honour price of the man of highest rank who has authority over her of those to whom she specially belongs.

(10) Union of mockery: union of…

(10) Union of mockery: union of a lunatic or madman with a deranged woman or madwoman. Neither of them is bound to take or to make payments. The person who brings them together for fun and the responsible person in whose presence this takes place, theirs is the offspring, if offspring there be; its rearing, compensation for its offences, and its suretyship falls on both of them. The éraic and the legacy of such persons is divided between the king, the church and the family.

Document details

The TEI Header

File description

Title statement

Title (uniform): Cáin Lánamna

Title (translation, English Translation): Law of the Couple

Title (supplementary): English translation

Responsibility statement

translated by: Donnchadh Ó Corráin and Donnchadh Ó Corráin

Electronic edition compiled by: and Donnchadh Ó Corráin

Funded by: University College, Cork

Edition statement

2. Second draft, revised and corrected.

Extent: 4318 words

Publication statement

Publisher: CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts: a project of University College, Cork

Address: College Road, Cork, Ireland—http://www.ucc.ie/celt

Date: 2005

Date: 2010

Distributor: CELT online at University College, Cork, Ireland.

CELT document ID: T102030

Availability: Available with prior consent of the CELT programme for purposes of academic research and teaching only.

Notes statement

This translation owes much to Thurneysen's. The paragraph numbering is that of his edition. Omitted extraneous material is indicated by ellipses. Explanatory material is added from time to time in square brackets. Sub-headings are added to make the text easier to follow and are not part of the original.

Source description

Manuscripts

  1. Dublin, TCL, 1316, olim H. 2. 15A, pp. 53a–59b. This is the second fragment of a composite MS, being pp. 39–42, 47–66 (facsimile pp. 29–52); date unknown but likely to be s. xiv; two scribes, glosses by four or more other hands. Facsimile edition. R. I. Best & Rudolf Thurneysen (eds.), Senchas Már: facsimile of the oldest fragments from MS H. 2. 15 in the Library of Trinity College, Facsimiles in Collotype of Irish Manuscripts, 1 (Dublin, 1931), 39a4–45b14. This MS alone contains a full text of Cáin lánamna. Text edited in D. A. Binchy, Corpus iuris hibernici (Dublin, 1979), ii 502–19.
  2. Dublin, TCL, 1336 olim H. 3. 17, columns 233–43; s. xvi. The manuscript is made up of several parts of differing provenance bound together and is a miscellany of legal, historical, religious and narrative texts. The MS contains extracts from Cáin lánamna. Text edited in D. A. Binchy, Corpus iuris hibernici (Dublin, 1979), v 1804–12.
  3. Dublin, TCL, 1337 olim H. 3. 18, p. 381a; vellum and paper; s. xvi. A collection of fragments of different MSS. The MS fragment contains short glossed extracts from Cáin lánamna. Text edited in D. A. Binchy, Corpus iuris hibernici (Dublin, 1979), iii 903.

Editions

  1. W. Neilson Hancock, Thaddeus O'Mahony, Alexander George Richey & Robert Atkinson (prepared for press), Ancient laws of Ireland, 6 vols. (Dublin, 1865–1901), ii (1869)342–420 [text based on the uncorrected transcripts of John O'Donovan and Eugene O'Curry].
  2. Rudolf Thurneysen (ed. & trans.), 'Cáin lánamna', in: D. A. Binchy & Myles Dillon (eds.), Studies in early Irish law (Dublin, 1936), 1–80; repr. in Rudolf Thurneysen, Gesammelte Schriften, i–iii, ed. Patrizia de Bernardo Stempel & Rolf Ködderitzsch (Tübingen, 1991), iii 287–366. Edition and translation with copious commentary.
  3. D. A. Binchy, Corpus iuris hibernici (Dublin, 1979), ii 502–19; iii 903, v 1804-12 [diplomatic edition].

Translations

  1. W. Neilson Hancock, Thaddeus O'Mahony, Alexander George Richey & Robert Atkinson (prepared for press), Ancient laws of Ireland, 6 vols. (Dublin, 1865–1901), ii (1869)343–421 [translation on the uncorrected drafts of John O'Donovan and Eugene O'Curry].
  2. Rudolf Thurneysen (ed. & trans.), 'Cáin lánamna', in D. A. Binchy & Myles Dillon (eds.), Studies in early Irish law (Dublin, 1936), 1–80; repr. in Rudolf Thurneysen, Gesammelte Schriften, i–iii, ed. Patrizia de Bernardo Stempel & Rolf Ködderitzsch (Tübingen, 1991), iii 287–366.
  3. Donnchadh Ó Corráin, 'Cáin lánamna (The law of the couple)', in Donnchadh Ó Corráin (ed.), 'Early medieval law, c. 700–1200', in: Angela Bourke, Siobhán Kilfeather, Maria Luddy, Margaret Mac Curtain, Geraldine Meaney, Máirín Ní Dhonnchadha, Mary O'Dowd and Clair Wills (eds.), The Field Day anthology of Irish writing, iv (Cork, 2002), 6–44: 22–26.

Bibliography

  1. H. M. d'Arbois de Jubainville, 'L'achat de la femme dans la loi irlandaise', Revue Celtique, 3 (1876–8), 361–4.
  2. H. M. d'Arbois de Jubainville, 'La famille celtique', Revue Celtique, 25 (1904), 1–16, 181–207 H. M. d'Arbois de Jubainville, La famille celtique: étude de droit comparé (Paris, 1905).
  3. Rudolf Thurneysen, 'Heirat', in D. A. Binchy & Myles Dillon (eds.) Studies in early Irish law (Dublin, 1936), 109–208; repr. in Rudolf Thurneysen, Gesammelte Schriften, iii 367–86.
  4. Nancy Power, 'Classes of women described in the Senchas Már', in D. A. Binchy & Myles Dillon (eds.), Studies in early Irish law (Dublin, 1936), 81–108.
  5. Myles Dillon, 'The relationship of mother and son, of father and daughter, and the law of inheritance with regard to women', in D. A. Binchy & Myles Dillon (eds.), Studies in early Irish law (Dublin, 1936), 129–79.
  6. D. A. Binchy, 'Family membership of women', in D. A. Binchy & Myles Dillon (eds.), Studies in early Irish law (Dublin, 1936), 180–86.
  7. Kathleen Mulchrone, 'The rights and duties of women in regard to the education of their children', in D. A. Binchy & Myles Dillon (eds.), Studies in early Irish law (Dublin, 1936), 187–205.
  8. D. A. Binchy, 'The legal capacity of women in regard to contracts', in D. A. Binchy & Myles Dillon (eds.), Studies in early Irish law (Dublin, 1936), 207–34.
  9. August Knoch, 'Die Ehescheidung im alten irischen Recht', in D. A. Binchy & Myles Dillon (eds.), Studies in early Irish law (Dublin, 1936), 235–68.
  10. D. A. Binchy, 'Sick maintenance in Irish law', Ériu, 12 (1938), 78–134.
  11. M. A. O'Brien, 'Miscelleanea hibernica' Études Celtiques, 3 (1938), 363–73: 370–1 [sleith].
  12. Josef Weisweiler, 'Die Stellung der Frau bei den Kelten und das Problem des keltischen "Mutterrechtes"', Zeitschrift für Celtische Philologie 21 (1939), 205–80.
  13. D. A. Binchy, 'Fionna–chruth', Éigse, 15 (1973–4), 319–22.
  14. Heinrich Wagner, 'Studies in the origins of early Celtic tradition', Ériu 26 (1975) 1–58: 23–4 [4. An early Mesopotaminan parallel to 'cétmuinter' for muin araile 'a wife upon the neck of another' in Irish law; 5. On O.Ir. urnaidm 'betrothal'].
  15. Donnchadh Ó Corráin, 'Women in early Irish society', in Margaret MacCurtain & Donnchadh Ó Corráin (eds.), Women in Irish society: the historical dimension (Dublin & Westport CN, 1978), 1–13.
  16. R. C. McAll, 'The normal paradigm of a woman's life in Irish and Welsh texts', in Dafydd Jenkins & Morfydd Owen (eds.), The Welsh law of women: studies presented to D. A. Binchy (Cardiff, 1980), 7–22.
  17. Donnchadh Ó Corráin, 'Irish law and canon law', in P. Ní Chatháin & Michael Richter (eds.), Irland und Europa: die Kirche im Frühmittelalter (Stuttgart, 1984), 157–66.
  18. Donnchadh Ó Corráin, 'Marriage in early Ireland', in Art Cosgrove (ed.), Marriage in Ireland (Dublin, 1985), 5–24.
  19. Lisi Oliver, 'Forced and unforced rape in early Irish law', Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Colloquium, 13 (1993), 93–106.
  20. Dorothy D. Swartz, 'The legal status of women in early and medieval Ireland and Wales in comparison with western European and Mediterranean societies: environmental and social correlations', Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Colloquium, 13 (1993),107–18.
  21. Donnchadh Ó Corráin, 'Women and the law in early Ireland', in Mary O'Dowd & Sabine Wichert (eds.), Chattel, servant or citizen: women's status in church, state and society, Historical Studies, 19 (Belfast, 1995), 45–57.
  22. Máirín Ní Dhonnchadha, 'The Lex innocentium: Adomnán's law for women, clerics and youths, 697 A.D.', in Mary O'Dowd & Sabine Wichert (eds.), Chattel, servant or citizen: women's status in church, state and society, Historical Studies, 19 (Belfast, 1995), 58–69.
  23. Bart Jaski, 'Marriage laws in Ireland and the continent in the early middle ages', in Christine Meek & Katharine Simms (eds.), 'Fragility of her sex': medieval Irishwomen in their European context (Dublin, 1996), 16–42.
  24. Bart Jaski, 'Vrowen in vroeg–middeleeuws Ierland', in R. H. F. Hofman, B. Smelik & K. Jongeling (eds.), Kelten van Spanje tot Ierland (Utrecht, 1996), 43–72.
  25. Donnchadh Ó Corráin (ed.), 'Early medieval law, c. 700–1200', in Angela Bourke, Siobhán Kilfeather, Maria Luddy, Margaret Mac Curtain, Geraldine Meaney, Máirín Ní Dhonnchadha, Mary O'Dowd and Clair Wills (eds.), The Field Day anthology of Irish writing, iv (Cork, 2002), 6–44: 22–26.

The edition used in the digital edition

‘Early medieval law, c. 700–1200’ (2002). In: Angela Bourke, Siobhán Kilfeather, Maria Luddy, Margaret Mac Curtain, Geraldine Meaney, Máirín Ní Dhonnchadha, Mary O’Dowd and Clair Wills (eds.), The Field Day anthology of Irish writing‍. Ed. by Donnchadh Ó Corráin. 4. 6–44: 22–26. New York and Cork: Cork University Press in association with Field Day.

You can add this reference to your bibliographic database by copying or downloading the following:

@incollection{T102030,
  editor 	 = {Donnchadh Ó Corráin},
  title 	 = {Early medieval law, c. 700–1200},
  booktitle 	 = {Angela Bourke, Siobhán Kilfeather, Maria Luddy, Margaret Mac Curtain, Geraldine Meaney, Máirín Ní Dhonnchadha, Mary O'Dowd and Clair Wills (eds.), The Field Day anthology of Irish writing},
  number 	 = {4},
  address 	 = {New York and Cork},
  publisher 	 = {Cork University Press in association with Field Day},
  date 	 = {2002},
  note 	 = {6–44: 22–26}
}

 T102030.bib

Encoding description

Project description: CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts

Editorial declarations

Correction: Text has been checked and proof-read twice.

Normalization: The electronic text represents the edited text. Text/notes supplied by the translator are marked sup resp="DOC" and note type="auth" n="" respectively.

Quotation: There are no quotations.

Hyphenation: Soft hyphens are silently removed. When a hyphenated word (hard or soft) crosses a page-break or line-break, these are marked after the completion of the hyphenated word.

Segmentation: div0=the law. Page-breaks are marked pb n="".

Interpretation: Legal terms are not tagged.

Reference declaration

A canonical reference to a location in this text should be made using “section”, eg section 1.

Profile description

Creation: Translation by Donnchadh Ó Corráin

Date: 2001

Language usage

  • The translation is in English. (en)
  • Some legal terms are in Old/Middle Irish. (ga)

Keywords: law; prose; medieval; marriage; translation

Revision description

(Most recent first)

  1. 2010-04-27: Conversion script run; header updated; new wordcount made; file parsed. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  2. 2008-09-05: Keywords added; file validated. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  3. 2008-07-27: Value of div0 "type" attribute modified, 'creation' tags inserted, title elements streamlined, content of 'langUsage' revised; minor modifications made to header. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  4. 2005-08-25: Normalised language codes and edited langUsage for XML conversion (ed. Julianne Nyhan)
  5. 2005-08-04T16:37:49+0100: Converted to XML (ed. Peter Flynn)
  6. 2005-04-20: File header and markup inserted; file parsed; HTML file created; online proofing. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  7. 2005-04-08: Text converted to ASCII and checked against ANSI file. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  8. 2005-03: File proofed (1, 2) and annotated; bibliography compiled. (ed. Donnchadh Ó Corráin)
  9. 2001: Text translated. (trans Donnchadh Ó Corráin)

Index to all documents

CELT Project Contacts

More…

Formatting

For details of the markup, see the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI)

page of the print edition

folio of the manuscript

numbered division

 999 line number of the print edition (in grey: interpolated)

underlining: text supplied, added, or expanded editorially

italics: foreign words; corrections (hover to view); document titles

bold: lemmata (hover for readings)

wavy underlining: scribal additions in another hand; hand shifts flagged with (hover to view)

TEI markup for which a representation has not yet been decided is shown in red: comments and suggestions are welcome.

Other languages

G102030: Cáin Lánamna (in Irish)

Source document

T102030.xml

Search CELT

  1. Ritual fast (a kind of hunger-strike) is a means of bringing the defendant to submit the case to arbitration. 🢀

  2. Old-Irish coí, the obligatory hospitality of a client to the lord and his retinue. 🢀

  3. The wife get half the handiwork (27). This is to be understood as textiles, and perhaps other hand-crafted objects. 🢀

  4. i.e. to the person who hired and paid for the herders. 🢀

  5. i.e. to the person who provided the dairy vessels, expensive and high-quality wooden containers. 🢀

  6. i.e. to the person who hired and paid the dairy-workers. 🢀

  7. The other thirds go to the person who provided the stock and the land. 🢀

  8. i.e. who pays for the ploughing and reaping to provide barley as pig-feed. 🢀

  9. i. e. the livestock and what they produced during the time they were wrongfully detained. 🢀

  10. i.e. given by her family in a marriage based on a marriage contract (airnaidm), but not a cétmuinter🢀

  11. The sureties in question here are the original guarantors and witnesses of her marriage contract. 🢀

  12. Here the text uses the pejorative term adaltrach 'adulteress'. 🢀

  13. Mayday is the time for entering into new contracts, including marriage contracts. 🢀

  14. i.e. both husband and wife have the status of cétmuinter🢀

  15. i. e. in the case of off-payments for offences against her, her partner takes one-fifth of the amount because offences against her are considered to be offences against him also. 🢀

  16. i. e. a novice nun who is a virgin. 🢀

CELT

2 Carrigside, College Road, Cork

Top