CELT document T105010

The Genealogies, Tribes, and Customs of Hy-Fiachrach, commonly called O'Dowda's Country


Introductory Remarks

The following account of the families, districts, and customs of Hy-Fiachrach is printed from the Genealogical MS. of Duald Mac Firbis, — the original of which is preserved in the Library of the Earl of Roden, and a good copy in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy. The poem by Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis, which will be found, p. 176, et seq., is edited from the Book of Lecan1. For a general account of the contents of Lord Roden's manuscript the reader is referred to a paper by Mr. Petrie, which was published in the eighteenth volume of the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, and to the Stowe Catalogue, vol. 1, p. 141, et seq., where a copy of the same work is described by Dr. O'Conor.

In the account of the families of the Hy-Fiachrach race this manuscript agrees very closely with the text of the Book of Lecan, excepting that the compiler has carried the pedigrees of some branches of the O'Dowds down to his own time, and has inserted here and there, from other authorities, some genealogical and historical facts not to be found in the Book of Lecan. These additions have been noticed in every instance in the notes to this volume.


Of the private history of the compiler of this manuscript but little is known. In the title of the work he calls himself Dubhaltach Mac Firbisigh of Lecan, in the year 1650; but though he may have been born there about the year 1600, when Lecan or Lacken was the freehold inheritance of his family in right of their profession as historiographers of their race, it does not appear that he was ever in possession of the castle or lands of the Mac Firbises, who were deprived by James I.; nor does it appear from the pedigree, as compiled by himself, that he was the head of the family, for his cotemporary and kinsman, Ferfeasa, the son of Ciothruadh Og, who was the son of Ferfeasa, who was the son of Ciothruadh, who built the castle of Lecan in 1560, would seem to be of an older branch. Be this, however, as it may, we have the direct evidence of an inquisition taken at Sligo, on the 22nd of August, 1625, that “Donnogh O'Dowde was then seized of the castle, towne, and quarters of Lacken M'Firbissy, and other lands which he had settled by deed, dated the 20th of August, 1617, to the use of his wife Onora Ny-Connor, for their lives, and then to the use of his own right heirs.” It is quite clear that Donnoghe O'Dowde could not have settled Lacken in this manner in 1617, if it had been then 2 the freehold inheritance of the family of Mac Firbis. The most that can be believed, therefore, is, that the Mac Firbises may have farmed the townland of Lacken,  p.vii or a part of it, from Donnogh O'Dowde or his successor till the year 1641, at which period it was forfeited by O'Dowd and granted to the family of Wood.

Charles O'Conor of Belanagare informs us, in a private letter, published by Dr. Ledwich in his Antiquities of Ireland, second edit., Dublin, 1804, p. 303, that Duald Mac Firbis was instructed in the Brehon laws by the Mac Egans of Ormond, who were hereditary Brehons, and professors of the old Irish laws; but he does not say whether he had acquired any other language besides Irish. The Editor, however, has been able to gather from his works that he was well acquainted with Latin and English, and that he had some knowledge even of Greek. It appears from his account of the Anglo-Norman and Welsh families of Ireland that he had read the works of Giraldus Cambrensis and Holingshed, and he quotes and refutes Verstegan's work, entitled Restitution of Decaied Intelligence. Also in his copy of Cormac's Glossary, preserved in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, Class H. 2, 15, p. 161 et seq., he explains many Latin and Greek words in the margin, always writing the Greek in the original character: thus, in a note on the word crinda, he writes κρινω, which he explains “judico .i. brethuigim,” I judge; at cual he writes κωλα .i. cuirp marbha, dead bodies; opposite the word carr, which is explained carruca in the original, he writes “carrum apud Liv. et carruca Mart., et cartus”, “.i. carr, cairt, no carbat tairngid eich, ar a m-bíd a do no a ceathair do rothaibh”, i. e. a car, cart, or chariot, drawn by horses, to which there are two or four wheels. Again, opposite the word folach, which is derived in the original from falus, Graece, custodia Latine he writes in the margin the correct Greek form of the word " .i. coimhed, no tairge, a watching, custody. From these and many other specimens of his Greek handwriting, in the same volume, it is quite evident that he had studied that language, but where he was taught it we have no means left us to determine.


He commenced his genealogical compilation in the College of St. Nicholas, at Galway, in the year 1650, and seems to have been adding to it and correcting and amending it till the year 1664, when he inserted the curious entry about the ancient celebrity of the Hy-Fiachrach race, which will be found at full length in this volume, p. 316–321.

Of this work and its author the venerable Charles O'Conor of Belanagare, writes the following notice in his Preface to Ogygia Vindicated, pp. ix, x:
Duald Mac Firbis closed the line of the hereditary antiquaries of Lecan, in Tirfiacra, on the Moy, a family whose law reports and historical collections have derived great credit to their country (many of which lye now dispersed in England and France). This last of the Firbisses was unfortunately murdered at Dunflin, in the county of Sligo, A.D. 1670, and by his death our antiquities received an irreparable blow. His historical, topographical, and genealogical collections (written by his own hand) are now in the possession of a worthy nobleman, the Earl of Roden, who added this to the other collections of Irish history made by his father, our late Lord Chancellor Jocelyn. Of that work Mac Firbis intended a second draught (as he intimates) with amendments and corrections, but whether he executed his design we cannot learn. As the work stands it is valuable, by preserving the descents and pointing out the possessions of our Irish families of latter times, very accurately; but it is particularly valuable, by rescuing from oblivion the names of districts and tribes in Ireland, antecedently to the second century; since which, the Scots have gradually imposed new names of their own, as they were enabled, from time to time, to expel the old Belgic inhabitants. It is a most curious chart of antient topography, and vastly preferable to that given by the Alexandrian Geographer Ptolemy, who must know have known but little of Ireland, wherein the Romans never made a descent.”

“The last years of Firbis's life were employed in drawing up a glossary for the explanation of our old law terms, the great desideratum of the present age. Of the fate of this last performance we know nothing, but we may well suppose it lost, as the author lived without a single patron, in days unfavourable to the arts of which he was master.”

In 1666 he drew up an abstract of his larger work, containing  p.ix some additional pedigrees; of this abridgement there is a good copy in the Library of the Marquis of Drogheda, and another in the collection of Messrs. Hodges and Smith, but the Editor has never seen the original. In this tract Mac Firbis mentions his having been acquainted with Irish chieftains who governed their septs according to the words of Fithel 3 and the Royal Precepts — (Do leanas do bhriathraibh Fithil gus do'n Teasgasc Rioghdha); and he also speaks of several Irish Brehons then or lately in existence, and of one in particular who was his own relative and acquaintance. He informs us himself, in the Preface to his larger genealogical work, that he wrote a copious Glossary of the Brehon Laws (which is referred to by O'Conor in the extract above given), and an account of Irish writers, but neither of these works is now known to the Editor, except a fragment or rough draft of the former, which is preserved in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. If the Earl of Roden has either of them in his Library, his Lordship might render an essential service to Irish literature, by depositing it in some public Library, or permitting it to be copied, as he has already very kindly done with respect to MacFirbis's larger genealogical work. The Glossary would most undoubtedly save the translator of the old Irish Brehon laws much time and labour, although we may hope that their meaning is still recoverable by the aid of the copious glosses which accompany them in most of the copies.

From Harris's edition of Ware's Bishops4 we learn that Mac Firbis,  p.x a short time before his death, had been employed by Sir James Ware to collect and translate Irish documents for him. Harris writes:
“One John was consecrated about the close of the year 1441 (Sir James Ware declares he could not discover when he died, and adds, that some called him John De Burgo, but that he could not answer for the truth of that name). But both these particulars are cleared up, and his immediate successor named by Dudley Firbisse, an Amanuensis whom Sir James Ware employed in his house to translate and collect for him from the Irish MSS., one of whose pieces begins thus:”
‘This translation beginned was by Dudley Firbisse, in the House of Sir James Ware, in Castle-street, Dublin, 6th November, 1666, — which was twenty-four days before the death of the said Knight. The Annals, or Translation, which he left behind him begin in the year 1443, and end in 1468. I suppose the death of his patron put a stop to his further progress. Not knowing from whence he translated these Annals, wherever I have occasion to quote them I mention them under the name of Annals of Dudley Firbisse.’ ()

He also translated, during the short time he was employed by Sir James Ware, the Registry of Clonmacnoise, which translation is now preserved in the British Museum, No. LI. of the Clarendon collection. We learn from Charles O'Conor of Belanagare, in his Preface to Ogygia Vindicated, p. viii, that he was the Irish instructor of Roderic O'Flaherty, the author of Ogygia and Ogygia Vindicated, and it would appear from a list of tracts of Brehon laws which he furnished to Dr. Lynch, the author of Cambrensis Eversus, that he was intimate with that distinguished scholar 5, but towards the latter end of his life he seems to have been in great distress, and we are informed by Charles O'Conor, in the passage already quoted, that he met a tragical death at Dunflin, in the county of Sligo, in the year 1670!

On the fate and general character of this remarkable man the  p.xi same writer speaks as follows in his Dissertations on the History of Ireland, Dublin, 1766, pp. 124, 125. — (See also first edit., Dublin, 1753. p. 155):
Duald Mac Firbis, the most eminent antiquarian of the latter times, was possessed of a considerable number of the Brethe Nimhe. He alone could explain them, as he alone, without patronage or assistance, entered into the depths of this part of Scottish learning, so extremely obscure to us of the present age. When we mention Mac Firbis we are equally grieved and ashamed; his neglected abilities ignominious to his ungrateful country! his end tragical! his loss irreparable!”

The learned Roderic O'Flaherty, the pupil of Mac Firbis, thus speaks of his learned tutor, in the Ogygia, p. 233:
“Scoticis literis quinque accidunt, in quorum singulis ab aliarum gentium literis discrepant; nimirum, Nomen, Ordo, Numerus, Character et Potestas. Et quia imperiti literarum in charta, aliave ulla materia ad memoriam pingindarum harum rerum ignarus incaute effutiit Bollandus, de materia aliquid praefabor. Ea ante pergamenae usum tabulae erant e betulla arbore complanatae, quas Oraiun et Taibhle Fileadh, .i. Tabulas Philosophicas dicebant. Ex his aliquas inter antiquitatum monumenta apud se superfuisse, ut et diversas characterum formulas, quas ter quinquagenas a Fenisii usque aetate numero, et CRAOBH- OGHAM, .i. virgeos characteres nomine recenset, non ita pridem ad me scripsit Dualdus Firbissius rei antiquariae Hibernorum unicum, dum vixit, columen, et extinctus, detrimentum.”

Some particulars of the history of Duald Mac Firbis have been given in a small periodical called The True Comet, and other obscure publications in Dublin, in which it is stated that his remains were interred at the old church of Kilglass, near the castle of Lecan, and that a stone there, measuring six feet in length by three in width, exhibits on its head end, a device, representing a chisel, which was probably intended as the crest of the Mac Firbis family, and containing an Irish inscription, which states that Duald Mac Firbis died in the eightieth year of his age, and that he had spent thirty years  p.xii of his life in the castle of Lecan compiling the History of Ireland. But the Editor is sorry to be compelled to say, that no such inscription exists, nor ever existed at Kilglass. From a recent examination of Kilglass and an investigation of the local tradition connected with Duald Mac Firbis, and particularly from a copy of the real inscription and crest on the stone above alluded to, made by Dr. James Vippler O'Dowda, it appears that this stone, — exhibiting a chisel, as the country people call it, — under which, they say, many of the Mac Firbises lie interred, contains not an Irish inscription, but an English one, in the raised letter, to the memory of George Wood of Lacken, Esq.; and that what the country people take to be a representation of a naked child holding a chisel, is the crest of the family of Wood, namely, “a naked savage with a club resting on his shoulder.” The inscription is now much defaced, and a great part of it illegible, but there never was any reason for supposing it to mark the tomb of the Mac Firbises except its exhibiting the name Lacken.

The Editor has to acknowledge the great assistance he has received from his friends in illustrating and editing the present volume. He is particularly indebted to James Hardiman, Esq., author of the History of Galway, and to Dr. James Vippler O'Dowda, the son and heir of the O'Dowda of Bunnyconnellan, for the use of many documents indispensably necessary to the illustration of the pedigrees of the O'Dowdas and other families of the Hy-Fiachrach race; and he has further to acknowledge his obligations to Dr. Todd of Trinity College, Mr. Petrie, and Mr. E. Curry, for much valuable assistance in translating and editing this work, which has been attended with much delay and difficulty, as it relates to a portion of Irish history and topography hitherto unexplored.

J. O'D >

Duald Mac Firbis

Edited by John O'Donovan

The Genealogies, Tribes, and Customs of Hy-Fiachrach, commonly called O'Dowda's Country


1. Genealogy of the Hy-Fiachrach

The Race of Fiachra, Son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin 6. — [These are the 7 Hy-Fiachrach of the Muaidh 8 (where we are this day, 1666), the Hy-Amhalgaidh of Iorrus 9, the men of Ceara 10, the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne 11, now called Cineal Guaire 12, Cineal Aodha na h-Echtghe 13, Coill Ua bh-Fiachrach 14, together with other territories not considered as of the Hy-Fiachrach at the present day].


Fiachra, son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin, had five sons 15; namely, Earc Culbhuidhe from whom are descended the men of Ceara. (He was called Earc Culbhuidhe, because the smelted gold was not yellower than his hair. The territory of his descendants was great until the descendants of his brother Brian took it from them as eric 16 for their father). Breasal, whose race became extinct; and Conaire, from whom sprung Sechnall 17, the Saint.

From Amhalgaidh, the fourth son of Fiachra, are sprung the Hy-Amhalgaidh on the Muaidh 18, and the Hy-Becon. This Amhalgaidh had a large family, namely, Fedhlim; Eochaidh of the two plains, i. e. of the plain of Muirisc, daughter of Liogan 19, and of the plain of Muidh, or Muaidh 20; Eunda; Conall; Aongus; Eoghan; Cormac; and Corrdubh. These were the eight sons of Tresi, the daughter of Natfraoch, and sister of Aongus, son of Nadfraoch, king of Munster 21.

From Fedhlim, the son of Amhalgaidh, are descended the Cineal Fedhlimidh, in Hy-Amhalgaidh; that is, the families of O'Ceallachain 22, O'Caithniadh 23, Mac Coinin 24, O'Muimhneachain 25, Mag-Fhionain 26,  p.7 O'Gearadhain 27, O'Conboirne 28. These are the Cineal Fedhlimidh of Iorrus.

From Aongus, the son of Amhalgaidh, are descended the Cineal Aongusa, in Hy-Amhalgaidh; namely, the O'Muireadhaighs 29, chieftains of the Lagan 30; and of the descendants of this Aongus was Diucaill the Fierce, of the hill of Budh 31, daughter of Bodhbh Dearg; and of the descendants of Aongus are the people of Dun Finne 32; namely, the families of O'Cuinn, Mag Odhrain, O'Comhdhan, O'Duibhlearga, O'Bearga, O'Blighe, O'Duanma, or Duanmaigh; and of the race of Aongus is the family of O'Radubhan of Gleann an Chairn 33, who descend from Radubhan, son of Muireadhach, son of Eochaidh, son of Aongus, son of Amhalgaidh.

Of the race of Aongus also is the family of Mac Conletreach, of Lios Leitreach 34, who descend from Culetreach, son of Aodh, son of Muireadhach, son of Eochaidh, son of Aongus; and of the Hy-Muireadhaigh is the family of O'Fionnacains 35, of Fionnchalamh 36. It was to these Hy-Muireadhaigh that St. Cormac 37 left prosperity of cattle and the gift of eloquence, success of fosterage, the gift of good counsel, and the headship of peace and protection among the Hy-Amhalgaidh; and the battle dress of the King of Hy-Amhalgaidh was given to the best man of the Hy-Muireadhaigh.


Eochaidh of the two plains, the son of Amhalgaidh, had a son Fiachra Fionn, from whom are descended the Hy-Fiachrach Finn, in Hy-Amhalgaidh, viz., the families of O'Congaile of Cill Achaidh Duibh 38, and O'Cathasaigh of Cill Achaidh Duibh also.

The descendants of Eoghan, Cormac, and Corrdubh, if they left any, are not mentioned.

From Eunda Crom, son of Amhalgaidh, are the Hy-Eunda Cruim among the Hy-Amhalgaidh.

From Conall, son of Amhalgaidh, are descended the Hy-Conaill, of the River Dael 39, with their correlatives. These were the sons of Tresi.

Earca, daughter of Eochaidh, King of Leinster, another wife of Amhalgaidh, had seven sons; namely, Fergus; Cormac Ceannfoda; Colom; Seudna; Eochaidh; Aoldobhar; and Emeach, from whom are sprung the family of O'h-Emeachain. Fergus, son of Amhalgaidh, had two sons, namely, Conaing and Muireadhach, King of Hy-Amhalgaidh. From Conaing are sprung the Hy-Airmeadhaigh, who are the inhabitants of Caille Conaill, in the north, that is the tract extending from Traigh Murbhaigh 40 to Fearsad Tresi 41, where Tresi, the daughter of Nadfraoch, and wife of Amhalgaidh, son of Fiachra, was drowned. These are the tribes of Caille, viz., the families of O'Derg; O'h-Aodha, of Ard O'n-Aodha 42; O'Maoilconaire; O'Flannabhra; and O'Tegha. And of the race of this Conaing, the son of Fergus, was Cumain Foda, from whom Cill Cumaoin 43 in Caille Conaing has derived its name.


The following are the descendants of Muireadhach, the son of Fergus, namely, the inhabitants of the cantred of Bac 44, and of Gleann Nemhthinne 45, and of the half cantred of Breudach 46. These are the hereditary tribes of Bac, viz., O'Lachtna 47, chief of the two Bacs and of the Glenn 48, and of them are the families of O'Dubhagain, and the Clann Firbisigh, the poets of Hy-Amhalgaidh and of Hy-Fiachrach; — (the Leabhar Balbh 49 of James Mac Firbis, says, that Lachtna was Mac Firbis 50); — O'Maoilruaidh 51; of Ard Achadh 52, and O'Cuimin, of Lios Cuimin 53 on the Muaidh.

These are the families of Breudach, viz., O'Toghdha 54 chief of Breudach, O'Glaimin 55, O'Luachaibh 56, and O'Gilin 57. Of the race of this Muireadhach, the son of Fergus, is the family of O'Learghusa 58, of the west of Connaught.

The sons of Muirenn (daughter of Dubhthach, King of Hy-Many), another wife of Amhalgaidh, were the following, viz., Cairbre, from  p.13 whom sprung St. Tighearnan, of Oireadh Locha Con 59; Aongus Fionn Mac Amhalgaidh, from whom are the families of O'Gaibhtheachain 60, O'Flainn 61, and O'Maoilfhiona 62, chiefs of Calraighe Muighe h-Eleag 63; Duibhindracht Mac Amhalgaidh, from whom are the Muintir Fothaigh 64, Muintir Culachan, and Muintir Duinncuan; Cucoingelt Mac Amhalgaidh, from whom are the Muintir Tomaltaigh; and Conchobhar Mac Amhalgaidh, from whom are the Muintir Ubain, with their correlatives.

The descendants of Cormac Ceannfada, i. e. of the long head, Colom, Seudna, and Aoldobhar, are not illustrious.

From Fiachra, the son of Amhalgaidh, are descended the Hy-Becon of Meath, thus:  1
son of Coman,
son of Seanach,
son of Aodh,
son of Fiachra,

son of Amhalgaidh, King of Connaught,
son of Fiachra,
son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin, King of Ireland.

2. Cineal Airmheadhaigh here

 1 Duiniondach,
son of Airmeadhach,
son of Baodan,
son of Fiachra,
son of Conaing,
son of Fergus,
son of Amhalgaidh,
son of Fiachra.


3. The Cineal Eunda, Son of Amhalgaidh

son of Cnaimhghiolla[],
son of Tomaltach,
son of Reachtabhra,
son of Clothra,
son of Dubhlacha,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Tighearnan,
son of Erc,
son of Maine,
son of Conall,
son of Eunda,
son of Amhalgaidh,
son of Fiachra.

[Reachtabhra 65,
son of Aeldobhar,
son of Laitcenn,
son of Fuilim,
son of Dima,
son of Ros,
son of Feidhlimidh,
son of Amhalgaidh,
son of Fiachra].

Fergus 66 and Aongus,
two sons of Conall,
son of Fionan,
son of Conall,
son of Fearadhach,
son of Cormac,
son of Aongus,
son of Amhalgaidh,
son of Fiachra.

4. Genealogy of the Men of Ceara

son of Maonach, of Ceara,
son of Dunchadh,
son of Flann Rodhba, i. e. Flann of the River Robe,
son of Maolduin,
son of Failbhe,
son of Maolumha,
son of Fearadhach,
son of Ros Doimthigh,
son of Maine Muinbreac,
son of Earc Culbhuidhe,
son of Fiachra Foltsnathach,
son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin.


[Donncathaigh 67,
Son of Maelumhai,
Son of Fearadhach,
Son of Ros Doimdigiu,
Son of Maine Muinbrec,
Son of Erc Culbhuidhi].

This Cucothaigh had five sons, namely, Tighearnach, from whom is the family of O'Tighearnaigh 68, Kings of Ceara 69, Uathmharan, from whom is the family of O'h-Uathmharain 70; Niall, a quo the family of Mac Neill 71; Uada, from whom is the family of O'h-Uadach; and Faghartach, from whom is the family of O'Faghartaigh, as the poet said:

  1. Five sons of great prosperity,
    Niall and Uada, and Uathmharan,
    Faghartach, who forced the gap,
    And Tighearnach of the bounteous hand.

[Cuan 72, from whom are descended the Clann Cuain, was,
Son of Eochaidh,
Son of Flann,
Son of Fearadhach,
Son of Ros Doimtheach,
Son of Maine Muinbreac,
Son of Earc Culbhuidhe.]

5. The Race of Dathi, down here

Dathi, son of Fiachra, was King of Erin, Alba, Britain, and as far as the mountain of the Alps; for he succeeded Niall 73 in the government, and reigned twenty seven years as King of Erin.


The following were the battles which he fought in defence of Erin after the death of Niall, the son of Eochaidh, viz., the battle of Ath Talmaide 74, the battle of Bodaighe 75, the battle of Rath Cruachan 76, and the battle of Magh Ailbhe 77; and many battles in Alba i. e. Scotland; the battle of Magh Circain 78, and the battle of Srath 79.

Dathi went afterwards with the men of Erin across Muir n-Icht 80 towards Leatha 81, until he reached the Alps 82, to revenge the death of Niall of the Nine Hostages 83. This was the time that Formenius (or Parmenius), King of Thrace 84, took up his residence in the Alps, having fled from his kingdom and retired thither for the love of God as a pilgrim. He erected there a circular tower of sods and stones sixty feet in height 85, and he lived in the middle of the tower,  p.21 eleven feet from the light 86, and he saw not a ray of the sun or other light.

Dathi came to the tower. (He was called Dathi from his expertness 87 [daithe] at invading and shooting, for if there were one hundred persons shooting, i. e. discharging arrows or javelins at him, he would be protected against them by the activity of his hands in guarding, wherefore the name of Dathi clung unto him. Feradhach 88 was his name when he went to the east, and it was on his expedition in the east he was called Dathi). When the king's (i. e. Dathi's) people saw the tower, they went to demolish it, and they tore it down and plundered it. Formenius felt the wind coming to him, and God raised him up in a blaze of fire 89 one thousand paces from the tower of sods which he had built, and he prayed for King Dathi that his reign might continue no longer; and he also prayed God that his monument or tomb might not be remarkable. The life of Dathi endured no longer than until he had the tower destroyed, when there came a flash of lightning from heaven which struck him dead on the spot. 90


When the men of Erin perceived this, they put a lighted Sbongc [Spongia?] in the king's mouth, in order that all might suppose that he was living, and that it was his breath that was coming out of his mouth. But the learned say that it was the same arrow with which Niall of the Nine Hostages was slain, that God permitted Formenius to discharge from his bow that by it Dathi might be killed 91.

Formenius then went one thousand paces down from that mountain, and there dwelt in another habitation 92.

Amhalgaidh, the son of Dathi 93, then took the command of the men of Erin, and he carried 94 the dead body of his father with him, and he gained nine battles by sea, and ten battles by land by means of the corpse: for when his people exhibited the body of the king, they used to rout the forces that opposed them. These are the names of the battles thus gained by land, viz., the battle of Corpar, the battle of Cinge, or Cime, the battle of Colom, the battle of Faile, the battle of Miscal, the battle of Lundunn, the battle of Coirte, the battle of Moile,  p.25 the battle of Grenius, and the battle of Fermir 95. These were the battles gained by Dathi by exhibiting his dead body to the hosts.

The body of Dathi was carried to Erin, and interred in releg na Riogh the cemetery of the kings at Cruachan, where the kings of the race of Heremon were, for the most part, interred; and Amhalgaidh, the son of Dathi, died in Deisi Breagh of the venom of the deep wounds which he received in the above mentioned battles, and his tribe and progeny are in Bregia, or Breghmhagh, i. e. the Cineal Becon.

Dungal 96, Flannghus, Tuathal, and Tomaltach were the four servants of trust who carried with them the body of the king. [The body of Dathi was brought to Cruachan and was interred in Roilig na Riogh, or Cemetery of the Kings, at Cruachan, where the kings of the race of Heremon were, for the most part, interred, where, to this day, 1666, the cairrthe dhearg97, red pillar stone, remains as a monument over his grave, near Rath Cruachan.] That the body of Dathi is interred in the middle of Aonach na Cruachna is attested by Torna Eigeas, in his poem pointing out the burial place of the kings of the race of Heremon to the men of Erin.

“Thou hast concealed from all, o Cruacha Croidhearg, the fair king of Erin, Dathi, son of Fiachra, a generous king by sea and land; all have been informed that he was killed in royal land; from all I will not conceal it. Thou hast, &c.”

This was revealed to Torna Eigeas through poetical inspiration 98,  p.27 after he had been requested by the men of Erin to discover where Dathi, son of Fiachra, king of Erin, was interred; so that it was on this occasion Torna Eigeas composed this rithlearg 99 above given to prove it; and he composed also the following quatrains:

  1. Under thee lies the fair king of the men of Fail,
    Dathi, son of Fiachra, man of dignity 100
    O Cruacha, thou hast concealed this
    From the strangers, from the Gaels.
  2. Under thee is Dungalach the vehement,
    Who brought the hostages 101 over the boisterous sea;
    Under thee are, reveal their appearance 102,
    Conn, Tuathal, and Tomaltach.
  3. The three sons of Eochaidh Feidhleach 103, the fair,
    Are in thy mound, as I boast,
    As also is Eochaidh Aireamh 104 feeble,
    Having been slain by the great Maol.
  4. The prince Eochaidh Feidhleach is
    Beneath thee, and Derbhre 105 of goodly aspect, p.29
    And Clothra 106, no small honour to thee,
    And Meadhbh 107, and Muireasg 108.
  5. Eire, Fodhla, and Banba 109,
    Three beauteous, famous young women,
    Are in Cruachan of clans,
    Three queens of the Tuatha De Dananns.
  6. The three sons of Cearmad 110 of Sith Truim 111,
    And Lughaidh 112 of Liatruim 113,
    The sons of Aodh, son of the Daghda 114,
    And Midir 115, the great and brave.
  7. Beneath thy stone are lying
    Cobhthach Caol 116 and Ugaine 117,
    And Badhbhchadh of prosperous career,
    Brother of the haughty Ugaine.
  8. The sons of the noble Feidhlimidh Reachtmhar 118, p.31
    And the descendants of Conn 119 are in the assembly,
    (Excepting Art 120 and Cormac 121 of battles);
    It is certain that thou hast concealed them, O Cruacha.
  9. The saint [i. e. Formenius], after the destruction of his walls 122,
    Said to him [i. e. to Dathi], with prophetic spirit,
    'May not this hero's monument
    Be conspicuous;' O Cruacha!

  10. Under, &c.


Dathi had twenty-four sons 123 namely, Oilioll Molt 124, King of Erin and Alba, and a man who exacted the Borumean tribute 125 thrice without a battle; Fiachra Ealgach, from whom the Hy-Fiachrach of the Moy, and various other tribes are descended; Eochaidh Breac, from whom are sprung the Hy-Eachach of the Moy, and the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne; Eochaidh Meann; Fiachra Mac Dathi, who was detained as a hostage by Niall of the Nine Hostages, and from whom the Hy-Fiacha, or Hy-Fiachrach, of Cuil Fabhair 126, in Meath, are descended; Earc; Corc; Onbecc; Beccon; Mac Uais; Aongus the Long-handed; Cathal; Faolchu, from whom are the Ui Faolchon; Dunghal; Conrach; Neara; Amhalgaidh Mac Dathi, from whom are the Cineal m-Beccon, in Bregia, or Breagh-mhuigh 127. [The pedigree of the Clann-Firbis 128 is also traced to this Amhalgaidh.] Blachadh, or Bladhcadh; Cugamhna, from whom are the Mac Congamhnas, in Cineal Fechin 129; and Aodh, from whom are sprung the Hy-Aodha, in Boirinn 130.

Oilioll Molt, the son of Dathi, had a son Ceallach, the father of Eoghan Beul, and of Oilioll Ionbhanda, two kings of Connaught 131.

Eoghan Beul had two sons, namely, Ceallach, on whom the atrocious murder was committed, that is, his own four foster sons, or pupils killed him treacherously at Ard an Fhenneadha, at the instigation of  p.35 Guaire Aidhne, son of Colman, through envy about the sovereignty; and Cuchongelt Mac Eoghain, the other son, was he who slew the foster sons of Ceallach in revenge for their fratricide; they were Maolcroin, Maolseanaigh, Maoldalua, and Mac (or Maol) deoraidh. Or, according to others, these were hanged at the river of Sal Srotha Derg 132, which is called the Muaidh, and it was from them the hill over the Muaidh was called Ard na riagh 133; and Ard na Maol 134 is the name of the hill on the other side of the stream, where they were interred.

The Descendants of Eochaidh Breac, the son of Dathi, down here

Eochaidh Breac, the son of Dathi, had four sons, namely, Laoghaire, Brethe, Ailghile, and Eoghan Aidhne.

Brethe, the son of Eochaidh Breac, had issue, viz., Maolfaithche, from whom are the family of O'Maoilaichen 135; Brodubh, from whom are the family of O'Broduibh 136; Breanainn, from whom are the family of O'Maoilbreanainn 137, and the family of O'Creachain 138. Of the descendants of Breanainn, the son of Brethe, were the three O' Suanaighs, namely, Fidhmuine, Fiodhairle, and Fidhgusa, or Fiodhgus; who were the three sons of  p.37  1 Fiodhbhadach,
son of Cuduiligh,
son of Coman,
son of Suanach,
son of Creachan of the Moy,
son of Bruidhe,
son of Brenainn,
son of Brethe,
son of Eochaidh Breac,
son of Dathi, King of Erin.

Fearamhla, the daughter of Dioma Dubh, son of Diarmaid, son of Seanach, son of Laoghaire, son of Eochaidh Breac, son of Dathi, was the mother of the three O'Suanaighs 139. She was also the mother of Aodhan, of Cluain Eochaille 140, in Corann, and of St. Dichlethe O'Triallaigh, whose habitation is in the country of Ciarraighe Luachra. And she was the mother of St. Colman, the son of Eochaidh, who is, i. e. lies interred at Sean bhothach 141, in Hy-Censiolaigh; and these are the saints of the Hy-Eathach, of the Moy. Of the race of Eochaidh Breac, son of Dathi, are the Saints Colman and Aodhan. The following are the saints of the race of Eochaidh Breac, viz.:
son of Duach, from whom Ceall mhic Duach 142
son of Ainmire,
son of Conall,
son of Cobhthach,
son of Goibhnenn,
son of Conall,
son of Eoghain Aidhne,
son of Eochaidh,
son of Dathi.

Also the three O'Suanaighs, already mentioned, who were established at the following places, viz., Fidhmuine, at Rathain 143; Fidhairle, at Cionn Saile 144; and Fiodhgus, at Glas-charraig 145.


It was Dichlethe O'Triallaigh, commonly called Triallach, that absconded from Tir Amhalgaidh, and went to Disert Ui Triallagh 146, on the brink of the river Casan Ciarraighe; and it was upon him the following great miracle was performed. One time, as he attempted to go away from the sons of his mother on an expedition to seek for God, they took him and fettered him, placing a lock of iron between his head and feet; and the key of the lock was cast into the sea, and a salmon took it in its mouth and swallowed it. Triallach soon after stole away on his expedition, and put to sea in a currach which was not covered with leather, and went round Ireland westwards, with the fetter between his head and feet, until he arrived on the coast of Ciarraighe Luachra 147, whither the salmon which had swallowed the key accompanied him, and by the assistance of God he landed there at Disert Ui Triallaigh, on the brink of the river Casan Ciarraighe, so that neither his brothers nor tribe knew in what direction he had gone.

O'Suanaigh and Aodhan afterwards went in search of their mother's son, and they knew not his fate or destiny until they found him at the Disert with his lock on between his head and feet, and he hiding himself from those clerics who were in search of him. They were not long there when they saw a fisherman 148 coming towards them, the man to whom the habitation belonged, who bade the clerics welcome, and made obeisance to them, for he perceived that they  p.41 were of the people of God, i. e. ecclesiastics, and that they had set out on their journey to search for the saint who was bound by the fetter. Triallach ordered that the clerics should be well entertained, “that strangers were entitled to attention.” The fisherman then went to set his net for them, and O'Suanaigh said to him, “thou wilt take the full of thy net, that is a salmon in each mesh, but do not bring with thee more than a sufficiency for us, that is, a salmon for each man.” The fisherman did accordingly, and he presented a salmon to each cleric; and the key was found in the belly of the salmon given to Triallach, and the lock was opened with it. That fetter is now a miraculous relic, and known by the name of Glasan Ui Triallaigh 149, i. e. Triallachs little lock or fetter.

Triallach was called Diclethe, from the cleth, or concealment, which he made of himself in escaping from his brothers, and in the house of the fisherman. And he was called Triallach 150 from the triall, or voyage, which he made on the sea in despite of his brothers.

From Ailghile, son of Eochaidh Breac, are descended Muinter Ailgheanain, or Ailghile, and of whom was the celebrated prophet Cutemen 151 Mac Ailghile.

From Cuboirne, the fifth son of Eochaidh, are descended Muinter Mochain 152, of Cill Athracht 153, i. e. the keepers of the Cross of St. Athracht.


Pedigree of O'Mochain
Gregory, Archbishop of Tuam 154,
son of Simon,
son of Nicholas,
son of Domhnall,
son of Donnchadh,
son of Muircheartach,
son of Muireadhach,
son of Finn,
son of Meanman,
son of Donnchadh,
son of Aitheasach,
son of Muircheartach,
son of Murchadh,
son of Mochan, a quo the O'Mochains,
son of Aongus,
son of Treasach,
son of Tighearnach,
son of Tadhg,
son of Ailgheanach,
son of Conchobhar,
son of Flann,
son of Cathal,
son of Cuboirne,
son of Eochaidh Breac,
son of Dathi, King of Ireland.

Others say that the Cuboirne from whom the O'Mochains are descended, was son to Eoghan Aidhne, the son of Eochaidh Breac; and this is true.

The descendants of Laoghaire, son of Eochaidh Breac, are the Muinter Muiren, of Gleann Maoilduin, at the Eidhneach 155, and another family called Muinter Muiren, in Umhall 156, and they are both the same family with respect to their descent, viz.:  p.45  1
son of Muiren, a quo Ui Muiren in Umhal,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Seanach,
son of Laoghaire,
son of Eochaidh Breac,
and Maolbrighde,
son of Muiren,
son of Maolduin, from whom is called Gleann Maoilduin,
son of Criomhthann,
son of Dioma,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Seanach,
son of Laoghaire,
son of Eochaidh Breac.

son of Dioma,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Seanach,
son of Laoghaire, &c.

Whose descendants are at Cill Cuimin 157, that is the family of O'Cuimin. But he is not the Saint Cuimin by whom the place was first blest; for he was
Cuimin Foda,
son of Conaing or Conall,
son of Fergus,
son of Amhalgaidh,
son of Fiachra.

When Cuimin, the son of Dioma, was buried he was interred in the large uluidh, or altar-tomb, at the feet of O'Suanaigh, and it is his descendants that have been as comharbas in the church 158 ever since.


O'Dorchaidhe 159 and O'Goirmiallaigh 160 (the two chiefs of Partraighe 161) are of the race of Laoghaire, the son of Eochaidh Breac (or Eochaidh of the Moy). There are many Partraighes. — See the Genealogies of the Race of Brian, son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin for more of them.

O'Dorchaidhe was chief of Partraighe according to Mac Firbis (Giolla Iosa Mor), in the year of Christ 1417. — See page further on.

  1. Well has he defended 162 the land of the men,
    O'Dorchaidhe of the high mind,
    The country of Partraighe of fine hazel trees,
    With a yellow-knotted spear-shaft in the battle.
Son of Dluthach,
Son of Dioma Cron,
Son of Diarmaid,
Son of Seanach,
Son of Laoghaire,
Son of Eochaidh Breac,
Son of Dathi.

O'Dorchaidhe of Gaillimh 163

James Riabhach, and Dominic,
Sons of Nicholas,
Son of James Riabhach,
Son of Nicholas,
Son of Conchobhar,
Son of Patrick,
Son of Thomas,
Son of Walter Riabhach, the first man of the family of O'Dorchaidhe who came to Gaillimh, according to the people of Gaillimh themselves.


son of Richard,
son of Martin,
son of James Riabhach,
son of Nicholas.

son of James Og,
son of James Riabhach.


son of Anthony,
son of James Riabhach.

Andrew, and Patrick the lawyer 164, two other sons of James Riabhach, the elder.

Of the race of Laoghaire also are the Hy-Eachach of the Moy 165, with their correlatives, and the family of O'Maoilfaghmhair 166, comharbas of Cill Ealaidh 167, in Tir Eachach, or Hy-Eachach of the Moy, of whom were these seven holy bishops, viz., Mo Cele O'Maoilfaghmhair, from whom are descended the Mac Celes, of Cill Ealaidh 168; Aongus the Bishop, Muireadhach the Bishop, Aodh the Bishop, Ainmtheach the Bishop, Maolan the Bishop, and Flann the Lecturer, i. e. a pious Bishop of the Clann Cele 169.

Of the race of Laoghaire, in Hy-Eachach, of the Moy, are the O'Criadhchens 170, the O'Leanains 171, and the O'Flaitiles 172, or O'Laitiles.

The country of Hy-Eachach, of the Moy, extends from Ros Serce 173 to Fionnchaluim, and to Fearsad Tresi. Ros Serce is so called from Searc, the daughter of Cairbre, son of Amhalgaidh, who blessed the village and the wood which is at the mouth of the River  p.53 Moy. This Searc was a miraculous female saint, and it was for her the church and duirtheach 174, which are at that Ros (or in that Ros), at Roserc, were erected.

Of the Descendants of Eoghan Aidhne, the Son of Eochaidh Breac

Eoghan Aidhne, son of Eochaidh Breac, who was son of Dathi, was called Eoghan Aidhne, because it was in the territory of Aidhne 175 he was fostered by the tribe called Oga Beathra, the third tribe who then inhabited Aidhne, for there were three tribes in Aidhne before the Hy-Fiachrach, namely the Ciarraighe, Oga Beathra, the Tradraighe, of Dubh-ros 176, and the Caonraighe, of Ard Aidhne. The Oig Beathra came from the country of Ealla 177, and were of the race of Eoghan Taidhleach 178; they took possession of the northern part of Aidhne, and it was they that fostered Eoghan Aidhne, the son of Eochaidh Breac, for which he was called Eoghan Aidhne. The Oig Beathra also fostered Eoghan Beul, the son of Ceallach, son of Oilioll Molt, son of Dathi, and they were his first faction when he was assuming the government of Connaught. The Tradraighe are of the race of Geanann, the son of Deala 179, and the Caenraighe are of the race of Conn 180. Eoghan Aidhne was the foster-son  p.55 of these tribes, and it was the Oga Beathra (as we have already stated) that maintained the territory of Aidhne for him and his descendants after him.

Eoghan Aidhne had four sons, namely, Conall, Cormac, Seudna, and Seachnasach, who was called Ceanngamhna and Seanach Ceanngamhna, and from him are descended the Cineal Cinngamhna, i. e. the family of O'Duibhghiolla 181, chiefs of Cineal Cinngamhna. Of this tribe of Cineal Cinngamhna was Saint Sarnait 182, the daughter of Aodh Gabhalfhada, son of Seanach, son of Eoghan Aidhne, son of Eochaidh Breac.

From Conall, son of Eoghan Aidhne are sprung the Cineal Guaire, thus:
Aodh and Colman, two sons of Cobhthach,
son of Goibhnenn,
son of Conall,
son of Eoghan Aidhne,
son of Eochaidh Breac,
son of Dathi, King of Ireland.

From Aodh, son of Cobhthach 183, are sprung the Cineal Aodha, i. e. O'Seachnasaigh and O'Cathail, two kings of Cineal Aodha; and from Colman are the Cineal Guaire.

Seudna, son of Eoghan Aidhne, was the progenitor of the Cineal Seudna.

From Cormac, Son of Eoghan [Aidhne], are the Cineal Cearnaigh.


The Cineal Cuaiche are sprung from Cethernach, son of Cuach, son of Criomhthann Caoin, son of Eoghan Fuileach, son of Aodh Gabhalfhada.

O' Cathail, in Cineal Aodha

son of Ogan,
son of Bracan,
son of Cionaoth,
son of Torpa,
son of Conchobhar,
son of Comuscach,
son of Bec,
son of Aodh,
son of Cobhthach, 184
son of Goibhnenn,
son of Conall,
son of Eoghan Aidhne.

son of Conchobhar,
son of Uban,
son of Ogan,
son of Bruachan, or Bracan,
son of Cionaoth.

Pedigree of O' Seachnasaigh

Sir Diarmaid (now living, 1666),
son of Sir Ruaidhri, i. e. Giolla dubh O'Seachnasaigh, whose brothers were Dathi and William,
son of Diarmaid O'Seachnasaigh,
son of Giolla dubh,
son of Diarmaid,
son of William,
son of John,
son of Eoghan,
son of William,
son of Giolla na Naomh,
son of Ruaidhri,
son of Giolla na Naomh,
son of Raghnall,
son of Sealbhach or Gailbhighe 185, son of Seachnasach, from whom the family of O'Seachnasaigh,  p.59  1
son of Donnchadh,
son of Cumaighne, or Cumaighe,
son of Feargal,
son of Maolciarain,
son of Caisin, or Cas,
son of Murgal,
son of Maoltuile,
son of Simil (or Sioghmal, or Sioghmuine, or Siothmuine),
son of Nobile (or Nocba, or Ogba),
son of Cana (or Eagna, or Aghna),
son of Nadseudna,
son of Garbhan (or Gabhran),
son of Soghan (or Toban, or Tobach, or Toghbha),
son of Branan (or Bronan),
son of Bran, or Brian Lethdherg,
son of Murchadh,
son of Aodh,
[son of Artghal,
son of Guaire Aidhne,
son of Colman 186],
son of Cobhthach,
son of Goibhnenn,
son of Conall,
son of Eoghan Aidhne,
son of Eochaidh Breac,
son of Dathi, King of Ireland,
son of Fiachra,
son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin, King of Ireland.

Pedigree of Muinter Scannlain 187

son of Art Buidhe,
son of Brian Garbh,
son of Maghnus,
son of Conchobhar,
son of Muirgheas,
son of Tadhg,
son of Aodh,
son of Toirdhealbhach,
son of Aodh,
son of Conchobhar,
 p.61  1
son of Giolla na n-each,
son of Aodh,
son of Scannlan Og,
son of Ceallach,
son of Giolla-Bearaigh,
son of Domhnall,
son of Aodh,
son of Scannlan,
son of Feargal,
son of Maoilciarain,
son of Caisin,
son of Muirgeal,
son of Maoiltuile,
son of Timile,
son of Nobile, ut supra.

Seanach Ceann Gamhna, had three sons, namely, Aodh Gabhalfhada, Aodh Baill-derg, and Fearadhach, from whom are the chieftains, namely, the O'Duibhghiollas, with their correlatives, of whom I have already briefly spoken.

[Guaire, the son of Colman 188, son of Cobhthach, son of Goibhnenn, son of Conall, son of Eoghan Aidhne, son of Eochaidh Breac, son of Dathi, had three sons, viz., Artgal, Aedh, and Nar. This Aedh had  p.63 a son Fergal; Fergal had two sons, viz., Cormac, and Enda a quo Cinel Enda. The issue of Cormac became extinct except one daughter, Righnach, the mother of St. Colman Mac Duach, a quo Ceall mic Duach, i. e. Kilmacduagh.

Nar, the son of Guaire, was the eldest of his sons, a quo Cinel Guaire. The Cinel Guaire are called after him for his nobleness beyond the other sons, Aedh and Artgal. Nar had one son, namely, Cobhthach; Cobhthach had a son Flann, a quo Cinel Guaire. O'Maghna 189 was chief of the Cinel Guaire and of the Caenraighe until Mac Giolla Ceallaigh 190 deprived him of his patrimonial inheritance. O'Duibhghiolla is the chief of Cinel Cinngamhna; Mac Gilla Cheallaigh is chief of Cinel Guaire; O'Cathan 191 is chief of Cinel Ianna, and of his followers are O'Mochan 192, O'h-Oirechtaigh 193, and the O'Marcachans 194. So far the Cinel Guaire.

Mag Fhiachra 195 is the chief of Oig Bethra, and his retainers are O'Caemhagan 196, O'Dubhagan 197, and the Mag Flannagans 198].

Maolfabhaill had two sons, namely, Maolchulaird and Cugaola, the father of Giolla na Naomh and Flaithbheartach, who was the father of Giolla Iosa, and Cugaola, from whom is the family of Mac Conghaola 199, as also of Muireadhach and Giolla Fursa.

Giolla na Naomh, the son of Cugaola, had one son, namely, Aodh, the father of Giolla na Naomh and Giolla Ceallaigh, who was the  p.65 father of Aodh (who was usually called Maol na m-bo), and also of Giolla na Naomh and Cugaola. Maol na m-bo had one son, namely Aodh.

Pedigree of O'Hedhin 200

Eoghan and Muircheartach, two sons of Donnchadh,
son of Aodh,
son of Eoghan,
son of Giolla na Naomh,
son of Giolla Cheallaigh,
son of Aodh,
son of Giolla na Naomh of the plunder,
son of Cugaola,
son of Maolfabhuill,
son of Flann,
son of Edhin,
son of Clereach,
son of Ceadadhach,
son of Cumascach,
son of Cathmogha,
son of Torpa,
son of Feargal,
son of Artghal,
son of Guaire Aidhne.

Aodh Buidhe [O'h-Edhin], son of Muircheartach,
son of Donnchadh,
son of Aodh,
son of Eoghan, &c.

The Family of Laighdiagan 201

Eoghan [O'h-Edhin],
son of Aodh Buidhe,
son of Aodh,
son of Eoghan,
son of Edmond,
 p.67  1
son of Flann,
son of Conchobhar,
son of Brian,
son of Aodh Buidhe, &c.

Conchobhar Cron,
son of Flann,
son of Conchobhar Cron, Tanist of O'h-Edhin.

Eoghan Mantach 202 son of Toirdhealbhach,
son of Eoghan,
son of Edmond,
son of Flann,
son of Conchobhar,
son of Brian,
son of Aodh Buidhe.

Edmond, airchinneach of Cill Mhic Duach 203,
son of Ruaidhri,
son of Eoghan,
son of Ruaidhri,
son of Flann,
son of Conchobhar,
son of Brian,
son of Aodh Buidhe aforesaid.

The Family of Dun Eoghain 204

Aodh Meirgeach,
son of Brian,
son of Aodh Buidhe,
son of Brian na Caoraoigheachta,
son of Aodh Buidhe,
son of Flann.

The Family of Dun Guaire 205

Aodh Buidhe,
son of Flann,
son of Flann,
son of Flann Buidhe.


The Family of Lucharnach 206

Gerald and Brian,
two sons of Flann,
son of Conchobhar,
son of Brian na Caoraoigheachta,
son of Aodh Buidhe, son of Flann.

Pedigree of Mac Giolla Cheallaigh 207

Giolla Cheallaigh, son of Comaltan, from whom are the O'Comaltains, son of Maolchulaird,
son of Maolfhabhaill,
son of Flann,
son of Edhin, a quo the O'h-Edhins,
son of Clereach, a quo the O'Clerighs,
son of Ceudadhach, a quo Ui Ceudaghaigh,
son of Cumasgach,
son of Cathmogh, a quo the O'Cathmoghas,
son of Torpa, &c.

[Pedigree of Mac Giolla Cheallaigh 208

Giolla na Naomh,
son of Giolla Cheallaigh,
son of Aedh,
son of Conchobhar,
son of Flann,
 p.71 son of Giolla na Naomh,
son of Cugaela,
son of Giolla Cheallaigh, from whom the surname is called,
son of Comaltan,
son of Flann, i. e. Maelcearard,
son of Maelfabhaill,
son of Cleireach, from whom the
son of Ceadadhach,
son of Cumasgach,
son of Cathmogh,
son of Torptha,
son of Feargal,
son of Artgal,
son of Guaire Aidhne].

son of Lonan 209,
son of Conmach,
son of Caithniadh,
son of Aodh,
son of Torpa,
son of Feargal,
son of Artgal,
son of Guaire Aidhne.

son of Flaithniadh,
son of Feargal,
son of Artgal,
son of Guaire Aidhne.

[When the English invasion 210 [recte invaders], namely, the Burkes of the race of William the Conqueror 211, prevailed over the race  p.73 of Eochaidh Breac, the son of Dathi, son of Fiachra, some of the latter scattered and dispersed themselves in various territories: Mac Giolla Cheallaigh went to Iorrus Iarthair 212, and some of the O'Clerys into Tir Amhalgaidh mhic Fiachrach 213, and others into Munster, where they dwelt in the vicinity of Kilkenny 214; and others of them called Clann Cleirigh, went to Breifne Ui Raghallaigh 215. There passed also, after some time, from Tir Amhalgaidh mhic Fiachrach into Cinel Conaill mhic Neill 216, a wise man of the O'Clerys, whose  p.75 name was Cormac Mac Diarmaid O'Clery, and who was a learned proficient in the two laws, civil and canon 217. The monks and ecclesiastics  p.77 of the abbey of St. Bernard, called the abbey of Eas Ruaidh 218, loved him for his education and good morals, for his wisdom and intellect, and detained him among them for some time. He was at this time a young guest. O'Sgingin had been, for a long time before this period, the historical ollamh  219 to O'Donnell, the lord of Cinel Conaill, and he had first come into Cinell Conaill from Ard Carna 220, in Magh luirg an Daghda 221. Niall Garbh 222, son of Aodh, son of Domhnall Og, was lord of the country when the Cormac we have mentioned came thither, and O'Sgingin, viz., Matthew, was at the time Ollamh to the Niall aforesaid. And there lived not of O'Sgingin's children, nor yet of his tribe in the country, but one fair daughter, and he joined her as wife to this Cormac, and what he asked as her dower 223 was, that whatever male child should be first born to them should be sent to study and learn history, as all his race had become extinct in the territory except the daughter whom he wedded to him on that occasion. The other promised to comply with his request, and kept his promise indeed. A son was born of this Cormac and the daughter of O'Sgingin, named Giolla Bhrighde; and it was in commemoration and remembrance of Giolla Bhrighde O'Sgingin, the brother of his  p.79 mother (the intended ollamh of Cinel Conaill, who had died before this period, in the year of the age of our Lord 1382 224), that the name Giolla Bhrighde was given to him. Son to this Giolla Bhrighde O'Clery was Giolla Riabhach; son to Giolla Riabhach was Diarmaid of the three schools, so called because he kept a school of literature, a school of history, and a school of poetry. It was to him that O'Donnell Niall 225, the son of Toirdhealbhach an Fhiona, granted the lands called Craoibheach 226 (on which he had his dwelling and residence for some time), in addition to the other lands which his (i. e. O'Donnell's) ancestors had previously granted to O'Sgingin — as he was a proficient 227 in the science, which was hereditary to him, namely, history. Son to Diarmaid of the three schools was Tadhg Cam, who had the three celebrated sons, Tuathal, Giolla Riabhach, and Diarmaid, by whom the stone-houses were erected at Cill Barrainn 228, for they and their ancestors were freeholders in Cill Barrainn from  p.81 the time of the Cormac we have above mentioned, the first who came to Cinel Conaill. They were also the freeholders of Ceathramh na Cuchtrach 229, and of Ceathramh an Tighe Cloiche 230, a part of the lands of the abbey of Eas Ruaidh. They had also, as a gift from O'Donnell, the quarter of Cill Domhnaigh 231 and the quarter of Cuil Remuir 232, and the quarter of Druim an Chroinn 233, in the plain of Magh Ene. 234

The sons of Tuathal, son of Tadhg Cam, son of Diarmaid of the three schools, were Tadhg Cam, Giolla Riabhach, Mathghamhain, and William. Tadhg Cam left no issue, except one daughter named Celia. Giolla Riabhach, the second son of Tuathal, had issue, Tuathal, Mathghamhain, and Cu-Mumhan. Mathghamhain, the son of Tuathal, had a son Diarmaid. This Diarmaid had a son Maolmuire, who was with O'Neill 235 (Toirdhealbhach Luineach). William, son of Tuathal, son of Tadhg Cam, had four sons, Donnchadh, Conaire, Domhnall, and Conchobhar.

The sons of Giolla Riabhach, son of Tadhg Cam, son of Diarmaid of the three schools, were Domhnall and Maurice.

Diarmaid, son of Tadhg Cam, son of Diarmaid of the three schools,  p.83 had these sons, namely, Cucoigcriche, Giolla Brighde, Cormac, the friar of the order of St. Francis, and Muirgheas.

The sons of Cucoigcriche, son of Diarmaid, son of Tadhg Cam, were Maccon, Cosnamhach, Dubhthach, Tadhg, Cormac, and Maurice Ballach 236. The sons of Giolla Brighde, son of Diarmaid, son of Tadhg Cam, son of Diarmaid of the three schools, were Fearfeasa, Aimirgin, and Maelmuire. The sons of Muirgheas, son of Diarmaid, son of Tadhg Cam, were Diarmaid and Cuchonnacht.

Of the race of Diarmaid, son of Tadhg Cam

Lughaidh 237, Giolla-Brighde, Maccon Meirgeach, Cucoigcriche, and Duibhgeann,
sons of Maccon,
son of Cucoigcriche,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Tadhg Cam,
son of Diarmaid of the three schools.
son of Giolla Riabhach,
son of Giolla Brighde,
son of Cormac, the first man of this family who came to Cinel Conaill,
 p.85  1
son of Diarmaid,
son of John Sgiamhach,
son of Domhnall,
son of Giolla Iosa,
son of Tadhg,
son of Muireadhach,
son of Tighearnach,
son of Giolla na Naomh,
son of Domhnall,
son of Eoghan,
son of Braon, who died in 1033,
son of Cugaela, 1025,
son of Giolla Cheallaigh, 1003,
son of Comhaltan, 976,
son of Maelcerarda, i. e. Flann, 950
son of Maolfabhaill, 887.
son of Cleireach, from whom the
family of O'Clery,
son of Ceadadhach,
son of Cumusgach,
son of Cathmogh,
son of Torpa,
son of Feargal,
son of Artgal,
son of Guaire Aidhne,
son of Colman,
son of Cobhthach,
son of Goibhnenn,
son of Conall,
son of Eoghan,
son of Eochaidh Breac,
son of Dathi,
son of Fiachra,
son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin.

Diarmaid and John,
sons of Cosnamhach,
son of Cu-coigcriche,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Tadhg Cam,
son of Diarmaid of the three schools.

Tadhg Cam, Flann, and Conchobhar,
sons of Dubhthach,
son of Cucoigcriche,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Tadhg Cam.

son of Fearfeasa,
son of Giolla Brighde,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Tadhg Cam,
son of Diarmaid of the three schools.


Of The Race of Tuathal

son of Tuathal,
son of Giolla Riabhach
son of Tuathal,
son of Tadhg Cam,
son of Diarmaid of the three schools.

son of Mathghamhain,
son of Giolla Riabhach,
son of Tuathal,
son of Tadhg Cam.

William, Conaire 238, Maolmuire, i. e. Bernardin 239, Tadhg of the mountain, i. e. Michael 240; the two latter were friars of the order de Observantia
sons of Donnchadh,
son of William,
son of Tuathal,
son of Tadhg Cam,
son of Diarmaid of the three schools.

Of the Race of Giolla Riabhach

son of Cu-coigcriche,
son of Maurice,
son of Giolla Riabhach,
son of Tadhg Cam,
son of Diarmaid of the three schools.

son of Eolus,
son of Maurice,
son of Giolla Riabhach,
son of Tadhg Cam.


son of Domhnall,
son of Tadhg,
son of Maolmuire,
son of Giolla Riabhach,
son of Tadhg Cam.

Of the Muintir Cleirigh of Tir-Amhalgadha 241

John Sgiamhach, Daniel, Thomas, and Cormac, four sons of Domhnall,
son of Giolla Iosa,
son of Tadhg,
son of Muireadhach,
son of Tighearnach,
son of Giolla na Naomh,
son of Domhnall,
son of Eoghan,
son of Braen,
son of Cugaela, &c.

From John Sgiamhach are descended the family of O'Clery of Tir Conaill; from Daniel are the family of O'Clery of Tir Amhalgadha; from Thomas are the Clann Clery of Breifny O'Reilly; and from Cormac are the Muinter Clery of Cill Cainnigh 242.

Of the Race of Daniel

son of Cormac,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Ruaidhri,
son of John,
son of Thomas,
son of Domhnall,
son of Daniel,
son of Domhnall,
son of Giolla Iosa,
son of Tadhg,
son of Muireadhach,
son of Tighearnach,
son of Giolla na Naomh, &c.


Thomas and Brian Og,
sons of Brian na Broige,
son of David Buidhe [the yellow],
son of Donnchadh,
son of Thomas,
son of Domhnall,
son of Daniel.

son of Edmond Cron,
son of Edmond Cron,
son of Cormac,
son of Thomas,
son of Domhnall,
son of Daniel.

son of Fear Dorcha,
son of Tuathal,
son of Donnchadh,
son of Thomas,
son of Domhnall,
son of Daniel.

son of Muircheartach,
son of John of Cladagh,
son of Brian,
son of Muircheartach,
son of Domhnall,
son of Daniel.

David Buidhe,
son of Thomas,
son of David Buidhe,
son of Diarmaid Glas,
son of Muircheartach,
son of Domhnall,
son of Daniel. []

The following are the kings of the race of Fiachra Foltsnathach, who ruled Connaught and Ireland, viz., Dathi, son of Fiachra: he ruled the countries as far as the Alps, and he exacted the Borumean tribute thrice without a battle.

Olioll Molt, son of Dathi: he assumed the monarchy of Ireland, and exacted the Borumean tribute thrice without a battle. Some books state that Earc, the son of Oilioll Molt, assumed the monarchy of Ireland, and exacted the Borumha without a battle.


Amhalgaidh, son of Fiachra: he assumed the government of Connaught. Eoghan Beul, Ailill Ionbhanna, Aodh, and Crunmhaol assumed the kingship of Connaught and were resident in Ceara.

Colman, Guaire Aidhne, Muircheartach, and Laighnen, were four kings of Connaught who dwelt in Aidhne..

Oilioll, Cathal, Ionnrachtach, and Dunchadh were four kings of Connaught who dwelt in the plain of Muaidhe [the Moy]. To commemorate these kings the poet said:

  1. Fourteen kings of the race of Fiachra,
    Vigorous, successful were these kings,
    Both south and north of each country,
    Each tribe of them was with prosperity.
  2. Four kings of the province of Connaught
    Dwelt in great Aidhne, land of saints,
    Muircheartach, one of the perfect breed,
    Laighnen, Guaire, and Colman Caomh.
  3. Four Connaught kings dwelt in Ceara,
    Crunmaol and Aodh of weapons bright,
    And the noble pair Ailill and Eoghan,
    Of the tribe of mighty lions.
  4. Four kings of the Hy-Fiachrach Muaidhe,
    Dunchadh of Cruachan, of noble feats,
    Iondrachtach, who shunned not the battle,
    Oilill and Cathal Caomh.
  5. Of them four monarchs governed Erin; —
    Erin they exalted without a cloud, —
    Dathi and Oilill over Erin,
    Amhalgaidh and Earc of the noble lineage.
  6. The Book of the Tributes of the chiefs of Hy-Fiachrach,
    Are with me here one and all; p.95
    I hear not so of any others like them,
    They are the bravest men that I have seen.

  7. Fourteen, &c.

Differently from this, however, speaks the historical poem 243 beginning “Be it known to the historians of the men of Fail.”

  1. Thirteen kings of kingly prosperity,
    Of the generous race of Fiachra,
    Potent in their countries without thirst,
    Reigned in the same Cruachan in Connaught.
  2. Two Flaithri's, Feargal, it is known,
    Guaire, Colman with worthiness;
    As a lion was each king with his spear,
    Dathi, Eoghan, and Oilill.
  3. Amhalgaidh, Iondrachtach the noble,
    Donncathadh, Oilill Ionmar,
    Dunchadh without treachery, without guile,
    It is not by me they are not fully remembered.
These kings will be more distinctly found in p. 298. 244

It was by Dathi, the son of Fiachra and his brothers, that Brian, the son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin, was slain in the battle of Damh-chluain 245; and it was in eric [reparation] for it that the land of Clann Mec n-Earca was forfeited, except a small portion; and it was in Tulach Domhnann 246 he was interred, as stated in page 247.


Genealogy of the Hy-Fiachrach of the Moy

The mother of Fiachra Ealgach, the son of Dathi, was Ruadh, the daughter of Airtech Uichtleathan, who died at his birth. From her is named Mullach Ruadha 247, in Tir Fiachrach of the Moy, from her being buried in the top of that hill; and over her is the carn of stones which is on the top of the hill. Tulach na molt was its name before that time, from the circumstance that the mother of Oilioll Molt, while he was in her womb, took a desire for wethermutton, and all the wethers procured for the queen were brought to this hill, whence it was called Tulach na molt [i. e. the hill of the wethers248]. Tulach na Maoile [i. e. the hill of Maol] had been its previous name, from the rest which Maol-Flidhisi took upon it during the excursion of Tain Bo Flidhisi [while Fergus 249 and Domhnall Dual-bhuidhe 250 were engaged at single combat, — in which combat Domhnall was slain, — while the Gamanradii were in pursuit of the men of Erin here after the cattle spoil. Whence the hill was called Tulach na Maili; and it was from this Fiachra, the  p.99 son of Dathi, that Tir-Fiachrach 251 was named. Cnoc na n-Druadh was another name for this hill, because the Druids of Dathi, King of Erin were used to be on it obtaining knowledge  252, for it was here they predicted to Dathi that he would attain to the kingdom of Erin, Alba, &c. This authority states that the same Ruadh was the mother of Oilioll Molt, the son of Dathi; but Doctor Keating253 says that Eithne, the daughter of Orach, the [second] wife of Dathi, was the mother of Oilioll Molt; that the first wife of Dathi was Fial, daughter of Eochaidh, from whom Cruachan Fele is called; and that Dathi's third wife, Ruadh, the daughter of Airtheach Uichtleathan, son of Ferconga, was the mother of Fiachra Ealgach, from whom Tir Fiachrach of the Moy is named.

Fiachra Ealgach, the son of Dathi (from whom are the Hy-Fiachrach of the Moy), had two sons, namely, Amhalgaidh, from whom Inis Amhalgaidh, an island in Loch Con 254, is named, for it was on it he was born; and Maoldubh, from whom is called Dun Maoilduibh 255, at Iasgach [Easkey], the place where he was born and bred.

Amhalgaidh, the son of Fiachra Ealgach, had a large family, namely, Cairpre, Learghus, Fergus, Eochaidh, Fedhlimidh, Eunda, Eoghan Fionn, Trea, Aongus, a quo the Ui Aonghusa, Ronan, from whom are  p.101 the Ui Ronain, i. e. the chiefs of Magh Bron 256, and Cuilen, from whom are the Ui Cuilen of Ath Fen 257.

It was Amhalgaidh, the son of Fiachra Ealgach, that raised Carn Amhalgaidh 258 to serve as a place of fairs and great meetings; and it was in it Amhalgaidh himself was interred, and from him the Carn was called Carn Amhalgaidh, so that it is on that Carn every man of the race of Fiachra Ealgach, that assumes the chieftainship, is inaugurated.

From Amhalgaidh, the son of Fiachra Ealgach, the son of Dathi, of whom we have just spoken, or Amhalgaidh, the son of Dathi himself, whom we left in Bregia, I find no descendants except the Clann-Firbis, who descend from either of them, as I shall set down here from the Books of the Clann Firbis themselves.

Pedigree of the Clann Firbis of Lecan 259

Dubhaltach Og (i. e. myself, 260 the compiler and writer of this book in this year of the age of Christ, 1666), Patrick, Diarmaid, and James,
sons of Giolla Iosa Mor,
son of Dubhaltach Mac Firbis,
son of Diarmaid Caoch,
son of James Mac Firbis,
son of Donnchadh Mor,
son of Ferbisigh,
son of John Og,
son of John Carrach,
son of Ferbisigh,
son of Giolla na Naomh,
 p.103  1
son of Domhnall of the school,
son of Amhlaoibh,
son of John,
son of Donnchadh,
son of Giolla Phadraig, by whom St. Tighearnan of Errew was fostered,
son of Ferbisigh, a quo Clann Firbisigh,
son of Domhnall Og,
son of Domhnall Mor,
son of Aongus,
son of Lochlainn of Loch Con,
son of John,
son of Conchobhar na Conairte [i. e. of the pack of hounds],
son of Enna,
son of Conaing,
son of Muireadhach,
son of Feargus,
son of Amhalgaidh,
son of Dathi.

I know not but Fiachra Ealgach should come between Dathi and Amhalgaidh, because the land in which Amhalgaidh, the son of Fiachra Ealgach was born, and in which he dwelt, was the first patrimonial inheritance of the Clann Firbis, as we have already mentioned, and as we shall mention again when treating of the inheritors.

Gregory, Andreas, and Thomas Og,
sons of Thomas Cam,
son of Dubhaltach,
son of James,
son of Diarmaid Caoch.

son of James Og,
son of Dubhaltach,
son of James.

Fitheal, Torna, and Maolmuire, who all died without issue, were the three elder sons of Dubhaltach, son of James.

Brian Dorcha, a learned historian, who died without issue, was the second son of James, the son of Diarmaid Caoch.

Fearfeasa, Aodh, Maolmuire, and Diarmaid,
sons of Ciothruadh Og, who had a brother Fearbisigh,
son of Fearfeasa, whose brothers were Diarmaid[] Caoch, and
Aodh Buidhe,
son of Ciothruadh,
son of Diarmaid Caoch,
son of Donnchadh Mor.


James and Torna,
sons of Feardorcha,
son of Torna, brother of Cuchon 261, {}
son of Diarmaid Caoch,
son of Donnchadh Mor.

The Race of William, son of Donnchadh Mor Mac Firbis

Donnchadh, Maolmuire, and Lughaidh,
three sons of Geanann, whose brother was Forannan,
son of Fercertne, whose brothers were Maolmuire and Fearbisigh,
son of John Og (whose brother was Giolla Iosa and Donnchadh Og, who died issueless),
son of William,
on of Donnchadh Mor.

Fionduine Og,
son of Fionduine,
son of Giolla Iosa,
son of William,
on of Donnchadh Mor.

William Og, or Beg, and John Og,
sons of John Og,
son of Giolla Iosa,
son of William,
son of Donnchadh Mor.

Donnchadh Og, who died without issue,
son of William,
son of Donnchadh Mor.

Brian Dorcha, John Og, James, Aodh, Tadhg Ruadh, Edmond Buidhe, and Maolmuire, sons of Aodh Og,
son of Ciothruadh,
son of Tadhg Ruadh,
son of Fearbisigh,
son of Thomas Cam,
son of Giolla Iosa Mor,
son of Donnchadh,
son of Giolla Iosa Mor, who was sixty years teaching school,
son of Fearbisigh,
son of Muircheartach,
son of John.


[It is said 262 the Clann Firbis of Lecan Mac Firbis in Hy-Fiachrach and Hy-Amhalgaidh, have the same surname with the two aristocratic families of Forbes of Drominoir, in Scotland, or wherever else they are to be found as Scotchmen, in the three kingdoms; as also with the Cruces, formerly of Fingal, having, in the course of the intermixtures and migrations of the Gaels from one country to another, become English, as many other tribes have become, according to the prophets, who foretold that the Galls would be Gaels, and the Gaels would be Galls].

Maoldubh, son of Fiachra Ealgach, had three sons, namely, Cobhthach, Temen, and Tiobraide.

Cobhthach, the son of Maoldubh, had one son, namely, Maolduin, from whom are descended the families of O'Maoilduin 263, with their correlatives, namely, Mac Giolla na n-each 264, Mac Giolla-duibh 265 of Corcach, O'Duibhscuile 266, and O'h-Almhec 267.

From Temen, the son of Maoldubh, are descended the Clanna Temin, namely, the families of O'Muirgheasa 268, O'Maonaigh 269, Mac Giolla Riabhach 270, O'h-Aodha 271, and O'Donnchadha 272.

Caomhan and Dubhda,
sons of Conmhach,
son of Donncatha,
son of Cathal,
son of Ailell,
son of Dunchadh,
son of Tiobraide,
son of Maoldubh.


Caomhan was older than Dubhda, and Caomhan thought that the chieftainship was his own; but God did not permit that kings should be of his posterity; and they came to the following agreement 273 about the chieftainship, namely, that Caomhan's 274 representative should always possess his choice territory in the principality, and the privilege of being at the right side of the king of Hy-Fiachrach; that he should get the king's steed and battle-dress at the time of his inauguration, and should walk round him thrice after his instalment. And the territory he selected was that extending from Tuaim da Bhodhar 275 to the River Gleoir 276. The steed, battle-dress, and raiment of O'Caomhain to be given to Mac Firbis, the day that Mac Firbis shall give the name of lord to O'Dubhda.

Caomhan, from whom the family of O'Caomhain is descended, had one son, namely, Cathal.


Pedigree of O'Caomhain

David 277 and Domhnall,
sons of Aodh,
son of David,
son of Thomas,
son of Giolla na Naomh,
son of Domhnall,
son of David,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Thomas,
son of Domhnall,
son of Thomas,
son of Giolla na Naomh,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Domhnall,
son of Cathal,
son of Giolla na Naomh,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Cathal,
son of Caomhan, from whom the family of O'Caomhain,
son of Connmhach,
son of Donncatha.

Tomaltach, Maghnus, Donnchadh, Aodh Fionn, and John, five sons of David, son of that Aodh.

Thomas Og, Tomaltach, Niall, and Cathal Riabhach, were the sons of Thomas Mor, son of David, son of Giolla na Naomh Mor.

The Family of O'Dubhda 278 down here

Dubhda (son of Connmhach) had a son, Ceallach, the father of Aodh, who was father of Maolruanaidh, the father of Maoileachlainn,  p.113 father of Niall, father of Taithleach and Niall, from whom the Clann Neill; and these were they who usurped the inheritance of the O'Caomhains, on account of which mutual slaughters were committed, viz., David and Domhnall O'Caomhain were slain by Niall, son of Aodh, son of Niall; and Niall himself was slain to avenge his brother by Muircheartach Fionn O'Caomhain, who assumed the chieftainship himself. 279

From Taithleach, the second son of Niall, son of Maoileachlainn, the chiefs of the O'Dowd family are descended, viz., Muircheartach (son of Aodh, son of Taithleach), father of Aodh, father of Taithleach, of Brian Dearg (from whom are the Clann Taithligh Oig), and of Muircheartach.

Maolruanaidh 280 (son of Aodh, son of Ceallach, son of Dubhda) had two sons, namely, Domhnall, from whom sprang the Clann Domhnaill, of Loch Con. This is the Domhnall 281 who was slain by the O'Gaibhtheachains [O'Gaughans], at Bearna Domhnaill, in Magh Eleog 282.

From Maoileachlainn 283, the second son of Maolruanaidh, the chiefs are descended.

Of the sons of Domhnall, son of Maolruanaidh, was Cathbharr,  p.115 the father of Domhnall Fionn 284 (who had no issue except a daughter), and of Aodh, father of Taithleach 285 (King of Hy-Amhalgaidh and Hy-Fiachrach), and of Cosnamhach Mor 286, the only fighter of an hundred that came in latter times, and who was treacherously slain by O'Gloinin in his own house at Inis Cua 287, on account of a dispute about a greyhound whelp.

Taithleach, son of Aodh, had two sons, namely, Aodh and Amhlaoibh.

Donnchadh Mor 288, son of Aodh (son of Taithleach, son of Aodh, son of Muircheartach, son of Aodh, son of Taithleach, son of Niall), had three sons, namely, Brian 289, Maolruanaidh 290, and Muircheartach 291, from whom the Clann Conchobhar are sprung.

Maolruanaidh, the son of Donnchadh Mor, had two sons, namely, Taithleach 292 and Cosnamhuigh, i. e. Archdeacon of Tuaim da Ghualann, and presumptive Archbishop.

Taithleach, the son of Maolruanaidh, had three sons, namely, Brian O'Dubhda 293, King of the Hy-Fiachrach and the Hy-Amhalgaidh,  p.117 and Donnchadh Mor O'Dubhda 294, heir apparent of Hy-Fiachrach. Slaine, daughter of Mac Maghnus, of Tir Tuathail 295 was the mother of both. Maoileachlainn Carrach 296, the other son, was the father of Conchobhar, who was father of Muircheartach, the father of Diarmaid and Maolruanaidh.

Donnchadh Mor, son of Taithleach O'Dubhda, had three sons, namely, Donnchadh Og 297, heir apparent to the chieftainship of the Hy-Fiachrach; Conchobhar, 298 and William, Bishop of Killala 299. The daughter of O'Flynn was the mother of these sons of Donnchadh Mor.

Connchobhar, the son of Donnchadh, left no issue, except daughters.

William, the bishop, had two sons, namely, Cosnamhaigh 300, who was slain in the battle of the Strand, and William Og; both died without issue.

Donnchadh Og, the son of Donnchadh Mor, had a large family, namely, Muircheartach Cleireach 301, designated king and bishop, for  p.119 his hospitality and valour; Taithleach 302; Aodh, of Corran; Lochlainn; Brian Cleireach, and Cormac. Honora, the daughter of Rickin Barrett, was the mother of all these.

Muircheartach, the son of Donnchadh Mor, had a large family, namely, Domhnall, Cathal, Conchobhar 303, and Cosnamhaigh, whose mother was Dearbhail, the daughter of Flaithbheartach O'Rourke; and Donnchadh 304, another son of his, whose mother was Dearbhail, the daughter of Tadhg Mac Donogh. William Mac Muircheartaigh was another son of his.

Brian, the son of Taithleach 305 O'Dowd, had a large family, namely, Domhnall Cleireach 306, King of Hy-Fiachrach; Maolruanaidh 307; Maghnus Cleireach 308. Barrdubh, the daughter of Domhnall O'Conor, was their mother. His other sons were Diarmaid and Aodh, whose mother was the daughter of Roibin Laighleis [Robin Lawless], and Cosnamhaigh, Niall, Taithleach, and Brian Og 309, whose mother was Honora, the daughter of Mac Wattin Barrett.

Maolruanaidh, son of Brian, had one son, namely, Taithleach, father of William and of Brian.

Aodh, son of Brian, had good sons, namely, Brian and Diarmaid  p.121 (Meadhbh, the daughter of Domhnall Ruadh O'Maille, was the mother of both). Muircheartach, Lochlainn, and Taithleach were his other sons. From this Lochlainn are the Sliocht Lochlainn of Bun Finne 310, whose inheritance consists of eight quarters of land. The most distinguished of this sept are Brian, Fedhlim, William, and Eoghan, the sons of Ruaidhri, son of Eoghan of Ceathramha Lochain 311.

Domhnall Cleireach, the son of Brian O'Dubhda, had a large family, namely, Ruaidhri 312, King of Hy-Fiachrach, Eoghan, Maghnus, Maoileachlainn, heir apparent of Hy-Fiachrach, Tadhg Riabhach 313 (Fionnghuala, the daughter of Domhnall Ruadh O'Maille, was the mother of these sons); John and Domhnall (Teamhair, the daughter of O'Muirgheasa, was their mother); Donnchadh, Diarmaid 314, Domhnall, and Aodh (Fionnghuala, daughter of Maghnus, son of Cathal O'Conor, was their mother). He had another son, Eoghan 315 (the daughter of O'Cathain was his mother).

Tadhg Riabhach had good sons, namely, Brian, Donnchadh Ulltach 316 (Eudoin, daughter of Domhnall, son of Muircheartach O'Conor, was their mother); Tadhg Buidhe 317, John (Margaret,  p.123 daughter of William, son of Sir Redmond Burke, was their mother). His other sons were another John, Niall, Domhnall, Aodh, and Taithleach. Though this family, and those who branched off from them, were once great at Ard na Riagh 318, Esgir Abhann 319, Baile Ui Mhochaine 320, Baile an Chaislen 321, and Longphort Ui Dhubhda 322, not one of their descendants are now living in Tir Fhiachrach [Tireragh].

The aforesaid towns were the castle-towns of the race of Tadhg Buidhe, son of Tadhg Riabhach. It was the English that erected all the bawn of the Longphort [Longford], except Leabha an Eich Bhuidhe 323 which was erected by Sen Bhrian [O' Dowd]. Donnchadh, the son of Tadhg Riabhach, erected Baile an Chaislen [Castletown]. Esgir Abhann was erected by the Albanach Mor 324 [Big Scotchman], the foster-father of Tadhg Buidhe, son of Tadhg Riabhach. Baile Ui Mhochaine [Ballymoghany] was erected by Tadhg Riabhach himself.


Baile Aird na Riagh [Ardnarea] was built by the English. These towns, and many others, were on the territorial division of Tadhg Buidhe.

This Tadhg had these sons, following, viz., Maghnus, Fedhlim, John Glas, Eoghan, Aodh, Conchobhar, and Donnchadh. John Glas, Eoghan, Conchobhar, and Donnchadh fell in defending their native territory. Maghnus and Fedhlim went to the Clann-William [Burkes]; and Aodh, from the relationship of his grandmother to the family of O'Maille, repaired to Umhall Ui Mhaille, and remained there for three quarters of a year, committing vengeful aggressions by land and sea upon the race of Ruaidhri, son of Domhnall Cleireach, until at length it repented him of what he had committed against God; for which reason, and by the advice of a certain pious anchorite, he betook himself to the protection of the English, to seek repose and the will of God; and where he dwelt was at a place three miles to the east of Droichead Atha 325, where a son was born to him whose  p.127 name was Aodh Og. Three years after this Aodh Mor died, and left his son with a rich farmer of the family of O'Quin, who reared him honourably, and gave him his sister in marriage, and she brought forth for him three sons, namely, John, Thomas, and Henry, besides daughters. After the death of this wife he married the daughter of Bhaliseach 326 of Oldbridge, and she brought forth a son for him, namely, George, the father of William, Giolla-Patrick, John 327, Edward, Thomas, Richard, and Francis. These are the genealogical ramifications of the family of O'Dubhda,who are now in Ath Cliath 328 Duibhlinne [Dublin].

It is the general tradition, and it is written in the Books of the Clann Firbis, that Dowdall, with his correlative kindred, is of the family of O'Dubhda, and that the period at which he left Tir Fiachrach was the time of the killing of Taithleach of the Moy O'Dubhda, by the English, Anno Domini [1282]; so that they were called Dowdalls by the English, as their own history relates 329, which would be tedious to be given here.


Domhnall Og, son of Domhnall Cleireach, had issue, namely, Ruaidhri, Diarmaid, and Edmond.

Ruaidhri, son of Domhnall Cleireach, had issue, namely, Maolruanaidh 330, Conchobhar, Maghnus Cleireach (Eileog, daughter of John Mac Costello, was their mother), Muircheartach, Eoghan, and William 331, (Anabla, daughter of Sir Redmond Burke, was their mother).

Cosnamhaigh, son of Brian, son of Taithleach O'Dowd, had issue, namely, Brian 332, Aodh, Muircheartach, John, and Edmond 333.

Maolruanaidh, son of Ruaidhri, had issue, namely, Diarmaid, Domhnall Ballach 334, Maoileachlainn, ancl Muircheartach Caoch, who[] died without issue; and a second, Maoileachlainn.

Eoghan 335, Fearadhach, Ruaidhri, Cormac the friar, Cathal Dubh 336, Dathi, John Glas, and Brian, were the sons of Conchobhar, son of Diarmaid, son of Maolruanaidh.

Fearadhach had a son Domhnall, father of Eoghan who died issueless.

Ruaidhri, son of Conchobhar, had a son Diarmaid, the father of Ruaidhri, Fearadhach, Domhnall, Conchobhar, and John Glas.

Dathi, son of Conchobhar, had issue, namely, Fearadhach, Donncatha, Cathaoir, Cormac, Fiachra, and Amhalgaidh of the River Daoil.


John Glas, son of Conchobhar, had two sons, namely, Cormac and Brian.

Eoghan, son of Conchobhar, had issue, Tadhg Riabhach 337, Edmond, Ceallach, and Conchobhar, the father of Tadhg Riabhach, who was the father of Eoghan and Edmond.

Tadhg Riabhach, the son of Eoghan, had issue, namely, Dathi 338, Tadhg Buidhe 339, Fearadhach (father of Cathal Dubh, a friar), Domhnall, Maolruanaidh, who died without issue, Eoghan, and John Og, father of Tadhg Riabhach and Donnchadh.

[Dathi Og 340 O'Dubhda, now living, 1666,
son of James,
son of Dathi,
son of Dathi,
son of Tadhg Riabhach, son of Eoghan, i. e. the O'Dubhda,
son of Conchobhar,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Maolruanaidh,
son of Ruaidhri, i. e. the O'Dubhda,
son of Domhnall Clereach, i. e. the O'Dubhda,
son of Sen Brian, i. e. the O'Dubhda,
son of Taithleach of the Moy,
son of Maolruanaidh,
son of Donnchadh,
son of Aodh,
son of Taithleach,
son of Aodh,
son of Taithleach,
son of Aodh,
son of Muirchertach,
son of Aodh,
son of Taithleach,
son of Niall,
son of Maoileachlainn,
son of Maolruanaidh,
son of Aodh,
son of Ceallach,
son of Dubhda, from whom the tribe,
son of Connmhach,
son of Donncatha,
 p.133  1
son of Cathal,
son of Oilioll,
son of Dunchadh,
son of Tiobraide,
son of Maolduin, i. e. Maoldubh,
son of Fiachra Ealgach,
son of Dathi, King of Ireland,
son of Fiachra,
son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin,
King of Ireland].

William Og, Christopher, Dathi, and Fiachra, are the
sons of William,
son of Dathi,
son of Tadhg Riabhach, &c.

Maolruanaidh and Tadhg Buidhe, a friar,
sons of Tadhg Buidhe,
son of Tadhg Riabhach, &c.

Tadhg Riabhach, Fearadhach, and Ruaidhri,
sons of Domhnall,
son of Tadhg Riabhach,
son of Eoghan.

Cathal Dubh, i. e. the O'Dubhda,
son of Edmond,
son of Eoghan,
son of Conchobhar.

son of Brian,
son of Ceallach,
son of Eoghan,
son of Conchobhar.

The Race of Ruaidhri, son of Conchobhar

son of Dathi,
son of Ruaidhri,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Ruaidhri,
son of Conchobhar,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Maolruanaidh,
son of Ruaidhri,
son of Domhnall Clereach.


son of Cathaoir,
son of Fearadhach,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Ruaidhri,
son of Conchobhar.

Domhnall Og and Eoghan, two sons of Domhnall, i. e. the O'Dubhda,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Ruaidhri,
son of Conchobhar.

The Race of John Glas, son of Conchobhar

John Glas, Dathi, Diarmaid (the father of Tadhg); Maoileachlainn Caoch, Eoghan, Charles (father of Patrick, and of Donnchadh a friar); Fiachra (father of Thomas); and John (father of Diarmaid), were
sons of Brian,
son of John Glas,
son of Conchobhar,
son of Diarmaid.

Brian and Eoghan,
sons of John Glas,
son of Brian,
son of John Glas.

Cormac, Eoghan, and Domhnall Og,
sons of Domhnall,
son of Cormac,
son of John Glas
son of Conchobhar.

Of Dun Neill 341

William Og, Eoghan Carrach, who was slain at Cnoc na n-os 342, and Domhnall Ballach, three
sons of Fedhlim,
son of Edmond Buidhe,
son of William Og,
son of Domhnall Ballach,
 p.137  1
son of Maolruanaidh,
son of Ruaidhri,
son of Domhnall Clereach.

son of William Caoch,
son of Calbhach,
son of Tadhg,
son of Brian,
son of Diarmaid,
son of Maolruanaidh,
son of Ruaidhri,
son of Domhnall Clereach.

The Race of Cosnamhach here

Ruaidhri, William Ballach, and Felim,
sons of Cosnamhach,
son of John,
son of Felim,
son of Aodh,
son of Cosnamhach,
son of Sen Brian.

The Clann Taithligh here

Corc, Taithleach, and John, three sons of Ruaidhri,
son of Conchobhar,
son of Taithleach Og,
son of Muircheartach na Fuineoige,
son of Taithleach,
son of Aodh Alainn,
son of Maoileachlainn,
son of Brian Dearg,
son of Aodh, in whom they and the chiefs meet,
son of Niall,
son of Maoileachlainn.

Muircheartach Leghinn,
son of Maolruanaidh,
son of Conchobhar Déseach,
son of Aodh Alainn,
son of Maoileachlainn,
son of Brian Dearg, who was drowned on his way from Rome after his pilgrimage.


Misdel [Mitchel], from whom the Clann Misdel and the family of Mac Finn O'Dubhda, with their correlatives,
son of Maolruanaidh,
son of Conchobhar Deseach,
son of Aodh Alainn.

Domhnall, prior of Eachros 343,
son of Tadhg,
son of Domhnall,
son of Aodh,
son of Muircheartach na Fuinneoige.

Aodh Ruadh, Diarmaid, and Taithleach, three sons of Conchobhar,
son of Taithleach,
son of Conchobhar Conallach,
son of Taithleach,
son of Donnchadh Mor,
son of Aodh,
son of Taithleach,
son of Aodh,
son of Muircheartach.

Thomas and Maoileachlainn Mor,
sons of Aodh,
son of Conchobhar Conallach.

Ruaidhri Mor,
son of Taithleach,
son of Conchobhar Conallach.

The privileges of the race of Caomhan, the son of Connmhach, according to the ancient literati, which were obtained by Aodh, son of Cathal O'Caomhain 344 from Ceallach, the son of Dubhda, and from Aodh, son of Ceallach 345, as a compensation and consideration of kindred,  p.141 after he [i. e. Aodh O'Caomhain] had been cursed by Gerald, the Saxon saint (according to the Dumb Book of James Mac Firbis), with his three hundred saints, in consequence of the wife of O'Caomhain 346, who turned him, late in the evening, out of the door of Caomhan's fort (which is called Cathair mhor); so that St. Gerald cursed Caomhan and his seed, and prayed that there should not be a king of his race for ever. When Aodh heard this, he became sorrowful for the curse pronounced against his grandfather by the angry saint, in consequence of the misconduct of the malicious woman, who had issue; so that he went to where St. Gerald was to appease him; and though he did appease him, it was of no avail to Aodh, for Gerald did not consent to make peace with any one descended from the woman who had insulted him, but he consented that the chieftainship of the O'Caomhains should be transferred to the race of Diarmaid, son of Cathal, son of Caomhan 347, that is, to the  p.143 son of the handmaid of the denounced woman, but that none of his race should ever expect to be kings of all the Hy-Fiachrach. And the compensations they obtained for this transfer of the lordship were the following, viz., a tuath of every territory which their reigning relative possessed from the river Rodhba 348, to the river Codhnach 349, and the privilege of first sitting in the drinking house, and of arraying the battle; that O'Dubhda is to stand up before him whenever he meets him, or wherever he may be; that O'Caomhain is to take the first drink and bath; and that whoever takes his first arms 350 in his territory, he should take them from the descendants of Diarmaid, son of Cathal, son of Caomhan; also that they should get the Luach leasa of every  p.145 king's daughter and the steed and battle-dress of every king among them for ever, after his being inaugurated; and that the like should be given by them to the Ollamh, that is, to Mac Firbis.

Or, if we believe others, it was St. Gerald that baptized Dubhda 351, from whom the chiefs are descended, and it was Caomhan himself that obtained these privileges, together with many others (as we have stated in the genealogy), from Dubhda, in consideration of the chieftainship.


2. Hereditary Proprietors 352 of the Clann Fiachrach

Of the Men of Ceara here

Three triocha cheud 353 of Ceara; there were three kings over it, namely, O'Muireadhaigh, O'Gormog, and O'Tighernaigh. Its full extent 354 is from the Rodhba 355 to Rathain 356, and from Fionnghlais 357 to Maiteog 358 of Achadh Gabhair 359, as the rann states:

  1. From Rodhba to Rathain the red
    Is the country of Ceara, which the hosts defend, p.151
    From Fionnghlais, which the hounds frequent,
    To Maiteog of Achadh gabhair.

The chieftainship of O'h-Uada and O'Cinnchnamha from Maiteog to Callainn, and from Bunreamhar 360 to Abhainn na Mallachtan 361.


The tuath of Partraighe 362 extends from Ath na Mallachtan 363 to Glaisi Guirt na Lainne 364, and from Caol 365 to Fal 366. And O'Gairmiallaigh was its king and O'Dorchaidhe its toparch; or, it was the lordship of O'Dorchaidhe alone, according to the book of James and Giolla Iosa Mac Firbis.

O'Banan of Baile Ui Bhanan 367, and Magilin of Muine 368, i. e. two Mac Oglaoichs 369.

The tuath of Magh na Bethighe 370 extends from Callainn 371 to Uluidh Caolainn 372, that is, the seven ballys of Lughortan, the estate of Mac an Bhainbh.


O'h-Aodha of Baile Craoibhe, i. e. Baile an Tobair.

The estate of O'h-Uathmharain, i. e. Baile Cagail.

The estate of O'Learghusa, i. e. Baile Cille Buainne 373.

The chief seats of Ceara are Feart Lothair, Loch m-Buadhaigh, and Aonach.

The tuath of Magh Fhiondalbha, containing fifteen townlands, is the estate of O'Cearnaigh. It extends374 from Crannan Tornaighe (or Ran Tornaighe) to Caisiol Cairpre.

The estate of O'h-Edhneachain, i. e. the three townlands of Magh na Cnocaighe, and the three townlands of Baile Riagain 375, viz., Baile an Chriochain Bhuidhe 376, Baile an Smotain 377, and Baile na Greallcha 378; and the three townlands of Fiodh Cruaiche 379, viz., Baile Ui Ruairc 380 and Baile na Leargan Moire.

The estate of O'Ciaragain, the townland of Bel na Lece 381.

The estate of O'Coigligh, i. e. Baile Carnan Tornaidhe 382, or Ran Tornaidh.

The estate of Mac Giolla Fhaolain, i. e. the townland of Magh Roisen 383.


The estate of O'Cuachain is Baile Lis Aiche 384, which is called Baile an Regles 385.

The estate of O'Maolraite is Oireamh, and Braonros, Iomaire, and Cul an Daingin.

The estate of O'Faghartaigh, the three townlands of Tulach Spealan.

The estate of O'Brogain, Tulach Spealain.

The lordship of O'Cearnaigh also comprised the twenty-four townlands of the Termon of Balla.

The estate of O'Caomhain, in Ceara 386, comprised the seven townlands of Ros Laogh 387, i. e. the tract extending from Cluain Lis Nellin 388 to Beul Atha na Lub 389 and from Beul Atha na g-Carr 390 to Muilenn Tiormain 391, which estate was obtained by Caomhan, son of Connmhach from Dubhda, his own brother, and by Aodh O'Caomhain from Aodh, son of Ceallach O'Dubhda, King of Hy-Fiachrach, for there was found no district without its hereditary proprietor of the race of Earc Culbhuidhe, except this well known Attacottic district 392, named Tuath  p.159 Ruisen 393; so that it has been the hereditary patrimony of the family of O'Caomhain ever since, besides many other districts.

The lordship of O'Ruaidhin extends from Beul Atha na Lub to the causeway of Cillin na n-Garg 394, and of his tribe is the family of O'Culachain 395.

The lordship of O'Birn extends from the causeway of Cillin na n-Garg to Beul Atha na Sesidh, Roibin Beag being on the east side; and from Sighin Ciarain to Tobar Lughna.

The lordship of O'Goirmghiolla extends from Tobar Lughna to the ford of Caol Patraighe, and from the Rodhba to Raithleann. It contains seven townlands and a half.

The three townlands of Criathach are the estate of O'Maoilcana, and of the family of Mac Giolla Bhuidhe of Cillin na m-Buidhean, in Criathrach.

So far the hereditary proprietors of Ceara. Giolla an Ghoill Mac Neill was the last King of the Gaels, who possessed Ceara: he was cotemporary with Taithleach Mor (son of Aodh O'Dubhda), who took possession of the country extending from the River Rodhba to the Codhnach, and was interred at Baile Tobair Padraig 396. [And the person who was bishop 397 in the time of these kings was Mael Isa Mag Mailin].


Clann Cuain down here.

The Clann Cuain are the next to the men of Ceara in point of genealogical relationship 398, for they are both of the race of Earc Culbuidhe, the son of Fiachra.

O'Cuinn, O'Maoilfhiona, and Mag Fhlannagain were the three chiefs of Clann Cuain. They are otherwise called Fir Thire, and also Fir Siuire, from a river of the name Siuir 399, which flows by the town, at this day called Caislen an Bharraigh 400.

Cuan (son of Eochaidh, son of Flann, son of Fearadhach, son of Ros Doimtheach, son of Maine Muinbreac, son of Earc Culbhuidhe, son of Fiachra) is the ancestor of the Clann Cuain with their correlatives, as the rann says:

  1. Cuan Mor, son of the generous Eochaidh,
    From him are the Clann Cuain of smooth mounds,
    And the Fir Thire of tribes,
    A people without fault in faith.


The cause of the separation of the Clann Cuain and the Fir Thire from the Clann Fiachrach, was this: Ruaidhri Mear 401, the son of Taithleach, son of Niall O'Dubhda, a king who had possession of the country extending from the Rodhba to the Codhnach, went on a regal visitation to the house of Domhnall O'Cuinn, chief of Clann Cuain; and it happened that O'Cuinn had at that time a beautiful marriageable daughter, and O'Dubhda did not content himself without getting her by force that night, so that O'Cuinn slew him treacherously on the next day, and went himself under the protection of the Clann Maoilruanaidh, viz., of Tomaltach Mor Mac Dermot 402, and they [the Clann Cuain] gave themselves and their patrimonial inheritance up to them, which continues so from that to the present day.

These are called Fir Thire upper, and Fir Siuire abhus (citra) from the river, as we have said before.

The Territorial Distribution of Hy-Amhalgaidh 403 and Hy-Fiachrach 404 here; with their Hereditary Proprietors.

In Iorrus first the first estate is bestowed.

O'Caithniadh was the chief of Iorrus, and O'Ceallachain the  p.165 toiseach of Iorrus. The Brughaidhs of Iorrus were the families of Mac Coinin, O'Conboirne, O'Muimhneachain, O'Gearadhain, and Mag Fhionain.

The hereditary proprietors of Dun Fine were the families of O'Cuinn, Mag Odhrain, O'Comhdhain, O'Duibhlearga, O'Bearga, O'Blighe, O'Duanmaighe, O'Radubhain of Baile an Ghleanna, Mac Conletreach of Baile Mec Conletreach, O'Conghaile and O'Cathasaigh, airchinnechs of Cill Ardubh. The chief of the Lagan was O'Muireadhaigh; O'Fionnagain of Fionnchalamh 405.

The Tribes of Breudach 406 [etc.] here.

O'Toghdha was chief of Breadach; O'Luachain, in the western side of Breudach, and also O'Gilin; O'Gloinin of Rath na n-Goirmghiall; O'Gaibhtheachain and O'Maoilfhiona, were the two chiefs of Calraighe; O'Flainn, brughaidh of Magh h-Eleag; O'Lachtna was chief of the two Bacs, and of Gleann Nemhthinne; Lachtna was a Mac Firbis; O'Flanngaile was over Loch Glinne, with its land; O'Floinn in Oireamh of Loch Con; O'Maoilruaidh of Ard Achadh and of Cill Bealad, or Cill Ealad; O'h-Eineachain of Baile Ui Eineachain; O'Leathcaile of the townland of Magh Fuara; Mac Conlena of Cill Mor Muaidhe; O'Dubhagain and O'Airmeadhaigh of Loch Muighe Broin, and the Clann Firbisigh, the poets of Hy-Amhalgaidh of Ros Serce.

Hy-Eachach Muaidhe extends from Ros Serce to Fearsad Tresi. These are its tribes, viz., O'Maoilfaghmhair, comharbas of Cill Allaidh, O'Leannain, O'Criaidhchen, O'Laitile, O'Mochain, O'Maoilaithghen, O'Broduibh, and O'Maoilbhrenuinn.


The following are the tribes of Caille (or Caoille) Conaill, which extends from Fearsad Tresi to Traigh Murbhaigh, that is, Traigh Ceall, and northwards to Cill Cuimin, viz., O'Derig, O'h-Aodha of Ard O'n Aodha, O'Maolchonaire, O'Flannabhra, and O'Seaghsa. And of them also are the families of O'Congadan, or O'Connagain of Magh Gamhuach, O'h-Arain of Ardgabhail. The district of Caeille is Baile na Leacan, from the Fearsad, to Traigh Murbhaigh, &c., according to another book.

The Hereditary Proprietors of Tir Fhiachrach 407 down here.

The estate of O'Morain, i. e. Ard na Riagh, and his chieftainship the district thence to Tuaim da Odhar. O'Brogain of Breachmhagh.

There were four chiefs over Cuil Chearnadha, which extends from Beul Atha na n-Idheadh 408 to the road of Breachmhagh, namely, O'Fionain, O'Rothlain, O'h-Iornain (or O'Tuathalain), and O'Cuinn. O'h-Eana of Imleach Loisge; O'Gealagain of Cill Iochtair, i. e. Grainseach; O'Breslen of Cill Fhaindle, or Cill Ainnle.

The country of O'Caomhain extends from Tuaim da Bhodhar to Gleoir, and his hereditary tribes or retainers were the families of Mac Cailleachan, or Caoilleachan, or Ceallachan of Carn; O'Coitil of Baile Ui Choitil; O'Floinn of Beartrach and of Mucdhubh; O'Mochaine of Baile Ui Mhochaine; O'h-Iomhair of Leacan; — (the Clann Firbhisigh were of Leacan Mhic Fhirbhisigh afterwards, where they wrote books of history, annals, poetry, and kept a school of history; and where, a long time after their original settlement there, Ciothruaidh and James, the two sons of Diarmaid Caoch Mac Firbis,  p.169 and John Og, the son of William, their father's brother, erected the castle of Leacan Mac Firbis, in the year of the age of Christ 1560 409;) — O'Loingseachain of Mullach Ratha; O'Sbealain of Coillin, and it was he that erected the great rath 410; O'Fualairg of Rath Bearchain; and O'Connachtain of Cabrach.

The chief seat of O'Caomhain was Saidhin Uisge tar abhainn, which is otherwise called Inis Sgreabhainn 411. Though it is said that the Clann Neill took these lands, it was not by hereditary right they took them, but by force, after having slain David O'Caomhain and Domhnall O'Caomhain, so that the Clann Neill were for a while in the chieftainship, until Niall, son of Niall, was slain by Muircheartach Fionn O'Caomhain, in revenge for the loss of his land.

Of the tract extending from the river Gleoir to the Iasgach O'Murchadha, or O'Maolduin, was the chieftain. The estate of O'Ruadhrach was Lia Con, and Iochtar Ratha. O'Fenneadha was proprietor of Finnghid until the family of O'Flannghaile 412 took it from him, after they had been driven from their own estate from the lake downwards by the English. O'Maoilduin of Imleach Iseal; O'Luachain of Ros Laogh; O'Duibhscuile of Dun Maoilduibh. The  p.171 estate of O'Rothlain was Cluain na g-Cliabhach and Alt Fharannain, until the family of O'Maonaigh deprived them of it by a treachery which shall not be written here 413; O'Beollan of Dun Ulltain; O'Conbhuidhe of Baile Mec Giollachais, and of Dun Neill, which is called from Niall, son of Cubuidhe 414, and Cuanan, from whom Rath Cuanain, was another son of Cubuidhe; and it is said that O'Conbhuidhe was once chief of the tract extending from Dun Neill to Muirisg; and the Dumb Book of James Mac Firbis states that O'Conbhuidhe was chief of the tract extending from Ath Cliath Muirsge 415 to the river Iascach. The families of Mac Eoghain and O'Cuanan of Dun m-Becin; O'Discin of Baile Ui Dhiscin; O'Dunghaile, O'Suidhlearga and O'Cuain of Dun Ui Chobhthaigh; O'Colmain of Grainseach Mor; O'Fuala of Grainseach Beag; O'Ceallaigh of Ard O'g-Ceallaigh; O'Loingsigh and O'Caomhain an Chuirrigh of Muine na bh-Fiadh [or Muine Dhiadh 416 at this day].

O'Flannghaile in Eachros; the families of Mac Giolla na n-Each, O'Flannghaile, and Mac Giolla Duibh, in the Corcachs; O'Sionna, in Lathrach. The pillars of Sgrin were the families of Mac Concathrach, O'h-Oilmhec, Mag Rodan, O'Sneadharna and O'Rabhartaigh.


The Dumb Book of James Mac Firbis enumerates the pillars of Sgrin as follows: — “The families of O'Rabhartaigh, Mac Carraoin 417, O'Flannghaile, and O'Tarpaigh 418, are the pillars of Sgrin, and the props of the Kings of Hy-Fiachrach if I give them as they were in my own time, the hereditary proprietors which I saw remaining in Sgrin, were the families of Mac Carraoin and Mac Giolla na n-Each, and there was a remnant of the O'Rabhartaighs there, but the Saxon heretics of Alba 419 did not leave their inheritance to them.”

O'Baothghaile of Cluain Ui Chosgraigh; Mac Giolla Finn (or Mac Finn O'Flannghaile) of Leamhach; Mac Giolla Bricin of Ard na n-Glas; Mac Giolla Mhir of Fionnabhair; Mac Giolla Riabhach of Criochan; O'Liathan of Muine Fede, or Bun Fede; Mac Conluain (or Anluain) of Cuil Cille Bricin; Mac Giolla Bhain of Lios na Reamhur; O'Duinchinn of Doire na n-Ath; O'h-Aodha of Toin re go; ODunchadha of the tract extending from Coillte Luighne to Beal Atha na Muice; Lios Ladhghuill is the chief seat of that district.

Of the people who inhabited the tract extending from Borrach to the Strand, O'Muirgheasa is chieftain, and of these O'Maonaigh is one. According to a different authority “the families of Mac Firbis, O'Maonaigh, and O'Muirgheasa were lords of the tract extending from Borrach to the Strand.” From Borrach to Muirisg, O'Maoilduin is chief of that district.

The Chief Seats of the Kings of the Hy-Fiachrach here, viz.:

Dumha Caochain, in Iorras; Inis Mochua 420, at Loch Con; Eanach Dubhain; Rath Branduibh, in Tir Amhalgaidh; Caislen mic Conchobhair,  p.175 or Dun mic Conchobhair; Iochtar Ratha, Dun Cinn Treathain, or Dun Contreathain, the two Draighneachs [on Lios na Draighnighe is the Bawn of Ceathramh an Chaisil 421 at this day], and Bun Finne, in Tir Fhiachrach.

The chief seat of O'Caomhain was Soighen Uisge tar abhainn, which is called Inisgreabhuinn. The chief seat of O'Murchadha was Imlioch Iseal, and the chief seat of O'Conbhuidhe was Dun Neill.

The English drove these chieftains 422 from their patrimonial inheritances (which we have enumerated), but Sen Bhrian 423 son of Taithleach Muaidhe O'Dubhda, took the country (particularly Tir Fhiachrach) from the English; but though he did, I think that many of the same old chieftains did not get much hold of their hereditary districts from him, for it is certain that the sons, grandsons, and great grandsons of Sen Bhrian divided the land among hemselves, though they do not possess it at this day. And moreover, but very few of the descendants of the chieftains already mentioned now exist (even their very surnames, were they of any importance, do not remain 424; and this is not all, but the people of these our own times wonder that such as they should have ever been in power, in consequence of their fewness and feebleness at this day. But the cause of their wonder is small 425 to one who compares the events of the world and the subversion of ages, which brought such vicissitudes on the tribes of the world in general, driving the potent from territories, as the  p.177 chieftains we have undertaken to describe were driven, as is evident from the celebrated poem 426 beginningMany a branch of the race of Conn”, which contains 231 quatrains, which was composed by Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis, ut sequitur:

  1. Mac Firbis of Lecan Cecinit.

  2. Many a branch of the race of Conn 427
    Is in the land of Banba of smooth grass;
    The sovereignty of the lands 428 was mightily seized
    By Conn, who is the head of their branches 429.
  3.  p.179
  4. The race of Niall 430, son of the great Eochaidh,
    Is a fine branch of the cluster,
    No sept has arrived at their happiness;
    They are the greatest tribe of heroes 431.
  5. Of the race of great Con, son of Feidhlim,
    Are the people of Cruachan of the level plain 432;
    No man of the tribe is fruitless (unmarried),
    The kings of the plain of Muireadhach 433.
  6. The seed of Feargna 434, men of the north,
    Passing to Cruachan 435 of the red mounds, p.181
    And to Cenannus, land of the heroes 436
    Which was the inheritance of the white-skinned Conn 437.
  7. A noble branch of the race of Conn
    Is the tribe of Eochaidh Doimhlen 438, the bright-eyed,
    The host of Oirghiall, who, above every tribe,
    Is a bulky blaze of heavy battle.
  8. Another shoot of the race of Conn
    Is the Clann Mailli 439, valiant the branch,
    (Every country is heard selecting them 440),
    And the mild Muintir Murchadha 441.
  9.  p.183
  10. The race of the great Fiachra, son of Eochaidh,
    A beauteous, sweetly-judging tribe 442,
    The Hy-Fiachrach, north and south 443,
    A generous battalion, who have exceeded comparison.
  11. The race of the noble Fiachra are my care,
    Let us follow the track of the heroes,
    The hosts from Tara of Tuathal 444,
    It is just to trace their noble career.
  12. Fiachra Foltsnaitheach 445, the festive,
    Five were the sons of that great progenitor,
    To enumerate them is meet for the people,
    Who were wont to distribute fame to the family 446.
  13. Dathi, who won each sept,
    Was contender for the plain of Europe 447;
    He proceeded to the Alps of birds 448,
    It is a part of his adventure celebrated in stories 449.
  14.  p.185
  15. Amhalgaidh, a prop of battle,
    Was a noble son of the arch-chieftain,
    Banba was enjoyed by the hero 450;
    Bresal the brave and Conairi 451 were also his sons.
  16. Earc Culbhuidhe 452, a prosperous branch,
    Was son of great Fiachra, son of Eochaidh,
    His steward over Ceara he placed 453,
    Which the side of each tree confessed 454.
  17. Of the descendants of Earc, who consented not to treachery,
    A brave tribe, whom I will not omit,
    Are the men of Ceara of beautiful fruit trees,
    With a mellow top of honey on their pods 455.
  18.  p.187
  19. Let us not leave Ceara of the mounds 456
    Without mentioning its inheritors,
    Without gently fitting them to our verse,
    To place them in the regal list.
  20. Over Ceara of the brown nuts 457
    There are three noble, laudable kings,
    Over tribes who have not been subdued from times remote,
    Whose soldiers possess high minds.
  21. O'Tighernaigh of ready tribes 458,
    O'Gormghail 459, who merited not reproach,
    A host who separate not from the battle,
    O'Muireadhaigh 460 of great mirth.
  22.  p.189
  23. To O'h-Uada 461 of extensive woods,
    To O'Cinnchnamha 462, who was not dispraised,
    Belongs the tract stretching from Maiteog to the hard Callainn,
    And to the cool river.
  24. Well has been defended the land of the men
    By O'Dorchaidhe of the lofty mind,
    The country of Partraighe 463 of fine hazle trees,
    With the yellow-knotted spear-shaft in the battle.
  25. O'Banan of his own town 464,
    A brughaidh who merited not reproach, p.191
    O'Gilin the swift of Muine 465,
    Chief of a tribe who were never dispraised.
  26. Mac an Bhainbh 466 of scarlet hazles,
    Obtained the terrestrial fairy palace 467
    The sweet district of Magh na beithighe,
    The most vigorous chief I mention.
  27. Baile na Craibhi 468 without stain,
    Which is also called the Tobar,
    O'Aodha 469, with his tribe, obtained,
    Heroes who protect us against puissant men.
  28. O' Fuathmharan 470 of the swift steeds
    Obtained Cacal 471 by plying the sword; p.193
    The strength of his large swords and hands
    Deserve renown at every time.
  29. Cill n-Aindi of the green woods 472
    Belongs to O'Lerghusa 473 of swift steeds;
    The host of Cill was never dispraised,
    Youths who ought to be mentioned in this poem.
  30. The district of Magh h-Indalbh 474 of steeds,
    Belongs to a hero who has not pronounced false sentence,
    To O'Cearnaigh 475, who loved not refusal,
    The fame of his household I will extol.
  31. The three townlands of Baile an Riagan 476 without division,
    The three townlands of Cnocan 477, I say, p.195
    And the land of Fidh Cruaichi 478 of banquets, —
    On which are shower-shaken hazles of white bark,
    And where each round hill is protected by wattle hedges, —
    Constitute the ancient territory of O'h-Eidhnechan 479.
  32. Baile an Bhelaigh 480, it is certain to me,
    Is O'Ciaragan's 481, — I will not conceal it, —
    Neither should his virtue be concealed,
    The satin-dressed ornament of each old habitation.
  33. Over Baile Crannain 482, without blemish,
    Are brughaidhs (farmers) of fierce conflict, —
    Spare ye not the acquisitions of the men, —
    The O'Coiglidhs 483, a brave tribe.
  34. The Mac Gilli Fhaelains 484 without treachery,
    Noble brughaidhs (farmers), I reckon,
    Whose spear-armed host have good array,
    Are in Regles 485 of the great family.
  35.  p.197
  36. Cul Daingin 486 and Braenros 487 ban [the white],
    Oiremh 488 and the entire of Imairi 489
    Belong to O'Mailraite 490, hospitable the man,
    To whom the literati and the feast were pleasing.
  37. The three townlands of Tulach 491 the southern,
    Belong to O'Brogan 492, who has enjoyed happiness,
    And the northern to O'Faghartaigh, who at his house
    Is praised at the time of the assembly.
  38. The Termon of Balla 493, where sweetly sound the bells,
    A flowery land, which Patrick blest 494, p.199
    A host from Tara selecting it 495,
    O'Cearnaigh obtained, as his first choice.
  39. O'Caomhan of the ancient swords obtained
    Tuath Ruisin 496, vigorous his career,
    A princely district, soil of heroes,
    Old land of lances and swords.
  40. O'Ruaidhin 497 of the rapid onsets got
    The tract stretching from Ath na Lub 498, as is reported,
    To the land of fair Cill na n-Garg 499,
    We are proudly counting them.
  41. From the causeway of Cillin na n-Garg 500,
    To Ath Seisidh 501 of the noble bards, p.201
    And Robin 502 being to the east of us,
    A little spot which is delightful to the strangers 503.
  42. And from Sighin Chiarain of the bells 504
    To Tobar Lughna 505, the soft [i. e. boggy],
    O'Birn 506 obtained that festive land,
    For whom the hazle 507 waved in hundred tendrils.
  43. From the Tobar to Caol 508 of the battles,
    Rodhba and Rathain under Aenach 509, p.203
    O'Goirmghialla 510 obtained that land
    Whose hosts are now under the heavy thraldom of foreigners 511.
  44. The three townlands of Criathrach 512, without concealment,
    Belong to O'Mailcana 513, who was never dispraised,
    And to the melodious Mac Gilli Buidhi's 514,
    The host of Cill 515 I recount.
  45.  p.205
  46. The chief seats of this southern territory [i. e. Ceara]
    Are Feart Lothair 516 of much happiness,
    Aenach 517, and the sweet Loch Buadhaigh 518;
    Before the multitudes I early boast of them.
  47. Of the race of Earc Culbhuidhi, it was heard,
    Are the Fir Thire of pellucid streams,
    And the Clann Cuain without stain,
    Who showed no small kindness to the bard.
  48. Over Clann Cuain 519 of heavy preys
    Were three chieftains accustomed to conflict, p.207
    Who deserved all Banba [Ireland] for selecting it 520 [Clann Cuain],
    The brave O'Cuinn 521 was their first choice.
  49. Mag Lannagan 522 of the smooth shafts,
    By whom the districts of strangers were plundered,
    And O'Mailina 523, who, yonder at his house,
    Was the sheltering tree of the learned.
  50. O'Cuinn one time obtained
    The chieftainship of this our territory 524,
    Hardy were the conflict and career,
    Of Domhnall 525, until he received disgrace.
  51. O'Cuinn happened to have
    A beautiful marriageable daughter who was wooed;
    She did not receive a gift of cattle 526
    Though she was wooed by chieftains.
  52.  p.209
  53. There came at the time into the southern district 527
    The King of Hy-Fiachrach, who had enjoyed happiness,
    Ruaidhri, son of Taithleach 528 of the tribes,
    A fishing rod to whom every river was known 529.
  54. To the house of O'Cuinn of fiery tribes
    Went O'Dubhda of Dun Guaire 530,
    The great pillar of the fair plain of Fail 531,
    To get his warlike refection 532.
  55. Ruaidhri of the rapid onsets viewed
    The black-haired, fair-skinned daughter 533,
    In the door of her beauteous Grianan 534;
    The steady, modest maiden was brightness 535.
  56.  p.211
  57. Ruaidhri of the bright eye loved 536
    The splendid comely daughter;
    Mightily was his attention engaged
    In what became the cause of tears to the goodly mansion.
  58. O'Dubhda of the fort of Conn 537 effected
    The violation of the daughter of Domhnall,
    And as by force he entered in
    The report of the deed spread widely.
  59. The King of Rath Branduibh 538 is slain
    By O'Cuinn with sharp swords,
    As this lord [O'Dubhda] indeed was found
    Alone in the gap of danger. 539
  60. Early on the morrow went
    O'Cuinn of affectionate hosts, p.213
    His men worthy of any host,
    To the vigorous Sil Muireadhaigh 540;
  61. To Tomaltach Mor 541 of fiery tribes,
    Mac Diarmada of Brugh Boinne 542,
    And under his steward the tribe [of O'Cuinn] submitted themselves,
    He [Mac Diarmada] consenting to their illegal act 543.
  62. From that day down to this
    The Clann Cuain and mighty Fir Thire 544
    Are without mention of a charter for their tributes
    Among the host of the Sil Muireadhaigh 545.
  63.  p.215
  64. But though the clann Maoilruanaidh 546 of rapid onsets
    Have obtained of them possession,
    To cling to them is not meet for this people;
    Its nut separates from the parent branch.
  65. I have now brought them with me 547, by a reporting of knowledge
    According to the genealogical relationship
    From the Clann Maoilruanaidh, without division,
    To the native stem, as I speak.
  66. Let us pass, may our journey be felicitous,
    From the wide territory of patron saints 548
    To Irrus 549, where we were fostered,
    That border of delightful districts. 550
  67. O'Caithniadh 551, who spared not cattle,
    Was the chief of Irrus, who was not satirized; p.217
    The produce of the country is in floods 552;
    Praise to the tribe I speak.
  68. There are three sub-chiefs in this western country,
    In Irrus of splendid aspect,
    A host the most excited by metheglin 553,
    A tribe who merited to be believed.
  69. O'Ceallachain 554, head of the host,
    O'Muimhneachain 555, who drinks the mead,
    Mac Coinin 556, remind us not of him 557,
    Very kind are those people to the learned.
  70. The O'Coinminns 558 of right condition,
    The Mag Fhionnainns 559 in the high roll,
    The Mac Conboirnes 560 of prosperous name,
    Tribes who have gone beyond comparison.
  71.  p.219
  72. The O'Geradhains 561 of sleek horses,
    A tribe of valorous career,
    A race of great hilarity,
    Whose hosts are firm under their noble spears.
  73. Thus is obvious in our book set down
    The host of Irrus without exception,
    It is meet to enumerate this people,
    A host whose sons have not been dispraised.
  74. Let us leave Irrus of the fine soil 562,
    Let us pass to the native territory 563,
    Let us quietly pursue our journey,
    Let us observe the opportunity of each ollamh.
  75. As bare books 564 relate,
    I shall point out the lands
    From Dun Fine 565 to the sluggish Muaidh 566;
    The race of whom I speak were not penurious.
  76. The first inheritor who shall be mentioned here,
    At Dun Fine of apple trees,
    Is O'Duibhlearga 567, who loves not the Galls 568,
    An artifex in learning prowess 569.
  77.  p.221
  78. O'Cuinn 570 of the brave tribe,
    One of the people who have not been lowered,
    And O'Comhgan 571, without a stain,
    And Mag Odhrain 572 is on that land.
  79. O'Duanmuidhe 573 of happy success,
    And O'Blighe 574 the warlike,
    O'Berga 575 for whom the hazles stoop 576,
    Who deserved not the anger of the saints.
  80. Radubhain, 577 an assertion without fault,
    Of Baile an Ghleanna 578, his fine seat 579,
    A brughaidh 580 of no false fame,
    A hundred-attended hero in defending.
  81. Of their own town 581, it is true,
    Are the Mac Conleitrechs, the heroes, p.223
    A people without poverty as to cattle,
    Who have not circumscribed the weal of the churches.
  82. Of Cill Ardubh 582 — godly the tribe, —
    Are the O'Cathasaighs 583 of conflicts,
    Going beyond every road before them,
    And the fair champion O'Conghaile 584.
  83. But the chieftainship is due to those
    High-minded tribes of great hosts,
    The O'Muireadhaighs 585 of comely chiefs,
    The majestic pillars of the Lagan 586.
  84. The Mag Fhinnains 587, who refused not a man,
    are of the Hy-Muireadhaigh of banners,
    Of the tribe who excelled all,
    Of the fair sept without irrationality,
    Men who are kindling valour in their sons:
    Such is the Lagan 588 I say.
  85.  p.225
  86. From Rath Branduibh 589 of the sweet bells 590
    To Traigh Ceall 591, a road which we pass,
    Stretches the country of Caeilli of no extinguished fame,
    Not fairer was the plain of Cruachan 592.
  87. From Conall, son of Fergus, the fair,
    Sprung the musical Clann Conaill 593;
    His race are in the territory of Caeille;
    No time is found complaining of them.
  88. O'h-Aodha 594, who never rejected a man of learning,
    A people of constant liberal bestowing,
    Of Ard O'n-Aodha 595 of steeds,
    Branches of high hospitality.
  89. The place of a chieftain in the northern district
    O'h-Aodha of the cold-weapon has obtained;
    His children are in the centre of Caeilli,
    The fairest plain of those I mention.
  90.  p.227
  91. The O'Mailchonaires 596 without a blot,
    The O'Flannabhras 597 without oppression,
    The O'Seghdhas 598 of rich produce,
    Heroes who reject not men of learning.
  92. I have mentioned, it is a reporting of knowledge,
    The Clann Conaill and their correlatives,
    As it is no shame to all the heroes
    To have them set down in the regal list.
  93. Hy-Eathach Muaidhe 599 of the plains
    Extends from Ros Seirce 600 of the bright streams
    To Fearsad Treisi, north,
    A pass of most powerful hosts.
  94. The O'Mailfaghmhairs 601 who prepared the banquets,
    The O'Leanains 602, full vigorous heroes,
    Not decrepid are the hosts of the soil;
    Of the descendants of Laeghaire 603 I speak.
  95. Of the O'Mailfoghmhairs, who violated not bells 604
    Were the seven bishops of Patrick's city 605, p.229
    And seven who were strongly elected
    In the choir (chapter) who came around them.
  96. The O'Criaidhcheins 606 of goodly plight,
    The lofty-proud O'Flaitilies 607,
    The O'Mochains 608 who have not forsaken you, once,
    Who were the causeway 609 of the learned of Erin.
  97. The O'Mailaithghins 610 of bright cheeks,
    The O'Mailbhrenainns 611 of terrific spears,
    Heroes who contended with the youths of Banba 612,
    The brave O'Broduibhs 613, and the O'Creachains 614.
  98. These are the Hy-Eachach of the steeds,
    A people who have spoken only a just sentence,
    This fair tribe have a lofty mind,
    They are the most expert host I mention.
  99. Let us pass into the soft Bredach 615,
    Which is accustomed to battles and hardness of conflict,
    To the scions from whom we shall receive information,
    The Clann Fergus 616 of brown weapons.
  100. O'Toghdha 617 is head of the battle,
    Victorious chief of Bredach, p.231
    To mention him is not grievous to me,
    Pity that there is no heir of the champions 618.
  101. O'Luachduibh's 619 part of the western side
    Of Bredach is of brilliant aspect,
    Chiefs accustomed to victory from their foundation,
    The host and their chiefs are increasing.
  102. O'Gloinin 620 who spared not cattle,
    O'Gilin 621 of the victorious arms,
    In Bredach powerful their pursuit,
    The people who have increased mede-drinking.
  103. Of the fine Magh Gamhnach 622 are
    The O'Deirgs 623 of flowery habitations
    And the O'Gadans 624 of pure honour,
    Glowing with hospitality and valour.
  104. Let us leave Bredach of the green corn fields,
    We have sung of some of its inheritors, p.233
    Let us make our way up into sweet Bac 625,
    Quick grows its fruit as I hear.
  105. The full chieftainship of O'Lachtna 626,
    (Just his boast and ostentation),
    Comprises the two Bacs and the fair Glenn 627
    Rich methinks its production.
  106. Ard Achadh 628 of delightful woods,
    Cill Belad 629, seat of the poets, p.235
    Belongs to O'Maoilruain 630, who refused not any one,
    Who marches with the wings of the army.
  107. Of Baile Ui Emeachain 631 the great
    Is O'h-Emeachain, who obtained respect,
    A victorious Brughaidh without oppression.
    Hosts to his mansion come.
  108. O'Laechaille 632, a hero without misfortune,
    A Brughaidh who was wont to feed the ravens,
    Is lord of Magh Fuara 633 of banquets,
    A comely hero who was never dispraised.
  109. Of Lis Cumin 634 of the white corn-fields
    Are the O'Cumins 635, a brave tribe;
    Brughaidhs who acted treacherously to no people;
    And worthy of his rank is the head of the family.
  110. Mac Conlena 636 of ancient swords,
    The O'Dubhagains 637 of good men
    Were of Cill Mor Muaidhe 638 of the plains,
    A troop hardy in giving succour.
  111.  p.237
  112. The O'Airmeadhaighs 639 of swift steeds,
    The O'Ronains 640, who received respect,
    Were of Magh Broin 641 of scarlet hazles;
    The praise-worthy host were not few;
  113. The Clann Firbisigh 642 also, who reported no fault,
    The ollamhs of the province of Connaught;
    They were at Rosseirc afterwards;
    It would not be proper to conceal their lineage.
  114. Across the lake westwards should I sail 643,
    I need not go a longer journey; p.239
    It is not a short excursion on the water
    To reach the prosperous Glenn Nemthinne.
  115. The O'Mailfhinas 644 who refused not any one,
    The O'Gaibhtheachains 645 of the sharp spears,
    Distributing lances to the troop,
    Were the two chiefs of the plain of Calraighe 646,
  116. Over Magh Eleag 647 of high prosperity,
    As a brave and hundred-cattled 648 Brughaidh
    Is O'Floinn 649, the manly champion,
    Under whom a fair-faced race have risen.
  117.  p.241
  118. The O'Flannghailes, 650 who reported no fault
    A people of most universal bravery,
    Dwell round Loch Glinne 651 of hospitable men,
    Youth with whom valour is a hostage.
  119. I have composed, — it is cause of knowledge, —
    According to the genealogical ramifications,
    An account of the tribes of the country beyond the Moy,
    For the poets of the plain of Manann 652.
    Even as the yoke is due to [borne by] the clergy. 653
    According to each book I speak.
  120. I shall advance after my journey thither,
    With a small brave company,
    Who are not inexpert at the time of shooting,
    Across the Muaidh 654 of speckled salmons.
  121.  p.243
  122. Throughout the region over which I have passed,
    I will name for you, — it is true knowledge, —
    Quickly from the fair bright branches,
    The genealogy of the discreet tribes.
  123. Tuaim da Bodhar 655 which won the wagers,
    Is the limit of this country I describe,
    Ath Cunga 656 is its other limit;
    The inhabitants are supporters of our bards.
  124. There was a chief at another time
    In this territory over the race of Laeghaire 657,
    O'h-Eignigh 658, who was head over all,
    No power oppressed the hero.
  125. The O'Gealagans 659, men of banquets,
    Dwelt in Grainseach 660 of bright rivers,
    Cill Ichtair 661 is their land,
    Bright soil in which sermons are sown.
  126. Imleach Loisce 662 is the inheritance
    Of the O'h-Endas 663 of heavy crowds,
    From their forts did burst the shouts;
    They were fine septs of brughaidhs.
  127.  p.245
  128. The O'Mongans 664, who were not peniurious to the clergy,
    The O'Brogans 665, who deserved no reproach,
    Swords were befitting their troops,
    Two families of brughaidhs of the plain of Breachmhagh 666.
  129. From Bel Atha Cunga 667 the hard,
    The lands westwards to the old river Muaidh 668,
    Belong to O'Cuinn 669 and O'Moran 670 the swift,
    Who deserved the great esteem of the soldiers.
  130. After O'h-Eignigh of the steeds
    O'Moran goes triumphantly
    To Ard na Riagh 671, hospitable the man,
    To tend the learned and the banquets.
  131. For O'Moran, who was accustomed to battles
    In the place of the other arch-chieftain,
    We have allotted Ard na Riagh,
    A hero by whom our mind was raised.
  132. Let us leave the race of puissant Laeghaire,
    Let us traverse the roads before us,
    Over Tuaim da bhodhar; sweetly
    Let us boast of the host by praising them.
  133.  p.247
  134. Into Callraidhe of Cuil 672 na g-cneadh,
    I shall proceed to describe it,
    Cuil Cernogha of the knotty hazles,
    Not unhappy are those in whom it is hereditary.
  135. Four chieftains are in this upper country,
    In Callraidhe of beautiful fruit-trees,
    A festive party who have entered into our catalogue,
    It is proper to name the noble youths.
  136. Ma Cuinn 673 and O'Rothlainn 674 the ready,
    O'h-Iarnain675 of dreadful arms,
    Who injures the choicest of the foreigners,
    And O'Finain 676, a great sheltering tree.
  137. [From Bel Easa 677 of the clear cataracts,
    The extent of the country which was not oppressed,
    To the Brosnach 678 of impetuous current, p.249
    Which defends the head of Calraighe 679].
  138. O'Caomhain 680, — it is cause of gain, — obtained
    The tract from Tuaim da Bhodhar 681 of flowery hills
    (His tribe are best when acting by their own will),
    To Gleoir 682, the head of the tribe 683.
  139. Mac Cailleachain 684 of valorous feats,
    A hero who fled not from foreign javelins
    Is chief of Carn 685, whose fame he defended
    By the valour of his arms and conflict.
  140. O'Coitil of the naked weapons got
    Baile Ui Choitil 686 by his valour,
    A Brughaidh like him there exists not,
    Clay is not fit before him 687.
  141. To O'Mochaine of the sweet mouth
    Belongs Baile Ui Mhochaine 688, I boast,
    Hosts have consumed his cattle,
    The goodness of O'Mochaine is exalted.
  142.  p.251
  143. Muc Dubh 689 and the flowery Beartrach 690
    O'Floinn 691 obtained, it is cause of wealth,
    A hero not weak to be opposed,
    The flowery Brughaidh of Beartrach.
  144. O'h-Imhair 692, who was not penurious to the clergy,
    Is of Leacan 693 of the smooth-sodded land,
    A man worthy of every man,
    The melodious yellow-haired chieftain.
  145. Mullach Ratha 694 of the fair roads,
    O'Loingseachain 695 of the slender swords obtained
    A soil like the fair soil of Meath throughout
    The land of a sept of the Hy-Fiachrach.
  146. O'Spelan 696 of the golden spurs obtained
    Coillin 697 Aedha at the time of the meeting,
    His host cannot be watched,
    Pity to mention him as possessing only a half townland.
  147.  p.253
  148. Rath Berchan 698 of flowery woods
    Is a land in which wine banquets are found,
    O'Fualairg 699 obtained the banquets of that soil,
    By whom warlike Cera was sore plundered.
  149. Cill Fainnle 700 of the soft crops
    Is O'Breslens 701 who experienced envy,
    His people are without oppression or detriment,
    With whom the happiness of the Ollamhs was best.
  150. The victorious O'Connachtan's 702 portion
    Of the wide famous plain, —
    Each hazel is rich from the hero 703, —
    Is the beautiful land of Cabrach 704.
  151. At one time, by force,
    A sept of the regal lineage,
    The Clann Neill 705, seized upon the land of these men;
    Not feeble from the heroes was their reckoning. 706
  152. They met each other without blemish,
    The Clann Neill of expert lances
    And the brave Clann Caemhain
    Of the slender-white warlike spear-shafts.
  153.  p.255
  154. Muircheartach Mac Neill 707 is slain
    And O'Caemhain of the smooth skin,
    In a contest for this southern tract,
    By these tribes, the best I have mentioned.
  155. Then mightily entered on the land
    The Clann Caemhain of sharp spears,
    Beyond the strength of the other sept,
    By strength of charter 708 and conflict.
  156. O'Caomhain of the green swords obtained
    Sais Sgrebhainn 709 of the bright streams,
    A flowery land bright-sided as the wave,
    Fort of the splendid lime-doors 710.
    As the mansion seat of his race
    The hazel-yellowest field I sing of.
  157. From Gleoir, which was not won by foreign javelins,
    To Iasca 711 of the land of the white-blossomed apple trees,
    Belongs to the O'Mailduins 712 of high renown,
    Scions who respect the ollamh.
  158. O'Ruarach 713 of the rapid onsets got
    Lia Con 714, the support of the strangers, p.257
    For all its produce is abundant,
    Which is the best cause for praising it.
  159. I have brought, — brave the hero, —
    O'Feinneadha 715, the soldier,
    To Finghid 716, the plain of the battles,
    From which the bards depart not displeased.
  160. After the extermination of O'Feinneadha there,
    O'Flannghaile 717 obtained the land,
    A smooth soil, not rugged for tillage 718,
    Like the smooth-mounded land of Cruachan.
  161. Imleach Isil 719 of the smooth grass
    Belongs to O'Mailduin, as I certify,
    A mede-abounding seat by sea and land,
    So that I love the surface of the land.
  162. To Muirsce 720 let us go after it,
    From the Iasca of the salmon-abounding soil
    The O'Conbhuidhes 721 are the head of the tribe,
    Powerful is the host protecting us.
  163.  p.259
  164. O'Luachain 722 of the thin sword-blade.
    Over all is the active head
    At Ros Laegh 723 of the fair smooth shafts,
    A noble clan who sustained each conflict.
  165. Cluain na g-cliabhach 724 of the smooth hazles,
    Alt Fharannain 725, the miraculous,
    Belong to O'Rothlain 726, not penurious of cattle,
    Who freely distributes the cattle of his enemies.
  166. Over Dun Mailduibh 727 of the flowery seats,
    As a brave and affluent Brughaidh,
    Is O'Duibhscuile 728, beautiful his stud,
    The Earl of all the Brughaidhs 729!
  167. O'Beollain 730, who refused no man, obtained p.261
    Dun Ultain 731 of the deep river mouth 732,
    The Brughaidh who is mentioned by us
    Is a brave hero, whom I trust.
  168. His name from the fair townland he has received
    A Brughaidh of fair and strong rath (fort),
    Mac Gillachais 733 of the smooth hazels,
    Who never slunk back from the conflict.
  169. Of Dun m-Becin 734 of the white edifices
    Are the Mag Eoghains 735 and the Clann Cuanan,
    Two Brughaidhs in the happy rath 736
    On the flowery, constantly festive hill.
  170. O'Discin 737, who refused not the learned, got
    The townland from him called, entirely
    The land is named from the man
    For whom the fair-skinned hazel grows fair and large.
  171. O'Conbhuidhe 738, who is dear to us, obtained
    A wide and beauteous land, p.263
    Dun Neill 739, soil of bright aspect,
    It is plain in our rule before us.
  172. Let us pass from the mede-abounding Muirsci 740
    To Borrach 741 the flowery, arborous,
    There is no misfortune over the land of the man,
    O'Murchadha 742 is its lordly chieftain.
  173. O'Suidhlearga 743, O'Cuain 744 the comely,
    O'Dunchadha 745, who enjoyed delight,
    Dun Ui Chobhthaigh 746 is the land of the men
    With whom a stand of noble spears is placed.
  174. O'Colman 747 has a brave share obtained,
    Grainseach Mor 748, the seat of Patrick,
    Of Grainseach Beag 749, victorious the spot,
    O'Fuala 750 has liberty in the land.
  175.  p.265
  176. O'Ceallaigh of smooth lances obtained
    Ard O'g-Ceallaigh 751 with triumph,
    He transmitted the valour of the tribe to his posterity,
    A plain like Meath is under his stewards.
  177. O'Loingsigh 752 of large blades
    Is at Corcach 753 without a rival,
    Hosts protect the hero,
    The lawful heir of Corcach.
  178. Dun Floinn 754, which none durst invade,
    O'Murchadha 755 of the smooth plain obtained,
    A white-wattled edifice 756 of noble polish,
    Habitation of the sweet-scented branches.
  179. From Borrach 757, which was not wounded by a satire 758
    Let us proceed to the strand 759 without reproach, p.267
    To await them at the cave of the land,
    O'Muirgheasa 760, whom I praise, obtained it.
  180. O'Sinna 761 of the successful spears
    Obtained Lathrach 762 as his full choice,
    It is nobler than the old land of Sodhan 763,
    A fresh land of fruitful produce.
  181. Let us pass, may it be a felicitous tour,
    To the habitation of the Patron,
    To a people to whom honour and tribute have submitted,
    Let us pass to the habitation of St. Adamnan 764.
  182. A tribe which ought to be recorded
    In Scrin 765 is their mighty roll [charter], p.269
    I shall not omit a representative of the people;
    Five brave men of the cluster are these that follow.
  183. Mag Rodan 766, O'h-Oilmic 767, are there,
    Mac Concathrach 768 of friends,
    O'Snedarna 769, to whom valour gave a hostage,
    A mightly representative clinging to an inheritance;
    Their deed and their valour are praised,
    Of them are the prosperous O'Rabhartaighs 770.
  184. Cluain Ui Chosgraidh 771 of the smooth hazels,
    A land not won by the strangers,
    O'Baethghaile 772 obtained that land
    By whom the meetings of foreigners were stained.
  185. The Mac Gilli Finns 773 of sharp weapons,
    A sept who used to supply food to the ravens 774,
    Are in Leamhach 775, and in poetical books 776,
    A noble comely-faced people.
  186.  p.271
  187. The Mac Gilli Bricins 777 without reproach,
    A tribe of brave career
    At Ard na n-glass 778, comely the race,
    Tribes have heard it universally.
  188. Mac Gillimir 779, who refused not the learned,
    Obtained Finnabhair 780 of the fair plains,
    A Brughaidh who opposed hundreds,
    Who exalted the hill of Tuathal 781.
  189. Mac Gilli Riabhaigh 782 with prosperity,
    Is of Crichan 783 of the swift hounds,
    Great his mirth and his mind
    On the lands of his lord.
  190. Muine na Fede 784 of banquets
    Belongs to O'Liathain 785 of high mind,
    A man who is brave in wounding conflicts,
    Whose house is a residence for poets.
  191. Of Cuil Cille Bricin 786 without bondage,
    A land which enemies have not seen, p.273
    Mac Conluain 787 is mentioned by us
    Who bravely went beyond emulation.
  192. Lis na Remur 788 of hot roads,
    A land of beautiful water,
    Mac Gilli Bhain 789 obtained the land,
    Who vigorously entered the conflict.
  193. O'Duinchinn 790 of just condition,
    A brughaidh who feeds the strangers,
    Doire na n-Ath 791 is the land of his men
    On which every fair-nutted hazel is constantly found.
  194. Ton re go 792, where the wave is fruitful,
    Land of sloes and apples,
    Belongs to O'h-Aodha 793 who refused not the literati,
    Branches whose triumph is not concealed.
  195. There are upon the land which I have praised
    Two chiefs of powerful sway,
    Whose feats have protected many,
    O'Maenaigh 794 and O'Muirgheasa 795.
  196.  p.275
  197. Lis Ladhghaill 796, where the branch is purple,
    The youth O'Muirghesa obtained
    The head seat of the eastern district,
    Where the corn-fields are quick of growth.
  198. O'Dunchadha 797 of the learned men obtained,
    As far as the beauteous stream of salmons 798,
    Every book that speaks to us,
    As it behoveth advantage I mention.
  199. Let us pass into Cairbre of the battles,
    Let us leave this soil of the Hy-Fiachrach,
    Let us speak quickly of every side,
    Let us give each district to its chieftain.
  200. Let us speak quietly of their kings,
    Of the O'Mailcluithis 799 of the becoming deeds,
    Of the plunders from the Hy-Niall in the east,
    To the heroes of Cairbre belong these acquisitions.
  201. O'Scannail 800 of the sweet mouth obtained,
    By sway of the land we mention, p.277
    A smooth land of most extensive tillage,
    Of the green land of Beinn Gulban 801.
  202. Of Callraidhe Laithim 802 of the swords
    O'Nuadhan 803 obtained the land,
    A droppy, sandy, fine land,
    An angelic pure place of meetings.
  203. O'Ciardha 804 obtained heavy profit
    Of the land of Cairbre, I conceal it not,
    For O'Ciardha of the yellow crops
    The fragrant tree was not slow in bearing.
  204. Of the dividend of the Hy-Fiachrach themselves
    Is the land of Cairbre of the level plains, p.279
    But of the Hy-Neill is the lineage of the men 805,
    Easy for poets to enumerate them.
  205. Though noble the race of the men,
    The Clann Cairbre of the flowery white mansions,
    Are under the steward of the western people 806,
    Noble are their people from this high submission.
  206. From the Rodhba807 of prosperous course
    I have bravely pursued my career,
    To the Codhnach of winding current,
    Which serves the bovine crop 808.
  207. Let us now return back
    To the kings of the Rath Durlais 809,
    To afford knowledge to the race
    By the bright clear guide of genealogy.
  208. The place of the banquet 810 in each powerful territory
    I shall name for the tribes of the smooth sod, p.281
    Prominent in the line of each book
    Is this tribe, the best to strangers.
  209. Oileach of the kings 811 west of the wave,
    Dumha Caechain 812, as I sing,
    Prodigious the shadow of their corn-fields,
    Two beautiful forts over estuaries 813.
  210. After my return from the cold Irrus
    I shall name the habitation of the great hosts,
    Dun Fine 814 of the spear-armed troops
    Belongs to a tribe of numerous families.
  211. Raith Branduibh 815 of the track of prosperity,
    The noble mansion of the arch-chieftain,
    Is the mansion seat of Conn's descendant 816,
    A field where the fruit pods are yellow-bearded.
  212. Loch Deala 817 not scarce of bushes,
    Inis Cua 818 of the fair-spotted trouts. p.283
    Are two other mansions of the tribe
    Who gave not strait refusal to strangers.
  213. Eanach Dubhain of the rapid ships 819
    Is a banquetting place of the fair tribes,
    A very bright fort is mentioned here,
    District of sloes and apples.
  214. Dun mic Conchobhair 820 of plunders,
    A mansion in which no false sentence was passed,
    Ichtar Ratha 821 at which the sea is smooth,
    With a prosperous griffin of the princes.
  215. Dun Contreathan 822 of the frothy waves,
    A mansion in which winy banquets are found,
    Is the banqueting hall of the plundering descendant of Conn,
    On the green of the wide-sodded land.
  216. The two Draighneachs 823 of red colour,
    The wide mansion of the Hy-Fiachrach, p.285
    Bun Fhinne 824 is another habitation,
    A white wattled pile of hosts.
  217. Let us proceed, — may it be a prosperous journey, —
    After giving the genealogical ramifications,
    To the lord of Durlas 825, with whom I am great,
    From the host who have ornamented us.
  218. I will obtain, as has each man,
    The fruits, by God's permission,
    Of having praised all his country,
    Fruits worthy of Conn and Conaire 826.
  219. In the time of Tadhg, who refused not a man,
    O'Dubhda, who received obeisance,
    Than the kernels of the fragrant hazel nuts,
    Not larger were the apples of the apple trees 827.
  220.  p.287
  221. In thy time the floods have decreased 828,
    O white-fingered tower of Maenmagh 829,
    Every person by thy side is of heavy prosperity,
    Under thy steward in the land of Hy-Fiachrach.
  222. Fertility has come in the land
    In thy time, O ruddy face of brown eye-brows,
    As thou hast brought down every moistening shower 830,
    Thou hast given milk to our milch-cows.
  223. O son of Domhnall 831 of Dun Guaire 832,
    Oft have we been relieved from distress
    By the rent of Ceara to us distributed,
    Which the trees and the soil confessed. 833
  224. Oft is carried from thy palace,
    In the company of poets and saints,
    Cattle from the fort near Leamhach 834
    By the fraternity of the arborous Buill 835,
  225.  p.289
  226. To Cruachan 836 of the purple-berried trees
    Proceed in the track of thy ancestors,
    Pass thy time in the fort of Meadhbh 837,
    Remove from that fort its dejection 838.
  227. Every band of the literati that comes to the north,
    Whom thou invitest westwards across the old Muaidh,
    Brings a pledge from Ara of the plain of Murbhach 839
    To the beauteous Tir Amhalgaidh 840.
  228. Forsake not for Cruachan of the race of Conn,
    The plain of the Muaidh of the defensive forts,
    It would be a shame to neglect the cultivation of its fair plain
    While caring the plain of Cruachan.
  229. Though delightful is Cruachan of the plains,
    And Ceara 841 of the full-grown bushes,
    It is better to dwell in the western land,
    The level soil of Maicnia's plain 842.
  230.  p.291
  231. The fort of Durlas 843 of lasting fame
    Forsake not for the plain of Cruachan,
    The white-sheeted fort of soft trees
    Habitation of poets and bishops.
  232. To Durlas shouldst thou desire to go
    O son of Domhnall of the fort of Gailian 844,
    Pursue the example of the kings before thee,
    O griffin of the battle-fort of Conaire. 845
  233. There will be around thee rising out
    The chieftains of this land of Hy-Fiachrach,
    And the lord of this yonder country
    With whom thou mayest march into the land of strangers.
  234. To be alone is not hereditary to thee,
    O O'Dubhda of the fort of Cormac 846!
    Thy people have satin under thy medes,
    A host the most ripe for poets.
  235. The chiefs of Ceara under thy bright aspect,
    The host of Irrus to urge the conflict,
    The Hy-Amhalgaidh, host of lances,
    Of the great Milesian Gamanradii 847.
  236.  p.293
  237. Should a host of strangers meet thee
    To contend for this island of Patrick's city 848,
    That host would not recognize each other
    After encountering thee in battle.
  238. O son of Domhnall of the fort of Conn 849,
    Thou art the heir of the daughter of Domhnall 850;
    The fame of the two Domhnalls 851 follow thee,
    Which will sustain thy blood in the conflict.
  239. Not more hereditary to thee is the plain of Muaidh,
    Than the land of the green-sided Tara,
    As is found by my school in their writings,
    And the region eastwards to the old Alps 852.
  240. The race of Fiachra when rising out
    Under this king of the land of Hy-Fiachrach,
    Are a host dreaded by every tribe,
    The kine of Cruachan are obtained by their chief men.
  241. Let them proceed, — may it be a felicitous journey, —
    To Cruachan of the Clann Conchobhair 853,
    His sway over Cruachan to enforce,
    In right of the heir of Tuathal Teachtmhar 854.
  242.  p.295
  243. He does not shrink from the spear of battle,
    The grandson of Brian 855 of splendid aspect,
    In the field at the hour of valour,
    The host who recognize him are timid.
  244. In imitation of the kings before him,
    O'Dubhda, hero of the fort of Laeghaire 856,
    Has his attention fixed on the house of Tuathal 857,
    And on every town round Cruachan of fair hazels.
  245. The palm for beauty has his brunette-face won,
    And eke for valour and submission,
    He has got besides these acquirements
    The gift of recognition and eloquence.
  246. Cause of exaltation of mind
    For this lord, that he has stoutly contested
    A new smooth angle of the calm sea
    Along the green Tir Amhalgaidh 858.
  247. The bards of the world will say
    To the heir of this land of saints,
    Sufficiently has he expended his wealth,
    It is great to exalt each goodness.
  248. The son of Domhnall of the fort of Meadhbh 859,
    A manly great-faced hero, p.297
    Has in profusion spent his wealth;
    That which is bestowed well is the most generously bestowed.
  249. Not more nobly do the learned of the race of Conn
    Panegyrize the good son of Domhnall,
    Than does the produce of the western country
    Praise that griffin of Gailian 860.
  250. Had not Fearfeasa 861 sung
    I would now sing the family tree
    For O'Dubhda, whose house is Tara,
    And his fair genealogical lineage.
  251. I have composed for this skin like the wave,
    For the just-judging heir of Domhnall,
    An account, of the constant inheritance of each man
    As far as the soft-feathered fort of Codhnach 862.
  252. A noble queen of the race of Conn,
    The white-toothed daughter of O'Donnell 863,
    Not small is the victory of the woman of Murbhach 864
    From the beauty she received from the ollamhs 865.
  253.  p.299
  254. The daughter of O'Donnell of Derry 866
    Is a branch of the regal lineage;
    The beauty of the women in the west under our chieftain
    Approach not the mien of Raghnailt.
  255. Many are the miracles of Mary 867,
    Mother of Jesus of the yellow hair 868,
    Who brought forth, without sorrow in her town;
    Great is her son in miracles.
  256. From the birth of Christ, who defended fame, i. e. character,
    Until this poem was proved,
    Are four hundred and one thousand fleeting years,
    Not false the age that is mentioned,
    And seventeen years 869 without obscurity;
    Not obscure is the select flock 870.

Here follow some of the chieftains of the O'Dubhdas, with the title which historical books give them, namely, the title of king, and though strange this appears at this day 871, it was not so then among the Gaels according to their own laws at that time, and according to other nations also. Behold before the coming of the children of Israel to the land of promise, how there were thirty kings together in that country, and it not more than two hundred miles in  p.301 length and fifty miles in breadth. This country was called the Land of Canaan from Canan, son of Cam, son of Noah, afterwards the Land of Promise, because God had promised it to Abraham and his seed; Israel after that, from the children of Israel; Judaea, from the Jews; Palestine, from the Philistines; and the Holy Land, from the work of our salvation having been effected in it, and the birth and crucifixion of Christ.

Understand that it is the Annals of the deaths of the chiefs that are written down here, as follows:

Anno Christi, 983. Aodh O'Dubhda 872, King of all North Connaught, died.

1005. Maolruanaidh 873 O'Dubhda, King of Hy-Fiachrach of Muirsge [died].

1096. Muircheartach O'Dubhda 874, King of Hy-Amhalgaidh, Hy-Fiachrach, and Ceara, was slain.

1126. Domhnall Fionn O'Dubhda 875, King of Hy-Amhalgaidh, Hy-Fiachrach, and Ceara, was drowned as he was carrying off a prey from Tirconnell.

1143. Aodh, son of Muircheartach O'Dubhda 876, King of Hy-Amhalgaidh, and the Northern Hy-Fiachrach [died].
Ruaidhri Mear 877, son of Taithleach, son of Niall O'Dubhda, was King of the country extending from the Roba to the Codhnach.


1162. Cosnamhaigh 878 O'Dubhda, heir apparent of Hy-Amhalgaidh, was slain.

1180. In this year departed Sadhbh 879, daughter of Muirgheas, son of Tadhg O'Maoilruanaidh, and the wife of Taithleach O'Dubhda, who possessed the country extending from the Robhba to the Codhnach 880.

1181. Cosnamhaigh, son of Cosnamhaigh 881 O'Dubhda, heir apparent of the Hy-Amhalgaidh, was slain.

1213. Donnchadh O'Dubhda 882 sailed with a fleet of fifty-six ships from the Insi Gall 883, and landed on Inis Raithin 884, one of the Insi Modh 885, in Umhall 886, and wrested his own land free of tribute from Cathal Croibhdhearg 887 O'Conor.

1242. Brian Dearg O'Dubhda 888, son of Donnchadh, King of Hy-Fiachrach, Hy-Amhalgaidh, and Iorrus, was slain.

1282. Taithleach, son of Maolruanaidh O'Dubhda 889 King of Hy-Fiachrach and Hy-Amhalgaidh, was slain.


1291. Conchobhar Conallach 890 O'Dubhda, lord of Hy-Fiachrach, was drowned in the Shannon.

1337. Donnchadh Mor O'Dubhda 891, heir apparent to the throne of Hy-Fiachrach, died.

1350. William O'Dubhda, Bishop of Killala 892, died.

1534. Brian O'Dubhda 893, King of Hy-Fiachrach and Hy-Amhalgaidh, died in his own house after having been eighty-four [recte fifty-four] years in the lordship.

1380. Domhnall Clereach 894, son of Brian O'Dubhda, King of Hy-Fiachrach and Hy-Amhalgaidh, died after a reign of thirty-six years.

1417. Ruaidhri 895, son of Domhnall Clereach O'Dubhda, King of Hy-Fiachrach and Hy-Amhalgaidh, died at Dun Neill after a reign of thirty seven years.

1432. Tadhg Riabhach 896 O'Dubhda, son of Domhnall Clereach King of Hy-Fiachrach, died at Esgir Abhann 897 after a reign of fifteen years. The daughter of O'Malley was the mother of the aforesaid Ruaidhri and Tadhg.


Maolruanaidh 898, son of Ruaidhri O'Dubhda, was lord of Tir Fiachrach for eighteen years. The daughter of Mac Costello was his mother. He was made O'Dubhda in the year 1432.

Domhnall of Baile Ui Choitil 899, was O'Dubhda for seven years, and was made O'Dubhda in the year 1447.

Tadhg Buidhe 900, son of Tadhg Riabhach, three years.

John Glas 901, his brother, fourteen years.

Edmond, son of Cosnamhach 902, half a year and five weeks.

Domhnall Ballach 903, one year.

Brian Cam, son of Cosnamhach, two years 904.

Eoghan Caoch 905, son of Ruaidhri, fourteen years.

William, son of Domhnall Ballach 906, half a year.

Brian Og 907, half a year.

Donnchadh Ultach 908 one year.

Maghnus, son of Tadhg Buidhe 909, one year.


Felim, son of Tadhg Buidhe 910, nineteen years.

Conchobhar, son of Diarmaid 911 , son of Maolruanaidh, thirty years.

Eoghan, son of Conchobhar 912, seven years.

Cathal Dubh, son of Conchobhar 913.

Here follows a list of the Kings of Connaught of the Clann Fiachrach; for though I have given them already 914, I wish to speak of them more fully here from the remains of other historians.

Fiachra, son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin 915, was twelve years in the government of Connaught. After his brother Brian had been slain by the Lagenians, Fiachra had served in his place as general of battle to their other brother, namely, Niall of the Nine Hostages, King of Ireland; Fiachra went to exact the rents of King Niall into Munster; and the Momonians fought the battle of Caonraighe 916 against Fiachra, in which battle he defeated them and took the hostages of Munster. Howbeit, Fiachra was wounded in that battle by Maighe Meascoradh, one of the Ernaans 917, and he returned with the hostages triumph for Tara; but the Munster hostages acted treacherously  p.311 towards him, having found him unprotected in his sickness, and they buried him alive in the earth in Hy-Mac Uais, in Bregia 918, and thus did he fall a victim!

Dathi, son of the aforesaid Fiachra 919, assumed the chief governent of Connaught and of Ireland, in Connaught, for a period of twenty-three years, when he was killed at the mountain of the Alps by a flash of lightning.

Amhalgaidh, son of Fiachra 920, son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin, the first of the Connaught kings who believed on the preaching of St. Patrick. Tir Amhalgaidh is named from him 921. He was thirty-two years in the government of Connaught when he died well.

Oilioll Molt 922, son of Dathi, son of Fiachra, was first, for twenty years in the kingdom of Connaught, and afterwards, twenty years more in the monarchy of Ireland. After this he was slain in the battle of Ocha, by Lughaidh, son of Laoghaire 923 , Muircheartach 924 mac Earca, Fergus Ceirrbheul, son of Conall Cremhthuinn 925, and Fiachra Lonn, King of Dal Araidhe 926.


Eoghan Beul, son of Ceallach, son of Oilioll Molt, was thirty years in the government of Connaught, when he fell in the battle of Sligeach 927 by Fergus and Domhnall  928, two sons of Muircheartach Mac Earca.

Oilioll Ianbhanna 929, or Anbhanna, son of Muireadhach, son of Eoghan Beul, son of Ceallach, son of Oilioll Molt, nine years, when he fell by Aodh, son of Eochaidh Tiormcharna, of the race of Brian, son of Eochaidh Minghmheadhoin.

Colman, son of Cobhthach 930, son of Goibhnenn, son of Conall, son of Eoghan, son of Eochaidh Breac, son of Dathi, was twenty-one years in the government of Connaught, when he fell in the battle of Ceann Bugha 931, by Raghallach, son of Uadach, son of Aodh.

Lairgneun, son of Colman 932, son of Cobhthach, was seven years in the government of Connaught when he fell.

Guaire Aidhne, son of Colman 933, son of Cobhthach, was thirteen  p.315 years in the government of Connaught when he died penitently, and was interred at Clonmacnoise with great honour and veneration.

Dunchadh Muirsge 934, son of Tiobraide, son of Maolduin (or Maoldubh), son of Fiachra Ealgach, son of Dathi, son of Fiachra, was four years in the government of Connaught, when he fell in the battle of Corann by Fergus, lord of Cinel Cairbre.

Feargal of Aidhne 935, son of Artghal, son of Guaire Aidhne, son of Colman, thirteen years, when he died.

Innreachtach, son of Dunchadh Muirsge 936, son of Tiobraide, was two years in the government of Connaught, when he fell by Feargal, son of Loingseach, lord of Cinel Conaill, and by Feargal, son of Maolduin, lord of Cinel Eoghain.

Oilioll, son of Innreachtach 937, son of Dunchadh Muirsge, was eight years in the government of Connaught when he died, after having spent a virtuous life.


Donncathaigh, son of Cathal 938, son of Oilioll, son of Dunchadh Muirsge, fifteen years, when he died.

Flaithri, son of Domhnall 939, of the race of Guaire, was four years in the government of Connaught, when he died penitently.

Another Flaithri 940 was two years in the government of Connaught, when he resigned his kingdom for God, and went to Hy-Columbkille to apply himself to devotion, where he died on his pilgrimage victorious over the world and the devil. [See pages 259, 260 [of Duald Mac Firbis's genealogical book].

[Of the Clann Fiachrach aforesaid 941, in ancient times, great was the prosperity of the kings and saints, as is obvious in this book, until strangers, and the Irish themselves 942, attacked them, according to the righteous decrees of God, who hurls down from their kingly thrones the proud monarchs, who exercise their tyrannical power; according to the old saying, “the right of every one is according to his strength,” by which they assume earthly glory and heavenly ingloriousness. An example of this is afforded by the ancestors of the Gaels, who were in ancient times at strife with their neighbours, when they took Alba from the Cruithni and the Britons 943, and who  p.319 were not satisfied with this, without invading many other countries, as did Niall of the Nine Hostages 944 and others, and also Dathi, son of Fiachra above mentioned, who invaded Alba, Britain, the country of the Gauls, i. e. France, &c., and as far as the mountain of the Alps 945, for his triumphs are obvious to us at this day, as also his death and burial, as Torna Eigeas 946, who lived in the time of Dathi, left written after him, and other learned men have, in successive ages, transmitted a memorial of the same. For it was Flann 947 and Eochaidh Eolach O'Cerin 948 that collected these things from the book of Eochaidh O'Flannagan 949, at Armagh, and from the book of the Monastery 950, and other choice books, such as the Yellow Book 951, which was missed out of the prison at Armagh, and from the Leabhar Gearr 952, which was at Mainister, and which the student carried with him by stealth over the sea, and was never discovered afterwards, &c.


I am Dubhaltach Mac Firbisigh, who transcribed these authorities from the hand-writing of Lughaidh O'Clery of the Contention 953. It is no doubt a worldly lesson to consider how the Gaels were at this time conquering the countries far and near 954, and that not one in a hundred of the Irish nobles, at this day, possesses as much of his land as he could be buried in 955, though they expect it in this year, 1664 956.

This is not the time or place of compiling this book, but this extract I have added some time after.]


3. Of the Welshmen of Hy-Amhalgaidh Mic Fiachrach

another extract here from the Books of the Clann Firbis

The Welshmen of Ireland were the Welsh White Knight 957, who was the brother of William Fionn 958 of Cill Comain 959, who was called William Mor na Maighne 960; Laighleisioch 961, Clann an Fhailghe 962; the Seoaigh 963, of the west of Connaught; the Clann Heil 964; the Mac Uighilins 965 of the Ruta; the Mac Bhaillseachs 966; the Baroideachs of Munster 967; Mac Bhaitin Baired 968, from whom are the Baireadachs of Tir Amhalgaidh; the Clann Toimin of  p.327 Iorrus 969; the Clann Aindriu of Bac 970; the Clann Ricin 971, who descend from Ricin Og, son of Ricin; Toimilin, from whom are the Clan Toimilin 972; Hosdegh, son of Membhric, from whom are the Clan Hosdegh 973.

It was at the time of the arrival of the English 974 in Ireland with  p.329 Diarmaid Mac Murchadha, King of Leinster, that the people aforesaid came to Ireland; they landed in Tir Amhalgaidh Mic Fiachrach now Tirawley, as did likewise some time after these four tribes, namely, Cisogachs 975, Petits 976, Brunachs 977, and Murachs 978, and these four tribes assayed to wrest the territory by force from the race of Fiachra; and another authority adds, that these tribes did wrest it from them.

William Fionn of Cill Comain (i. e. William Mor na Maighne) had been for a long time before this as a president over Tir Amhalgaidh guarding it. The natives of this territory remonstrated with this William about this oppression, and William sends letters to these strangers, telling them to desist from their evil deeds, and quit the country, or meet him in battle; the result was, that the great battle of Maighin 979now Moyne was fought between them, in which the strangers i. e. new invaders were defeated, and in which fell the Ciosogach with many of his people 980. Hence this William was called William Mor na Maighne. William afterwards attacks the place where a party of these strangers had a ward to defend the country, namely,  p.331 the great Court of Mileac of the lake 981. He took the court from them 982, drives them all from it, and then divides the territory between his own kinsmen; he gave to Mac Bhaitin Baired the court, and all the territory which his family have retained from that day till this, so that he, Mac Bhaitin, is chief and lord over them to this present time.

Another authority gives the name of William Mor Breathnach 983 to the William aforesaid, by whom fell Cusack 984 aforesaid, and states that when Caislen na Circe 985 was erected by this William Mor Breathnach na Maighne he divided the country among kinsmen of his tribe. He gave, first, Gleann Oisdegh 986 to Osdec Mac Meric 987 (or  p.333 Membric); Gleann Nemhthenne 988 to Ricin, and the Two Bacs 989 to Sir Maigiu 990 of Bac, from whom are the Clann Andrew Barrett. He gave the tract extending from Fearsad Tresi to Traigh Murbhaigh 991 to Sir William Lawless, i. e. the Lawless 992; and he committed the keeping and defence of the barony of Iorris [Erris] to Toimin and to Philip, or Philpin, the grandson of Toimin's brother, and of his race is Mac Philip, or Mac Philbin 993, and from him the Clann Philip, or Philbin, are descended; and it is not to be supposed that he is the Philbin who is traced to the Burkes. Sir William Lawless, son of Robert, son of William, son of Nicholas, was the name of the Lawless to whom William Mor na Maighne 994 gave this tract of land extending from Fearsad Tresi to Traigh Murbhaigh 995.

Envious and ignorant people have said between themselves that the Clann Mac Robert are of the race of Domhnall Iorruis O'Conor 996, but Mac Firbis, namely, James, son of Diarmaid 997, says that they are  p.335 not, but that Robert, their ancestor, was the grandson of William, the son of William Mor na Maighne, and their inheritance lies along the Daoil 998, in Tir Amhalgaidh.

Others say that this Clann Mac Robert, or Mac Herbert, is of the Herbeardachs (who are called Hearbardaigh), i. e. the Herberts of the county of Limerick.

From different fragments. The Carrunachs 999 came to Ireland with the descendants of William the Conqueror 1000 (understand Burk). The Lionoideachs 1001 came to Ireland with the descendants of the Red Earl 1002. Another authority says that the Carrunachs came with the descendants of William the Conqueror, and that they are of Saxon origin, while others say that they are of the race of Cathaoir Mor 1003, and that they came with the Red Earl.

Another authority. Of the nobles who came from the East [England] with the descendants of William the Conqueror were the following, viz., Philip Mor, the son of Sir Bernard Sdondun 1004 a quo Mac a Mhilidh 1005 of Ceara, Walter Fitz Robert, Sir David Dulpin 1006, Robert Baroid 1007, Sir William Carrun. It is right to observe, that as there are Burc, Baired, and Carrun, in Connaught; there are Burc, Baroid, and Carrun, in Munster.

The cause of the coming of the Burkes to take possession of  p.337 lands in Tir Amhalgaidh. At one time when the Barretts had supremacy over Tir Amhalgaidh (as we have said), they sent their steward, who was called Sgornach bhuid bhearrtha1008, to exact rents from the Lynotts. The Lynotts killed this steward, and cast his body into a well called Tobar na Sgornaighe 1009, near Garranard, to the west of the castle of Carns 1010 in Tir Amhalgaidh. When the Barretts had received intelligence of this, they assembled their armed forces and attacked the Lynotts, and subdued them. And the Barretts gave the Lynotts their choice of two modes of punishment, namely, to have their men either blinded or emasculated; and the Lynotts, by advice of some of the elders among them, took the choice of being blinded, because blind men could propagate their species, whereas emasculated men could not. The Barretts then thrust needles into the eyes of the Lynotts, and accordingly as each man of them was blinded, they compelled him to cross over the stepping-stones of Clochan na n-dall, near Carns 1011, to see if more or less of sight remained with them, and if any of them crossed the Clochan without stumbling he was taken back and re-blinded! Some time after this the Lynotts meditated how they could revenge their animosities on the Barretts, and the contrivance which occurred to their minds, — one derived from their ancestors 1012, — was to procure a dalta1013 [i. e. an adopted son], from some powerful man of the Clann William Burke, who, previously to this period, had inhabited to the south of the mountain [Nephin]; or were seated in the territory lying southwards of the mountain and to this end Lynott fed a spirited horse which the Lynotts took with them to receive the adopted son, in order  p.339 that the Burke who should break that steed might be their adopted son. And thus they obtained Teaboid Maol Burke as an adopted son, who was afterwards killed by the Barretts 1014. So that it was in eric for him that the Barretts gave up to the Burkes eighteen quarters of land 1015; and the share which Lynott, the adopted father of Teaboid, asked of this eric was the distribution of the mulct, and the distribution he made of it was, that it should be divided throughout all Tir Amhalgaidh, in order that the Burkes might be stationed in every part of it as plagues to the Barretts, and to draw the country from them. And thus the Burkes came over the Barretts in Tir Amhalgaidh, and took nearly the whole of their lands from them; but at length the Saxon heretics of Oliver Cromwell took it from them all, in the year of our Lord 1652; so that now there is neither Barrett nor Burke, not to mention the Clann Fiachrach, in possession of any lands there.

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Title (uniform): The Genealogies, Tribes, and Customs of Hy-Fiachrach, commonly called O'Dowda's Country

Author: Duald Mac Firbis

Editor: John O'Donovan

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Electronic edition compiled by: Beatrix Färber

Proof corrections by: Janet Crawford and Beatrix Färber

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1. First draft.

Extent: 163150 words

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Publisher: CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts: a project of University College, Cork

Address: College Road, Cork, Ireland — http://www.ucc.ie/celt

Date: 2014

Distributor: CELT online at University College, Cork, Ireland.

CELT document ID: T105010

Availability: Available with prior consent of the CELT programme for purposes of academic research and teaching only.

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Manuscript Sources

  1. Dublin, Royal Irish Academy MS 535, olim 23 P 2 olim Book of Lecan. For further details see Kathleen Mulchrone, T. F. O'Rahilly et al. (eds.), Catalogue of Irish Manuscripts in the Royal Irish Academy (Dublin 1926–70) fasc. 13, 1551–1610. This vellum MS was complied for Giolla Iosa Mór Mhic Fhir Bhisigh before his death in A.D. 1418. Digital images of the Book of Lecan can be viewed on the website of the ISOS Project (http://www.isos.dias.ie/english/index.html).
  2. Earl of Roden's Library (i. e. Robert Jocelyn (1788–1870) third earl of Roden).
  3. RIA MS 23 P 2, (The Book of Lecan), is available in digitized form on ISOS.

Internet resources

  • The printed text on which this edition is based is available at http://www. archive.org.


  • See under 'The edition used in the digital edition'.

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  39. Kathleen Mulchrone, Caithréim Cellaig, Medieval and Modern Irish Series, vol. 4 (Dublin: DIAS 1933).
  40. R. I. Best, The Yellow Book of Lecan, Journal of Celtic Studies 1/2 (1950) 190–192.
  41. Polydore Vergil, The Anglica historia of Polydore Vergil, A.D. 1485–1537: edited, with a translation by Denys Hays (London 1950).
  42. Hans P. A. Oskamp, The 'Yellow Book of Lecan' proper', Ériu, 26 (1975) 102–121.
  43. William O'Sullivan, Ciothruadh's Yellow Book of Lecan, Éigse, 18 (1980–81), 177–181.
  44. Sarah Sanderlin, The manuscripts of the Annals of Clonmacnoise, PRIA (C), 82 (1982), 111–123.
  45. Kathryn Grabowski and David N. Dumville, Chronicles and annals of medieval Ireland and Wales: the Clonmacnoise group of texts (Woodbridge 1984).
  46. Nollaig Ó Muraíle, The celebrated antiquary Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh (c.1600–71): his lineage life and learning (Maynooth 1996, revised reprint Maynooth 2002).
  47. David Edwards, (ed), Regions and rulers in Ireland, 1100–1650: Essays for Kenneth Nicholls (Dublin 2004).
  48. Pádraig Ó Riain, A dictionary of Irish Saints (Dublin 2011).

Literature: History, Genealogy and medieval society in Ireland

  1. Roderic O'Flaherty, A chorographical description of West or h-Iar Connaught, written A.D. 1684; ed. J. Hardiman (Dublin 1846).
  2. Roderic O'Flaherty, Ogygia seu, Rerum Hibernicarum chronologia: Ex pervetustis monumentis fideliter inter se collatis eruta, atque e sacris ac prophanis literis primarum orbis gentium tam genealogicis, quam chronologicis sufflaminata praesidiis. (...) (London 1685). (An English translation by the Reverend James Hely was published in Dublin 1793).
  3. John O'Donovan ed. and tr., 'The circuit of Muircheartach mac Neill', in Tracts relating to Ireland i (Dublin 1841).
  4. Eoin Mac Neill (=John Mac Neill), 'Early Irish population-groups: their nomenclature, classification, and chronology', Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (C), 29, (1911–12) 59–114. (Available on CELT.)
  5. Toirdhealbhach Ó Raithbheartaigh (ed), Genealogical tracts: being a collection of excerpts in the Book of Lecan (Dublin 1932).
  6. Lambert McKenna (ed), Iomarbhágh na bhFileadh (The Contention of the Bards), 2 vols. (20/21) (London: Irish Text Society 1918).
  7. T. F. O'Rahilly, Early Irish History and Mythology (Dublin 1946).
  8. John V. Kelleher, 'The pre-Norman Irish genealogies', Irish Historical Studies 16 (1968) 138–153.
  9. Francis John Byrne, Tribes and tribalism in early Ireland, Ériu 22 (1971) 128–166.
  10. Gearóid Mac Niocaill, Ireland before the Vikings (Dublin 1972).
  11. Donnchadh Ó Corráin, Ireland before the Normans (Dublin and London 1972).
  12. Kenneth W. Nicholls, Gaelic and gaelicised Ireland in the Middle Ages (Dublin 1972, new edition 2003).
  13. Kenneth W. Nicholls, The Irish genealogies: their value and defects, Irish Genealogist 5/2 (1975).
  14. Michael O'Brien (ed), Corpus genealogiarum Hiberniae, reprinted Dublin 1986.
  15. Francis John Byrne, Irish kings and high-kings (New York 1973, second edition Dublin 2001).
  16. Francis John Byrne, 'Senchas: the nature of Gaelic historical tradition', in John Barry (ed), Historical Studies 9 (Belfast 1974), 137–159.
  17. David N. Dumville, 'Kingship, genealogies, and regnal lists', in: P. H. Sawyer & I. N. Wood (eds.), Early medieval kingship (Leeds 1977) 72–104.
  18. Donnchadh Ó Corráin, An chléir agus leann dúchais anallód: an ginealas, Léachtaí Cholm Cille 16 (1986) 71–86.
  19. John Bradley (ed), Settlement and society in medieval Ireland: studies presented to F. X. Martin (Dublin 1988).
  20. Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, Early medieval Ireland: 400–1200 (Dublin 1995).
  21. Gerard Moran and Raymond Gillespie (eds.), Galway history and society: interdisciplinary essays on the history of an Irish county (Dublin 1996).
  22. Donnchadh Ó Corráin, 'Creating the past: the early Irish genealogical tradition', Peritia 12 (1998) 177–208.
  23. Alfred P. Smyth (ed), Seanchas: studies in early and medieval Irish archaeology, history and literature in honour of Francis J. Byrne (Dublin 2000).
  24. Patrick J. Duffy, David Edwards, and Elizabeth FitzPatrick (eds.), Gaelic Ireland, c.1250–c.1650: land, lordship, and settlement (Dublin 2001).
  25. Donnchadh Ó Corráin, 'Prehistoric and Early Christian Ireland', in Roy Foster (ed), The Oxford Illustrated History of Ireland (Oxford 2001) 1–52.
  26. Nollaig Ó Muraíle (ed and trans), The great book of Irish genealogies, compiled (1645-66) by Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh. 5 vols. (Dublin 2003).
  27. Paul MacCotter, Medieval Ireland: territorial, political and economic divisions (Dublin 2008).
  28. Trinity College Library, MS 1440, Historia et Genealogia Familiae de Burgo. Edited by Tomás Ó Raghallaigh, Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society 13 (1926–1927)

Literature: John O'Donovan and the Ordnance Survey

  1. H. Richardson (ed.), Ordnance survey memoirs for the parishes of Desertmartin and Kilcronaghan 1836–1837 (Magherafelt 1986).
  2. Michael Herity (ed.), Ordnance Survey letters: letters containing information relative to antiquities collected during the progress of the Ordnance Survey [by John O'Donovan, Eugene Curry, Thomas O'Connor, Patrick O'Keeffe and others], with an Introduction and prefatory matter (Dublin 2001-).
  3. Gillian M. Doherty, The Irish Ordnance Survey: History, Culture and Memory. Dublin 2004.

The edition used in the digital edition

O’Donovan, John, ed. (1844). The Genealogies, Tribes and Customs of Hy Fiachrach, commonly called O’Dowda’s Country. Now first published from the Book of Lecan, in the Library from the Royal Irish Aademy, and from the genealogical manuscripts of Duald Mac Firbis, in the library of Lord Roden; with a translation and notes, and a map of Hy-Fiachrach‍. 1st ed. , UNKNOWN = measure. Dublin: Irish Archaeological Society.

You can add this reference to your bibliographic database by copying or downloading the following:

  title 	 = {The Genealogies, Tribes and Customs of Hy Fiachrach, commonly called O'Dowda's Country. Now first published from the Book of Lecan, in the Library from the Royal Irish Aademy, and from the genealogical manuscripts of Duald Mac Firbis, in the library of Lord Roden; with a translation and notes, and a map of Hy-Fiachrach},
  editor 	 = {John O'Donovan},
  edition 	 = {1},
  note 	 = {
  UNKNOWN 	 = {measure}
  publisher 	 = {Irish Archaeological Society},
  address 	 = {Dublin},
  date 	 = {1844}


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Creation: c.1645–c.1666 [Irish text, based on older material]

Date: 1844 [translation]

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  • Introduction, translation and footnotes are in English. (en)
  • Some words are in (Middle ) Irish. (ga)
  • Some words in the notes are in Latin. (la)
  • Some words in the notes are in French. (fr)
  • A few words in the Introduction and notes are in Greek. (gr)

Keywords: genealogy; prose; poetry; medieval; Connacht; Tirawley; Tireragh; Dubhaltach Mac Firbishigh (Duald Mac Firbis); Book of Lecan; Pedigree: D'Arcy of Galway; Pedigree: O' Saughnessy; Pedigree: Scanlan; Pedigree: Clann Firbis of Lecan; Pedigree: O'Clery; Pedigree: Hy-Fiachrach of the Moy; Pedigree: O'Caomhain; Pedigree: O'Dowd; translation

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 p.341 p.342 p.343

1. Addenda: A

Pedigree of O'Dowd, or O'Dowda

The large Genealogical Table, which will be found at the end of this volume, exhibits the descent of the principal families of the Hy-Fiachrach race in the order of their seniority, as far as that has been discovered, from their great ancestor FIACHRA, the son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin, who was the sixth from Conn of the Hundred Battles, to as late a period as the Editor has been able to trace them by the evidence of authentic genealogical manuscripts, the Irish Annals, the English-Irish records, and family documents. As in the pedigrees of the Hy-Many race, it has been thought advisable to place all the principal lines in one view, on a single sheet, that it might be afterwards referred to in the account which will be given of each line separately.

1. Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin (pronounced Eochy Moyvane), King of Connaught, was proclaimed monarch of Ireland in the year 358, and, after a reign of eight years, died at Tara. He married Mongfinn, daughter of Fidach, of the royal family of Munster, and sister of Crimhthann Mor Mac Fidaigh, who succeeded Eochaidh as monarch of Ireland, according to the Four Masters, in the year 366. — (See Battle of Magh Rath, Additional Notes I.) By Mongfinn this monarch had four sons, namely, 1, Brian, the ancestor of the Hy-Briuin tribes, of whom the O'Conors of Connaught were the most distinguished; 2, Fiachra, the ancestor of the Hy-Fiachrach tribes, of whom the O'Dowds, O'Heynes, and O'Shaughnessys were, at least in later ages, by far the most distinguished families; 3, Fergus; and, 4, Oilioll, from whom Tir Oiliolla, now the barony of Tirerill, in the county of Sligo, received its name Queen Mongfinn, like the Empress Agrippina, actuated by motives of ambition, for the aggrandizement of her offspring, poisoned her brother, the monarch Crimthann, on Inis Dornglas, a small island in the river Moy, in the hope that her eldest son, Brian, might be immediately seated on the throne of Ireland; and in order the more effectually to deceive her brother as to the contents of the proffered cup, she drank of it herself first,  p.344 and died of the poison soon after; her brother, on his way home to Munster, died at a place in the south of the present county of Clare, which, from that memorable event, received the appellation of Sliabh Oighidh an righ, or the mountain of the death of the king. It has been, however, remarked by ancient and modern Irish writers that this execrable act of Mongfinn had not the desired effect, for that neither her son Brian, nor any of her posterity, was ever monarch of Ireland, except Turlogh O'Conor and his son Roderic. According to all our ancient authorities King Eochaidh had a second wife, Carinna, who is said to have been of old Saxon descent, and who was the mother of the youngest, though by far the most celebrated, of his sons, namely, Niall of the Nine Hostages, the ancestor of O'Neill of Ulster, and all the other families of the Hy-Niall race. It is stated in the Book of Ballymote, fol. 145, b, a, that the poisoning of her brother Crimthann was of no avail to Queen Mongfinn, for that Niall of the Nine Hostages, the son of King Eochaidh by his second wife, and who had been the general of King Crimthann's forces, succeeded as monarch of Ireland immediately after the poisoning of Crimthann. This clearly shows either that Carinna was Eochaidh's first wife, or that he had the two together, for Mongfinn survived him thirteen years, and Niall of the Nine Hostages, the son, as we are told, of the second wife, was of age to succeed as monarch immediately after Mongfinn had poisoned her brother and herself. However this may have been, we read that in the life-time of Niall of the Nine Hostages, Brian, his brother of the half blood, became King of Connaught, and his second eldest brother of the half blood, Fiachra, the ancestor of the O'Dowds and of all the Hy-Fiachrach tribes, became chief of the district extending from Carn Fearadhaigh, near Limerick, to Magh Mucroimhe, near Athenry. But dissensions soon arose between Brian and his brother Fiachra, and the result was that a battle was fought between them, in which the latter was defeated, captured, and delivered as a hostage into the hands of his half brother, Niall of the Nine Hostages. After this, however, Dathi, the son of Fiachra, a very warlike youth, waged war on his uncle Brian, and challenged him to a pitched battle, at a place called Damh-chluain, situated not far from Knockmaa hill, near Tuam, in the now county of Galway. In this battle, in which Dathi was assisted by Crimthann, son of Enna Cennselach, King of Leinster, Brian and his forces were routed, and pursued from the field of battle to Tulcha Domhnaill, where he was overtaken and slain by Crimthann, son of Enna Cennselach.

The body of Brian was buried at the place where he fell, but after a long lapse of years St Beo Aedli, or Aidus vivax, of Roscam, near Galway, removed his bones from that place, and buried them at Roscam; and the writer of the tract on the battle of Damh-cluain, preserved in the Book of Ballymote, adds, “the burial-place of Brian is to be seen there at this day.”


2. Fiachra Foltsnathach, i. e. of the flowing hair, son of King Eochaidh. — After the fall of Brian, the eldest son of King Eochaidh, as before recited, Fiachra, the second son, was set at liberty, and installed King of Connaught, and enjoyed that dignity for twelve years, during which period he was general of the forces of his brother Niall. His death happened in the following manner, according to the Lecan records: — He went on one occasion with the king's forces to raise tribute in Munster, but the inhabitants of that province, who detested him and his race, on account of the conduct of his mother in having poisoned the preceding monarch, who was of their own province and blood, refused to pay the tributes to King Niall, and defied him to battle. They met the king's forces in the territory of Caenraighe, now the barony of Kenry, situated in the county of Limerick, on the south side of the Shannon, where they were defeated, and obliged to give up hostages for their future allegiance. In this battle, however, Fiachra was severely wounded by Maighe Mescora, one of the warlike tribe of the Ernaans of Munster, and he set out in triumph for Tara; but when they had arrived in the territory of Hy-Mac Uais, in Meath, the Munster hostages found Brian unprotected and in a very feeble state from his wounds, and being suddenly actuated by motives of revenge, they seized upon his person and buried him alive in the earth! Thus fell Fiachra a victim to his own incautiousness, according to the Lecan records, which do not tell us a word about what his own chieftains were doing, when he was left thus barbarously unprotected. According to the Book of Lecan this Fiachra had five sons, and if we can rely upon the order in which they are mentioned we should feel inclined to think that the monarch Dathi was the youngest. They are mentioned in the following order: — 1., Earc Culbhuidhe, i. e. of the yellow hair, so called because his hair was of the colour of pure gold, who was the ancestor of the men of Ceara; 2., Breasal, whose race became extinct; 3, Conaire, from whom a St Sechnall is said to have sprung; 4, Amhalgaidh, or Awley, King of Connaught (and ancestor of several ancient families in Tirawley and Erris, in the county of Mayo), who died in the year 449; for some account of whom the reader is referred back to pp. 5–13 of this volume. The seven sons of this Amhalgaidh, together with twelve thousand men, are said to have been baptized in one day by St Patrick, at Forrach Mac n-Amhalgaidh, near Killala — (See Jocelin's Life of St. Patrick, c. 59, and Colgan, Trias Thaum. p. 141, col. 2); and, 5, Dathi, the youngest, but most illustrious, of the sons of Fiachra, and the ancestor of all the chiefs of the Hy-Fiachrach race.

3. Dathi, son of Fiachra Foltsnathach. — On the death of his father, Fiachra, this warlike chieftain became King of Connaught, and on the death of his uncle, Niall of the Nine Hostages, in the year 405 or 406, he became monarch of Ireland, leaving the government of Connaught to his less warlike brother Amhalgaidh, or Awley, who  p.346 lived to receive the doctrines of Christianity from the lips of the Irish apostle, Patrick, and who is set down in all the lists of the kings of Connaught, as the first Christian king of that province. King Dathi, following the example of his predecessor, Niall, not only ventured to invade the coasts of Gaul, but forced his way to the very foot of the Alps, where he was killed, it is said, by a flash of lightning, leaving the throne of Ireland to be filled by a line of Christian kings. His body was carried home by his son Amhalgaidh, who took the command of the Irish forces after the death of his father, and by his four servants of trust, Dungal, Flanngus, Tuathal, and Tomaltach, who carried it to the royal cemetery at Cruachan, called Reilig na Riogh, where it was interred, and where, to this day, the spot is marked by a red pillar stone. — Vide supra, p. 24, note 97.

After the death of King Dathi, Laoghaire, or Leary, the son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, became monarch of Ireland, and enjoyed that dignity, as the Book of Lecan states, for thirty years after the arrival of St. Patrick.

The monarch Dathi married three wives, but the Irish authorities differ much about their order; the fact therefore probably was that he had the three together; be this, however, as it may, the Book of Lecan states that he married Ruadh, or Rufina, the daughter of Airti Uichtleathan, by whom he had Oilioll Molt, monarch of Ireland, and Fiachra Ealgach, the ancestor of O'Dowd; he married, secondly, Fia, the daughter of Eochaidh, by whom he had Eochaidh Breac, the ancestor of O'Heyne and O'Shaughnessy; and, thirdly, Eithne, the daughter of Orach, or Conrach Cas, who, according to some authorities, was the mother of his son King Oilioll Molt. But as it would be now idle to speculate on which of Dathi's sons were youngest or eldest, the Editor will here follow the authority of the Book of Lecan, which states that Dathi had twenty-four sons, of whom, however, only twenty are given by name, and set down in the following order: — 1, Oilioll Molt: he succeeded as king of Connaught in the year 449, and after the death of the monarch Laoghaire, in 463, became monarch of all Ireland, and reigned twenty years. His two grandsons, Eoghan Bel and Oilioll Inbanna, became Kings of Connaught, but his race became extinct in his great grandsons; 2, Fiachra Ealgach, the ancestor of O'Dowd, and several other families; 3, Eochaidh Breac, i. e. Eochy the Freckled, the ancestor of O'Heyne, O'Shaughnessy, and many other families; 4, Eochaidh Meann; 5, Fiachra, who is said to have been detained as a hostage in the hands of King Niall of the Nine Hostages, and who is said to have left a family called Hy-Fiachrach, at a place called Cuil Fabhair, in Meath; 6, Earc; 7, Corc; 8, Onbecc; 9, Beccon; 10, Mac Uais; 11, Aengus the Longhanded; 12, Cathal; 13, Faelchu, from whom are descended the tribe of Hy-Faelchon; 14, Dunghal; 15, Conrach; 16, Neara; 17, Amhalgaidh, the  p.347 son of Rufina, the daughter of Airtigh Uichtleathan, who was born on Inis Awley, in Lough Conn (Lib. Lec. fol. 247), from whom descended the tribe called Cinel Becon, in Meath, and the Mac Firbises of Lecan; 18, Blachadh; 19, Cugamhna, from whom descended the family called Mac Congamhna, who were located in Cinel Fechin, in the south of the now county of Galway: and, 20, Aedh, the ancestor of the Hy-Aedha, who were seated in Burren, in Thomond.

If the sons of Dathi be here set down according to their ages it will follow that Fiachra Ealgach was his second son, and that upon the failure of issue in the line of Oilioll Molt, the representative of Dathi is to be sought for in the line of Fiachra Ealgach. O'Flaherty, however, though he had the Book of Lecan before him, says that Eochaidh Breac, the ancestor of the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, was the eldest son of Dathi, that Oilioll Molt, monarch of Ireland, was the second, and Fiachra Ealgach, the ancestor of the Hy-Fiachrach of the Moy, the third son. But, as already observed, it would be now idle to conjecture which is right, and the Editor has followed the Book of Lecan, which, as being the local authority, is more likely to be correct in the genealogy of this race than any other manuscript.

4. Fiachra Ealgach, son of Dathi. — The Irish annals have preserved no memorial of this Fiachra, as the descendants of the monarch Oilioll Molt, the eldest son of Dathi, were dominant in Connaught in his reign, but the Lecan genealogical books inform us that he was detained as a hostage in the hands of the monarch Niall of the Nine Hostages, — which however is scarcely credible, — and that the territory of Tir Fiachrach Muaidhe, now the barony of Tireragh, on the east side of the river Moy, took its name from him. He had, according to these records, two sons, namely, 1, Amhalgaidh, or Awley, from whom descended several families formerly seated in the barony of Tirawley, among whom, according to some authorities, are to be reckoned the family of Mac Firbis, but this is very uncertain, as is every thing connected with the early history of that family. By this Amhalgaidh was erected the celebrated Carn Amhalgaidh, on which the chiefs of the northern Hy-Fiachrach were afterwards for ages inaugurated, concerning which see more in the article on the inauguration of the O'Dowds. Fiachra had, 2, Maoldubh, or Maolduin, the ancestor of the subsequent chiefs.

5. Maoldubh, or Maolduin, son of Fiachra Ealgach. — No memorial of this personage is preserved in the authentic Irish annals, nor in the genealogical books of the Mac Firbises, except that he is said to have given name to a fort called Dun Maolduibh, near the River Easkey, where he was born and fostered.

6. Tiobraide. — He was chief of Hy-Fiachrach in the time of St. Columbkille, to whom he granted a tract of land around the hill of Cnoc na Maili, now the Red Hill  p.348 of Skreen, and on which the church of Skreen was afterwards erected by St Adamnan. He was the father of
7. Donnchadh Muirsce, i. e. Donogh of Muirisc, a district in the territory of Tir Fiachrach of the Moy. He was King of Connaught for four years, and was slain, according to the Four Masters, in the battle of Corann, in the year 681. “A. D. 681. Donnchadh Muirsce [son of Tiobraide], son of Maoldubh, King of Connaught, was slain in the battle of Corann, in which were also slain Colga, the son of Blathmac, and Fergus, the son of Maolduin, chief of the Cinel Cairbre.”
In this entry the Four Masters state that Donnchadh Muirsce was the son of Maoldubh, but we know from the most ancient and authentic lists of the Kings of Connaught, that he was the grandson of Maolduin, and the son of Tiobraide. He had two sons, Innreachtach, King of Connaught for two years, who had a son Oilioll, King of Connaught for eight years, who had a son Cathal mac Oiliolla, who became chief of Hy-Fiachrach, and died in the year 812, but of whose race no further account is preserved. The second son of Donnchadh Muirsce was Oilioll, the ancestor of O'Dowd, through whom the line of chiefs was continued.

8. Oilioll son of Donnchadh Muirsce. — No memorial of him is preserved in any of our records except the mere statement that he was the son of Donnchadh Muirsce, King of Connaught, and the brother of Innreachtach, King of Connaught, who was slain in the year 718.

9. Cathal, son of Oilioll. — No account of him is found in history, except that he is mentioned as the grandson of a King of Connaught, and the father of another, namely, of
10. Donncatha Mac Cathail. — In the authentic lists of the Kings of Connaught this Donncatha, who is called son of Cathal, son of Oilioll, son of Donnchadh Muirsce, is said to have governed Connaught for eighteen years; and his death is entered in the Annals of the Four Masters, at the year 768.

11. Connmhach. — In the time of this Connmhach the government of the kingdom of Connaught was transferred to the race of Guaire Aidhne, who resided in the south of the province, and soon after wholly to the Hy-Briuin, of whom the O'Conors of Connaught were the principal family; so that Connmhach did not figure among the conspicuous characters of his age, and the Irish annalists have therefore preserved no notice of him. The genealogical books of the Mac Firbises, however, inform us that he was the ancestor of all the succeeding chiefs of the Northern Hy-Fiachrach race, whose country, before the Anglo-Norman invasion, extended from the River Robe to the River Cowney, at Drumcliff, and from the coasts of Erris, eastwards, to the boundary of O'Rourke's country. He had two sons, Caomhan, the ancestor of the  p.349 O'Caomhan family, who sunk into obscurity in the fifteenth century, and Dubhda, or Dowda, the ancestor of the O'Dowd, or O'Dowda family.

The genealogical books of the Mac Firbises contain some amusing stories, purporting to give a reason why the race of Caomhan, the eldest son of Connmhach, was set aside and the race of Dubhda put in their place as chiefs of the Northern Hy-Fiachrach, but as these have been already given from the text of Duald Mac Firbis, it is only necessary to remark here that whatever truth there may be in the seniority of Caomhan, his race was considered in later times the senior branch of the descendants of the monarch Dathi, and therefore their chief enjoyed many privileges which no other family of the race were entitled to; such as to take the first place at the banquet, to be the chief man at the inauguration of the O'Dowd, and to give out their first arms, or military weapons, to the youth of Hy-Fiachrach. How they first lost the chieftainship of the Hy-Fiachrach it would be now useless to inquire, but it may be remarked that they are not the only senior branch of a great race in Ireland who have been laid aside by more powerful junior rivals, and we cannot now admit any reason for O'Dowd's superiority to them than that his tribe became more numerous and more warlike, and compelled them to surrender all claims to the chieftainship of the Northern Hy-Fiachrach by force of arms.

12. Dubhda, the second son of Connmhach. He is the ancestor after whom the family of O'Dubhda, anglice O'Dowda, or O'Dowd, have taken their surname. The name Dubhda signifies a black complexioned or black-haired man, and the prefix O' denotes grandson, and, in a wider sense, a descendant in any degree, and is translated nepos by Adamnan in his Life of St. Columbkille; so that O'Dubhda signifies nepos Doudai, or descendant of Dubhda, or Dowda, and the O' should be prefixed, not only to the name of the chieftain of the race, but also to that of each individual of the family, as well in all the collateral branches as in the direct line. The exact period at which this Dubhda, or Dowda lived, cannot now be satisfactorily ascertained, as the Irish annals preserve no memorial of him, but we have two periods fixed by the authentic annalists, between which he must have flourished, namely, that of his grandfather Donncatha, King of Connaught, who died in 768, and that of his own grandson Aodh, King of North Connaught, who died in the year 983, and by striking a mean between these two dates we shall have the year 876, which may therefore be considered the year about which this Dowda died. The genealogical books of the Mac Firbises do not give us the name of his wife, and the sum of what they have handed down respecting him is, that he had one son, namely,
13. Ceallach Mac Dubhda, of whom nothing is recorded, except that he was the father of  p.350 14. Aodh, or Hugh O'Dubhda, or O'Dowda, King of Lower Connaught, who died in the year 983, according to the Annals of Lecan, as quoted by Duald Mac Firbis. This Aodh, or Hugh, was the first who could have added the prefix O' to his surname, as being the O', nepos, or grandson of Dubhda, for his father would have been called Mac Dubhda. He seems also to have been the first who obtained sway over the descendants of Caomhan, his grandfather's eldest brother; for the Lecan records inform us that he granted to Aodh, or Hugh, the grandson of Caomhan, the district extending from Tuaim Da Bhodhar to Gleoir, and also the tract of land in Carra, called Tuath Ruisen, which till then had been in the possession of a sept of the Firbolgs, besides other tracts in the principality of Hy-Fiachrach, in consideration of Aodh, the grandson of Caomhan, having resigned to him and his race all claims to the chieftainship of the Hy-Fiachrach. The genealogical books of the Mac Firbises give him but one son, Maolruanaidh, the ancestor of all the branches of the O'Dowd family; but we learn from the Annals of the Four Masters that he had another son, Gebhennach, who died in 1005.

15. Maolruanaidh, or Mulrony, son of Aodh, or Hugh O'Dubhda. — According to Duald Mac Firbis this Mulrony, who was chief of Hy-Fiachrach Muirisce, died in the year 1005, and the Four Masters have the following notice of his death under the same year: — “A. D. 1005. Maolruanaidh, son of Aodh O'Dubhda, lord of Hy-Fiachrach Muirisce, and his son Maolseachlainn, and his brother Gebhennach Mac Aodha, died.”

This Maolruanaidh, or Mulrony, had, according to the Mac Firbises, two sons, namely, 1, Maoileachlainn, or Maolseachlainn, the ancestor of the greater number of the succeeding chieftains, and, 2, Domhnall, or Donnell, the ancestor of a celebrated sept of the O'Dowds, called the Clann Domhnaill, or Clandonnell of Lough Conn, of whom were many distinguished warriors, chiefs of Tirawley, and among others Cosnamhach Mor, anglice Cosney More, who, according to the Mac Firbises, was the last of the Irish race who was called the fighter of an hundred men, but who was killed in his own house at Inishcoe, on Lough Conn, by O'Gloinin, one of his own sub-chieftains, in 1162.

16. Maoilseachlainn, i. e. Melaghlin, or Malachy O'Dubhda. — He died in 1005, the same year in which his father and uncle also died. The Mac Firbises mention but one of his sons, namely, Niall

17. Niall, son of Maoilseachlainn O'Dubhda. — He had three sons; 1, Niall, ancestor of the Clann Neill O'Dowd, who made strong efforts to wrest their little territory from the family of O'Caomhain, but without success; 2, Taithleach, the ancestor of nearly all the subsequent chiefs, and 3, Aodh, the ancestor of several septs, but whose pedigrees are not carried down.

18. Taithleach, son of Niall O'Dubhda. — He had two sons, namely, 1, Ruaidhri Mear,  p.351 or Rory the Swift O'Dubhda, who was lord of the country extending from the river Robe to Drumcliff, and who was murdered by Domhnall, or Donnell O'Quin, chief of Clan Cuain, whose daughter he had violated, and who renounced his allegiance to O'Dowd, and placed himself under the protection of Mac Dermot, chief of Moylurg. This must have occurred early in the twelfth century. He had, 2, Aodh, or Hugh O'Dowd, the ancestor of the subsequent chiefs.

19. Aodh, or Hugh, son of Taithleach O'Dubhda, father of
20. Muircheartach O'Dubhda, who was the father of
21. Aodh, or Hugh O'Dubhda. — He had three sons; 1, Taithleach, ancestor of the subsequent chiefs; 2, Brian Dearg, from whom the Clann Taithligh Oig [Clantahilly Og] O'Dowd are descended; and, 3, Muircheartach. He was probably the Aodh, son of Muircheartach O'Dubdha, lord of Tireragh and Tirawley, who died in 1143.

22. Taithleach, or Tahilly, son of Aodh, or Hugh O'Dubhda. — He seems to be the Taithleach O'Dubdha, lord of Tirawley and Tireragh, who was killed by his own two wicked grandsons in the year 1192. He had one son.

23. Aodh, or Hugh, son of Taithleach, who was father of the celebrated
24. Donnchadh Mor, or Donogh More O'Dubhda. — He appears first in the Irish annals at the year 1207, under which he is called by the Four Masters lord of Tirawley and Tireragh. In this year he joined Diarmaid, son of Maghnus O'Conor, Cormac Mac Dermot, and O'Hara, lord of Leyny, to oppose Cathal Carrach O'Conor, who had invaded and plundered Mac Dermott's country. A battle ensued between them, in which Cathal Carrach was defeated, taken prisoner, and deprived of his eyes, in order that by being maimed, he might have no further pretensions to chieftainship.

In the year 1213 he hired a fleet of fifty-six ships at the Hebrides, which he joined with his own, and sailed into the bay of Cuan Modh, now Clew Bay, where he landed on Inis Raithin, and compelled Cathal Croibhdhearg, or Charles the Redhanded O'Conor, King of Connaught, to give up to him his territory, extending from the river Robe to Drumcliff, free of tribute.

Having now carried the pedigree of this family down to a period at which their history becomes very certain, and pregnant with facts, the Editor will next glance back at the line of descent, to show that the genealogical books of the Mac Firbises have not preserved to us all the branches that sprang from the main trunk of the genealogical tree of this great race. This will be sufficiently obvious from the following passages in the Annals of the Four Masters:

“A. D. 899. Joseph of Loch Con, abbot of Clonmacnoise, died. He was of the sept of the northern Hy-Fiachrach.”


“A. D. 905. Aodh, son of Maolpatraig, lord of Hy-Fiachrach, was slain by Niall, son of Aodh.”

“A. D. 1059. Aedhuar O'Dubhda, lord of Hy-Amhalgaidh, was slain by his own tribe.”

“A. D. 1096. Muircheartach O'Dubhda, surnamed an Cullach, i. e. the Boar, lord of Hy-Amhalgaidh, was slain by his own tribe.”

“A. D. 1126. Domhnall Fionn O'Dubhda, lord of Hy-Amhalgaidh, was drowned after having taken a prey in Tirconnell.”

“A. D. 1128. The son of Aodh O'Dubhda, lord of Hy-Amhalgaidh, was slain at Ardee in a battle fought between the cavalries of Conchobhar, the son of Mac Loughlin, prince of Aileach, and of Tiernan O'Rourke, chief of Breifny.”

“A. D. 1132. Conchobhar, son of Maoileachlainn O'Dubhda, was slain by his kinsman, i. e. by the son of Niall O'Dubhda.”

“A. D. 1135. O'Maille was slain by the son of Domhnall O'Dubhda, in the Domhliag, or stone-church of Nuachongbhail.” — Chron. Scot.

“A. D. 1135. Amhlaoibh, son of Domhnall Fionn O'Dubhda, lord of Hy-Amhalgaidh, was slain by the northern Hy-Fiachrach.”

“A. D. 1136. The son of Domhnall O'Dubhda, lord of Hy-Amhalgaidh, was slain.”

In 1139 Mathghamhain, or Mahon O'Dubhda, chief of the race of Flaithbheartach, is mentioned, but he was of the O'Dubhdas or Duddies of Ulster. See p. 112, note q recte p. 111, note g, corresponding to 278 in the CELT edition.

“A. D. 1143. Aodh, son of Muircheartach O'Dubhda, lord of the northern Hy-Fiachrach and Hy-Amhalgaidh, died.” This Aodh may have been Aodh, No. 21, in the above pedigree, but this is far from certain, as the number of generations from him to Maoileachlainn, No. 16, who died in 1005, would be too many.

“A D. 1153. Brian O'Dubhda, lord of the northern Hy-Fiachrach, was slain in the battle of Craebh tinne.”

“A. D. 1154. A fleet was sent out by King Toirdhealbhach, or Turlogh O'Conor, to coast Ireland towards the north, consisting of the fleets of Dun Gaillmhe [Galway fort], Connmhaicne mara [now Connamara], Hy-Amhalgaidh, and Hy-Fiachrach, over all which Cosnamhach O'Dubhda was placed as chief commander. These plundered Tirconnell and Inishowen. The Cinel Eoghain, with their chief Muircheartach, son of Niall, observing their designs, went over the sea to hire the fleets of the Gall-Gadelians of Arann, Cantire, the Isle of Mann, and of other parts of Scotland, over all which Mac Scellig was chosen as commander. When they came near Inishowen the Connacian fleet met them, and a fierce and obstinate sea fight ensued between them which continued from morning till evening, during which many of the Connacians were slain by the strangers, and among the rest their chief commander Cosnamhach O'Dubhda.  p.353 The strangers were however defeated and slaughtered, and deprived of their ships, and Mac Scellig, their leader, lost his teeth.”

“A. D. 1162. Cosnamhach O'Dubhda, lord of Tirawley, was slain by his own tribe.” This was the celebrated Cosnamhach (son of Aodh, son of Cathbharr, son of Domhnall, son of Maolruanaidh), who was killed by O'Gloinin at Inishcoe. He had a son Cosnamhach, who was slain in 1181.

“A. D. 1182. Murchadh, the son of Taithleach O'Dubhda, was slain by Maolseachlainn O'Mulrony.”

By a comparison of these entries in the Annals with the line of the pedigree of the O'Dowds as preserved by the Mac Firbises, and as fully displayed in the large Genealogical Table, it will be seen that there were several distinguished members of the family whose names have not been entered in the pedigree. The truth evidently is, that the Mac Firbises have preserved no more than the direct line of this pedigree, from the progenitor Dubhda, or Dowda, down to Donnchadh Mor, No. 24, excepting the names of a few of the senior or junior branches, such as they knew had become the founders of distinct septs. To return to the pedigree, Donnchadh Mor, No. 24, supra, had four sons, namely, Brian Dearg O'Dubhda, lord of Tireragh, Tirawley, and Erris, who, according to the Annals of the Four Masters, was killed on the road while on his pilgrimage to the abbey of Boyle; 2, Maolruanaidh, the ancestor of the subsequent chiefs; 3, Muircheartach, or Murtogh, ancestor of the Clann Conchobhair, who, on the death of his brother, Brian Dearg, in 1242, became chief of Hy-Fiachrach, and was, during his short career, a powerful chieftain, and at constant strife with the O'Conors. In the year 1246 he slew Maelseachlainn, the son of Conchobhar Ruadh, who was son of Muircheartach Muimhneach, or Murtogh, the Momonian O'Conor, for which he was banished over sea; but in the year following, 1247, he returned, accompanied by his friend O'Boyle, with a fleet, and made a descent upon the coast of Carbury, to be revenged on the O'Conors by plundering that territory, but on this occasion the crew of one of his ships, who were under the command of Maghnus O'Boyle, were drowned at the island of Inis Tuathrass, on the coast of Carbury. But his career of glory was short; he was slain in the year 1248 by the son of Felim O'Conor, as thus recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters: — “A. D. 1248. Muircheartach O'Dubhda, surnamed the Aithchleireach, lord of that tract of country extending from Cill Dairbhile [now Termon Dervilla], in Erris, to the Strand [i. e. the strand of Traigh Eothuile], was slain by the son of Felim O'Conor.” The fourth son of Donnchadh Mor was Taithleach, who was the father of Conchobhar, or Conor Conallach O'Dubhda, who became chief of Tireragh and was drowned in the Shannon in the year 1291, but his race seems to have become extinct in a few generations. Donnchadh  p.354 Mor had a daughter Mor, who became the wife of O'Boyle, the chief of the opposite coast, and who died in the year 1249.

One of the sons of this Donnchadh Mor O'Dubhda is charged with a very atrocious crime by the Irish annalists, who fortunately do not afford us the clue to discover which of the sons to brand with it. The Four Masters speak of it as follows in their Annals: — “A. D. 1244. Maoliosa Mac an Easpuig O'Maoilfoghmhair [Malisa Macanespie O'Mulfover], parson of Tireragh and Tirawley, who, from his wisdom, was intended for the episcopal dignity, was killed by the son of Donnchadh O'Dubhda, a deed strange to his family, for none of the O'Dubhdas had ever before that time killed an ecclesiastic.”

25. Maolruanaidh, or Mulrony, son of Donnchadh Mor O'Dubhda. — Though this Mulroney was the progenitor of the subsequent chiefs he does not appear to have ever been chief himself, for, in the record of his death given in the Annals of the Four Masters at the year 1238, he is styled Maolruanaidh, son of Donnchadh O'Dubhda: — “A.D. 1238. Maolruanaidh, the son of Donnchadh O'Dubhda, was slain by Maoilseachlainn, son of Conchobhar Ruadh, who was the son of Muircheartach Muimhneach O'Conor, assisted by the son of Tighearnan, who was the son of Cathal Mac Arnain O'Conor.”

According to a modern account of the descendants of this Mulrony O'Dubhda, inserted in a modern hand in the Book of Lecan, and which shall be given in these Addenda, he had three sons, viz., Taithleach, Muaidhe, Donnchadh Mor, ancestor of the Clann Donogh O'Dubhda, formerly seated in the district of Coolcarney, and Cosnamhach, archbishop of Tuam; but that this genealogy is spurious is obvious from the fact that it totally differs from the original text of the Book of Lecan, as well as from the account given by Duald Mac Firbis; and that it appears from the Irish annals that Donnchadh Mor O'Dubhda, the ancestor of the Clann Donogh, could not have been the son of Mulrony who was slain in 1238, for Donnchadh died Tanist of Hy-Fiachrach in the year 1337, that is, ninety-nine years after the death of his supposed father. But the truth clearly is, that Donnchadh Mor was, as the original text of the Book of Lecan makes him, the grandson of Maolruanaidh, or Mulroney, and the son, not the brother, of Taithleach Muaidhe, who was slain in 1282. According to the Book of Lecan and Duald Mac Firbis this Maolruanaidh, or Mulroney, had two sons, namely, Taithleach Muaidhe, or Tahilly of the Moy, of whom presently, and Cosnamhach, archdeacon [not archbishop] of Tuam, and a daughter Dervorgilla, who was the mother of Tomalltach O'Conor, archbishop of Tuam, and died in 1265.

26. Taithleach Muaidhe, or Tahilly of the Moy, son of Mulrony O'Dubhda. — This warlike chieftain, in order to be revenged of William Mor Barrett, who had wrested  p.355 from him the entire of the territory of Tirawley, joined Adam Cusack, — who was then making strong efforts to conquer this part of Connaught, — against the Barretts, and a fierce battle was fought between them at Moyne, near Killala (where a great monastery was a long time after erected). In this battle, wherein O'Dubhda was assisted by bis neighbour O'Boyle, William Mor Barrett was defeated, mortally wounded, and taken prisoner. But Adam Cusack, notwithstanding the assistance received from O'Dubhda in this battle, turned his arms against him the year following, and slew him at a place called, from that circumstance, Bel Atha Tailtigh, i. e. the mouth of Tahilly's ford, situated near the margin of Traigh Eothuile, on the lands of Coillte Luighne, near Ballysadare. These facts are stated by the Four Masters in their Annals, and are also given in the Annals of Clonmacnoise, as we learn from the following quaint translation of the two passages by Connell Mageoghegan:
“A. D. 1281. There was a feild fought between the Barretts of the one side and the Cusackes of the other side, where the Barretts were vanquished; William Barrett and Adam Fflemyng, with many others, were slain. There were two Irishmen of Cusack's side that surpassed the companys of both sides for prowes, manhood, dexteritie of handling of arms, hardiness, and all other parts of activity, named Taihleagh O'Dowdie and Taihleagh O'Boyle.”

“A. D. 1282. Taihleagh mac Moyleronie O'Dowdie (before spoken of), prince of the contrey of Offiaghrach Moye, one of great prowes and bounty, and of great and continuall dissention with the English, and all foreigners, in defence of his contry, was killed by Adam Cusack at Beerhaven.”

Here Mageoghegan renders Traigh Eothuile by Beerhaven, an error equalled only by that of Haliday, who, in his translation of the first part of Keating's History of Ireland, renders it Youghal, and evidently takes it to be the strand of Youghal, in the south-east of the county of Cork.

This Adam Cusack was defeated by Maghnus O'Conor at Ballysadare in the year 1285, on which occasion Collin Cusack, his brother, and many others, were slain. He died in the year 1287, after which we hear of no more triumphs of the Cusacks in Connaught, and the Barretts appear to have recovered all their possessions in Tirawley, of which he seems for a time to have deprived them.

Taithleach Muaidhe O'Dubhda had three sons, viz., Sen Bhrian, of whom presently, Donnchadh Mor, ancestor of the Clann Donogh O'Dubhda, who died in 1337, and Maoileachlainn Carrach, who was slain in 1316. There were many distinguished men among this sept of the family, as William, Bishop of Killala, who died in 1350; Muircheartach Cleireach, chief of the Clann Donogh, who died in 1402, but they disappear from history about the middle of the fifteenth century.


27. Sen Bhrian, or old Brian, the son of Taithleach Muaidhe O'Dubhda.Duald Mac Firbis states in his short annals of this family, that this Brian was eighty-four years chief of his name; but we must conclude from the authentic Irish annals that he could not have reigned so long, and we may well believe that fifty-four years, as given in a more modern hand in the Book of Lecan, was the true period. The first notice of this chieftain to be found in the Annals of the Four Masters is at the year 1278, in which he and Art na g-Capall [of the horses] O'Hara, lord of Leyny, gave battle to the Berminghams, and defeated them, killing the two sons of Meyler Mor, Conor Roe Bermingham and others. This was in the life-time of his father, and still he does not appear to have succeeded his father, for the Annals record the death, by drowning, of Conchobhar, or Conor Conallach O'Dubhda, lord of Tir Fiachrach, in the year 1291. In the year 1308, as we learn from the Annals of Clonmacnoise, he joined the English of Leyny and Tireragh to plunder the O'Conors of Carbury. But in 1316 he joined Felim O'Conor and the Irish in the memorable battle of Athenry, where the English had mustered the best appointed and most formidable army that they had ever before sent against the native Irish. In this battle, in which the English were well armed, and drawn up in regular military array, and the Irish without armour 1016, eleven thousand of the Irish were slain, and tradition says that the O'Conors were so completely defeated that throughout all Connaught not one man of the name, Felim's brother excepted, could be found who was able to bear arms.

According to the Annals of the Four Masters Brian O'Dubhda, lord of Tireragh, commanded his people in this battle, and lost therein his brother Maoileachlainn Carrach and two of the principal men of his name. The following account of this battle is given in the Annals of Clonmacnoise as translated, in the year 1627, by Connell Mageoghegan:
“A. D. 1316. Felym O'Connor [after having slain Rory O'Connor, who had usurped the throne of Connaught] took all the preys and spoyles of all that belonged to Rowry O'Connor, or that partaked with him before, and took himself the government and name of King of Connought, as before he had, which extends from Easroe, in Ulster, to Eaghtge; took hostages, for the preservation of allegeance, of the Breniemen, and constituted Ualargge O'Roirke as their king; alsoe he took the hostages of the  p.357 O'Kellys, O'Maddens, O'Dermodaes, O'Haras, O'Dowdies; and after setting himself [up] he prepared an army with whom he went to banish the English out of Connaught; immediately burnt the town of Athleathan, killed Stephen D'Exeter therein, Miles Cogan, William Prendergrass, and John Stanton, Knights, and also William Lawless, with a great slaughter of their people. He burnt all the contrey from the place called Castle Corran to Roba, took all their preys and spoyles; returned to his house with a ritch booty of his enemies, and a fortunate success in his affairs.”

“King Felym having thus returned to his house made no long stay, but went to Milick to meet with those of Munster and Leathmoye, where he burnt and fell down the castle at first. Mortagh O'Bryen, prince of Thomond, came to his house, and all the families of the O'Briens face to face, with whom he returned to Roscomon to fall the Castle thereof to the Earth.”

“Felym O'Conor hearing of the returne of William Burke to Connought from Scotland, he proclaimed that all his people from all parts where they were, with such as wou'd joyn with them, wou'd gather together to banish William Burke from out of Connought, at whose command all the Irishrie of Connought from Easroe to Eghtge were obedient and came to that place of meeting. Donnogh O'Bryen, prince of Thomond, O'Melaughlyn, king of Meath, O'Royrck of the Breffine, O'Ferall, chieftain of the Analie, called the Convackne, Teig O'Kelly, king of Imaine, with many others of the nobilitie of Ireland, came to this assembly, and marched towards Athenrie to meet with William Burke, the Lord Bremyngham and others, the English of the province of Connought, where they met and gave battle in a place neer the said towne, the Irishmen in which battle were discomfitted and quite overthrowen.”

“Felym O'Connor, King of Connaught, was therein killed, also Teig O'Kelly, King of Imaine, and eight and twenty of the chiefest of that family. Magnus mac Dermott O'Connor, Tanist of all Connaught, Art O'Hara, prince of Lwyne; Melaghlyn Carragh O'Dowdie; Connor Oge O'Dowdie; Mortagh mac Connor O'Dowdie; Dermott Mac Dermott, Tanist of Moylorge; Mortagh mac Taithleagh Mac Dermoda; Mortagh mac Dermoda O'Fferall; Mullronie Oge Mac Magnosa; John mac Morrogh O'Madden; Donnell O'Boylle; Donnogh O'Molloye of Fearkeal, with his people; the son of Murrogh Mac Mahon with a hundred of his people; Neal Ffox, prince of Teaffie-men, with his people; Ferrall mac John Gallda O'Ferall; William mac Hugh Oge O'Feralle; Thomas Mac Awley O'Fferall; Tomaltagh, Morragh, Connor, Mortagh, and Melaughlyn Mac Donnough; John Mackeigan, O'Connor's chief Judge; Connor and Gillernew, the sons of Dalredocker O'Dovelen, the man called Fear imchar na h-onchon [i e. O'Connor's standard bearer], Thomas O'Connolan of the king's guard; all which persons, with many others of Munster, Meath, and Connaught (which were  p.358 tedious to recite) were slain in that battle, as a certain Irish poet pitifully in an Irish verse said: ”

  1. Mór mac rígh nach abraim ainm
    Do marbhadh is an mór-mhaidhm,
    Do shluagh Midhe is Mumhan,
    Truagh lem chrídhi in cathughadh. 1017

“This battle was given [fought] upon the day of St. Lawrence the Martyre. Felym then being but of the age of twenty-three years, in the fifth year of whose reign Rowrye mac Cahall Roe O'Connor (before mentioned) deposed him for one half year, who being killed, as before is described, Felym succeeded for another half year, untill he was slain at Athenrie aforesaid.”

“Rowry, surnamed Rowry na ffidh, mac Donnogh, mac Owen, mac Rowrie, succeeded next as King of Connaught.”

Sir Richard Cox states (Hist. of Ireland, p. 97) that after this battle the Berminghams took a prey of two thousand cows from the O'Conors, and that eight thousand of the Irish were slain; and that the King of England, on receiving the news of this victory, granted to Sir Richard De Bermingham the title of Baron of Athenree, which his descendants have enjoyed ever since.

This Brian O'Dubhda died, according to the Irish annals, in the year 1354, when he must have been at least a century old, for he was in active service in the field as early as 1278. Duald Mac Firbis says that he recovered a great portion of the original territory, particularly Tireragh, from the English, and divided it among his own sons, grandsons, and great grandsons. He married Una, the daughter of Felim, who was the son of Cathal Croibhdhearg O'Conor, King of Connaught, and had by her eight sons, viz., Domhnall Cleireach, his successor, of whom presently; 2, Maolruanaidh, or Mulroney, who died in 1362; 3, Maghnus Cleireach, who died in 1359; 4, Diarmaid; 5, Aodh, the father of Brian Cam, and Edmond, chiefs of Tireragh; 6, Cosnamhach; 7, Niall; 8, Brian Og, who was slain by the Barretts in 1373.

28. Domhnall Cleireach, or Donnell the Citric, son of Old Brian O'Dubhda. — He succeeded his father in 1354, and died in 1380. In his time the English made strong efforts to get possession of his territory of Tireragh, which was all that remained with the O'Dowds at this period, though they still laid claim to Tirawley; but in the year  p.359 1371 he drove the English out of his territory and took possession of the castles of Ardnarea and Castleconor, in which they had strengthened themselves, and then divided the lands among his brothers and followers. The Four Masters have the following notice of his death: — “A. D. 1380. Domhnall, the son of Brian O'Dubhda, lord of Tireragh and Tirawley, defender of his principality against his English and Irish enemies, died at his own mansion seat [Dun Neill] on the third of May, and his son Ruaidhri assumed his place.”

According to a list of the chiefs of the O'Dubhda family, inserted in a modern hand in the Book of Lecan, he was chief for forty-nine years and a half, but, according to Duald Mac Firbis, he reigned but thirty-six years, and if we date the commencement of his reign in 1354, when his father died, we cannot allow him a longer period than twenty-six years, but it is highly probable that his father had resigned the chieftainship to him several years before his death.

Domhnall Cleireach O'Dubhda married the daughter of O'Malley, chief of Umhall, and had by her ten sons, viz., 1, Ruaidhri, his successor, of whom presently; 2, Maghnus, who, in 1461, according to Ware, slew Connor O'Connell, Bishop of Killala; 3, Maoileachlainn; 4, Tadhg Riabhach, or Teige Reagh, who succeeded as chief of Tireragh in 1417, and died in 1432. It was in the time of this Teige Reagh that the abbey of Ardnarea, the ruins of which still remain in good preservation, was founded for monks of the order of St. Augustin, A. D. 1427. — See De Burgo Hibernia Dominicana and Archdall's Monasticon. It was in his time also the Book of Lecan was compiled by Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis, who, in 1417, addressed to him the topographical poem, published in this volume: though it would appear from a memorandum at the bottom of folio 40, that the work had been commenced in the time of his brother Ruaidhri, who died in that year. This Teige Reagh was the ancestor of several chiefs of Tireragh, and of the famous family of the Dowds of Dublin, but the Editor being of opinion that this family is now extinct, deems it unnecessary to give their pedigree in this place, as it has been already given, though without dates, in the text of Duald Mac Firbis. But should the Dowds of Dublin be extant they will see the line of their descent, traced for thirty-four generations, in the large Genealogical Table hereunto prefixed. Domhnall Cleireach had, 5, John; 6, Domhnall Og; 7, Donnchadh; 8, Diarmaid, who died in 1439; 9, Aodh; and, 10, Eoghan, who was living in 1420.

29. Ruaidhri, Rory, or Roger, son of Domhnall Cleireach O'Dubhda. — He succeeded his father in the year 1380, and died in the year 1417, under which the Four Masters have the following notice of his death: “A. D. 1417. O'Dubhda (Ruaidhri, son of Domhnall, who was son of Brian, son of Taithleach), fountain of the prosperity and  p.360 wealth of Tireragh, died at his own mansion seat [Dun Neill] after the festival of St. Bridget, and his brother Tadhg Riabhach assumed his place.”

This Ruaidhri married the daughter of Mac Costello, and had by her, 1, Maolruanaidh, his successor, of whom presently; 2, Conchobhar, or Conor; 3, Maghnus Cleireach; 4, Muircheartach; 5, Eoghan Caoch; 6, William, who died in 1438.

30. Maolruanaidh, or Mulrony, son of Ruaidhri O'Dubhda.— He was elected chief of his name in 1432, according to Duald Mac Firbis, and died at Liathmhuine, now Leafony, in 1447. He married the daughter of Mac Wattin Barrett, and had, 1, Diarmaid; 2, Domhnall Ballach, who was chief of the name for one year, and who was the father of William, chief of his name, who died in 1496; 3, Maoileachlainn; 4, Muircheartach Caoch.

31. Diarmaid, son of Maolruanaidh O'Dubhda.— He never attained to the chieftainship, though he was the senior of the race, and the ancestor of almost all the subsequent heads of the family. The name of his wife is not given, but it is stated that he had two sons, namely, 1, Conchobhar, or Conor O'Dubhda, of whom presently; 2, Brian.

32. Conchobhar, or Conor, son of Diarmaid O'Dubhda.— He succeeded Felim, the son of Tadhg Buidhe, or Teige Boy O'Dubhda, in the year 1508, and died in the abbey of Moyne about the year 1538, after having been thirty years chief of his name. In the year 1527 he took Mac Donogh prisoner. In 1532 his sons took the castle of Ardnarea from the sons of John Burke, in consequence of which great dissensions arose between them and the descendants of Richard Burke, and many depredations and slaughters were committed on both sides, and in the next year the Burkes got possession of Ardnarea, since which the O'Dubhdas, or O'Dowds, never recovered it. He married Margaret, daughter of Thomas Roe Burke, and had by her, 1, Eoghan, his successor, of whom presently; 2, Fearadhach; 3, Ruaidhri; 4, Cormac, a friar; 5, Cathal Dubh, who became chief of his name, and consented to pay tribute to the Lower Mac William Burke; 6, Dathi; 7, John Glas; and, 8, Brian.

33. Eoghan, or Owen, son of Conchobhar O'Dubhda.— He succeeded his father about the year 1538, and was chief of his name for seven years. He married Sabia (the daughter of Walter, son of Richard) Burke, who was taken prisoner by O'Donnell in 1536. He was himself taken prisoner by Mac William of Clanrickard in 1542, as we are informed by the Four Masters, but we know no more of his history, except that he and his wife were interred in the same tomb in the abbey of Moyne. He had four sons, viz., 1, Tadhg Riabhach, or Teige Reagh, his successor; 2, Edmond; 3, Ceallach; and, 4, Conchobhar, or Conor.

34. Tadhg, or Teige Reagh, son of Eoghan O'Dubhda.— He seems to have succeeded his father about the year 1545, and we learn from the Four Masters that he died in  p.361 the year 1580. “A.D. 1580. Tadhg Riabhach, son of Eoghan, son of Conchobhar O'Dowd, died.” The name of his wife is not given by Mac Firbis, who informs us that he had seven sons: 1, Dathi, of whom presently; 2, Tadhg Buidhe, or Teige Boy, who was made O'Dubhda by O'Donnell in 1595; 3, Fearadhach; 4, Domhnall, or Donnell, the father of Teige Reagh, mentioned in the settlement of 1656, to be presently given; 5, Maolruanaidh; 6, Eoghan; 7, John Og.

35. Dathi or David, son of Tadhg Riabhach O'Dubhda.— He was slain in the year 1594, under which he is styled chief of his name by the Four Masters. “A. D. 1544. O'Dubhda of Tireragh (Dathi, son of Tadhg Riabhach, son of Eoghan) was slain by one of the queen's soldiers in one of his own castles in Tireragh of the Moy.”

He married Miss Ellenor Lyens, afterwards Lady Ellenor Ghest, by whom he had two sons, viz., Dathi, or David O'Dubhda, his heir, and William O'Dubhda. This appears from an inquisition taken at Sligo on the third of April, 1623, preserved in the Rolls Office, Dublin, which finds “that David O'Dowde, late of Castleconnor, Esq., deceased, was seised of that castle and several other lands; that he died, leaving David O'Dowde, junior, his son and heir; that Ellenor Lyens, alias Dowde (now Lady Ellenor Ghest), was the lawful wife of the said David O'Dowde, senior, and that she is dowable of the one-third of all his lands; that after the death of the said David O'Dowde she married three several husbands, viz., Sir Lionell Ghest, Knight, who died; then William May, Esq., who also died; and after his death, and in the reign of our present sovereign Lord [Charles I.] she married Gerald Fitz-Morrice Fitzgerald, who is now [1633] living.”

36. Dathi, or David, junior, son of David, O'Dubhda.— On the third Patent Roll of the first year of the reign of King James I., there is enrolled “A Grant to Lionel Geste, or Ghest, of the wardship of David O'Dowde, son and heir of David O'Dowde, late of Killinglass, in the county of Sligo, Gent., deceased, for the fine of ten pounds Irish, and an annual rent of seven pounds, retaining five pounds thereof for his (the ward's) maintenance and education in the English religion and habits, and in Trinity College, Dublin, from the twelfth to the eighteenth year of his age.— Dated 1st Nov., 1603.”

It appears that when this David, junior, came of age, in 1612, he entered upon and took possession of his father's lands without suing out livery of seisin from His Majesty, which the law then required to make his title good; upon which William Chapman of Rossleagh made a discovery of same unto His Majesty, upon which His Majesty, in consideration of such service, as was then the custom, by his letters patent under the great seal of England, dated the first day of December, in the eleventh year of his reign, granted unto the said William Chapman “the benefitt and profitt of three  p.362 fourth partes of all Intrusions, fynes for alienations, mesne profitts, and other emoluments and profitts whatsoever due unto His Majestie by reason of any warship and primer seisin, ousterlermayne, or any cause whatsoever uppon any mannors, castles, lands, and tenements of David O'Dowde of Killglasse, in the coontee of Sligo, Gent, by reason of the death of his ffather, or any other of his ancestors, or of any lands that is found by office that David O'Dowde, father unto the said David, died seised of.”

The original letters patent to William Chapman, Esq., are now in very good preservation, and in the possession of the O'Dowda of Bunnyconnellan. On the third day of December, 1613, this William Chapman sold his right to these fines to William May, of Castleconnor, Esq., who was young David O'Dowda's step-father, being, as appears from the inquisition already quoted, the third husband of his mother, Lady Ellenor Ghest.

From an original deed in the possession of the present O'Dowda, it appears that this David O'Dowda, of Castleconnor, Esq., was married to Joan Burke, by whom be had,

37. James O'Dowda.— He married on the 23rd [effaced] 1632, Evelyn Burke, daughter of Walter Burke, of Turlough, Esq., as appears by his marriage settlement, now in very bad preservation, in the possession of the present O'Dowda. This James died many years before his father. He was living in 1639, as appears by a deed in the possession of the present O'Dowda, dated 10th April, 1639, in which he is called James Dowde, of Castleconnor, Gentleman; but he was dead in 1641, as appears by another deed, dated last day of October, 1641, whereby his father, David O'Dowda, of Castleconnor, Esq., enfeoffs unto Fearil O'Garae of Moyh [Moy O'Gara, in Coolavin] and Walter Burke of Ardagh, in the county of Mayo, Gentleman, of the castle of Castleconnor, and three quarters of land thereunto adjoining, viz., the quarter of Slievnamesgiry, the quarter of Cloonalangy, and the quarter of Ballinaleynagh, in the barony of Tireragh, to the use of said David and Jewane Burke, his wife, during their lives, and after the death of the said David, the heirs or assigns of James O'Dowda (son and heir of the said David,) shall pass an assurance unto the said Jewane of lands to the clear yearly value of forty pounds of good, fine, pure silver, every year during her life.

By this Evelyn Burke, James O'Dowda had one son, namely,
38. Dathi Og, or David, junior, O'Dowda.— He is the last generation given by Duald Mac Firbis, who states in his smaller genealogical compilation that he was living in the year 1666, and we shall see presently that they were acquaintances. He married in 1656 Dorothy, daughter of Teige Reagh O'Dowda (son of Donnell, son of Teige Reagh, No. 34, supra), by whom he got a considerable fortune, though he had lost all his estate during the civil wars. His marriage articles, which are signed by the Irish  p.363 antiquary Duald Mac Firbis, are dated the 17th of April, 1656, and as they throw a curious light upon the history of the times, they are given here word for word.

“Indented Articles of Agreement concluded, covenanted, and agreed upon this seventeenth Day of April, Anno Domini One Thousand Six Hundred Fifty and Six, by and between David Dowda the younger, of Castleconnor, in the County of Sligo, Gentleman, of the one part, and Teig Reagh O'Dowd of Castletown, of the said County, Gentleman, of the other parte, for and concerning a Marriage to be had and solemnized between the said David and Dorothy Dowda, Daughter to the said Teig.”

“First, it is agreed, covenanted, and graunted by and between the said parties that the said David shall, at or before the last day of May next ensuing the date hereof, wedd, marry, and take to wife the said Dorothy, according to the rites, laws, and customs of the Holy Catholic Church, and that the said Dorothy shall accordingly wedd, marry, and take to husband the said David.”

Item, it is covenanted and agreed upon by and between the said parties that the said Teige shall, in consideration of the said marriage, give and satisfie unto the said David, as marriage portion to and with the said Dorothy, the number of cows, sheep, cattle following, viz., fourty great cows, to be milch cows next summer, fifteen heifers of two years old, fifteen yearling heflfers, one hundred sheep, one horse, and one plough. Item, it is covenanted and agreed upon by and between the said parties, and the said David for himself, his heirs and assigns, to and with the said Teig, his executors and assigns, in consideration of the said marriage and marriage portion, doth covenant, grant, and agree to be and stand seised and possessed of and in one moyety of such proportion of lands and tenements as he the said David shall recover, and that shall be recovered, in the right, title, and interest of David O'Dowda, grandfather of the said David the younger, to the use and behoof of the said David the younger, and of the said Dorothy and the longer liver of them, for and during their or either of their natural lives, and after their decease to the use of the heirs males to be begotten on the body of the said Dorothy by the said David the younger; and for the securing, making, and confirming of the premises, according to the true meaning, purport, and intent of these presents, the said David Dowda the younger and David O'Dowda the elder, and either of them, shall, at the due request of the said Teig, his executors or assigns, make such assurance and assurances, by conveyance or otherwise, in writing, as by the said Teig, his heirs, executors, or assigns, or his and their council learned in the law shall be devised and advised. And the said David the younger, for himself, his heirs and assigns, for the considerations  p.364 aforesaid, to and with the said Teig, his heirs, executors, and assigns, doth covenant, grant, and agree that if in case the said David the younger shall dye having no issue female by the said Dorothy, the estate whereof the said David shall dye seised and possessed shall be charged with a sum of money for the preferment and livelyhood of such issue female as by the said Teig Reagh Dowd, Teibot Burk fitz Walter of Turlogh, in the county of Mayo, Esq., and Henry Albongh of Rathlee, in the said county of Sligoe, Gent., or by any two of them, or by the heirs of any two of them, shall be thought fitt and sett down.”

“And that the said David the younger shall, at the request of the said Teig, his heirs, executors, or assigns, give such power and writing to the said Teig, Tibott, and Henry, and to any of them, and the heirs of any two of them, to that purpose, as by the said Teige, his heirs, executors, or assigns, or his or their counsil learned in the law shall be devised and advised, Procided there be no issue male surviving the said David the younger of the body of the said Dorothy.”

Item, it is covenanted and agreed upon by and between the said parties, and the said David the younger doth convenant and graunt for himself, his executors and admistrators, to and with the said Teig, his executors and assigns, for the considerations aforesaid, that if in case the estate in these presents mentioned shall not be recovered in manner as is above expressed, whereby a jointure may not be secured for the said Dorothy as is hereby intended, and if in case the said David the younger shall happen to dye, the said Dorothy surviving him, that then, and in such cases the said Dorothy shall be satisfied in quantity and quality the said marriage portion, and a moiety of what goods over and above the said marriage portion as shall be then in the possession of the said David the younger at the time of his death. And it is furhter covenanted and agreed upon by and between the said parties, and the said David the younger, for himself, his heirs, executors, and admistrators, to and with the said Teig, his executors and assigns, doth convenant and graunt for the considerations aforesaid, that whereas the said Teig, his executors and assigns, are by these presents graunted to have a moiety of such goods as should be in the possession of the said David the younger at the time of his death, in case he shall happen to survive the said Dorothy, having no issue by her, if in case any part of the said marriage portion shall be employed or disposed by the said David the younger in recovering his estate, whereby the marriage portion, or the value thereof in goods shall not be extant at the time of the death of the said Dorothy, as is last mentioned, without issue, that then and in such case the said David the younger shall, out of such parte of his estate as shall be recovered as aforesaid, make up such parte of the said moiety as shall be in that case wanting, and which estate shall be recovered by the help of the said marriage portion.”


Item, it is covenanted and graunted by and between the said parties that in case the whole real estate of the said David O'Dowda the elder, and of the said David Dowd the younger, shall be left unto them or some of them, their heirs or assigns, or other lands in lieu of them, without disallowance in respect of qualification, that then the said Dorothy shall have for her jointure but the third parte of the same, any thing in these presents contained to the contrary notwithstanding. In witness of all and singular the premises the said parties have to these presents interchangeably put their hands and seals the day and year above written.”

"Being present at the signing, sealing, and delivery of the abovewritten articles, and at the interlineing of the words as is hereby intended, &c., twixt the 59 and 60 lines, we whose names duely ensure."

This Dorothy, who became the wife of this Dathi, was the daughter of Teige O'Dowd by Margery Bermingham, daughter of John, a younger son of the Lord Baron of Athenry, and this Margery being an heiress, the O'Dowds became, as would appear from the family papers, entitled to quarter the Bermingham or Athenry arms with their own, but this they have not done.

It appears from the foregoing marriage articles that David Dowda, junior, was left without any estate, but that he had a strong expectation of being soon restored, and in this he was not disappointed, for the Commissioners appointed for the setting out of Lands to the Irish in Connaught and the County of Clare, restored him in August, 1656, to a small estate in the parish of Kilgarvan, barony of Gallen, and county of Mayo, the ancient patrimony of the Clann Donogh O'Dubhda. This appears from the original grant in the possession of the present O'Dowda, which is as follows:
“By the Commissioners for setting out lands to the Irish in the province of Connaught and county of Clare.”

“In consequence of the Decree of the Commissioners for adjudication of the Claimes and qualifications of the Irish, graunted on behalfe of David O'Dowda, of Leafonye, in the county of Sligoe, whereby hee is adjudged to have two third partes of his estates by virtue of the right qualification wherein he is compressed, sett out to him in the province of Connaght, or county of Clare; it is ordered and heerby impowered to enter  p.366 into, and take possession of one thousand five hundred and forty-six acres in the land hereafter specified, viz., in the two quarters of Carowcrum and Carcacrum, one hundred and thirty-two acres; in the two quarters of Boneconelan two hundred and seventy-six acres; Carrowlaban, one quarter, one hundred and fifty-three acres; Carrowreagh, one quarter, one hundred and twenty-nine acres; Kilnegarvan one hundred and fifty acres; Raredane, two quarters, two hundred and ninety-seven acres; Carrownegloontagh, one quarter, one hundred and fifteen acres; Carrownecarra, one quarter, one hundred and ninety-nine acres; and in Carrownegloch, one quarter, ninety-five acres; all lying in the parish of Kilnegarvan, barony of Galleng, and county of Mayo, to have and to hould all and singular the said lands, with all the houses, buildings, mills, fishing weyres, water courses, and other improvements and appurtenances, to him, the said David O'Dowda, his heyres and assignes for ever, in full satisfaction of his estate, according to the tenor of the said Decree; and the High Sheriff of the said county, or his Deputye, is hereby required and authorized to put him in full and quiet possession of the premises, takinge for his paynes five shillings, and no more. Dated at Loghreagh, this 4th of August, 1656.”
“Entered and examined,

This David had by Dorothy, his wife, four sons, namely, 1, David, who was more than seven feet tall, was an officer in the service of King James II., and was slain at the battle of the Boyne; 2, James, who was also an officer in King James II.'s service, and fought at the Boyne, which he survived, and distinguished himself at the siege of Athlone and battle of Aughrim, in which latter engagement he was slain; when his body was discovered his sword was found in his hand, which was so swollen from exertion that the guard of his sword had to be filed off before the hand could be disengaged from it; 3, Thady, or Teige, who was an officer in the service of the King of France, and subsequently admitted to the honour of nobility in Venice, and who died of a fever in France, without issue; 4, Dominic O'Dowda, No. 39, by whom the line was continued; and 5, Francis Dowd, who left no issue. See Will of 1731, next page.

“In 1705, this David and his fourth son, Dominic, then the only surviving son, sold several denominations of land to a Mr. Wingfield, as appears from the original deed of sale, in the possession of the present O'Dowda.”

39. Dominic O'Dowda, fourth son of David. — He married, in 1703, Ellice Dillon, daughter of Theobald Dillon, Esq., whose brother was a colonel in the service of James II., and died in 1737, leaving by her David O'Dowda, his eldest son (see Lodge's Peerage by Archdall, vol. ii. p. 182), who married Letitia Browne, daughter of James  p.367 Browne of Kilticolla, afterwards Brownehall, in the county of Mayo, Esq., and died without issue. This is the David mentioned by the venerable Charles O'Conor, in his Dissertations on the History of Ireland, in 1753, as the head of the O'Dowds. On the 6th of August, 1776, he and his wife Letitia O'Dowda, otherwise Browne, obtained a decree in Chancery against George Fitzgerald, Esq., of Turlough, in the county of Mayo; 2, James, an officer in the French service, who died without issue; and, 3, Thady O'Dowda, a colonel in the army of the Emperor Joseph.

His Will is dated 18th September, 1731, and is as follows:

“In nomine Dei. Amen.
I, Dominic O'Dowd, of Bunicunilane, weak and feeble of body, and troubled by many distempers, yet of sound memorie, sence, and reason, the Lord be praised, understanding my later days to approach, and fearing lest I should be surprised by death, do order and settle my last Will and Testament as followeth:
Imprimis, I bequeath my soul and body upon my Redeemer, and my body to be buried in my ancestors' Tomb, in Moyne, if allowed, otherwise where my relations will think fit.
2ndly. I order for my married wife, pursuant to the articles of intermarriage, the same forty pounds sterling per annum mentioned in said articles.
3rdly. I order for my eldest daughter Molly Dowd three hundred pounds sterling.
4thly. I order for my son James Dowd two hundred pounds sterling.
5thly. I order for my daughter Evelin Dowd hundred and fifty pounds sterling.
6thly. I order for my son Thady Dowd hundred and fifty pounds sterling.
These sums I order to be paid out of my real estate.
7thly. I order for the convent of Moyne five pounds sterling, and also for the convent of Ardnaree five pounds more, and lastly, for the convent of Strade two pounds ten shillings sterling. Further, I order for my parish priest, father David Henry, the sum of two pounds sterling, and to fr. Francis Beolan twenty shillings.
8thly. I order for my niece Molly Dillon ten big cows. All these aforesaid legacies I order to be deducted, or paid out of the personal estate.
9thly. I order twenty pounds sterling to be paid towards my funeral expenses.
Lastly. I do nominate and appoint Coll.l Morgan Vaughan, Counsellor Richard Cormick, and Mr. Toby Burk my true and lawful executors, to oversee my wife and children, and this my last will and testament executed. In witness, and for the true performance of all and singular the premises, I have hereunto set my hand and seal, this the eighteenth of September, in the year one thousand seven hundred and thirty-one.
Memorandum.— I do order and bequeath to my brother Francis Dowd the sum  p.367 of two hundred pounds sterling, together with three years' interest, ending the first of November next, which sum was ordered by my father, David O'Dowd, and by myself as child's portion for him; and I do appoint that it should be paid out of my real estate. In witness and for the true performance of all and singular the premises, I do hereunto set my hand and seal, this the eighteenth day of September, 1731, thirty-one.”

Dominic O'Dowd. Signed, sealed, and delivered in presence of us, Henry Jordan. Hugh O'Donnell. Francis Moore. "A true copy."

Of David, his eldest son, the venerable Charles O'Conor of Belanagare wrote the following notice in the first edition of his Dissertations on the History of Ireland, published in 1753, pp. 234, 235:

The Hy-Fiachras, whose great ancestor Dathy, carried the Terror of the Scotic Name to the Foot of the Alps, possessed the Countries of Tir Fiachra and Tir Awly, from the fifth Century to the fifteenth. Our old Annals pay a large Tribute of Praise to this family, and it is represented at present by a Gentleman of the strictest Probity, David, or properly Dathy O'Dowda, of Ballycollanan [rectius Bunnyconnellan], in the County of Mayo, Esquire.

40. Thady, Teige, or Thaddaeus O'Dowda, third son of Dominic O'Dowda.— Sir Richard Musgrave states, in his Memoirs of the different Rebellions in Ireland, that this “Thady being a younger brother, and having neither property nor employment at home, went out a volunteer to Germany at the age of twenty-five years, and in the course of time was promoted, in the Hungarian service, to the rank of captain [recte colonel], having previously married a German lady, sister to the Baron Wipler [recte Vippler], of whom James O'Doude was the issue.”

According to the tradition in the family this Thaddaeus O'Dowda, who was called at home Tadhg Riabhach O'Dubhda, went out to Germany and entered the Austrian service, accompanied by Manus O'Donnell, who was promoted to the rank of general, and also by George Fitzgerald of Turlough, the father of the celebrated George Robert Fitzgerald. That he was promoted to the rank of colonel, and was one of the largest and bravest men in Germany, and that Antonia Vippler, the sister of Baron Vippler, residing in Silesia, fell in love with him, to whom, after much opposition on the part of her family, who threw many difficulties in his way, and even procured his imprisonment,  p.369 he was finally married, and through whom he was introduced to the highest circles in Germany. By her he had issue James O'Dowda, who was commonly called the Baron O'Dowda, of whom presently, and another son, who died young in Germany.

41. Captain James O'Dowda, commonly called Baron O'Dowda. Sir Richard Musgrave states, in his Memoirs of the different Rebellions in Ireland, that this James O'Dowda was born and educated in the Hungarian service, and that he had only arrived at the rank of lieutenant, “in which station,” he adds, “he served, when the death of his uncle, David O'Doude, who possessed the family estate, and died without issue, was announced to him. In consequence of this event,” adds this historian, “he left the army, came to Ireland, and took possession of the paternal property, which proved to be worth about £500 a year, and which he applied himself to the cultivation of with great attention.”

It appears from the family papers, and particularly from a letter in the handwriting of his uncle, the Baron Vippler, that this James returned to Ireland shortly before the year 1788. In the will of Letitia Browne, alias O'Dowda, the widow of his uncle David O'Dowda, dated 10th February, 1798, she states “that her late husband, David O'Dowda, lived in the Isle of Man,” and she orders “that all the papers and the deeds of mortgage respecting Mac Donnell of Elaghmore shall be given to Captain O'Dowda, whose property it is, together with the copy of the map of his estate, and all other papers belonging to him.” Her nephew, James Browne, of Browne Hall, Esq., administered to this will.

In the statistical account of the parish of Kilmactige, in the diocese of Achonry, and county of Sligo, written by the Rev. James Nelligan, Rector and Vicar, and published in Mason's Parochial Survey, vol. ii. pp. 349–398, the following curious account is given of the improvements made by this Captain James O'Dowda:

“A valuable improvement was made in this place about twenty years ago, through the exertions of a Captain O'Dowdd [a misprint for O'Dowda], who possessed an estate of many thousand acres of these mountains, which were without inhabitants, except those “ferae naturae,” and which were nearly impassable to the active and barefooted native. The immense rocks, steep hills, and deep caverns, which everywhere presented themselves, formed as many insuperable difficulties as the passage of the Alps did in former days; but this Hannibal by labour and perseverance overcame them all, and has now formed a road, where a coach passes six times a week, conveying passengers to and from Ballina and Castlerea, and has shortened the line from Ballina to Banada from twenty to twelve miles.”

This Captain James O'Dowda, who is said to have been the godchild of the Emperor Joseph, was implicated in the rebellion of 1798, and executed at Killala in September,  p.370 1798. A very curious sketch of his character is given by Sir Richard Musgrave, in his Memoirs of the different Rebellions in Ireland, vol. ii. pp. 622, 623, 624, where he says that “considering himself the head of the Clan or family, he despised taking a Christian name, and always subscribed himself O'Doude, Captain, and latterly he had the vanity to assume the title of Baron, perhaps from his uncle Baron Wipler in Germany.” Sir Richard says that this family counted twenty-five castles on their extensive estate, many of which are still in existence, and that they “have a burying place appropriated to them in the abbey of Moyne, where may be seen the gigantick bones of some of them, who have been very remarkable for their great stature, as one of them exceeded seven feet in height.”— Vol. ii. p. 624.

This Captain James O'Dowda, who was popularly called the Baron O'Dowda, married Temperance Fitz Gerald, daughter of Robert Fitz Gerald, Esq., of Mount Tallant. This marriage took place in the year 1788 or early in 1789, when he was very young, as appears from a German letter in the handwriting of his uncle, the Baron Vippler, dated Wigstädt, the 21st November, 1788, of which the following translation, made for the Editor by that accomplished scholar, George Downes, Esq., author of Letters from Continental Countries, &c. &c., is worth preserving:


I was infinitely delighted to hear that of six letters written to you one had come to hand, and no less that you will be so kind as to admit the sincerity of my letter: you may now quite confidently believe that no one can have more sincere intentions towards you than I. You are then already quite determined to marry? To tell the truth, I would witness it with more pleasure if it were to happen a couple of years later; however, you are not to be checked; and I therefore wish you much joy. May you propitiously take this so great step, which is truly of the last importance! for every thing which is eternal ought to be undertaken with caution; and you, my good nephew, have not yet had the opportunity of acquiring sufficient experience of the world. Your future lot will therefore so much the more depend on fortune. And, dear O'Dowda, only keep religion and God constantly before your eyes; for such must be always kept in view by an honourable man. That you have become so good a manager, I am infinitely delighted to hear. God grant that you may continue in this course, and believe that the best enjoyment is one's own approbation! You can take myself as an example. How much have good friends cost me, and how little has been purchased!

That you have received no letter from my brother must not surprise you: you know already with what reluctance he writes. Now concerning your money. To speak  p.371 candidly, it is better for you not to be informed. If you did not get the money {} and then you must [appear] at our court about permission.

Mac Kernan is gone on an expedition against the Turks: it is about two months since he left me, but I have not yet received a letter from him. Do not forget to assure your worthy aunt of the very devoted respect I entertain for her. I am delighted that you ride indefatigably: but be on your guard to avoid meeting with an accident.

To conclude,
Your sincere uncle,
Yours from his heart,

This letter proves beyond a question the connexion of Captain O'Dowda with the family of Vippler; but nothing has been yet discovered to prove that he became the heir of that family, or that he had any right to the title of Baron. The following letter, written by the Honourable Thomas Dillon to him, on the 17th of January, 1795, shows that a relative in Germany had left him a handsome sum of money. This relative was probably his uncle, the Baron Vippler:

My Dear Friend,

It gives me very great Pleasure to inform you that I had a Letter last Post from Lord Dillon, desiring I would send to you to give you the pleasing Intelligence of the following matter, which I give you down in his Lordship's Words. “Inform O'Dowda directly that there is a handsome Sum of Money left to him by a Relation in Germany; tell him to write immediately to Baron Reiyensfield, Secretary to the Imperial Minister, No. 6, Bryanton-street, Portman-square, London, or to Count Starhemberg, the Imperial Minister, Portland-place, London; but if he will take my Advice he will set out directly for London. Let him call upon me; I will give him a letter to Count Starhemberg, and that will shorten all proceedings; he may otherwise meet with great delay.”

Wishing you every prosperity, I remain, My Dear O'Dowda,
Your very affectionate
Humble Servant,
THOS. DILLON. Loughglin House,

I send this in the care of our friend Mr. Hughes, who will lose no time in forwarding it. O'Dowda, Bunniconilan.

He had issue, 1, Thaddaus O'Dowda of Bunnyconnellan, now the O'Dowda, of  p.372 whom presently; 2, James Fiachra O'Dowda of Dublin, solicitor, who married, first, Anne, daughter of William Walker, Recorder of Dublin, and, secondly, Mary, daughter of Joseph Burke of Carrowkeel, county of Mayo, Esq., but had no issue by either, and died in 1843, leaving his property to the family of his eldest brother the O'Dowda; 3, Robert O'Dowda, now an advocate in the supreme court of Calcutta, who married, in 1828, Catherine Wilhelmina Fulcher of the city of London, by whom he has issue four sons, viz., Robert Charles, James William, William Hickey, Henry Cubitt, and two daughters, Kate Ellen, and Louisa Kenny.

Captain O'Dowda (No. 41) had also two daughters, viz., Antonia Letitia, and Temperance, spinsters, now living.— See Exshaw's Magazine, January, 1790, in which is the following entry under BIRTHS:— “At Mount Tallant, near Dublin, the Lady of Baron O'Dowda, of a daughter.”

42. Thaddaeus O'Dowda, Esq., son of Captain James O'Dowda. He married, in 1812, Ellen White, daughter of Charles White of Dublin, merchant, and has the following issue, all living at present: Dr. James Vippler O'Dowda, a practising surgeon in Dublin; 2, Thaddaeus O'Dowda, Junior, who is six feet seven inches in height; 3, John Taaffe O'Dowda; 4, David; 5, Robert Francis O'Dowda, and four daughters, namely, Ellen, now Mrs. Kelly, Caroline Victoria, Catherine Wilhelmina, and Elizabeth. He had also another son Francis, and two daughters, Harriet and Louisa, who died young.

Arms: Or, a saltier sable; in chief two swords in saltier; in base an oak leaf, vert.

Crest: Over a coronet, a hand in armour holding a dart, ppr.

Supporters: Two lions rampant.

Motto: Virtus ipsa suis firmissima nititur armis.

In a MS. about one hundred and fifty years old, the arms of O'Dowde are described thus: “or, a saltier sable, in chief two swords saltierways, garnished of the first.” No supporters are mentioned.

The oldest seal of arms in the possession of the present O'Dowda belonged to the David O'Dowda mentioned by Charles O'Conor, in 1753, the head of the family. It exhibits the supporters and the coronet in the crest.

2. B

Pedigree of O'Shaughnessy

Of the ancient history of the O'Shaughnessys— who have been so celebrated in Ireland since the reign of Henry VIII— the Irish annals have preserved but very slight memorials. Since the period alluded to they have been much praised, not only by the Irish bards, but by the more respectable writers of the country, and they had undoubtedly  p.373 held high rank in Connaught, and have intermarried with the best families of English descent, as the Burkes, Berminghams, Butlers, &c. It appears from a by-law of the Corporation of Galway, passed in 1648, that “Lieutenant Colonel William O'Shaugnessie (in consideration of his alliance in bloode to the whole towne, and for good nature and affection that he and his whole family doe bear to it) and his posterity, shall be hereafter freemen of this corporation.”— History of Galway, p. 216. From their celebrity, high bearing, and character for integrity and honour in Ireland, De Burgo was induced, in his Hibernia Dominicana, to write of this family, “cujus nobilitatem, antiquitatem, et integritatem qui non novit, Hiberniam non novit.” Notwithstanding all these testimonies, however, the truth of history obliges us to state that the O'Shaughnessys are but rarely mentioned in ancient Irish history, and that no person of the name ever became full chief of Aidhne or the south Hy-Fiachrach, the O'Heynes, O'Clerys, or Mac Gillikellys being in turn the chiefs of that territory; but upon the decay of the family of O'Cathail, or O'Cahill, shortly after the period of the English invasion, the O'Shaughnessys became chiefs of the territory of Cinel Aodha, or Kinelea, which comprised the south-eastern half of the territory of Aidhne, and this was the highest rank they ever attained to.

In a Description of the Province of Connaught, dated in the month of “January, 1612,” published in the twenty-seventh volume of the Archaeologia, it is stated that the O'Heynes were then utterly banished; but that “the O'Shaughnesses retnayned a rich and hable family.”— p. 126.

4. Eochaidh Breac.— He was the third son of the monarch Dathi, according to the Book of Lecan, but we are told no more about him, except that he was the ancestor of the southern Hy-Fiachrach, or the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, and of the tribe called Hy-Eathach of the Moy, seated to the west of that river, in the barony of Tirawley, in the county of Mayo, and that he was the father of,
5. Eoghan Aidhne, i. e. Owen, or Eugenius of the territory of Aidhne, now comprised in the diocese of Kilmacduagh, in the south-west of the county of Galway; he was so called from his having been fostered in that territory by a tribe called Oga Beathra, who afterwards adopted him as their chief.— Vide supra, p. 53. He had four sons, namely, 1, Conall; 2, Cormac; 3, Sedna; 4, Seanach Ceanngamhna, from whom sprung a sept called Cinel Cinngamhna, of whom the O'Duibhghiollas were the chiefs after the establishment of surnames in the eleventh century.

6. Conall, son of Eoghan Aidhne.— We are told nothing about him, except that he had one son, namely,
7. Goibhnenn.— He was chief of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, and in the year 531 fought the battle of Claonloch, in the territory of Kinelea, in which was slain Maine, son of Cerbhall,  p.374 Cerbhall, while defending the hostages of the Hy-Maine of Connaught.— (Annals of the Four Masters) He had one son,
8. Cobhthach.— He had three sons, namely, 1, Aodh, the ancestor of the tribe called Cinel Aodha na h-Echtghe, of whom the O'Cahills and O'Shaughnessys were the chiefs after the establishment of surnames; 2, Colman, the father of the celebrated Guaire Aidhne, King of Connaught, and ancestor of the families of O'Clery, O'Heyne, Mac Giolla Cheallaigh, now Kilkelly, and others; 3, Conall, the great grandfather of St. Colman, patron saint of Kilmacduagh, whose crozier and belt, ornamented with gold and gems, was in the possession of the O'Shaughnessy family in Colgan's time (1645).

9. Aodh, son of Cobhthach.— Of the generations from this Aodh down to Gealbhuide (No. 27 in the Genealogical Table) our annalists have preserved no notice.

The first notice of this family which occurs in the Irish annals is at the year 1159, in which it is recorded that Gealbhuidhe, the son of Seachnasach, was slain in the memorable battle of Ardee, fought between Muircheartach Mac Loughlin. head of the northern Hy-Niall, and Roderic O'Conor, King of Connaught. The following are all the notices of the O'Shaughnessys, O'Cahills, and their territory of Cinel Aodha, or Kinelea, preserved in the Annals of the Four Masters and Clonmacnoise, down to the year 1408.

“A. D. 1154. Toirdhealbhach O'Conor [King of Ireland] set out on a predatory excursion into Meath, but returned without a single cow, his son Maelseachlainn and Donnchadh O'Cathail [Donogh O'Cahill], lord of Cinel Aodha na h-Echtghe [Kinelea of Slieve Aughty], being killed.”— Four Masters.

“A. D. 1159. Gealbhuidhe O'Shaughnessy [recte Mac Shaughnessy] was slain in the battle of Ath Fhirdia.”— Four Masters.

“A. D. 1170. Diarmaid O'Cuinn [Dermot O'Quin], chief of Clann Iffernain [in Thomond], was slain by the Cinel Aodha of Echtghe.”— Four Masters.

“A. D. 1191. Cinel Aodha na h-Echtghe was given to King Roderic O'Conor.”— Four Masters.

“A. D. 1197. Maoileachlainn Riabhach O'Shaughnessy, lord of half the territory of Cinel Aodha, was slain by the son of Donnchadh O'Cathail [O'Cahill].”— Four Masters.

“A. D. 1221. The sons of Gillenenewe macconn [recte Cromm] O'Seaghnossa, took house upon Gille Mochoynne O'Cahall, prince of Kynelhagh, who killed him after his coming foorth.”— Ann. Clonmacnoise, translated by Connell Mageoghegan.

“A. D. 1222. Giolla Mochoine O'Cathail, lord of Cinel Aodha, East and West, was slain by Seachnasach, the son of Giolla na Naomh O'Shaughnessy, at the instigation of his own people.”— Four Masters.


“A. D. 1224. Seachnasach, the son of Giolla na naomh O'Shaughnessy, was slain by the Clann Cuilen [the Mac Namaras] and the bachall mor [large crozier] of St Colman of Kilmacduagh, was profaned by this deed.”— Four Masters.

“A. D. 1224. Giolla na naomh Crom O'Shaughnessy, lord of the western half of Cinel Aodha na h-Echtghe, died.”— Four Masters.

“A. D. 1240. Hugh, the son of Giolla na naomh Crom O'Shaughnessy, was slain by Conchobhar, son of Aodh, son of Cathal Croibhdhearg O'Conor and Fiachra O'Flynn.”— Four Masters.

“A. D. 1248. Opichen Guer [Hopkin Poer] was slain by Giolla Mochoinne O'Cahill.”— Four Masters.

“A. D. 1251. Giolla Mochainne, the son of Giolla Mochainne O'Cahill, was slain by Conchobhar, the son of Cathal Croibhdhearg O'Conor.”— Four Masters.

“A. D. 1403. Mortagh Garve O'Seaghnosy, tanist of Tyre-Fiaghragh Ayne, was killed by those of Imaine.”— Annals of Clonmacnoise, translated by Mageoghegan.

“A. D. 1408. John Cam O'Shaughnessy was slain by the son of O'Loughlin, in a game on the green of Clonrode.”— Four Masters.

Seeing from these extracts (and we have no more), that it is now impossible to add dates to the pedigree of O'Shaughnessy given in the Genealogical Table, from Aodh, the ancestor of the Cinel Aodha, down to Sir Dermot, who was knighted in 1533 (No. 36 in the Genealogical Table), we must be content with illustrating this pedigree from this Sir Dermot down to the last acknowledged representative of the name, and adding a few observations to identify the present senior of the name.

36. Sir Dermot O'Shaughnessy was the son of William, who was the son of John Buidhe, son of Eoghan, son of William, son of Giolla na naomh, son of Ruaidhri, son of Giolla na naomh Crom, lord of the western half of Kinelea, who died in 1224, son of Raghnall, or Randal, son of Gealbhuidhe, who was slain at the battle of Ardee in 1159, son of Seachnasach, the progenitor after whom this family took the name of Ui Seachnasaigh, i. e. descendants of Seachnasach, now generally anglicised O'Shaughnessy, and pronounced in the original territory O'Shannessy, and by some corruptly anglicised Sandys.

The first notice of this chieftain is found on Patent Roll, 33–35, Henry VIII., from which it appears that the king, on the 9th of July, 1533, wrote to the Lord Deputy and Council of Ireland, saying, “We have made the Lord of Upper Ossory, McNemarrowe, O'Shaftnes, Denys Grady and — — Wise, Knyghtes; and woll that by virtue and warraunt hereof youe shall make out unto McNemarrowe, O'Shaftnes and Denys Grady, several patentes of all soche lands as they nowe have.”

By Letters Patent, dated 3rd December, 35 Henry VIII., A. D. 1543, the king granted to Sir Dermot Sheaghyn [Sheaghynes], knight, captain of his nation, in consideration  p.376 of his submission, and pursuant to the king's letter, dated the 9th of June preceding, “All the manors, lordshipps, towns and town-lands of Gortynchegory, Dromneyll, Dellyncallan, Ballyhide, Monynean, Ardgossan, Ballyegyn, Kapparell, Clonehaghe, Tollenegan, Lycknegarishe, Crege, Karrynges, Tirrelagh, Rathvilledowne, Ardmylowan, one-third part of Droneskenan and Rath; the moiety of Flyngeston, Ardvillegoghe, Dromleballehue, Cowle, and Beke”, which lands, it is recited, the said Sir Dermot and his ancestors had unjustly possessed against the Crown, to hold to him and his heirs male in capite, by the service of one Knight's fee, with a clause of forfeiture in case of confederacy against, or disturbance to the Crown. Inrolled on the Patent Roll of the thirty-fifth year of Henry VIII. Dorso.

This Sir Dermot married Mor Pheacach, i. e. More the Gaudy, O'Brien, who died in 1569, at an advanced age. Her death is thus recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters:— “A. D. 1569. Mor Pheacach (daughter of Brian, son of Tadhg, son of Toirdhealbhach, son of Brian of the Battle of Nenagh O'Brian) and wife of O'Shaughnessy (Diarmaid, son of William, son of John Buidhe), a woman celebrated for her beauty and munificence, died. By Mor Pheacach he had two sons, namely, Sir Roger, his successor, and Diarmaid, or Dermot Reagh, who went to England in his youth, and became servant or companion to the Earl of Leicester, as will presently be made appear from original documents.”

37. Sir Roger, son of Sir Dermot.— This Sir Roger was generally called Giolla dubh, anglice Gilduff, or Gilliduff, i. e. juvenis niger, by the Irish, from his black complexion and the colour of his hair. He married the Lady Honora (daughter of Murrogh, first Earl of Thomond) who had been a professed nun and an abbess, by whom he had four sons, namely, 1, John, born four or five years before marriage, as were also two daughters, Joan and Margaret; and, 2, William; 3, Fergananim; and, 4, Dermot, who were all born in marriage. Sir Roger, who was called by the Irish Giolla dubh, died in the year 1569, as we learn from the Annals of the Four Masters, in which the following notice of his death is given:— “A. D. 1569. O'Shaughnessy (Giolla dubh, son of Diarmaid, who was son of William, who was son of John Buidhe), pillar of support to the English and Irish who had sought his assistance, and a man who, though not skilled in Latin or English, had been greatly valued and esteemed by the English, died. His son John assumed his place.”

After the death of Sir Roger, his brother, Diarmaid Riabhach, anglice Dermot Reagh, or Darby the Swarthy, O'Shaughnessy, who had been servant or companion to the Earl of Leicester, returned to Ireland, having first procured a letter from Queen Elizabeth to her Deputy, Sir Henry Sidney, of which the following is a faithful copy although, by some unaccountable mistake, he is in it called the son of William.  p.377

By the Queene.
Elizabeth R.
Right trusty and welbeloved we grete you well.

Wher one Derby O'Shaghnes the youngest sonne, as he saith, of William O'Shaghnes, Lord of Kynally, in that our Realme of Ireland, hath by the meanes of his Lord and Master, our Coosen, the Erle of Leicester, humbly required us not onely to geve him leave to returne into his contry, but also to recomend his peticion unto yow for some order to be taken with hym upon the death of his brother named Roger O'Shaghnes as being next heire unto him, we being duely inforemed of his honest demeaner here and of his earnest desire to Serve us, have been content to accompt him to our Service, and do require yow to have favorable consideracion of his sute, and as you shall fynd it mete to place and settle him in the foresaid Contry, so the rather to incurrage him to persever in his fidelitie, to shewe him as muche favor as may accord with the good goverment of the same Contry.—

Given under our Signet at our Mannor of Otelands,

To our right trusty and welbeloved Sir Henry Sidney,
Knight, of our order of the Garter, and Deputy of
our Realme of Irland.

It is very extraordinary, that in this letter Dermot Reagh is supposed to have been the son of William O'Shaughnessy, which he most unquestionably was not, for we have the testimony of the Irish Annals, and of his cotemporaries, that he was the brother of Sir Roger, as he states himself, and as such he was not the son but the grandson of a William O'Shaughnessy, for Sir Roger was the son of Sir Dermot, and grandson of William. It would appear from the following entry in the Annals of the Four Masters that this Derby or Dermot was made chief of his name in 1571:
“A. D. 1571. John, son of Gilla dubh, who was son of Diarmaid O'Shaughnessy, who had been the O'Shaughnessy from the time of the death of his father until this year, was deprived of that title, and also of Gort Insi Guaire, by his paternal uncle Diarmaid Riabhach, the son of Diarmaid, for he was virtually the senior.”

This Dermot Riabhach, or Reagh, as we are informed by the Four Masters, continued to be the chief of the O'Shaughnessys until the year 1573, when he and Ulick, the son of Richard Burke, slew Morogh O'Brien (the son of Dermot, who was son of Morogh), in revenge for which John Burke deprived O'Shaughnessy of Gort Inse Guaire. But he held considerable sway in the territory till the year 1579, when he laid a snare for his nephew William, the second son of Sir Roger, near Ard Maoldubhain, on which occasion a fierce combat took place between them, in which he slew his nephew, but though  p.378 he did, he received such deep wounds himself that he died of them in less than an hour afterwards.

After the death of Dermot Reagh, John O'Shaughnessy, the eldest son of Sir Roger, but who had been born before marriage, was again set up as the O'Shaughnessy, but his brother Dermot, who having been himself born in marriage, looked upon John as a bastard, made strong efforts to depose him; and John finding that the laws of England were in favour of Dermot, fortified himself against him by conveying all the lands in O'Shaughnessy's country to Sir Geffrie Fenton, for the sole consideration of Sir Geffrie maintaining his title against Dermot, who continually disturbed him in his possession. Both appeared at the parliament convened at Dublin in the year 1585, after which we have no more of John, or any of his descendants; but Sir Dermot appears to have been chief of his name till his death in 1606.

The following abstract of Depositions will throw much light upon the genealogy and rank of the O'Shaughnessy family at this period:

“Abstract of Depositions in a cause in the Chancery of Ireland, wherein Fulk Comerford was Plaintiff, and Roger O'Shaghnes of Gort-Inchigorye, in Galway Co., Defendant, touching the town and lands of Cappafennell, or Capperell, in that Co. A. D. 1615.”

“Donnell O'Holloran of Gilloconry, in Galway County, husbandman, deposed that Sir Roger O'Shaghnes was son and heir of Sir Dermott— that Sir Roger was married to Honora ny Brien, by whom he had four sons: 1, John, born about four or five years before marriage, as were also two daughters, Joan and Margaret; and, 2, William; 3, Fergananym; and, 4, Dermott, born in marriage— that William was married, but died without male issue, and Fergananym died unmarried— that John O'Shaghnes conveyed all the lands in O'Shaghnes' Country to Sir Geffrie Fenton, for the sole consideration of Sir Geffrie maintaining the title of John against Dermott— that John was continually disturbed in his possession by Dermott, the Defendant's father— that Dermott, after the death of his two brothers, and in the life-time of John, enjoyed the greatest part of the lands of which Sir Roger had died seised, and that John was always reputed to be a bastard— that Sir Roger, the Defendant's grandfather, enjoyed these lands (viz. Cappafennell) and had tillage there, having had at one time fourteen score of reapers in harvest cutting, of whom Deponent was one.”

“Depositions to the same effect were made by the following persons, viz.:”

“Knougher Crone O'Hyne of Ledygane, gent., 100 years old and upwards.”

“Richard Bourke of Rahaly, in Galway county, 64 years old or thereabouts, who  p.379 added, that he had seen an order of Council made by Sir Henry Sydney between Dermott and William, brother and son of Sir Roger, ordering that William should enjoy O'Shaghnes' lands to him and his heirs male, remainder to Dermott, Sir Roger's brother.”

“Margaret Countess Dowager of Clanrickard, 80 years old and upwards, sister to Honora, wife of Sir Roger, who added that they were married by a dispensation from Rome.”

“Manus Ward Dean of Kilmackoweth [Kilmacduagh], 80 years old or thereabouts, who added that he knew of the controversy between Dermott and William O'Shaghnes, as above mentioned, wherein Dermott endeavoured to prove Sir Roger's sons bastards, because their mother was abbatissa and could not be wife.”

“Sir Tirrelagh O'Brien of Dowgh, in Clare Co., Knight, nephew of Honora ny Brien.”

“Donell O'Heyne of Killaveragh, freeholder, aged 80 years.”

“Richard Lord Brimigham, Baron of Athenrye, nephew to Sir Roger by his mother.”

“Tirlagh Roe Mc Mahowne of Clare county, Esq., 44 years old, who added, that he knew the Defendant's father, Dermott, to have been in suit with John O'Shaghnes, and to have held Gort-Inshygory, the Newton, and Ardemoylenan, during John's lifetime, as heir of the body of Sir Roger.”

“Nehemias Folan of Balladowgan, in Galway county, Esq., 60 years old, who added that Dermott Reogh O'Shaghnes, brother to Sir Roger, being servant to the Earl of Leyster, having come from England after Sir Roger's death, brought in question the legitimacy of Sir Roger's sons by the Lady Honora, at which time, during Sir Henry Sydney's Government, it appeared that the said Honora was a professed nun when the said Sir Roger had the said John by her, and that afterwards a dispensation was procured from Rome for their marriage.”

38. Sir Dermot O'Shaughnessy, the fourth son of Sir Roger. He died on the eighth of July, 1606, seised of the territory of Kinelea, alias O'Shaughnes's country, leaving Roger, otherwise called Gilleduffe, his heir (who was then aged twenty-three and married), and Shyly Nyn Hubert, his widow. He had also two other sons, viz. Dathi and William, the latter of whom had four sons, namely, William, Edmond, Roger, and Dermot, of whose descendants no account has been discovered. This Sir Dermot had also three daughters, namely, 1, Joan, wife of Sir William Burke, Knight, who was by him the mother of Richard Burke, sixth Earl of Clanrickard— (See Hibernia Dominicana, p. 277); 2, Julia, the wife of Teige O'Kelly of Gallagh; and, 3, Honora, the wife of Johnock Burke of Tully.

39. Sir Roger O'Shaughnessy, son and heir of Sir Dermot. He married two wives:  p.380 1, Elis, daughter of — — Lynch, by whom he had Sir Dermot, his son and heir, of whom presently, and one daughter, who married Daniel O'Donovan of Castle Donovan, chief of Clancahill in the county of Cork. This daughter of Sir Roger is not mentioned in any pedigree of O'Shaughnessy that the Editor ever saw, but she is mentioned in Monsigneur Laine's Pedigree of the Count Mac Carthy, and in the family papers of the late General Richard O'Donovan of Bawnlahan, near Castletownshend, in the county of Cork, as the daughter of Sir Roger O'Shaughnessy, Knight, and also in an ode addressed, in 1639, to her husband Daniel O'Donovan, by Muldowny O'Morrison, in which he thus praises him and his wife:

  1. Ua Donnabháin na n-déigh-bheart, tuilliomh garma a ghnáth-oighreacht,
    Cuinge ceart d'á fhréim roimhe, a theacht 'san réim rioghroidhe;
    Uachtaran iarthair Mumhan, urra an chirt do chothughadh,
    Flaith amhra d'ár g-crú Cuirc-ne, tarla an chlu fá a chomuirce.
    Buadh n-dealbha d'a dreich fosaigh, fuair inghion I Seachnosaigh,
    Réidhe gan chumga g-croidhe, úmhla, féile, is foistine.
    Pailm toruidh do threibh Dáithi, inghion réidh-chroidheach Ruaidhri,
    Fuair airghe na n-glún ór' chin, ag tnúth le h-oidhbhle an oinigh.
    Teist bhuan na ríoghraide roimpe, ni léig uaithe ar imirce,
    Tug ar ainm Ghuaire ór chin, an ghairm is buaine braithfidh.
    Fiu an treabh ór tuismheadh Síle, buaidh feile ar a prímh líne,
    Da coimhdhe ag maicne an mhíodh-óil: roighne aicme Eireamhóin.
  2. The offspring of Donovan of the good deeds, hereditary deserver of dignity,
    A worthy representative of the stock he sprung from, has come into the regal succession.
    Superintendent of the west of Munster, prop for supporting justice,
    Illustrious chieftain of our Corcnian blood, under whose protection our fame is placed.
    The palm for beauty of her sedate aspect O'Shaughnessy's daughter has obtained.
    Meekness without narrowness of heart, humility, generosity, firmness.
    A fruitful palm-tree of the race of Dathi, the kind-hearted daughter of Rory,
    Who inherits the attributes of the sires she sprung from, in longing to indulge the flame of hospitality.
    The undying character of the kings before her she has not suffered to pass away,
    But has reflected on the name of Guaire that lasting lustre she had derived from him.
    The race from whom Sheela has descended deserved the palm for hospitality,
    Of which the drinkers of metheglin boast: they are the choice of Heremon's race.

Sir Roger married, 2, Julia, the daughter of Cormac Mac Carthy, lord of Muskerry,  p.381 but had no issue by her. He was living in the year 1647, as appears by a curious letter written by him to his daughter Gylles in that year, and now preserved at Bawnlahan, in the possession of Major Powell, who succeeded to the property of the late General O'Donovan in 1832. It is as follows:

For my verie loveinge Daughter Mrs. Gyles Donovane, at Castledonovane, theise.

I have received yours of the eighteenth of ffebruarie last, and as for your troubles you must be patient as well as others, and for my parte I taste enough of that fruite; God mend it amongst all, and send us a more happie tyme. As for the partie lately comaunded to the countree of Kiery, who may be expected to return that way, they are conducted by my Nephew (your Cuossen) Lieut. Collonell William Bourke, to whom I have written by the bearer in your behalfe. I am most Confident he will not suffer any wrong to be don unto your Dependants, Tenants, or yourself. And If in gase [in case] you should expect the whole Armey, you may certifie me soe much with speed, and I shall take that Course that shal be befittinge. In the meane tyme beseeching God to bless and keepe you and yours,

I am,
Youre assured loveing ffather, R. O'Shaghnissye. Fedan,

The arms on the seal of this letter are “a tower crenelled in pale between two lions combatant.” The crest, “an arm embowed holding a spear.”

This Gylles, who was living in May, 1676, had four sons, as appears from the O'Donovan records, namely; 1, Daniel, who was a colonel in the service of James II. and who was the great grandfather of the late General O'Donovan of Bawnlahan; 2, Cornelius; 3, Morogh; and 4, Richard, all living in 1655, but of whose descendants the Editor has not as yet discovered any satisfactory account, but believes that they are all extinct.

According to the pedigree of O'Shaughnessy given in the O'Clery MS. in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy, this Sir Roger, or Gilla-dubh O'Shaughnessy, died in the year 1650. There is a portrait of him dressed in armour preserved among the muniments of Ormond Castle, Kilkenny.

40. Sir Dermot O'Shaughnessy.— He married Joan, daughter of Lord Barrymore, and had by her two sons, Roger, his successor, and Cormac, or Charles. He died in 1673.

The following abstract of his Will, which is preserved in the Prerogative Court, Dublin, is well worthy of a place here, as throwing light not only on this pedigree, but upon the manners and customs of the times:  p.382

Abstract of Will of Sir Dermot O'Shaughnessy of Gort-Inchigorey

“I order my bodie to be buryed in the Cathedral Church of Kill McDuagh, in the tomb where my ancestors were buryed— I doe order, that my son and heir shall cause fyve hundred and fower skore Masses to be said or celebrated for my soule immediately after my death; and I bequeath £29 to be given to those who shall without delay celebrate those Masses, allowing 1s. for every Masse aforesaid, and that each of the abbye's and convents mentioned hereafter do say the office of the dead for my soul and 15 masses besides,— I order 100 of my Ewes for my son Charles O'Shaughnessy, and bequeath to my eldest son and heir Roger O'Shaughnessy all my plate and household stuff, and I do charge my said sonnes to live during their lives in brotherly affection amongst themselves without animosity or contention— I bequeath to my son Charles the £20 mortgage I have from I. Prendergast, of the 60 acres he had in Ballinekelly, provided he shall cause 200 masses to be said for my soule— I order and leave my stuffe suite with gold buttons and my rapier for my son Charles— I leave the piece of grey frize to Edmond O'Heyne. I leave the piece of grey broad-cloth to father John Mullowny, he sayinge as many masses, for my soule, as the said cloth is worth— I leave one of my shirts to John Butler, one more to Edmond Heyne, one more to my servant Lawrence Donovane, and another to Edmond M'Hugh— I leave one of my best halfe shirts and my scarlett wastcoate to Dermott Clorane— I order the gold diamond ring I have in pawne from James Devenisse, for himselfe, he saying one hundred rosaryes for my soule— I leave my white gowne to Lawrence Donovan, and the rest of all my clothes to my son and heir Roger— I leave my white horse to my daughter in law Hellean Shaughnessy, I leave three young cowes and three great cowes, with four garrans, to my daughter Gyles Salcan, and my hatt to John Buttler— I order my son Roger to pay Eight pieces of Eight towards James Dowley his ransome— I leave two cowes and a mare to my neice Nell Donovan— ”

"In Witness of all which I have hereunto subscribed my hand and fixed my seal the

DER. O'SHAUGHNUSSY. "The Legacies I leave for my soule with some of the clergy, viz— To the Dominicans of Gallway 20s. To the Augustines of Galway 20s. To the Convent of Inish 20s. To the Vicar General, ffa. Michael Lynch, 20s. To ffa. Teige O'Meere 20s. To ffa. John Mullownee 30s. To ffa. Donogh Nelly 10s. To ffa. Thomas Kenny 10s. To ffa. John Nelly 10s. To ffa. Teige Mac Rory 10s. To ffa. Daniel Conegan 10s. To ffa. Thomas Grady 10s. To ffa. Breen Donnellan 10s. To ffa. Donogh Fahy 10s. To ffa. Daniel Broder 5s. To John Mac Glynn, lay-friar, 3s. To Thomas Burke,  p.383 lay-frier, 5s. Memorandum, that I do bequeath to my son and heire, Roger O'Shaughnessy and his heirs, the £500 due unto me from my lordship Viscount of Clare."
D. O'S. Being present at the signing and sealing hereof, Ffr. JO. MOLOUNY. LAWRENCE DONOVANE. DER. CLORANE. Proved — 8 July 1673, by his son Roger.

41. Roger O'Shaughnessy, Esq., the son of Sir Dermot.— He married, in 1688, Helena, the daughter of Conor Mac Donogh O'Brien of Ballynue, by whom he had one son, Colonel William O'Shaughnessy, and one daughter, Helena, who married Theobald Butler, and was the mother of Francis, John, and Theobald Butler, living in 1784. Roger joined King James's forces, and was engaged at the battle of the Boyne, from which he returned home sick, though not wounded, and died in the castle of Gort on the 11th of July, 1690. His property was declared forfeited on the 11th of May, 1697, and King William granted all his estates, in custodiam to Gustavus, the first Baron Hamilton; but he having soon after obtained a grant of other lands, the king, by letters patent, dated 19th June, 1697, granted to Thomas (afterwards Sir Thomas) Prendergast, in consideration of his good and acceptable services (the discovery of the assassination plot, &c.), all the estate, real and personal, of Roger O'Shaughnessy, Esq., deceased, in Gort-Inchigorie, and several other lands in the barony of Kiltartan and county of Galway. By a subsequent patent, dated 20th September, 1698, reciting the foregoing grant, and also that his Majesty was informed that the estates were then annually worth five hundred pounds, but that they had since proved very deficient of that sum; and it being the real intention that five hundred pounds a year should have been granted, several other lands of the clear yearly value of £334 )s. 2 1/2d., situate in the several counties of Tipperary, Galway, Roscommon, and Westmeath, were granted accordingly.— Rot. Pat. 10 William III.

42. Colonel William O'Shaughnessy.— He died in exile in France in 1744, without issue.

41. Cormac, or Charles O'Shaughnessy, the second son of Sir Dermot.— The Editor has not been able to discover the name of his wife, but it appears from De Burgo's Hibernia Dominicana, p. 505, and a pedigree compiled by Peter Connell in 1784, for a Cornet Butler, that he had three sons, namely, Colman O'Shaughnessy, Titular Bishop of Ossory; Robuck, or Robert O'Shaughnessy, Esq., and Joseph, who had a daughter Mary, the mother of a Cornet Butler, who was living in 1784. He had also a daughter Mary, who, according to Peter Connell, became the wife of Mortogh Cam MacMahon, Esq.  p.384 After the death of his cousin german, Colonel William O'Shaughnessy, in France, in 1744, Bishop Colman instituted proceedings at law against Sir Thomas Prendergast, the son of the patentee, for the recovery of the estate of Gort, and these proceedings were continued after his decease in September"1748, by his brother Robuck O'Shaughnessy, Esq. and after his death by his (Robuck's) son, Joseph O'Shaughnessy, Esq. living in the time of De Burgo, 1762, who has the following curious notice of this family:

“F. Colmanus O'Shaughnessy, S. Theologiae Magister, Alumnus Athenriensis Caenobii, oriundus e praeclarissima Familia de Gort, in Galviensi Agro Conaciae, cujus Nobilitatem, Antiquitatem, et Integritatem, qui non novit, Hiberniam non novit. Lovanii in Ordinem Fratrum Praedicatorum ex Officiali Militari Cooptatus, ibidem Studia confecit, atque docere incepit Anno 1706. Missionibus Apostolicis Hiberniae maturus, eoque profectus, laudabiliter se gessit, Sermone, et peculiari Morum Candore, in plurimis Conaciae Regionibus, ingenti cum Animarum Fructu praedicans. Die 30 Aprilis 1726 in Comitiis Dublinii celebratis electus fuit Provincialis in locum Stephani nostri Mac-Egan, Episcopi tunc Clonmacnoisensis, nuperrime laudati Anno 1736 a Clemente XII., Pontifice Maximo, renunciatus fuit. Episcopus Ossoriensis, vulgo Ossory, in Lagenia, sub Metropoli Dubliniensi atque Dublinii in Monialium nostrarum Aedibus Sacris consecratus a D. Joanne Linegar, ejusdem Urbis Archipraesule, assistentibus F. Stephano Mac-Egan, mox laudato, Midensi, et F. Michael Mac-Donogh Kilmorensi Episcopis, ex ordine nostro, ut ex nuper dictis liquet, assumptis. Anno 1744 defuncto Patruele suo, Tribuno Gulielmo O'Shaghnussy, in Galliarum Partibus, quo pater ipsius Rogerius Regem Jacobum secutus fuerat Anno 1691, eam ob Causam Castro suo Allodiali Gortensi, amplissimisque circumjacentibus Praediis, ultra Summam bis Mille, et quinquies centum Librarum Sterlingarum, id est, decies Mille Scutorum Romanorum, annuatim valentibus, privatus a Principe Arausicano, nuncupato Gulielmo III., qui eadem concessit Equiti Thomae Prendergast, durante duntaxat Vita laudatorum Rogerii, et Gulielmi O-Shaghnussy; isto, inquam, Gulielmo defuncto, Colmanus noster O-Shaghnessy, etsi jam Episcopus, Litem inchoavit, qua Familiae suae Primipilus, Dublinii, in Curia Communium Placitorum, contra tunc, et adhuc existentem Equitem Thomam pariter Prendergast, primo dicti filium, ad Bona illa haereditaria recuperanda; atque Praesule nostro e vivis sublato, in jure successit Germanus ipsius Frater, Robocus O-Shaghnussy, Armiger, hujusque nunc succedit Filius Josephus O-Shaghnussy, Armiger. Eques autem Thomas Prendergast acriter se defendit, non quidem Justitia Causae suae, sed Pecunia, et Potentia, unus quippe est e Senatoribus Regni in Parlamento sedens, insuperque Regi a Sanctioribus Consiliis, ad Differentiam Domini O'Shaghnussy, qui Fidei Catholicae est Cultor, suisque haereditariis Bonis exutus.”— pp. 505, 506.


42. Roebuck, or Robert, son of Charles O'Shaughnessy.— He had two sons, Joseph, who died in 1783, and William, and four daughters, Mary, Catherine, Ellice, and Eleanor, who were living in 1784, when Peter Connell wrote the pedigree for a Cornet Butler. Tradition states that this Joseph O'Shaughnessy, assisted by his relatives, the gentry of the county of Galway, took forcible possession of the mansion house of Gort, on which occasion they caused the bells of Athenry and Galway to be rung for joy. But O'Shaughnessy was finally defeated.

In Howard's Treatise on the Rules and Practice of the Equity side of the Exchequer in Ireland, second edition, Appendix, p. 903, the case of Smyth against O'Shaughnessy is mentioned as one of great importance. Howard says:

“In the case of Smyth, guardian of Prendergast and others, against O'Shaghnessy and others, in the court of Chancery here, in October, 1760, on a petition to the lords commissioners (the Lord Chancellor being then in England) on a possessory bill and affidavits, an injunction was granted to the sheriff to restore the plaintiff, as devisee of the estate in question, to the possession of the mansion-house, out of which, it had been sworn, he had been forced by the defendant O'Shaghnessy, who claimed under some old dormant title, not as heir at law; and an injunction was also granted to the party, as to the demesne, unless cause should be shewn to the contrary, in the time prescribed by the order; afterwards, in Michaelmas term following, the defendant came to shew cause against the injunction to the party, and to set aside the injunction to the sheriff upon a notice for that purpose; but as to the first point, the court disallowed the cause; and as to the second point, the court refused to set aside the injunction, for that it is an order of course, and usually granted at the first instance, as the party turned out of his place of residence, and may not have a place to go to; and on these motions the following points were determined:”
“That the defendant should not read any affidavits to contradict the facts in the plaintiff's affidavits, or shew any other cause than appeared on the face of the plaintiff's affidavits,” &c. &c.

On this occasion it is said that the Lord Chancellor, Mansfield, lent Sir Thomas Prendergast Smyth eight thousand pounds to sustain him against O'Shaughnessy, which sum was charged on the Gort estate, and which has since been paid to the heirs of Lord Mansfield.

When Joseph O'Shaughnessy had taken forcible possession of the mansion-house of Gort, the whole tribe of the O'Shaughnessys believed that he had defeated Prendergast in the law suit, and a very curious song of exultation was composed on the occasion by a poor man of the family, named James O'Shaughnessy, the first quatrain of which runs as follows:  p.386

  1. Guais na gábhaidh nár fhághair-se, a bhile gan locht,
    O bhuaidh tú an bháire, is feárrde an chine tá bocht,
    Beidh luadh ag dáimh, a's trácht ag ollamhnaibh ort,
    'S ó uaislibh Fáil gheabhair bárr clú féile 'sa n-Gort.
  2. Mayest thou meet neither peril nor danger, O hero without fault,
    As thou hast won the goal, the tribe that is poor will be the better of it,
    The poets shall spread thy fame, and the ollaves shall speak of thee,
    And from the nobles of Inisfail thou wilt receive at Gort the palm for hospitality.

This Joseph, the last claimant of the Gort estate, died without issue in 1783, and there is no one now living that has yet traced his pedigree with certainty to the first Sir Dermot, who was knighted by Henry VIII.; some think that his race is totally extinct in the male line; but Captain Tyrrell of Kinvara has attempted to show that Mr. Bartholomew O'Shaughnessy of Galway is now the head of the name.

Captain Edward Tyrrell has compiled a pedigree of the O'Shaughnessys, from old documents which he had from Martin Colman O'Shaughnessy of Galway, in which he states that Colman, Titular Bishop of Ossory, already mentioned, but whom he incorrectly styles Lord Abbot of Cong, had several brothers; namely, Charles, Darby, ancestor of the O'Shaughnessys of the bounty of Limerick, where he settled, and Roger, ancestor of Dean O'Shaughnessy of Ennis, and of Dr. William O'Shaughnessy of Calcutta, F. R. S. Although this pedigree is, in the early part, full of errors in dates and genealogical facts, still there appears to be much truth contained in it for the last five generations, and the Editor is tempted to give that portion of it in this place, as containing the researches of a very intelligent old gentleman who was born in O'Shaughnessy's country, and who is now nearly a century old. He is, however, entirely wrong in making Dr. Colman the son of Sir Roger II. O'Shaughnessy, for we know from his contemporary De Burgo, already quoted, that he was the cousin german of Colonel William O'Shaughnessy (son of Roger, son of Sir Dermot III.), who died in France in 1744; that is, he was the eldest son of Cormac, or Charles, the second son of Sir Dermot, mentioned in the Will of 1671.

The Editor is of opinion that all the descendants of Sir Roger II. O'Shaughnessy are extinct in the male line, and that the O'Shaughnessys of Galway, Limerick, and Clare are descended from Lieut.-Colonel William O'Shaughnessy, who was made free of the corporation of Galway in 1648, and who was the third son of Sir Dermot II. This William had four sons, namely, William, Edmond, Dermot, and Ruaidhri, or Roger; and it is highly probable, though not yet proved, that his son Dermot is the ancestor of the O'Shaughnessys of the county of Limerick, and Ruaidhri, or Roger, the ancestor of the O'Shaughnessys of the county of Clare.


Pedigree of the O'Shaughnessys over five generations


3. Pedigree of Mr. Bartholomew O'Shaughnessy of Galway, as compiled by Captain Tyrrell of Kinvara

According to this pedigree, which is beautifully drawn out on vellum (and in the possession of Dr. Terence O'Shaughnessy, R. C. Dean of Killaloe, who resides at Ennis, in the county of Clare), Colman O'Shaughnessy, Abbot of Cong, was the son of Sir Roger II.; but this is not true, for we learn from Dr. Colman's cotemporary, De Burgo, and from Peter Connell of Kilrush, who drew up a pedigree of O'Shaughnessy for a Cornet Butler, in 1784, that this Colman was the cousin-german of Colonel William O'Shaughnessy, who died in France in 1744, without issue. Captain Tyrrell writes that this Colman had five brothers, namely, Joseph, the head of the family, Charles, Darby, Roger, and James, the two last being twin brothers; but Captain Tyrrell is here totally mistaken, as we learn from De Burgo that on the death of Colonel William O'Shaughnessy in France, in 1744, Bishop Colman became the head of the O'Shaughnessys, and went to law with Sir Thomas Prendergast for the family estates, and that on the death of Colman, in 1749, his next brother, Roebuck, renewed the suit, as being the next senior representative of the family; and that after his death Joseph, his son, carried it on, and that it remained undecided in his (De Burgo's) time. Peter Connell also, who was born about the year 1740, and who knew all about this law suit between the O'Shaughnessys and Sir Thomas Prendergast, gives Colman but two brothers, namely, Robert (i. e. the Roebuck of De Burgo) and Joseph. From the total omission of Roebuck in Captain Tyrrell's pedigree of the O'Shaughnessys, it is quite clear that he has committed some mistake in enumerating the brothers of Dr. Colman O'Shaughnessy, as well as in making him the son of Sir Roger II.; and although he states that he drew this pedigree from the O'Shaughnessy papers, some of which are still, as he says, in his possession, we cannot receive his compilation as correct while in opposition to the registered records of the country, and to printed books of the highest authority. We must, however, receive this gentleman's testimony as far as it regards those genealogical facts which have come under his own immediate cognizance; and as he is now nearly a century old he must have heard and seen much of this family. The Editor, therefore, feels it his duty to lay before the reader that part of Captain Tyrrell's pedigree of the O'Shaughnessys which may be true in itself, though engrafted on a false stem.

2. Charles O'Shaughnessy.— He was the brother of Colman, Abbot of Cong. His other brothers were, 1, Joseph, the head of the Gort family [?]; 2, Darby, who settled in the county of Limerick and had numerous issue, whose descendants are still in that county; and, 3, Roger, who settled in the county of Clare, and is the ancestor  p.389 of all the O'Shaughnessys of that county; and, 4, James, of whose descendants no account is preserved. This Charles married Anne, daughter of Major Walcott of Duross, in the county of Galway, and had issue by her three sons, namely, 1, Charles, of whom presently; 2, Roger, who lived at Russane, which he sold to Oliver Martin, Esq., and died without issue male; and, 3, Darby, who married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Taylor, Esq., of Dungorey, and died s. p. aged thirty-one. He had also four daughters, of whom the eldest married Burke of Meelick, and the second O'Flaherty of Connemara.

3. Charles O'Shaughnessy, the son of Charles.— He was born in 1660, and married Isabella French of Galway, called the Phoenix from her beauty, and had three sons, namely, 1, Darby, of whom presently; 2, John, who was born in 1692, and who resided at Kilmaine, in the county of Mayo, where he married Margery Kirwan, by whom he had issue male and female; 3, James, born in 1694, who went, it is supposed, to Jamaica, and was never heard of by any of his family. He had also six daughters, of whom the first married Michael French of Abbert; the second Geoffry Martin of Ross; the third Thomas French of Moycullen; the fourth R. Eyre; and two became nuns. He was an improvident man, and gave large portions to his daughters.

4. Darby O'Shaughnessy, the son of Charles.— He was born in the year 1690. He married, first, Cicily O'Brien, by whom he had two sons, William and John, and three daughters; and, secondly, Anne Gilmore of the county of Mayo, by whom he had Martin and James. He was reared for the Church by the Abbot of Cong, but was reduced to keep an academy in Dublin. He gave fifty pounds towards Joseph's suit with T. Prendergast Smyth, and was buried in the abbey of Galway, where he died. His son William, who was born in 1724, married Honor Lynch, by whom he had no male issue. He had three daughters. This William was barrack-master of Headford, and died at Galway [in 1781], aged fifty-seven. Thus ends the male line in the second branch in the fourth generation from Roger. His second son John, who was born in 1728, married Mary Bodkin, and died in 1779, leaving one daughter. His son James died unmarried.

5. Martin Colman O'Shaughnessy, the third son of Darby.— He was born in 1747, and married Mary Mac Donough, by whom he had two sons, Bartholomew and Andrew. Finding little property descend to him, it having gone to the female line, he thought a trade better than be a burden on his friends, or the many relations he might boast of, and was bound to a wig-maker. He died in 1829, aged 82. Thus ends the grandeur of this ancient family!

6. Bartholomew O' Shaughnessy, son of Martin Colman.— He was born in the year 1789. He married Deborah Morris of Spiddle, by whom he got £900 fortune. He  p.390 has issue male and female, as has also his brother Andrew, who was born in the year 1796.

Captain Tyrrell, in a letter to the Editor, dated September 15th, 1843, writes the following account of the manner in which he obtained the evidences for compiling this pedigree:

“In respect to the Galway barber, it is rather a long story, yet I will strive to get through it as distinctly as I can, for he is certainly the elder branch of that once great and ancient family, now totally gone to decay. About thirty-five or thirty-six years ago, when I lived in Galway, I had occasion to get my razors set to rights, and went to the father of the present barber, O'Shaughnessy, also a barber, and sitting in his shop; while he was so employed, his daughter came in, opened a good sized box near where I was sitting, and took out a bundle, or rather an handful of papers, on which I saw indistinct writing. I asked what she was going to do with them. She said to kindle the fire. I asked the father of the young woman what the papers related to; he replied he did not know, nor could he learn from persons who had examined them, as time had totally obliterated them. The box, he informed me, belonged to his grand-uncle, who was Abbot of Cong. This poor barber was then near seventy years of age, and spelled the name “O'Shoughnessy” on his sign board, and often said it was the ancient mode of spelling the name. In short, I purchased the box, which I have to this day, and its contents, from the poor barber, and on my going to Dublin, I waited on my friend Mr. Kirwan, the highly celebrated chemist of his day, who showed me a way to enable me to read the whole of the papers.”

In another letter, dated Kinvara, November 30th, 1843, Captain Tyrrell writes concerning the law suit between Joseph O'Shaughnessy and Sir Thomas Prendergast:

“This law suit was not finally closed in my memory, as it went before the Lords and Commons of England; and I remember having seen this Mr. Joseph O'Shaughnessy and his sister often, in the years 1768, 1769, and 1770, in a state nearly allied to beggary, at Gort; from thence they removed to Dublin, and before 1775 [recte 1783] both were dead without issue, by which the present barber's grandfather was, without dispute, the next heir to Sir Roger O'Shaughnessy.”

Arms.— A castle triple-towered az.
Supporters.— Two lions or.
Crest.— Over a side helmet a hand in armour holding a spear.
The arms of O'Shaughnessy are given in a MS. in the British Museum, Clarendon 4815, entitled “Copies of Grants of Arms collected for a Peerage by Aaron Crossley.” The crest, however, is not given in this collection, but it is added here from an impression  p.391 of the seal of Sir Roger O'Shaughnessy, on a letter to his daughter Gylles, the wife of Daniel O'Donovan of Castle Donovan, written in 1647.

4. C

Pedigree of O'Clery

9. Colman, son of Cobhthach.— This Colman was King of Connaught for twenty-one years. He married the mother of St Caimin of Inis Cealltra, and was the father of Guaire Aidhne, King of Connaught, and Lairgneun, who was also King of Connaught seven years.

10. Guaire Aidhne.— He was King of Connaught for thirteen years, during which period he distinguished himself so much for hospitality and bounty that he became almost the god or personification of generosity among the Irish poets, and those of modern times boasted that O'Shaughnessy was his lineal descendant Thus Muldowny O'Morrison, in an ode, addressed, in 1639, to Daniel O'Donovan of Castle Donovan, who was married to O'Shaughnessy's daughter, boasts that his wife Sheela reflected honour on the name of her illustrious ancestor Guaire; but we have already seen that the Cinel Aodha, of whom O'Shaughnessy was chief, were not of the race of Guaire; but the poet was perfectly pardonable, as he had the authority of MSS. of considerable antiquity for deducing the Pedigree of O'Shaughnessy from Guaire Aidhne, King of Connaught.— See p. 54 55 in the CELT edition, note 183.

In the year 645 Guaire fought the battle of Carn Conaill against King Diarmaid, the son of Aodh Slaine, in which he was defeated. 1018 He died in the year 662, and was buried at Clonmacnoise. According to the Book of Lecan, Guaire had three sons, namely, 1, Nar, who had a son Cobhthach, who had a son Flann, the ancestor of the family of O'Maghna, chiefs of the territory of Caenraighe, in Aidhne, and who was the senior of the race of Guaire— see p. 61, supra; 2, Artghal, the ancestor of O'Clery, O'Heyne, and Mac Gilla Kelly; and, 3, Aodh, the ancestor of the tribe called Cinel Enda. It would appear from the Annals of the Four Masters that he had another son, Ceallach, who died in the year 665.

11. Artghal.— He was the second son of Guaire, but our annalists or genealogists have preserved no particulars about him, except that he was the father of,

12. Fearghal Aidhne.— He was King of Connaught for thirteen years, and died in 694, under which year the Four Masters, in their Annals, erroneously call him the son instead of the grandson of Guaire Aidhne. He had two sons, 1, Torpa, the ancestor of O'Clery, and, 2, Flaithniadh, the father of Art, or Artghal, chief of Aidhne, who was slain, according to the Four Masters, in the year 767.


13. Torpa, son of King Feargal Aidhne.— He had two sons, Cathmogh, ancestor of the subsequent chiefs, and Aodh, from whom the celebrated poet Flann Mac Lonain was the fourth in descent.

14. Cathmogh, son of Torpa.— He had two sons, 1, Tighernach, lord of Aidhne, who died, according to the Four Masters, in the year 822, and Comuscach, the ancestor of the subsequent chieftains.

15. Comuscach, son of Cathmogh.

16. Ceadadhach, son of Comuscach.

17. Cleireach, son of Ceadadhach.— He is the progenitor after whom the family of O'Cleirigh, or O'Clery, have taken their surname. He had two sons, Maolfabhaill, of whom presently, and Eidhin, the progenitor of the family of O'Heyne.

18. Maolfabhaill, son of Cleireach.— He was lord of Aidhne, and died, according to the Annals of the Four Masters, in the year 887. He was father of Tighearnach O'Clery, lord of Aidhne, who died in 916, and of,

19. Flann, otherwise called Maolcerarda O'Clery.— He was slain by the men of Munster in the year 950, under which he is styled, in the Annals of the Four Masters, lord of South Connaught, and rioghdamhna, or heir presumptive, of all Connaught. He was father of,

20. Comhaltan O'Clery.— He was lord of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, according to the Annals of the Four Masters. This very powerful chieftain, assisted by Maelseachlainn Mac Arcdai, in the year 964, defeated the celebrated Sen Fergal O'Rourke, King of Connaught, and slew seven hundred of his people, and among the rest Taichleach O'Gara, lord of South Leyny. He died in the year 976.

21. Giolla Cheallaigh, son of Comhaltan O'Clery.— Comhaltan O'Clery was succeeded in the lordship of Aidhne by Muireadhach O'Clery, who was probably his son, and who died, according to the Four Masters, in the year 988, after which Giolla Cheallaigh, or Kilkelly O'Clery, succeeded to the lordship. In the year 998 he slew Diarmaid Mac Dunadhaigh, lord of Siol Anmchadha, but in 1003 he was himself slain by the celebrated Tadhg O'Kelly, chief of Hy-Many, as we are informed by the Four Masters:—

“A . D. 1003. A battle was fought between Tadhg O'Kelly with the Hy-Many, and the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne with the men of West Connaught, in which were slain Giolla Cheallaigh mac Comhaltain O'Clery, lord of the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, Conchobhar Mac Ubbain, and Cennfaoladh Mac Ruaidhri, and many others. Finn, the son of Marcan, Tanist of Hy-Many, was also slain in the heat of the conflict.” 1019 This Giolla Cheallaigh is the progenitor after whom the family of Mac Giolla Cheallaigh, Kilkelly, or Killikelly, have taken their surname, so that , that family are virtually O'Clerys. He had one son,


22. Cugaela, son of Giolla Cheallaigh O'Clery.— After the death of Giolla Cheallaigh O'Clery, in 1003, it would appear that Maolruanaidh, or Mulrony na paidre [of the prayer] O'Heyne succeeded to the lordship of Aidhne, for he commanded the South Hy-Fiachrach in the battle of Clontarf, A. D. 1014, in which he fell. To whom succeeded Cugaela, the grandson of Comhaltan O'Clery, who seems to have ruled the territory for a period of eleven years, for he died, according to the Four Masters, in the year 1025. According to the genealogical MS. of Peregrine O'Clery, now preserved in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy, this Cugaela O'Clery had three sons, namely, 1, Braon, the ancestor of all the septs who retained the name of O'Clery; 2, Giolla na naomh, or Sanctius, the ancestor of the family who took the name of Mac Giolla Cheallaigh, now Killikelly, a family which was very respectable in the territory of Aidhne in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and then seated in the castle of Cloghballymore, near Kinvara — see p. 68, note r, i. e. p. 69, note 207 in the CELT edition; but, strange to say, the pedigree of this family is not carried down lower than the twelfth century in any Irish MS. accessible in Dublin; 3, Eidhin, the progenitor, after whom the family of the O'Heynes took their surname; but this Eidhin could not have been a son of Cugaela, who died in 1025, for his grandson Mulrony na paidre O'Heyne was chief of Aidhne, and was slain in the battle of Clontarf in 1014; and we must therefore agree with Duald Mac Firbis, who makes this Eidhin the son of Cleireach, No. 17 in the Genealogical Table.

23. Braon, son of Cugaela O'Clery.— He was slain, in the year 1033, as we learn from the Annals of the Four Masters at that year. — “A. D. 1033. A battle was fought between the men of Eile and the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, in which fell Braon O'Clery and Muireadhach, the son of Giolla Padraig, and many others.”

24. Eoghan, son of Braon O'Clery.— In the time of this Eoghan the family of O'Heyne became chiefs of Aidhne, but it does not appear that any member of the family who retained the name O'Clery ever after obtained chief sway in the territory; and they were finally driven out by the Burkes. From this Eoghan, who must have died about the year 1063, we are presented with the following generations, of which no dates or other particulars are preserved in the Irish annals.

25. Domhnall O'Clery.
26. Giolla na naomh O'Clery.
27. Tighernach O'Clery.
28. Muireadhach O'Clery.
29. Tadhg O'Clery.
30. Giolla Iosa O'Clery.
31. Domhnall O'Clery.


By allowing thirty years to each of these generations we will find that this Domhnall may have flourished towards the close of the thirteenth century, and this seems to have been the period at which the O'Clerys were driven out of the territory of Aidhne by the Burkes. He had four sons, namely; 1, John Sgiamhach, i. e. the comely, the ancestor of the O'Clerys of Tirconnell; 2, Daniel, from whom are descended the O'Clerys of Tirawley; 3, Thomas, from whom are the O'Clerys of Briefny O'Reilly; and, 4, Cormac, from whom are the O'Clerys of Kilkenny— See Genealogical Table.

32. John Sgiamhach (i. e. the Comely) O'Clery, fl. circ. 1303.

33. Diarmaid O'Clery, fl. circ. 1333.

34. Cormac O'Clery.— He was the first of the family who removed to Tirconnell, which he did shortly after the year 1382, when Toirdhealbhach an fhiona O'Donnell was chief of Tirconnell. He married the only daughter and heiress of Matthew O'Sgingin, who was at the time chief historian to O'Donnell, and had by her,

35. Giolla Brighde O'Clery.— He was so called after his maternal uncle, Giolla Brighde O'Sgingin, who had died in 1382, a short time before the birth of O'Clery. This Giolla Brighde O'Clery was educated in the profession of his maternal grandfather, whom he succeeded in the capacity of historical ollav or chief historian to O'Donnell. He had one son, who succeeded him, viz.

36. Giolla riabhach O'Clery.— The Four Masters have the following notice of his death:— “A. D. 1421. Giolla riabhach O'Clery, a learned historian, died after having spent a life of virtue.” There must be some error, however, in this date, for his father, Giolla Brighde, having been born after 1382, was only 39 years old in 1421, when the death of his son is mentioned as that of a learned historian! The truth would appear to be that Giolla riabhach is here a mistake for Giolla Brighde.

37. Diarmaid of the three Schools, the son of Giolla riabhach.— The year of the death of this Diarmaid, strange to say, is not recorded by his descendants, the Four Masters, in their Annals.

38. Tadhg, or Teige Cam O'Clery.— His death is thus recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters at the year 1492: — “A. D. 1492. O'Clery (Tadhg Cam), ollav to O'Donnell in science, poetry, and history, a man who had maintained a house of universal hospitality, for the mighty and the needy, died, after having subdued the world and the devil.” This Tadhg Cam had three sons, 1, Diarmaid, of whom presently; 2, Tuathal, who died in 1512, and who was the great grandfather of Michael O'Clery and Conary O'Clery, two of the Four Masters, and of Bernardinus O'Clery, the superior of the convent of Donegal in 1632 and 1636; 3, Giolla riabhach, chief of this family, who died in 1527.

39. Diarmaid, son of Tadhg Cam O'Clery.— He had four sons, namely, Cucoigcriche, or  p.395 or Peregrine, Giolla Bhrighde, Cormac, a friar of the order of St. Francis, and Muirgheas.

40. Cucoigcriche, or Peregrine O'Clery.— He was living in the year 1546, as we learn from a passage in the Annals of the Four Masters under that year. He had six sons, namely, 1, Maccon, of whom presently; 2, Cosnamhach; 3, Dubhthach; 4, Tadhg; 5, Cormac; and, 6, Maurice Ballach, who was hanged in the year 1572 by the Earl of Thomond, who wished to exterminate the Irish poets.

41. Maccon, son of Cucoigcriche O'Clery.— He was the chief of the Tirconnell, or literary sept of the O'Clerys, and died in the year 1595, under which year the Four Masters have preserved the following record of him:— “A. D. 1595. Maccon, son of Cucoigcriche, son of Diarmaid, son of Tadhg Cam O'Clery, chief historian to O'Donnell, died at Leitir Maolain, in Thomond [now Lettermoylan, in the parish of Dysart O'Dea, in the barony of Inchiquin]. He was a learned and erudite man, profoundly versed in history and poetry, fluent, eloquent, and gifted with the harmony and splendour of oratory, and withal, pious, devout, religious, and charitable.” He had five sons, namely, 1, Lughaidh of the Contention of the Bards, of whom presently; 2, Giolla Brighde; 3, Maccon Meirgeach; 4, Cucoigcriche; and, 5, Duibhgeann, who was slain at Clare in the year 1600.

42. Lughaidh, or Lewy O'Clery, son of Maccon O'Clery.— He was the head of the Tirconnell branch of the O'Clerys, and was in possession of all his lands in the year 1609, when he was selected as one of the “good and lawful” men of the county of Donegal, appointed to inquire into the King's title to the several escheated and forfeited lands in Ulster. He was the principal disputant on the part of the northern bards in the contest with Teige Mac Dary [Tadhg Mac Dáire] and those of the south of Ireland, respecting the claims of the rival dynasties of the northern and southern divisions of Ireland to supremacy and renown, and his poems written during this controversy are very curious, as preserving many historical facts, and for the purity and correctness of their diction. The year of his death is not recorded by the Four Masters, and the probability is that he lived to a later period than that to which their Annals extended, for they have no entry later than the year 1616. He had two sons, Cucoigcriche, or Peregrine, of whom presently, and Cairbre.

43. Cucoigcriche, or Peregrine O'Clery, the eldest son of Lughaidh.— He married one of the Mac Sweenys of the county of Donegal, by whom he had two sons, Diarmaid and John. It appears from an inquisition taken at Lifford on the 25th of May, 1632, that he held the half quarter of the lands of Coobeg and Doughill, in the proportion of Monargane, in the barony of Boylagh and Bannagh, in the county of Donegal, from Hollantide, 1631, until May, 1632, for which he paid eight pounds sterling per annum  p.396 to William Farrell, Esq., assignee to the Earl of Annandale, but, as the document states, being “a meere Irishman, and not of English, or British discent or sirname,” he was dispossessed, and the lands became forfeited to the king. Shortly after this period he removed, with many other families of Tirconnell, to Ballycroy, in the south of the barony of Erris, in the county of Mayo, under the guidance of Rory or Roger O'Donnell, the son of Colonel Manus, who was slain at Benburb in 1646, and the ancestor of the present Sir Richard Annesley O'Donnell of Newport. He carried with him his books, which were his chief treasure, which he bequeathed to his two sons, Diarmaid and John, as we learn from his autograph Will, which was written in Irish at Curr-na-heillte, near Burrishoole, and which is extant, in rather bad preservation, in his genealogical MS. now in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy. In this Will, which was made shortly before his death in 1664, he writes:— “I bequeath the property most dear to me that ever I possessed in this world, namely, my books, to my two sons Diarmaid and John. Let them copy from them, without injuring them, whatever may be necessary for their purpose, and let them be equally seen and used by the children of my brother Cairbre as by themselves; and let them instruct them according to the {} And I request the children of Cairbre to teach and instruct their children.” The injunctions here solemnly laid by him on his posterity were faithfully fulfilled, and a knowledge of the Irish language, as well as his own honesty of character, has been transmitted in the family to the present day.

44. Diarmaid, son of Cucoigcriche, or Peregrine O'Clery.— No memorial of him remains in the MSS. except that he was the son of Peregrine and the father of,

45. Cairbre O'Clery.— He married, about the year 1692, —— Maguire of Arney Bridge, in the county of Fermanagh, by whom he had two sons, namely, Cosnamhach, or Cosney, and Philip, who died without issue male, and one daughter Alice. He removed with his children to the parish of Drung, in the county of Cavan, and was interred in the churchyard of Drung.

46. Cosnamhach, or Cosney O'Clery, son of Cairbre.— He was born in the year 1693 at the foot of Nephin mountain, in the county of Mayo. He removed from thence to a place called Knockbinish, in the county of Leitrim, whence he removed accompanied by his father, to the parish of Drung, in the county of Cavan, where he married Mable, daughter of Donnell Ultagh [Donlevy], by whom he had one son, Patrick, and four daughters. He died in the year 1759, in the sixty-sixth year of his age, and was buried in the churchyard of Drung.

47. Patrick, son of Cosnamhach O'Clery.— He was born in the year 1738, and in 1759 he married Anne, daughter of Bernard O'Gowan, or Smith, of Lara, in the county of Cavan, and had by her twelve children, six sons and six daughters. He died  p.397 in the year 1816, aged seventy-eight years, and was interred in the churchyard of Drung.

48. John, eldest son of Patrick O'Clery, now living. He was born in the year 1778, and in 1812 married Alice, daughter of Patrick Smith of Ashfield, in the county of Cavan, and had by her five children, of whom only two are now living, namely, John and Anne.

This John, No. 48, removed to the city of Dublin in 1817, where he still lives, like his ancestors, a strictly honest and worthy man, and a good Irish scribe and scholar. His son, John O'Clery, Jun., has written the following remarks on the family manuscripts, in a letter to the Editor, dated 37, Nassau-street, 12th February, 1842, which should not be omitted here:

“Cucogry left his books to his sons Dermod and Shane. Cairbre, son of Dermod, had them in his possession, and left them to his son Cosnamha, who left them to his son Patrick, through whom they came into the possession of his son John, my father. By an accidental fire, which occurred in the house of my grandfather, a great part of Cucogry's manuscripts was materially injured. The only ones which escaped damage were the following:— The Book of Pedigrees, the Book of Invasions, the Life of Red Hugh O'Donnell, the Amhra Choluim Chille, and Triallam timcheall na Fodhla, which were brought to Dublin by my father in 1817. He lent these books to the late Mr. Edward O'Reilly, but did not bargain for or sell them to him. He never got them back, however, as he did not know of Mr. O'Reilly's illness until he heard of his death, and saw that he had included these very books in his catalogue, except the Life of Hugh Roe, which, it appears, he had disposed of to Mr. Monck Mason, who resided at that time in Harcourt-street, and this he had done without letting my father know any thing about it. My father, on hearing of his books being thus advertised for sale, made an affidavit that he merely lent, but did not sell them to Mr. O'Reilly. Notwithstanding this, however, his executor, the Rev. Eugene O'Reilly of Navan proceeded with the sale of them, and it was under these circumstances that they came by purchase, at O'Reilly's auction, into the possession of the Royal Irish Academy. But although they could not perhaps be placed in better hands, or any where that they would be taken better care of, as far as their preservation is concerned, yet by all the laws of strict justice, they are as much my father's property, even at this moment, as if the Royal Irish Academy had never paid one farthing for them. Little did Cucogry think that these very books, on which he set so high a value, as is seen by his own Will, would ever, by such means, pass out of the hands of his descendants. My father has still a copy, which he made himself, of the Book of Pedigrees, and he has also some of the very books which belonged to Cucogry.”


Mr. Martin Clery of Ballycroy, in the county of Mayo, also descends from this Cucogry, or Peregrine, who died in 1664, and Mrs. Conway of Doonah castle, in Ballycroy, descends from his brother; but they are unable to add dates to the different generations, having retained no manuscript memoranda.

It does not appear that this family had ever obtained any grant of arms from the Irish College of Heralds, and the Editor has not been able to find that they ever used any armorial bearings in ancient Irish times.

5. D

Pedigree of O'Heyne

18. Eidhin, the son of Cleireach. — We have already seen in the pedigree of O'Clery, No. 22, that Peregrine O'Clery errs in making this Eidhin the son of Cugaela, chief of Aidhne, who died in 1025, and we must therefore follow the authority of Duald Mac Firbis and of the O'Mulconrys in the Leabhar Irse, who make him the second son of Cleireach, the ancestor of the family of O'Clery. He had one son, Flann, of whom presently, and one daughter, Mor, the first wife of the monarch Brian Borumha, and the mother of his sons Murchadh, Conchobhar, and Flann, who were slain in the battle of Clontarf.

19. Flann, of whom we know nothing, except that from the pedigrees and the Irish annals we must come to the conclusion that he had two sons, namely, 1, Maolruanaidh na Paidre (or Mulrony of the Prayer) O'Heyne, chief of Aidhne, who was slain in the battle of Clontarf in the year 1014, of whose issue, if he left any, no account is preserved; and, 2, Maolfabhaill, or Mulfavill O'Heyne, by whom the line was continued.

20. Maolfabhaill, son of Flann O'Heyne. — He became chief of the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, or South Hy-Fiachrach, probably after the death of Cugaela O'Clery, in the year 1025, and if so, he was chief for twenty-three years, for his death is recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters at the year 1048. — “A. D. 1048. Maolfabhaill O'Heyne, lord of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, died.”

21. Cugaela, son of Maolfabhaill. — No notice of him is preserved in the Irish annals unless he be the O'Heyne, lord of the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters as having slain Domhnall Ruadh O'Brien in the year 1055, which he probably was.

22. Giolla na naomh, surnamed of the Plunder, son of Cugaela O'Heyne.

23. Flann, son of Giolla na naomh O'Heyne.

24. Conchobhar, or Conor, son of Flann O'Heyne.


25. Aodh, or Hugh, son of Conchobhar O'Heyne.— He was probably the Aodh O'Heyne, lord of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, mentioned by the Four Masters at the year 1121, as haying been slain in Munster, whither he had gone on a predatory excursion with Turlogh O'Conor, who was then King of Connaught, and presumptive monarch of Ireland.

26. Giolla Cheallaigh, or Gillikelly, son of Aodh O'Heyne.— He had two sons, Aodh and Giolla na naomh, and was slain, according to the Annals of the Four Masters, in the year 1153, together with his son Aodh.

27. Giolla na naomh, son of Giolla Cheallaigh.— The Irish annals have preserved no memorial of this Giolla na naomh. In his time Roderic O'Conor, monarch of Ireland, was resident in the O'Heyne territory. At the year 1180 the Four Masters mention the death of a Maurice O'Heyne, lord of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, and at 1187, the death of Duvesa, daughter of O'Heyne, and wife of Conor Mac Dermot, lord of Moylurg, but nothing remains to show how this Maurice, or Duvesa, stood related to the Giolla na naomh in question; but it is highly probable that the one was the son and the other the daughter of his brother Aodh, who was slain in 1153.

28. Eoghan, or Owen, son of Giolla na naomh O'Heyne.—At the year 1201 the Four Masters enter the death of Conchobhar, or Conor O'Heyne, the son of Maurice; at 1211 that of Cugaola O'Heyne, and at 1212 they have the following entry:— “A. D. 1212. Donnchadh O'Heyne had his eyes put out by Aodh, the son of Cathal Croibhdhearg O'Conor, without the permission of O'Conor himself.” These were evidently the grandsons of Aodh, or Hugh O'Heyne, who was slain in 1153, and whose race was now laid aside, when Donnchadh was deprived of his eyes and rendered unfit for the chieftainship. After this Eoghan, the son of Giolla na naomh O'Heyne, became chief of the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, and one of the most conspicuous chieftains that ever ruled that territory. In the year 1225 he was one of the chiefs of Connaught who joined the sons of King Roderic O'Conor against Hugh, the son of Charles the Red-handed O'Conor, King of Connaught, who was assisted by the English; on which occasion Hugh O'Conor despatched his brother Felim and others of the chiefs of his people, and a large body of English soldiers, into Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne to plunder Eoghan O'Heyne, and they encamped one night at Ardrahin, for the purpose of plundering the country early the next morning; but when O'Flaherty of Iar-Connaught, and the other enemies of Hugh O'Conor, had heard that the English were here stationed with the intention of plundering Eoghan O'Heyne, they did not neglect their friend, but marched, as the Four Masters state, “with one mind and one accord,” until they came to a place near Ardrahin, where they halted, and having held a consultation, they came to the resolution of of sending Tuathal, the son of Muircheartach, and Taithleach  p.400 O'Dowd, with a strong force, to Ardrahin, while O'Flaherty and the son of Muircheartach O'Conor were to remain with their forces outside. The two O'Dowds, with their soldiers, marched courageously and boldly into the town of Ardrahin, and made a vigorous and desperate attack upon the English, whom they put to flight east and west. The party who fled eastwards were pursued by the O'Dowds, and the constable, or captain of the English received two wounds, one from the javelin of Tuathal O'Dowd and the other from that of Taithleach, which left him lifeless; but the party who fled westwards met O'Flaherty and the son of Muircheartach O'Conor, and routed them to their misfortune. After this the sons of Roderic and their supporters made peace with Hugh O'Conor and his friends, which the annalists remark was an unseasonable peace, as there was no church or territory in Connaught at the time that had not been plundered or laid waste!

In ten years after this we find this Eoghan on the warmest terms of friendship with the English. In the year 1235 he joined Richard, the son of William Burke, in his famous expedition into Connaught, on which occasion he rendered the English great services both by his deeds and counsel, as will appear from the following simple narrative, extracted by the Four Masters from the older annals:
“A. D. 1235. Richard, the son of William Burke, assembled the English of Ireland, the most illustrious of whom were the following, viz.—Fitz-Maurice, Lord Deputy of Ireland; Hugo De Lacy, Earl of Ulster; Walter Rittabard [Riddlesford], Chief Baron of Leinster, who commanded the English of Leinster; and the Lord John Cogan, with the English of Munster, together with all the Roothes of Ireland. They crossed the ford of Athlone, and set fire to the town; then going to Elphin they burned the great church there, and proceeded from thence to the monastery of Ath Dalaarg [Boyle], on the River Boyle, on the eve of Trinity Sunday. Parties of their soldiers entered the monastery, broke into the sacristy, and carried away chalices, vestments, and other treasures. But the English nobles were highly incensed at this conduct [of the soldiery], and sent back as many of those articles as they found, and made restitution for such as they could not find. On the next day they sent forth parties to Creit, to Cairthe Muilchenn [now Glencar], and to the tower of Glenfarne, marauding, who carried off great spoils from those places to the Lord Deputy's camp at Ardcarne. Here the English held a private consultation at the request of Eoghan O'Heyne (who wished to be revenged on the Momonians, and particularly Donnchadh Cairbreach O'Brien), and determined on returning back through Hy-Many and Moinmoy, and passing thence into Thomond, without giving the Momonians any notice of their intentions. This they accordingly did, and committed great depredations. When Felim, the son of Cathal Croibhdhearg O'Conor, saw that the English had passed out of his territories,  p.401 he held a council, and it was resolved that he should march with his troops in aid of the Momonians. On their arrival in Munster they had daily skirmishes with the English. At length a pitched battle took place, in which the united forces of the Connacians and Momonians fought bravely against the English, but the English troops, consisting of infantry and cavalry, who were all clad in armour, at length vanquished them, and killed numbers both of the Connacians and Momonians, but especially of the latter, in consequence of the imprudence of Donnchadh Cairbreach O'Brien. The Connacians then returned home, and on the day following O'Brien made peace with the English and gave them hostages. The English then returned to Connaught, and went first to Aodh O'Flaherty, who made peace with them rather than that they should plunder his people and carry off his cattle.”

“Felim, the son of Cathal Croibhdhearg, finding himself beset with dangers, then resolved on taking with him to O'Donnell [Domhnall Mor] all the cows belonging to those who should be willing to take his advice in the territories of Conmaicne Mara and Conmaicne Cuile, together with the son of Maghnus and Conchobhar Ruadh, the son of Muircheartach Muimhneach O'Conor, and leaving the whole country desolate to the English. The English, on discovering what he had done, advanced to Dun-Mugdord, whence they despatched messengers to Maghnus, the son of Muircheartach Muimhneach, to demand hostages from him, but Maghnus refused to give them either peace or hostages. The English then sent forth from Dun Mugdord a numerous army against the sons of Roderic O'Conor, which plundered Achill and carried great spoils to Druimni. In the mean time Aodh O'Flaherty and Eoghan O'Heyne came round with their numerous forces, who carried boats with them as far as Lionan Cinn mhara [now Leenaun], and thence to Druimni, to meet the Lord Deputy at the Callow of Inis Aonaigh [Inisheany]. Maghnus at this time was with his ships on the water close to the island, where he and the English had frequent engagements. But the English gave him rest for awhile: they repaired to their camp, where they found the boats which had been carried round by O'Flaherty and O'Heyne 1020, and carried  p.402 them to a large strand near the place where Maghnus was. When Maghnus had perceived the boats, he landed on Inis Raithin, and sent a party of his people to the island of Inis Aonaigh. But when the English perceived Maghnus and his people landing on these islands, they launched their boats, and troops of well-armed mail-clad soldiers, and landing on the island on which Maghnus's people were, and also upon Inis Raithin, on which Maghnus himself was, they killed all the people they found on them. Maghnus and those who were with him on Inis Raithin went into their ships and fled from the island; but had Maghnus been on friendly terms with the O'Malleys they would have sent their fleet against that of the English. There was not a cow upon one of the Insi Modha islands [the islands of Clew Bay] which the English did not carry off to the main land in one day, and those from whom they had been taken would have been obliged to come off their islands in consequence of thirst and hunger had they not been taken prisoners.”

“Many of the common people were put to death on that night by the English, who, on the next day, being Friday, landed on the islands north of Umhall, and the chiefs of the army issued orders that no people should be put to death on that day in honour of the crucifixion of Christ. After they had plundered and devastated Umhall, both by sea and land, they marched on with their spoils to Luffertane, thence they advanced to Ballysadare, where they plundered O'Donnell for having afforded refuge to Felim O'Conor after his expulsion. From thence they moved to the Curlieus and to Caladh Puirt na Cairge, on Lough Key, to attack a party of the people of Felim O'Conor, who were defending that place. On this occasion the English of Ireland and the Lord Deputy spared and protected Clarus Mac Mailin, herenach of Elphin, and the canons of the island of the Blessed Trinity, and the Lord Deputy himself and the chiefs of the English went to see that place, and to kneel and pray there. The English afterwards, with great art and ingenuity, constructed wonderful engines by means of which they took the fortress called the Rock of Lough Key from the people of Felim and Cormac Mac Dermot, and the Lord Deputy left guards in it with plenty of provisions and beer. On this expedition the English left the Connacians bereft of food, raiment, and cattle, and the country of peace and tranquillity; the Irish themselves plundering and destroying each other. The English, however, did not receive hostages or pledges of submission on this occasion. Felim made peace with the Lord Deputy, and the English gave him the five cantreds belonging to the king, without cattle, but free from tribute.”


In the year following, 1236, we find this Eoghan O'Heyne in opposition to Felim O'Conor, and assisting Brian, the son of Turlogh O'Conor, who had been set up as king of the Irish of Connaught by the English. He died, according to the Four Masters, in 1253.

29. John, son of Eoghan O'Heyne.

30. Aodh, or Hugh, son of John O'Heyne.

31. Donnchadh, or Donogh, son of Hugh O'Heyne.—The Irish annalists preserve no historical notice of the three last generations. At the year 1261 the Four Masters state that Maelfabhaill, or Mulfavill O'Heyne, slew Hugh, the son of Maolseachlainn O'Conor; and at 1263, that he was himself slain by the English; and at 1326 they notice the death of Nicholas O'Heyne; but nothing remains to show how these stood related to the generations above given. This Donnchadh had two sons, namely, Eoghan, who became lord of the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, and was slain, according to the Annals of the Four Masters, in the year 1340 by his own kinsmen, and Muircheartach O'Heyne, by whom the line was continued.

The Irish annalists preserve but very few notices of this family from the year 1340 to 1578. At the year 1377 Mac Namara and his people of Clann Coilen defeated the people of Clanrickard, and slew Theobald, son of Ulick Burke, the commander of a great body of Kerns, and O'Heyne's three sons, with many others of the chiefs of Clanrickard — Ann. Clonmacnoise.

In the year 1407 O'Heyne joined Mac William Burke of Clanrickard, and Cathal, son of Rory O'Conor, King of Connaught, and fought the battle of Killaghy against O'Conor Roe, but they were defeated and taken prisoners. The annalists do not give us the Christian name of the O'Heyne here mentioned, but we may conjecture that he was No. 33 in the pedigree, namely, Aodh Buidhe, the son of Muircheartach.

32. Muircheartach, or Murtogh, son of Donogh O'Heyne.

33. Aodh Buidhe, or Hugh the Yellow, son of Muircheartach O'Heyne.

34. Brian, son of Hugh the Yellow, O'Heyne,

35. Conchobhar, or Conor, son of Brian O'Heyne.

36. Flann, son of Conor O'Heyne—He had four sons, who became the founders of four distinct septs, namely, 1, Edmond, the ancestor of the succeeding chiefs, except two; 2, Ruaidhri na Coille, i. e. Rory or Roger of the Wood, who became chief of the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, and died in the year 1578, as we learn from the Four Masters: —“A . D. 1578. O'Heyne (Ruaidhri na Coille, son of Flann, son of Conchobhar) died. He had been distinguished for his hospitality and activity in the use of arms from the beginning of his career until he was summoned from this world. His fraternal nephew, Eoghan Mantach, son of Edmond, was elected to his place.” 1021 3. His third son was  p.404 Aodh Buidhe, the ancestor of O'Heyne of the castle of Dunowen; and, 4, Flann O'Heyne, the ancestor of O'Heyne of the castle of Dun Guaire.

37. Edmond, son of Flann O'Heyne.—Nothing is recorded of this O'Heyne except that he was the father of,

38. Eoghan Mantach O'Heyne.— He succeeded his uncle, Ruaidhri na Coille, as chief of the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, in 1578. The following order of the Council of Connaught in his favour is worth inserting here, as throwing curious light upon the history of property at this period.

Order of Council of Connaught—1586

Whereas, it is given us to understand that Owen Mantagh O'Hein of Lydegane, in the barony of Kiltaraght, within the county of Galway, chiefe of his name, is seized amongst other lands of the quarter of land called Caherkearney, & the quarter of Cratnagh, which 2 quarters by a reason they were not presented unto us, are not comprised within the Indentures of her Majesty's Composition, & for as much as by the said Indentures there was no freedom provided for the said Owen, and that by his own confession & presentment yt is found owte the said twoe quarters of land to be concealed and not presented as afforesaid, whereby he is the better worthie to engage the same. It is therefore condecended, granted & agreed in consideration of the premises that the said Owen Mantagh O'Hein shall possess said lands discharged of her Majesty's Composition Rent.

Given at Dublin the 13th of May, 1586. Richard Bingham. Thomas Dillon. Thomas. C. Strange. George Comerford. Nicholas White.

This Eoghan Mantach, or Owen the Toothless O'Heyne, died in the year 1588, as we learn from the Four Masters. “A. D. 1588. Eoghan Mantach, son of Edmond, son of Flann, son of Conchobhar O'Heyne, lord of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, died, and his son Aodh Buidhe [Hugh the Yellow] was elected to his place.” 1022

39. Aodh Buidhe, or Hugh Boy, the son of Eoghan Mantach O'Heyne. —Upon the surrender of his property he received a grant of an extensive estate in the original territory, as will appear from the following curious document extracted from the fourth file of Fiants:

A Graunte unto Hughe Boy O'Heine, sonne and heire of One [Owen] O'Heyne of Ledigan, in the county of Gallway, within the province of Conaght, upon his Surrender, bearing date the 22nd of July, in the xxxth yeare of her Majesty's raigne, of 33s. 4d. Sterlinge yerely, chief rent going out of three quarters of lande in Crannaghe, of one quarter of  p.405 lande in Clonchie, of one quarter of lande in Cahern, one quarterof lande in Cahircarne, one quarter of lande in Crossye, and two quarters of lande in Rahassane; and also 33s. 4d. Ster. chiefe rent yerely goinge out of one quarter of lande in Sisselleidigan, one quarter of lande in Tuelgon, one quarter of lande in Corveighe, one quarter of lande in Kintierleveigh, and one quarter of lande in Dunguoire in th' aforesaid Countie: also 33s. 4d. chiefe rent yerely goinge out of one quarter lande of Cahirkillen, one quarter of lande in Caherglassane, one quarter of lande in Keppaghbeg, one quarter of lande in Cahermadorishe, one quarter of lande in Powleneveigh, and one quarter of lande in Rahalben in th' aforesaid Countie; also 33s. 4d. Ster. chiefe rent yerely goinge out of one quarter of lande in Ballibuige, one quarter of lande in Lawghcoure, one quarter of lande in Kiltwyne, and one quarter of lande in Caherscarlie in th' aforesaid countie; also fortie one shillings foure pence Ster. chiefe rent yerely goinge out of one quarter of lande in Ballevanegrane, one quarter of lande in Monescrib, one quarter of lande in le Mey, one quarter of lande in Fonchenbeg, one quarter of lande in Keapaghmore, and one quarter of lande in Clogher in th' aforesaid countie: also 35s. 8d. Ster. chiefe rent yerely going out of one quarter of lande in Knocklegan, one quarter of lande in Gortevallaile, one quarter of lande in Dromyn, one quarter of lande in Trelick, one quarter of lande in Fonshenmore, one quarter of lande in Rewe, one quarter of lande in Dowres, one quarter of lande in Townaght, one quarter of lande in Agard, one quarter of lande in Balliglara, one quarter of lande in Killily, and one quarter of lande in Cloneste in th' aforesaid countie —Summa total. x. libra Ster. to the said Hughe O'Heine and his heires and assignes for ever per servicium Militare, viz. per servicium xx.me partis unius feodi Militis. — Solvo jure cujuslibet. Deliberat. in Canc. Hibernie xxiiii Julii an. r. R. Eliz. xxxº, —tempore Wil. Fitzwilliams.

This Aodh Buidhe, or Hugh Boy O'Heyne, died in the year 1594, as we learn from the Four Masters: — “A. D. 1594. O'Heyne (Aodh Buidhe, son of Eoghan Mantach, son of Edmond, son of Flann) died.” 1023 This is the last notice of the O'Heyne family given in the Annals of the Four Masters; but Duald Mac Firbis gives two generations more of the pedigree of the family of Lydigane, which carry the line down to his own time, A. D. 1650-1666. These generations are,
40. Aodh Buidhe, son of Aodh Buidhe O'Heyne.

41. Eoghan, son of Aodh Buidhe O'Heyne, of Lydigane.

From the Civil Survey, preserved in the Custom-House, Dublin, it appears that the following persons of the name of O'Heyne were living in the barony of Kiltartan in 1641, principally in the parish of Dawros Kinvara:

  • Edmond Owen O'Heyne, in Corboy.
  • Conor O'Heyne, in Kinturly.
  • Flan Boy O'Heyne, in Kinturly.
  •  p.406
  • Car. Turlogh and Farro O'Heine, Ibidem.
  • Flan Boy O'Hene, in Lissurduffe and Tomareagh.
  • Teige and Edmond O'Hene, in Moinskaebo and Moigh.
  • Owen O'Hene, in Funchinmore.
  • Hugh O'Hene, in Corcarney.
  • Flan mac Edmond O'Hene, in Loughcurro.
  • Farro O'Hine, in Balligilligagh and Corconnogh.
  • Turlo O'Hine, in Cappamore.
  • Edmond O'Hine, in Drumon.
  • Teige Reagh O'Haine, in Ballimachakill.
  • Car. Henry O'Hene, in Shragh and Ballinaghan.
  • Donogh O'Heyne, in Shragh and Ballinaghan.
  • Owen mac Teige Moyle O'Heine, in Shragh and Ballinaghan.
  • Lawyhewre O'Heine, in Shragh and Ballinaghan.
  • Hugh Boy O'Heine, in Carrocurra and Crannan.

Dominick Darcy of Clonuane, Gent, by his Will (now preserved in the Prerogative Court, Dublin), dated 1st August, 1666, bequeaths to his brother [half brother?] Farragh O'Heyne, during his life, the cartron of Kilboren, and five pounds sterling; to his brother Flan O'Heyne three pounds, and the like to his brother Owen O'Heyne.

John Hynes, Esq., of the New Quay, in the barony of Burren, in the north of the county of Clare, who has acquired a handsome property by honest industry, is descended from Flan Boy O'Heyne of Kinturly, now Kinturlough, mentioned in the above list, from whom the generations to the present day will be seen in the following line: 1024

1. Flan Boy O'Heyne of Kinturlongh, living in 1641.

2. Peter O'Heyne.

3. Brian O'Heyne.

4. John Hynes, died 1746.

5. James Hynes, died 1802.

6. John Hynes, now living, born 1785.

7. James; 7. Dr. Patrick of London; 7. Thomas, died 1841;7. Michael of Kinvara, merchant; 7. John.


5. E

Pedigree of Mac Firbis

This family were originally seated in Magh Broin, in Tirawley. They were afterwards removed to Rosserk, on the west side of the Moy, in the same territory, but when the Barretts drove the O'Dowds out of Tirawley, Mac Firbis was fixed at Lecan in Tireragh. They had the privilege of holding the rod over O'Dowd at his inauguration, and of drinking at the banquet even before the acknowledged senior of the race, O'Caomhain.— See pp. 140, 141, 142. The pedigree of this family, as given by Duald Mac Firbis in 1666, is many generations defective, and cannot be depended upon except for about the last twelve generations. Strange! that this family, who were the hereditary historians to the O'Dowds, while they preserved so much of the history of other families, should have left us so imperfect and uncertain an account of themselves. The following is the part of this pedigree which the Editor believes to be trustworthy:—


Our writers have preserved but few notices of this family. The following are all that the Editor has been able to collect:
“A. D. 1279. Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis, Ollav of Tireragh, died.”— Four Masters.

“A. D. 1301. Gille Issa Mac Firvissie, chief chronicler of Tyrefiaghrach, wonderful well-skilled in histories, poetry, computation, and many other sciences, died.” — Ann. Clonmacnoise.

“A. D. 1376. Donnchadh Mac Firbis, a good historian, died.”— Four Masters.

“A. D. 1379. Firbis Mac Firbis, a learned historian, died.”— Four Masters.

“A. D. 1417. Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis was chief historian to O'Dowd of Tireragh, and composed a long topographical poem on the tribes and districts in the ancient territory of his ancestors.”— Duald Mac Firbis.

“A. D. 1450. Eugene O'Cormyn and Thady Mac Firbis, Eremites of the order of St. Augustine, received a grant of the lands of Stormor, in Tirawley, from Thady O'Dowd, to erect thereon a monastery under the invocation of the Holy Trinity, and Pope Nicholas the Fifth confirmed the same by a Bull dated 12th December, 1454.” — Archdall, from Meagher.

“A. D. 1560. Ciothruadh and James, the two sons of Diarmaid Caoch Mac Firbis, and their cousin-german John Og, the son of William Mac Firbis, built the castle of Lecan in Tireragh.”— Duald Mac Firbis. Vide supra, pp. 168, 169.

“A. D. 1670. Duald Mac Firbis, the last of the hereditary antiquaries of Lecan, was murdered at Dunflin.”—Ch. O' Conor of Belanagare.

The present representative of this family is supposed to be John Forbes, a small farmer living in the parish of Lacken, near Killala, and barony of Tirawley. He descends from one of the brothers of Duald, the last of the antiquaries, and he has lately addressed the following letter to the Royal Irish Academy, which is inserted here for the sake of the particulars it contains of the writer's family, and as a curious assertion of his claim to be the representative of the ancient antiquaries:

To the Honourable the President and Associates of the Royal Irish Academy.

The Memorial of John Mac Firbis of the parish of Lacken, in the county of Mayo, farmer,
respectfully showeth,
that Memorialist is descended from the family of Mac Firbis of Lecan—Mac Firbis, in the county of Sligo, hereditary antiquaries of Connaught, being the fifth in descent from the younger and only brother of Duald Mac Firbis, the last of the antiquaries of the family, who was brutally murdered in the county of Sligo.  p.409 That the sisters of said Duald retired into Spain, where they ended their lives in a convent, whilst his younger brother, the ancestor of memorialist, was dispossessed of the property of Lecan Mac Firbis, since which period memorialist's family have lived in poverty and indigence.

That memorialist has been informed that a work on Irish antiquities called the Book of Lecan, written by one of memorialist's ancestors, is now in the Library of your honourable Society, together with the copy of another work of like nature, composed by the aforesaid Duald Mac Firbis, of which his family was deprived at the period of his murder.

Although the lands of Lecan Mac Firbis have passed away for ever from memorialist's family, yet he humbly hopes, from the honour and humanity of the Noblemen and Gentlemen composing the Royal Irish Academy, that he will be allowed some consideration for these works of his ancestors, which now, as memorialist believes, form a prominent portion of ancient Irish history.

Memorialist is in a state of humble poverty, and respectfully submits his case, my Lords and Gentlemen, to your humane consideration.

And will for ever pray.

6. F

St. Fiacre — The Muaidh

Page 2, note c.—i. e. p. 3, note 8 in the CELT edition. The proper name Fiachra, making Fiachrach in the genitive case, which occurs so often throughout this volume, is well known on the Continent as that of a celebrated Irish saint, the site of whose hermitage near Meaux was deemed so sacred that to go on a pilgrimage thither was, to a late period, a frequent practice; and we are told of the pious queen Anne of Austria, that when she visited the shrine of this saint in 1641, so great was the humility of her devotion that she went the whole of the way from Monceau to the town of Fiacre on foot.

‘L'ermitage de Saint Fiacre est devenu un bourg de la Brie, fameux par les pélérinages que l'on y faisait; l'église ou chapelle étoit desservie par les Bénédictins; les femmes m'entroient point dans le sanctuarie, et l'on remarque que la Reine Anne d'Austriche, y venant en pélérinage en 1641, se conforma à cet usage, et qu'elle fit même à pied le chemin depuis Monceau jusqu'a Saint-Fiacre’ () Hist. de Meaux — quoted by Moore in his History of Ireland, vol. i. p. 278., who also quotes from “another work,” which he does not name, relating to this saint: —“On a pretendu que le nom de Fiacres avait été donné aux carosses de place, parcequ'ils furent d'abord destines à voiturer jusqu'a St. Fiacre (en Brie) les Parisiens qui y allerent en pélérinage.” — See Butler's Lives of the Saints, in Aug. 30. Mabillon Acta SS. Ord. S. Bened. tom. ii. and the Bollandists.


Ibid. — The Muaidh, called Moda by Adamnan. — The learned Dr. Prichard, in his Ethnography of the Celtic race, being misled by the inaccurate work on Ireland by Dr. Wood, states that the Moda of Adamnan is Wexford harbour, and concludes that the Milesian story was written after the seventh century. The following are his words: — ‘The Milesians arrived in Ireland 1300, B. C., at Inmhear Slainge, or Wexford harbour, the name of which is a proof that the Milesian story was written after the seventh century, since in the second that place was called “Modoni ostia” by Ptolemy, and in the seventh Moda by St. Adamnan.’ (Sect. XII. Par. 2.)

Whatever truth or falsehood there may be in the Milesian story, this argument is too weak and unfounded to destroy it. The words of Adamnan are as follows, and they clearly show that he meant no other than the present River Moadh, or Moy: — ‘Alio quoque in tempore de Cormaco nepote Lethani, viro utique sancto, qui tribus non minus vicibus eremum in Oceano laboriose quaesivit, nec tamen inuenit, Sanctus Columba ita prophetizans ait: hodie iterum Cormac desertum reperire cupiens, enauigare incipit ab illa regione quae ultra Modam fluvium sita, Eirros domnonn dicitur: nec tamen etiam hac vice quod quaerit inveniet; et non ob aliam eius culpam, nisi quod alicuius religiosi Abbatis Monachum, ipso non permittente, discessorem secum non recte comitari, navigio susceperit.’ (Vita S. Columbae, Cap. VI. De Sancto Cormaco. (ap. Colgan. Trias Thaumathurgae p. 340.))

On the situation of the River Moda Colgan adds the following note, which is an additional authority against the opinion that the Moda of Adamnan was the harbour of Wexford: — “Fluvius est Connaciae Celebris, vulgo Muaidh, et nobis latine Moadus, sive Muadus appellatus.”

On the situation of Eirros domnon, which lies beyond the River Moda, Colgan says:—
“Eirros —Est regio Occidentalis Connaciae vulgo Irros chlann Domnann appellata.”

Now, as the River Moda of Adamnan is not the harbour of Wexford, where is the argument to prove that Inbher Slainge, the name of the mouth of the River Slaney, is not older than Ptolemy's time? Where is the proof that the Modoni ostia of Ptolemy is the mouth of the Slaney? —See Ogygia, p. 17, where O'Flaherty writes:—
“Nec qui nunc Slanius Modono, aut alio quam Slanio nomine cognitus a Belgarum ingressu multis seculis ante Ptolemaei natales.” It is much more likely that the Modonus of Ptolemy is the bay of Bannow, which is said to have been anciently a safer harbour than that of Wexford.

6. G

Sith Budha

Page 6, note 1 i. e. p. 7, note 31 in the CELT editionSith Budha, i. e. the hill of Budh. There were three or four celebrated hills of this name in Ireland, which were believed to have been haunted by  p.411 fairies or demons; but it would appear from the Life of St. Cormac, as given in the Book of Lecan, and published in a Latin translation, by Colgan in Acta SS. that the Sith budha here referred to was in Tirawley. Speaking of Muireadhach, from whom sprung the O'Muireadhaigh of Tirawley, this life has the following words: — “ex cujus semine nobilis familia Muredaciorum in eadem regione olim potens.” We find in it also the following curious reference to this hill: — “Ad ejus [sc. Cormaci] etiam Ecclesiam, tanquam ad tutum refugium [seu] asylum, uxor praedicti Aengussii, nomine Saba filii Fiachrii Finni, a quo Fiachrorum familia in regione Amalgadiae, duxit suum filium Muredacium nomine, laethali contagione percussum, quam contraxit ex quad am pestilenti exhalationi, quae promanabat ex monte quodam Sith Badha [recte Sith Budha] vulgo nuncupato, et daemonum infestationibus infecto.” — Colgan, Acta SS. p. 754.

7. H

The Ancient Leatha

Leatha.—See pages 18, 19, note w, i. e. p. 19, note 81 in the CELT edition. — It has been much disputed by modern antiquaries what district the ancient Irish writers designated by the name Lethu, or Leatha. The translator of Fiech's Hymn on the life of St. Patrick has rendered it Latium in the fifth, sixth, and ninth quatrains, but Mr. Patrick Lynch, in his Life of St. Patrick, and after him Lanigan and Declan, have laboured to prove that Leatha was never applied to Latium, but was a hibernicised form of Letavia, the name by which a part, and sometimes the whole of Armoric Gaul was called by the writers of the middle ages. Lynch, after stating that the translator of Fiech's Hymn was in error in understanding Letha as designating Latium, or Italy, writes as follows, pp. 77, 78:
“The truth is, that the word Lethu, in all parts of the Irish hymn where it occurs, should have been translated into LETAVIA, the name by which a part, and sometimes the whole country of Armoric Gaul was called by the writers of the middle ages.
In according to that, the old scholiast on this hymn says, that “all St. Patrick's family went on commercial business beyond the Iccian sea towards the south to Lethanian Aremorica, or Letheacensian Britain; but at that time the seven sons of Fechtmund being banished from Britain (Albion) were committing depredations in Letha, a district of Aremoric Gaul.”” 1025
“In the life of St. Ailve, Bishop of Emly, in Momonia, or Munster, and not in  p.412 Menavia, or St. David's, as Cambrensis would have it, it is recorded that “Sampson was Bishop of Dal Omhoir, in the remotest frontiers of Letha,” that is, says Doctor Langhorne, “the city of Dol, in Bretayne, or Lethania Aremorica, for,” continues he, “Aremorica was also denominated Letha, or Lethania.”” 1026

“To the above we shall only add the testimony of Camden, who states that “this district, previously to the arrival of our countrymen from Britain, was originally called Aremorica, that is, near the sea, in the British dialect Lhydaw, importing also its maritime situation, lying on the coast; and in Latin LETAVIA , among the writers of the middle age; whence its inhabitants, I suppose to be the LETI , a people of Gaul mentioned by Zosimus; and, lastly, it was denominated Britannia Minor, or Little Britain, from our British compatriots who settled there”” 1027.

This reasoning would seem to be borne out by the Irish translation of Nennius, in which “Brittones Armorici” is rendered by the Irish “Breatain Leatha,” i. e. the Britons of Leatha, as in the following passage:
“Septimus imperator regnavit in Britannia Maximianus. Ipse perrexit cum omnibus militibus Brittonum a Brittannia, et occidit Gratianum regem Romanorum, et imperium tenuit totius Europae, et noluit dimittere milites, qui perexerunt cum eo, ad Brittaniam ad uxores suas, et ad filios suos, et ad possessiones suas; sed dedit illis multas regiones, a stagno quod est super verticem Montis Jovis usque ad civitatem quae vocatur Cantguic, et usque ad Cumulum occidentalem, id est, Cruc Ochidient. Hi sunt Brittones Armorici, et nunquam reversi sunt huc, usque in hodiernum diem.” — Historia Britonum, Stephenson's edit., pp. 20, 21.

Thus rendered by the Irish translator in the Book of Ballymote and H 3 17.  1 “Maiximain ro ghab rigi Bhreatain, ocus rug slogu Bhreatain a Romhánchaibh, co torchair lais Gratian in t-imper, "  p.413 ocus ro gab féin rigi na h-Eorpa; ocus ní ro léig uad na sluaig rug leis do chum a m-ban, ocus a mac, nacha fearann, acht do rad fearanna imda doib ó tha in loch fil immullach Sleibi loibh co Canacuic bu deas, ocus siar co Duma Oichiden, ait a fuil in Chros eargna. Ocus is iad sin Breatain Leatha, ocus tarastair teas do ghreas.”

 2 “Maximian succeeded to the government Britain into the country of the Romans, and he led the forces of Britain into the country of the Romans, 1028 and Gratian, the Emperor, was slain by him, and he himself assumed the government of Europe, and he did not permit the forces which he had brought with him to return to their wives, sons, or lands, but he gave them many lands [in the region extending] from the lake which is on the summit of Mount Jove, southwards, to Canacuic, and westwards to the mound of Oichiden, where the grand cross is situated. And these are the Britons of Leatha, and they remained always in the south.”

It looks strange that the Irish translator here seems to take the Welsh word cruc, a hill or mound, for the Latin word crux, a cross, and understands Cruc Ochidient, which Nennius intended as a Welsh translation of cumulum occidentalem, to signify “where the grand cross is situated!”

But it must nevertheless be confessed that in the Felire Aenguis, at the 27th of June, the city of Rome is styled Ruaim Letha in the original text, and Letha is explained in the Gloss by the Latin Latium, “Leatha, a nomine Latium.” Also in a very ancient Irish stanza quoted in the same work, Pope Gregory the Great is styled “Abb Róma Letha,” i. e. Abbot of Rome of Letha. These authorities are sufficient to defend the translator of Fiech's Hymn against the criticism of Lynch and his followers Lanigan and Declan. The following authorities are also submitted to the reader on this very curious question:  1Is ann sin do cuaidh Patruic do fhogluim eacna agus crabuid i n-oirtheas descert Etaile co German epscop ... iar sin ro fucc in t-aingeal e i n-Arboric Letha cus in cathraig dianad ainim Capua i Sleib Armoin, super ripam maris Terreni.” — Vit. Patricii, in Leabhar Breac, fol. 13, b.

 2 “Then Patrick went to learn wisdom and religion in the south-east of Italy, to German the Bishop. ... Afterwards an angel conducted him to Armoric Letha to the city named Capua, at the mountain of Armoin super ripam maris Tyrrheni.”

Duald Mac Firbis has the following notices of this name:

 1 “Fochan daoire Phatraig, i. Patraig  p.414 agus a athair, agus a mháthair, agus a chúig seathra, .i. Lupait, Tigris, Raicéll, Dererca, Cinnenum agus a brathair, .i. deochuin Samian, do chuadar uile a Breathnuibh Ail Cluaide tar Muir n-Icht fo des for turus go Bhreathnuibh Armuirc Leatha, .i. go Breathnuibh Letheoch, ár ro bátar bráitre dóib ann in tan sin. Agus Fa do Frangcoibh máthoir na clainne, .i. Coinces, agus ba siursidhe coibneasda do Martain. Agus as i sin aimsir ro bátar secht meic Sechtmaide, .i. righ Bretan for longg ó Bhreatnaib. Do ronsad tra crech moir i m-Breathnuibh Armuirc Leatha, baile a m-boi Patraig co n-a mhuinntir, ⁊c.”

“Teit Phatraic iarum go raibhe la Gearman ab, a n-deas i n-desgert Leatha (in australi pairte Gallorum iuxta Mare Terrenum). Leatha, .i. Italia, Leatha a latitudine. German, abb na cathroch dar ab ainm Altiodorus, as aige ro légh Pátraig, agus Burgunia ainm na ceannaichthe s d-tá in cathair sin in gallis; gomadh i n-Innsibh Mara Toirren sin mar aspert Fiag Slebhte,
In-innsib mara Toirrian,
Ainis innib ad rime,
Leughais canoin la German,
Aseadh ad fiadhad line.
Ocus Alanensis ainm na cathroch no na hinnsi sin ar Muir Toirren.”

 2 “The cause of Patrick's slavery was this. Patrick, with his father, mother, and five sisters, Lupait, Tigris, Raichell, Dererca, and Cinnenum, and his brother Deochuin Samian, all went from Britain of Ail Cluath, southwards, across the Iccian sea, to the Britons of Armuiric Leatha, that is, to the Britons of Letheoc, who were their kinsmen at that time, and the mother of these children was of the Franks, namely, Coinces, a near relative to St. Martin. This was the time that the seven sons of Sechtmad, King of Britain, were in exile from Britain. They committed a great depredation on the Britons of Armuiric Leatha, where Patrick and his people were,” &c. — Duald Mac Firbis, MS. Geneal., p. 692.

“Patrick afterwards went southwards to German, the Abbot, in the south of Leatha (in australi parte Gallorum juxta Mare Terrenum). Leatha, i. e. Italia; leatha a latitudine. German was abbot of the city named Altiodorus; it is with him St Patrick read; and Burgunia is the name of the principality in Gaul, in which this city is situated; and this is in the islands of the Tyrrhenian sea, as Fiag of Sletty says,”
“In the islands of the Tyrrhenian sea
He resided, as is related,
He reads his canons with German,
As is certified by us.”
“And Alanensis is the name of the city or island in the Tyrrhenian sea.” — Id. p. 693.

It should be also remarked that in the Book of Lismore, and in the Book of Fenagh the city of Rome is called Róim Leatha, i. e. Rome of Leatha, from which it is quite  p.415 clear that by Leatha the writers of these works meant Latium, which was the ancient name of that district of Italy, in which the city of Rome is situated.

8. I

Saint Ceallach

Pages 33–35—This Ceallach, who was the eldest son of Eoghan Bel, King of Connaught, was educated by St Kieran of Clonmacnoise, and became a bishop at Kilmore- Moy, in Tirawley; but he afterwards resigned his bishopric and retired as a hermit to Oilen Edghair, in Loch Con, from fear of Guaire Aidhne, King of Connaught, who had conceived a mortal hatred towards him, as he was the true heir to the kingdom of Connaught. Guaire bribed four ecclesiastical students who were under Cellach's tuition in the hermitage, to murder him, namely, Mac Deoraidh, Maelcroin, Maeldalua, and Maelseanaigh. According to the life of Bishop Ceallach, of which there is a copy in the collection of Messrs. Hodges and Smith, this murder was committed in a wood situated between Loch Con and Loch Cuillinn, in the south of the territory of Tirawley, and after its perpetration King Guaire granted the territory of Tirawley to these four students as a reward for their services in despatching Ceallach, who thereupon erected a fort for themselves at Dun Fine. Soon after this occurrence Muireadhach, who was otherwise called Cucoingilt, the second son of King Eoghan Bel, came to visit his brother [in] Oilen Edghair, but not finding him there, and learning that certain negociations had passed between his pupils and King Guaire, he at once suspected that the bishop, his brother, had been murdered; after some inquiries and searches he found the body in the hollow trunk of an oak tree, torn by the ravens, scald crows, and wolves. Cucoingilt carried the mangled body to the church of Turloch for interment, but the clergy of that establishment, dreading the vengeance of King Guaire, would not permit it to be buried there; upon which he carried it to the church of Lis Callain, but the clergy refused to admit it; it was next brought to the church of Eiscreacha, where it was interred with due honours. Cucoingilt, after having chanted a short dirge over the grave of his brother, in which he vowed vengeance against the murderers, assembled an armed band of three hundred of his relatives and adherents, with whom, after having lived one year in Hy-Many, and some time in Meath, where he married Aifi, the daughter of Blathmac, King of Ireland, he at length returned to Tirawley, his own Fleasc lamha, or patrimonial inheritance, where, by the assistance of a swine-herd, he procured admittance to the fort of Dun Fine, in which the murderers of his brother were banquetting. Here he remained at the banquet in the disguise of a swine-herd until he observed that the four murderers, and all their guests and attendants, were  p.416 stupid with intoxication, upon which he sent his friend, the swine-herd, for his armed band, who were concealed in the neighbourhood, who, rushing into the fort, slew all the guards and attendants, and seized upon the four murderers of Bishop Ceallach. The guests in general, on learning that it was Cucoingilt, the second son of King Eoghan Bel, and the brother of the murdered bishop, that had thus disturbed their festivities, were more pleased than grieved at the occurrence, and finished their potations in honour of the rightful heir.

On the next day Cuncoingilt carried the four murderers, in chains, southwards, through the territory from Dun Fine to a place called Durlus Muaidhe, and across Lec Durluis, until he arrived at a place near the River Moy, since called Ard na riadh [now Ardnarea], i. e. the hill of executions, where he executed the four, cutting off all their limbs while they were living.

After this Cucoingilt obtained the hostages of Tir Fiachrach and Tir Amhalgaidh, and compelled Guaire to live in Tir Fiachrach Aidhne, in the south of the province.

9. J

Cnoc Na Maill

Page 96, note d, and page 267, note t i. e. p. 97, note 247 and p. 267, note 765 in the CELT edition — It should be here added that the district lying round the Red Hill of Skreen was originally called Cnoc na Maili, and afterwards Mullach Ruadha, which is now, strange to say, applied not to the hill itself, but to a small townland lying to the east of it. But the name was never so applied until the original Ballybetagh was subdivided into half quarters, which constitute the present townlands, when the names were very strangely confounded. Thus the half quarter on which the church stands received the appellation of Skreen from the church, the division to the south of it was called Lecarrow, i. e. Leith-cheathramha, the half quarter, from its quantity; the hill itself, which originally gave name to the whole district, or Ballybetagh, was called Cnoc Ruadha, i. e. Rufina's hill, now incorrectly translated Red Hill, while Mullach Ruadha, the more ancient appellation, was transferred to a subdivision to which it is by no means applicable, inasmuch as it is not a mullach, or summit, in relation to the other subdivisions, and contains no monument of the Lady Rufina with whose name it is compounded. In this manner, however, have ancient names, in many instances, been transferred and corrupted. The carn erected over the body of Ruadh, or Rufina, the wife of Dathi, still remains on this hill, but it is not on its very summit, as Duald Mac Firbis writes. It is thus described by Robert Jones, Esq., in a letter to R. C. Walker, Esq., of Rathcarrick, barrister-at-law, who has kindly forwarded it to the Editor:

Being here for the Christmas holidays I made a search for the cairn of Knockroe,  p.417 or Mullaghroe, and have discovered it. I enclose a sketch from the Ordnance Map, sheet 19. On the townland of Mullaroe there is nothing of the sort, but the district up the hill is all called Crockroe, or the Red Hill, and there is a large stone fort shown in the Ordnance Survey, called the Red Hill. This, however, is not the cairn, but lower down the hill I discovered the cairn, which had been opened, and contained several small chambers; the principal one has still the covering stones on it, but filled with smaller stones underneath. The carn is of an oval form, ninety-six paces round. The entire hill is a light soil on lime-stone rock, which every where protrudes. The cairn is formed of these stones; the first chamber has a double covering of large lime-stone flags, the sides being formed of upright flags of the same material, like a small cromlech, and is about six feet square. There appear to be several other smaller ones which have been opened and the rubbish thrown back again. From the stone fort higher up the hill there is a magnificent view: it stands just over the dark lake under Knockacrea, from whence the mountain rises at once, and the view of Knocknarea, Glencarr, and the mountains beyond the Union wood is splendid. It is a very considerable fort and has chambers underneath it.

Robert Jones. Skreen,

10. K

Pedigree of the Clann Donnchadha O'Dowd.

Page 116, note w, i. e. p. 117, note 294 in the CELT edition — The following document is taken from the Book of Lecan, fol. 85, b, where it has been inserted in a more recent hand:
 1 “Clann adbal mor la Maolruanaig, mac Donnchaig, meic Aodha, meic Tailtig, meic Aodha, meic Muircheartoig, i. Tailtech Muaidhi, agus Donnchadh agus in Cosnamoig, .i. Aird Espoc Tuama,”


Maolruanaidh, son of Donnchadh, son of Aodh, son of Taithleach, son of Aodh, son of Muircheartach, had a very great family, namely, Taithleach Muaidhe [of the Moy], Donnchadh 1029 and Cosnamhach 1030, Archbishop of Tuam.

 p.418 1

“agus as é in Tailtech Muaidhi sin do marbad a m-Bel Atha Tailtigh ar Coilltib Lughna Meic Firtri, re Gallaib. Agus ro eirgeadar clann imda ag Donnchadh Mor O'Dubhda re h-Onoruinn, ingen Meic Baitin Bairéd, .i. Donnchadh Og, agus Muircheartach, agus Taithlech, .i. cnam-fhiach na clainni ar a méd, agus ar a milidheacht agus drong eli d'á radha gur ab mac tabartais é, agus go bh-frith d'á ithe fa fiachaibh é, no go d-tuc O'Luachan d'á thig féin d'a oileamoin é; agus Lochlainn agus Aodh in Chorainn, agus Cormac, .i. Espoc Cilli h-Ealad, agus Aodh Ruadh, agus Concabar na Ceitherne.”


This is the Taithleach Muaidhe who was slain at Bel Atha Tailtigh, in Coillte Lughna Mac Firtri, by the English. 1031 And Donnchadh Mor O'Dubhda had numerous issue by Honora, the daughter of Mac Wattin Barrett 1032, namely, Donnchadh Og, Muircheartach 1033, and Taithleach (called the cnaim-fhiach of his children, for his size and warlike character, though others say he was a natural son 1034, and that he was found under the ravens, which were devouring him, until O'Luachain took him into his house to nurse him); Lochlainn, Aodh an Chorainn, Cormac 1035, Bishop of Killala, Aodh Ruadh 1036, and Conchobhar na Ceitherne 1037.


“Do gab Taithlech Muaidhi in tighearnus d'aimdeoin Donnchadha agus na sinnsirecht. Ro gab Donncadh Mór agus a clann ag foghail, agus ag dibearg, agus ag fir-milledh fonn O bh-Fiachrach agus O n-Amalgaid, no go n-dechaidh dith ar dhaínib, agus easbaidh ar aicmeadoib etorra, no go n-dechaidh lucht leanamhna na n-aon comairli etorra féin in tír do roinn, agus comatha comora agus fearonn fairsing do tabairt do na clannoib sin Donnchaidh Moir, agus in Tigearnus do beth ag Tailtech Muaidhi agus ag at-slicht ina deaghaidh.”


Taithleach Muaidhe took the chieftainship in despite of Donnchadh and his seniority. 1038 Donnchadh Mor and his sons  p.419 proceeded to plunder, rebel, and destroy the land of Hy-Fiachrach and Hy-Amhalgaidh, so that destruction was brought on men and want on tribes [during the contention] between them, until their followers consulted together and agreed to divide the country, and to give those sons of Donnchadh Mor large considerations and extensive territory, and to cede the chieftainship to Taithleach Muaidhe and his descendants after him.


“Agus as í so in roinn, .i. Sineasgalacht agus seirbis in rechta righ do tabairt do Donnchadh Og, mac Donnchaidh Móir, agus ceannus ceithern agus congbal do Concabar na ceitherni, agus tigearnus ceall do Uilliam Espoc, agus cís agus dligeadh ar in g-ceathramhadh cuid do'n tir do Donnchadh Mór féin, agus mir murra ar a chinn fuas do Donnchadh Mór, .i. secht m-baile Cúile Cearnadha, featha agus caithigthe agus cosnam in tiri d'fiachaib ar Donnchadh agus ar a clann Maicni i n-a deaghaidh acht nama in mir murra d'fearann t-saor fuair Donnchadh Mor.”


This was the division: To cede the seneschalship and the service [administration] of the regal law to Donnchadh Og 1039, the son of Donnchadh Mor, and the superintendence of the kerns and the houses to Conchobhar na Ceithirne, and the lordship of the churches to William the Bishop 1040, and the rent and law of the fourth part of the territory were ceded to Donnchadh Mor himself, and a mir murra1041 was also ceded to him (Donnchadh Mor) for his seniority, viz., the seven townlands of Cuil Cearnadha 1042; and Donnchadh Mor, and his sons after him,  p.420 were obliged to sustain the battles and defence of the territory, though they have nothing for it but the mir murra of free land, which Donnchadh Mor had obtained.


“Do dheanam eolus ar gach ceatramoin dibh foleith ar egla in duthchois do dol i m-bathadh, .i. Baile Cairthi in chuile, mar ata, ceathraimi in Cairthi fein, agus ceathraimi Aingilín, agus Ceathraimi na g-cloch agus ceatraimi Cilli Brigdi, oir i si cuid ronna sleachta Aodha Ruaidh, mic Donnchaidh Oig, in baile sin. Ceathraimi bec Muine Conalláin, Ceathraimi mor Muini Conalláin, agus Ceathraimi in Labáin, ag sin baile fearainn sleachta Muircheartaigh, mic Donnchaidh Móir.”


To preserve a knowledge of every quarter of these separately lest their patrimony might be consigned to oblivion. They are as follows, viz., Baile Cairthi in chuile 1043, viz., the quarter of the chairthi itself 1044, and Ceathramh Aingilin 1045, Ceathramh na g-cloch 1046, the quarter of Cill-Brighde 1047, for this townland was the dividend of Aodh Ruadh, the son of Donnchadh Og. The quarter of Rath Raodain 1048, the small quarter of Muine Conallain, the large quarter of Muine Conallain 1049 and Ceathramha an labain 1050; this was the townland of the posterity of Muircheartach,  p.421 The son of Donnchadh Og, who was the son of Donnchadh Mor.


“Ceathraimi Cilli na n-Garbhan, in Ceathraimi Riabhach, Ceathraimi mic Conín, Ceathraimi na h-Oilighi, Baile fearainn sleachta Aodha in Choraind. Ceathraimi Lis Ard Mor, Ceathraimi Meic Carra, Ceathraimi na Grelligi, Ceathraimi I Dubagain, ag sin baile Concobair na Ceitherni .i. Baile na Brothlaigi, Ceathraimi mor Caislein, Ceathraimi Beac Caislein, agus Leith Baili Gleanna da Ghub, agsin Baile Tailtigh Moir .i. Cnaim Fhiach na Cloinni; Leith Baile Rúsgaighi, .i. Ceathraimi na Cairgi, Ceatraimi na Corra Drisighi, Ceathraimi Droma Sguabaigh, Ceathraimi Meic Geirbli agus da ceathroime ele nach airmidedh sonn.”


The quarter of Cill na n-garbhan 1051, Ceathramha riabhach 1052, Ceathramha Mic Coinin 1053, the quarter of Oileach 1054, constituting the townland of the posterity of Aodh an Chorainn. The quarter of Lis ard mor 1055, Ceathramha Meic Carra 1056, the quarter of Grellach 1057, Ceathramha Ui Dhubhagain 1058, that is, the townland of Conchobar na Ceithirne. Baile na Brothlaighe 1059, the great Castlequarter and the less Castlequarter 1060, and the half townland of Gleann da ghubh 1061, this is the townland of Taithleach Mor, Cnaimhfhiach na Cloinne. The half townland of Rusgach 1062, the quarter of Carraig 1063, the  p.422 quarter of Corra drisighi 1064, the quarter of Drom Sguabach 1065, Ceathramha Meic Geirbli 1066, and two other quarters not mentioned here.


“Agus as iad slicht Taithligh do ben sin amach d'aimdeoin na cloinni oili agus da ceathromoin oile mar aon riu .i. Ceathroimi I Sgorra agus a Ceathroimi Caol.”


And the posterity of Taithleach got possession of these in despite of the other children, besides two other quarters, namely, Ceathramha Ui Sgorra 1067 and Ceathramh Caol 1068.


“Agso cor agus cunnradh Tailtigh Muaidhi, .i. rí O bh-Fiachrach re Donnchadh Mor, .i. beth umal urramach do Taithlech Muaidhi ar son in ceatroimi rann do'n tír do thabairt do Donnchadh agus d'á slicht; Eirgi i mach umal, urramach do thabairt do Taithlech Muaidhi, ar son in ceathroimi rann do'n tir do tabairt do Donnchadh agus d'á slicht Eirgi imach umal innruic do thabairt do Taithlech Muaidhi ar uaisli a anma agus a inmhi, agus gach uair dá m-beidh éigean-dáil ar O'n-Dubda, Donnchadh agus a clann d'á freasdal fa n-dithcell. A chuid cuain agus caladh ag Donnchadh Mor féin agus aga slicht.”


The following is the compact and covenant of Taithleach Muaidhe, King of Hy-Fiachrach, with Donnchadh Mor, viz., that Donnchadh and his descendants should be obedient and submissive to Taithleach Muaidhe, in consideration of their having received the fourth part of the territory, also to furnish an obedient, submissive, and sincere Rising-out to Taithleach Muaidhe for the same consideration, and also for the nobility of his name and wealth; and whensoever the O'Dubhda should happen to be in jeopardy that they should assist him to the best of their ability. That Donnchadh Mor himself and his descendants should have their own portion of the harbours 1069.


“Dá m-beadh Goill no Gaoidhil a n-dubhthaig I Dubda Donnchadh Mór agus a chlann  p.423 do thabairt uiread riú fein do Taithlech Muaidhi agus d'á cloinn agus a leitheid oili sin uadha-san agus adbert in Seancha annso:”

  1. Callraigi Cuili na g-cnead
    rachat innti d'á h-airem,
    Cuil Chearnuga na g-call g-cas,
    neam-dona in drong dán dúthchas.
  2. Ceithri taisigh as tir t-suas
    ag Callraigi na g-caom chnuas,
    coinnmi dochaidh far g-cairt-ni,
    cair sloindi na saor-maicni.
  3. O'Cuinn is O'Rothlan reidh
    ó h-Iarnan na n-arm n-aigmeil,
    gan digbail do'n gleri Gall,
    O'Finain in meine Mor Clann.
  4. O bel Easa n-eas n-glan,
    feadh na tuaithi si nár tubad
    go Brosnaidh fa tend teni
    do chosain ceann Callraigi.


If the English or Irish should be in the country of O'Dubhda, Donnchadh Mor and his descendants should give as many as themselves 1070 to Taithleach Muaidhe and his descendants, and the like from them to him. On which subject the historian has the following lines:

  1. Into Callraighi Cuile 1071 na g-cneadh
    I shall proceed to describe it,
    Cuil Cearnadha of the knotty hazles,
    Not unhappy the tribe in whom it is hereditary.
  2. Four chieftains are in the upper country,
    In Callraighi of beautiful fruit trees,
    A festive party who have entered into our catalogue,
    It is proper to name the noble party.
  3. O'Cuinn and O'Rothlainn the ready,
    O'h-Iarnan of dreadful arms,
    Without injury to the choice of the foreigners,
    And O'Finain a prop of great descendants.
  4. From Bel Easa of the clear cataracts,
    The extent of the country which was not oppressed
    To the Brosnach of impetuous current,
    Which defends the head of Calraighi.



  1. O Bél Atha in fheadha anall
    as e fairsing na b-fhearann
    mar tam da d-taroill uile,
    go Traigh alaind Eothailli.
  2. Donnchadh Mor rug mar rogha
    Cuil Cnama Cuil chearnumha
    amarc súl is ráimhe lind
    in chúil is áille d'Eirind.
  3. O Borraig na sreabh solas, —
    na bídh aon 'na amoras,
    Cúil cnáma in fearann ar fad
    co tráigh nach dleagam do dearmad.
  4. Do dhén do'n foirind éolus
    in da chuil a g-comórtus
    cúil ar gach ceann do'n tír
    an geall ó gach cúil cluintí.
  5. Tailtech Muaidhi, fa mór rath,
    tigearna ar fonn O bh-Fiachrach,
    atáid a chlann ó shoin alle
    a g-ceann Donnchaidh 'sa chloinni.


  1. From Bel Atha an Fheadha 1072, thither
    Is the breadth of the lands,
    As I am describing them all
    To the beautiful strand of Eothuili 1073.
  2. Donnchadh Mor took as choice
    Cuil Cnamha, Cuil Cearnadha,
    A prospect to the eye the most delightful we deem
    The most beautiful cuil [angle] of Erin.
  3. From Borrach 1074 of the bright streams, —
    Let no one be in doubt of it, —
    Cuil Cnamha embraces all the land,
    As far as the strand, which we should not forget.
  4. I shall afford intelligence to the tribe
    Respecting the two cuils which are in competition,
    A cuil at each extremity of the territory,
    The palm wager being won by each cuil was heard of 1075.
  5. Taithleach Muaidhe 1076 of great success
    Became lord of the land of Hy-Fiachrach,
    And his descendants have been ever since
    Over Donnchadh and his lineage.



  1. Ceathroimi cuid do'n tír tais
    fuair Donnchadh ó Dún Durlais,
    gach laoi a g-ceill da g-cuiri
    mar taoi sa reim rigraidi.
  2. Mile bliadhan, nocha brég,
    annála Críst re coiméd
    trí céd do bliadnaib brasa,
    mar do silad in seancasa,
    agus a dó re dearbad dam,
    sa lo far ceangladh cunnradh.


  1. The fourth part of the irriguous land
    Donnchadh of Dun Durlais obtained,
    Which every poem makes known,
    As he is in the regal catalogue.
  2. A thousand years 1077, it is no falsehood,
    The era of Christ to be preserved
    Three hundred of fleeting years,
    As the history sets forth,
    And two to be certified by me,
    On the day the treaty was ratified.

11. L

Inauguration of Irish Chiefs.

See page 143. — The inauguration of the ancient Irish kings and chieftains, has been so imperfectly described by modern Irish writers that the Editor is for this reason tempted to treat of it more fully in this place, in the hope that some readers may feel interested in the subject. We have unfortunately no minute or authentic account of the manner in which the pagan monarchs or chieftains were inaugurated or installed, the sum of what we are told on the subject being that the pagan Irish monarchs were made at Tara on a certain magical stone called the Lia Fáil, which was wont to emit a sound when the person about to be elected was legitimate. For some account of this stone, and the inauguration of Conaire Mor, at Tara, the reader is referred to Petrie's History and Antiquities of Tara Hill, pp. 154, 155. (Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xviii).

The oldest account of the inauguration of a king of the Irish race is that given by Cumin, who became Abbot of Iona in the year 657, who says (Vit S. Columbae; apud Colgan, Trias Thaum. p. 321,) that St Columba ordained Aidan King of Scotland, by imposition of hands. Adamnan also has the same statement (Vit. S. Col. lib. iii. c. 5). ‘Ibidemque Aidanum iisdem adventantem diebus, in regem, sicut erat jussus, ordinavit,  p.426 et inter ordinationis verba, de filiis et nepotibus, pronepotibusque ejus futura prophetizavit, imponensque manum super caput ejus, ordinans benedixit.’ (Vit. S. Col. lib. iii. c. 5)

From a notice in an ancient Life of St Patrick, quoted by Keating, it would appear that twelve coarbs and twelve chieftains were always present at the inauguration of the King of Connaught, on Carn Fraoigh, near Tulsk; and this notice is corroborated by a passage in the Annals of Clonmacnoise, as translated by Connell Mageoghegan, which states that in the year 1316 Rory O'Conor, who attempted to wrest the kingdom of Connaught from Felim O'Conor, the rightful heir, “went to Carne Fraoigh, where he was invested King of Connaught by the twelve chieftains of Silemorrie, twelve coworbs, and other spiritualls that were accustomed to use the ceremonies usual at the time of the investiture of the king.”

From such respectable authorities, it is manifest, that since the introduction of Christianity into the country, the Irish kings and chieftains were inaugurated by the clergy, and that the ceremony was strongly marked with a religious character. But Giraldus Cambrensis, who came to Ireland about the year 1202, as tutor to prince John, has left on record the following very opposite account of the matter: — ‘Est in Boreali ac ulteriori Ultoniae parte apud Kenelconil gens quaedam quae barbaro nimis et abominabili ritu sic sibi regem creare solet. Collecto in unum universo populo terrae illius, in medium producitur jumentum candidum, ad quod sublimandus ille non in principem sed in belluam, non in Regem, sed exlegem, coram omnibus bestialiter accedens, non minus impudenter quam imprudenter se quoque bestiam profitetur, et statim jumento interfecto, et frustratim in aqua decocto, in eadem aqua balneum ei paratur, cui insidens, de carnibus illis sibi allatis, circumstante populo suo, et vescente, comedit ipse. De jure quo lavatur, non vase aliquo, non manu, sed ore tantum circumquaque haurit, et bibit. Quibus ita rite non recte completis, regnum illius et Dominum est confirmatum.’ (Topographia Hibernica Dist. 3, c. 25.)

This account of the mode of inaugurating the chief, or prince of Tirconnell, was probably never heard of in Ireland until after the publication of the works of Giraldus. The first who refuted it was Keating, who writes as follows in the Preface to his History: 1078
“Ab eodem pingitur, seu potius fingitur, O'Donnelli Kinelconelliae Reguli inaugurandi ritus. Omnes (inquit) Regionis  p.427 Incolae in editum quemdam collum primo convocabantur, tum equa candida mactata, amplissimaeque ollae in late patente campo collocatae injecta, et luculento subjecto igne assata, Regulus denunciatus, admotis ollae labris jusculum instar canis absorbebat; carnes nullo addito cultro dente discerpebat, et tandem devorabat, et reliquiis ad adstantes projectis, ipse jusculo instar balnei usus, totum corpus eo perfundebat, et proluebat.
Sed quis hoc splendidum esse mendacium inficiabitur, cum non solum nullus ejusmodi ritus ab accuratis rerum enarrationibus literis traditus deprehendatur, verum etiam disertis verbis renunciandi O'Donnelli Kinelconelliae Reguli ab iis memoriae prodatur in hunc modum: Quando quis O'Donnelli titulum insigniendus erat Kinelconneliae Nobiles et aliorum ordinum homines ad statum collum confluebant; tum e proceribus unus assurgens, peractis reverentiae debitae officiis, candidam virgam omnino directam, ac detorsionis omnis expertem, quam manu gestabat, denunciato Regulo porrigens, 'accipe, ait, auspicatum dignitatis insigne; hujusce virgae candorem, rectitudinemque moribus referre memento, ut nulla maledicendi libido factorum candorem nota ulla maculare, aut studium in amicos animum a justitiae rectitudine cuique praestande flectere possit: Imperium tibi debitum bonis avibus ini, et hujus Reipublicae fasces, securesque capesce.”

“Haec cum ita se habeant facile adduci possum ut credam rumusculum hunc ab aliquo  p.428 Hibernis infenso leviter enarratum a Cambrensi, homine nimirum ab Hibernis alieniore, avide captatum, et posteriati commendatum ad majorem infamiam Genti concilandam fuisse. Certe compertum est Nationem plagam illam incolentem, humanitate, benignitate, atque adeo pietate, per singulorum vicissitudines saeculorum sic splenduisse, ut illinc quam plurimi prodierint, qui fluxis terrae rebus desertis vitam continuato per asperiora pietatis exercitia cursu ductam faelici exitu terminaverunt; ejusmodi fuere SS. Columba, seu Columbkille, Baitinus, Adamnanus, compluresque alii; quorum a texenda hic nomenclatura modo supersedemus. Huc accedit quod nullus aequus rerum aestimator judicabit caeteros Hiberniae proceres fidei praesertim Catholicae apprime colentes, tam barbarum morem ullo pacto tolleraturos.”

And again, in the reign of Brian Borumha, he has the following more circumstantial account of the inauguration of the Irish chieftains (p. 223 of O'Mulconry's MS.):

“Ex vetustis historiarum monumentis excerpsi, quos hic subjicio, ritus in Regum inaugurationibus adhiberi consuetos, sive ii totius Hiberniae Monarchae fuerint, sive provinciarum Reges, aut ditionum Toparchae. Nec alio quam Regum Titulo, quandam apud Hibernos provinciarum et minorum regionum domini insigniebantur; de aliarum gentium, et praesertim Judaeorum more, qui primo ducibus, deinde regibus, utebantur, sicut in Albania Dalriadi ante Fergusium, Ercae filium, Regem renunciatum Dynastis parebant. Causa vero cur  p.429 unus Regia dignitate insignitus populis et regionibus praeficitur, est, ut quilibet in ejus Ditione constitutus illius jussa audiat, et impugnare non audeat. Neminem enim fugere debet supremam illam potestatem populum gubernandi Regibus a Deo, Regum Rege et Domino dominantium, conferri; ac proinde mandatis regis morem non gerere, perinde esse ac divinae ordinationi resistere. Hiberni olim quos prudentia et eruditione prae caeteris instructiores depraehendebant, eos plerumque ad dignitatem Regiam evehebant, ut gravioribus suppliciis scelera plecterentur, legum observatio securius vigeret, et pax firmius effloraret. Quibus praecipue de causis, Slangius Delae filius, Luighi nepos, supremi judicii officio per ea tempora functus; Ollamnus Follus, vir etiam eruditione clarus; et Cormacus Arturi filius jurium scientissimus, qui et opus egregium de principis institutione scriptum reliquit, Reges salutati sunt. Consuetudo itaque optima illa erat quae apud Hibernos primitus invaluit, ut quo quisque literatior et ad provehendam Rempublicam aptior et propensior videbatur, eo expeditius Regni gubernaculis admoveretur. Post autem Hiberniam fidei splendore Divi Patricii opera illustratam, et Ecclesiam suum fulgorem adeptam, ad Anglos Hibernia potitos, penes episcopos et antiquarios Regum et Dynastarum electio fuit; nec usurpati nunc honorum tituli Baronum, Vicecomitum, Comitum, Marchionum et Ducum tum erant in usu: sed similes honores adepti appellabantur triath, id est  p.430 Dynastae seu Toparchae; tighearna, id est Domini, flaith, id est Satrape; aut righ, id est Reges; adjecto loco nomine cui dominabatur.”

“Cum autem quispiam Regis aut Toparchae dignitatem inibat, Antiquarius aderat librum gestans Institutionem Regis inscriptum; Leges et Instituta Regionis illius, quam candidatus ille Regni vel Toparchiae administraturus erat, et praemia illi a Deo et populo conferenda, si Rempublicam bene gesserit, sin autem male supplicia illum et posteros manentia, complexum. In his enim rebus tractandis Liber Regum et Institutio Regis versantur.”

“Saepius etiam ejus amici, praedes effecti, obstringebantur illum vel instituta Regionis, ex praescripto Institutionis Regum ad amussim impleturum, vel Regno se ultro, citra litem, abdicaturum. Nec Tuadedanani Bressum Magnum, Eleathani filium, regio titulo potiri ante passi sunt, quam ejus amici simili se pacto devincierint.”

“Regi designato virgam antiquarius porrigebat, ac deinde conversus ad adstantes, arma regi ad suos in officio continendos in posterum minime necessaria pronuntiat: populum enim ei non secus ac discipulorum magistro morem genere debere adultiores discipulos et sui commodi intelligentes, semper praeceptoribus suis amorem, obsequium, et gratias deferre solere, et subditos ad similia officia Regi suo praestanda obligari, utpote qui jus iis justitiae virga, non ferri acie administrat. Virga Regi per antiquarium tradita tota  p.431 erat candida, ut veritatem et candorem illi mordicus observandum esse in regimine indicaret; uti enim nigredo mendacium, ita candor denotat veritatem. Illa etiam virga recta fuit, ut omnibus innotesceret Regem semper aequum et rectum spectare debere, nec verbum ullum aut judicium praeferre, quod injuriam sapere possit. Eum nimirum teneri amicis et inimicis, summis et infimis, aequitatem juxta exhibere, non secus ac si lite inter ambas manus orta, aequalem se utrique praestaret. Eadem etiam teres erat et nodi omnis expers, ut meminerit Rex irae se tubere [aut] asperie subditis minime praebere, sed composito sedatoque animo ac vultu, legibus sanctita suis pariter et alienis prout jus postulat, administrare.”

“Totius Hiberniae Reges Teamoriae 1079 in augurabantur, primoribus et antiquariis ante Christianismum huc illatum, assensum praebentibus: sed post Hibernos Christianismo imbutos Episcopis, proceribus et antiquariis suffragia ferentibus.”

“Super lapidem Regium in Tulchoga 1080  p.432 O'Nelli nunciabantur ab O'Cathano 1081 et O'Hagano 1082, O'Dongholius 1083 autem militiae ab O'Nello; Breslani 1084 vero, et Clanbirthagri 1085 rei judiciariae praeficienbantur”

“O'Donnelli, Kilmacnenanae 1086, ab O'Farghil 1087 inaugurabantur, et O'Galchurum 1088 militiae praefectum habebat.”

“In Magh Adhor 1089 O'Briano dignitas conferebatur a Macconmara 1090: O'Duibhir de Coilnamanagh 1091et O'Gorman 1092 erant  p.433 O'Briano a militiae praefectura; mac Glanchius 1093 a jure dicendo; Clanchraith 1094 a Poesi; et Clanchrutin 1095 et Clanbruadein 1096 a re antiquaria.”

“Mac Cartho Magno 1097 in Lisbanchor 1098 insignia dignitatis porrigebat O'Sulevanus Magnus 1099, et O'Donnchus Magnus 1100 militaribus ejus copiis, et Ruarkus 1101 suae ditionis imperabant; ad judicia exercenda Clanegani 1102; ad carmina pangenda Muintir Dhali 1103; Historias scribendas Muntir Dhunnin 1104, ab eodem designabantur”


“In colle Anbhogaidh Mac Morchuus 1105 honoris sui titulum inibat; O'Nuelano 1106 dignitatis eum ornamentis insigniente, et equum ejus atque paludamentum pro praestiti officii salario referente: O'Doran 1107 Mac Murchuo fuit ab Historiis.” Dr. Lynch's translation, pp. 252, 253, 254.

[“Apud Lec Mic Eochadho nominabatur Dominus de Hy-Kinselaigh, et Mac Keogh nominabat eum.
Apud Dun Caillighe Beirre O'Byrne nominabatur et mac Keogh nominabat eum.”]

The next of the Irish writers who replied to Cambrensis and attempted formally to refute him, was the celebrated Dr. Lynch, author of the translation of Keating's History of Ireland, which has just been quoted; his observations on Giraldus's account of the inauguration of the prince of Tirconnell in his Cambrensis Eversus, are as follows:  p.435 “Vides ut in huius tam faedi ritus delineatione omnes eloquentiae suae, non historicae, sed oratoriae thesauros non segniter effundit. Sicut enim oratores quem laudibus exornandum susceperunt, eulogiis ultra veri metas attollunt; sic Giraldus limites veri transiliens, omnes eloquentiae caninae machinas adhibet, ut istarum sordium infamia legentium animis altius infigatur. Nam historiae severitas (inquit) nec veritati parcere novit, nec verecundiae. Nimirum homo (si Diis placet) fidissimus verecundiae potius quam fidei jacturam facere maluit. Ut ille quem saepius infidum deprehendimus, inuerecundum etiam se hic agnoscat. Qui proinde illam Ciceronis objurgationem declinare non potest dicentis, Qui semel verecundiae fines transierit, eum bene et graviter oportet esse impudentem. Itaque cuius impudentiam vidimus, jactantiam etiam eiusdem videamus, Rem hanc inhonestam venusta verborum vermilitate (vt ipse loquitur) depromere pollicentis. Promissam quidem orationis vermilitatem, siue venustatem in superiori spurcae inaugurationis delineatione iam exeruit. Vt ex hac Giraldi ostentatione illam Stanihursti censuram prodiisse censeam dicentis: Giraldum scriptorem meo sane indicio non ferreum suo plane aureum fuisse.

“Sed qua veritate prolatae inaugurationis narratio fulciatur dispiciamus. Domestici certe scriptores eam disertis verbis funditus evertunt. Hac enim quam subjicio ratione Tirconelliae Regulos initiatos fuisse tradunt. Quando quis Odonelli titulo insigniendus erat, Tirconelliae proceres et aliorum ordinum ad statum collem confluebant. Tum e proceribus unus assurgens, peractis reverentiae consuetae officiis, candidam virgam, et omnino rectam, distortionisque omnis expertem quam manu gestabat, denunciato Regulo porrigens: accipe (ait) auspicatum dignitatis insigne, huius virgae candorem, rectudinemque moribus referre memento, ut nulla maledicendi libido factorum candorem nota illa maculare, aut studium in amicos animum a justitiae rectitudine cuique praestanda flectere possit. Imperium igitur tibi debitum bonis auibus ini, et huius Reipublicae fasces securesque secure capesse. Nunc igitur in eo controversiae cardo vertitur unine neganti, an pluribus affirmantibus illi rem auditione tantum, his aspectu comperientibus fides adhibenda sit? dispiciendum etiam si a domesticis scriptoribus veriora, quam ab uno advena producantur, et ab iis qui pro suo munere res gestas scriptis tradunt, quam peregrino falcem in alienam messem immittenti tabulis, et monumentis publicis, quam privati cuiusuis narrationi, quae non magis temere agyrtae alicui excidit, quam auide a scriptore inuido excepta, et posteritati commissa est. Certe Scriptores patrii non studio, sed officii sui adimplendi causa scriptis ista consignarunt, Giraldus res Hibernicas magis ex libidine, quam ex vero celebrat, obscuratque.”

“Quis credat Divum Patricium, qui ditionem hanc accurate perlustrans, illius incolas in fidei documentis apprime instruxit, terrae principem Conallum Gulbanum  p.436 virtute sic informavit, ut laicum habitu, monachum vita egerit commissurum ut reliquorum scelerum surculis penitus evulsis, hanc unam spurcitiam tanquam pristinae superstitionis foecem non in obscuris aliquibus hominibus, sed in ipsis patriae luminibus inhaerere pateretur? Quod si S. Patricii vel notitiam, vel sollicitudinem tam obvia, et in tam clara luce collocata foeditas (quod credibile non est) subterfugeret; cognitionem profecto et reprehensionem plurimorum sanctorum in Tirconallia longo post temporum decursu commorantium declinare non potuit. Amplius quam quinquaginta sancti ex uno Conallo Gulbano prodiisse memorantur, quorum plurimi sedes in Tirconallia fixerunt, et caenobia plusquam viginti condiderunt. Duae praeterea sedes Episcopales Rapothensis, et Dorensis in eadem ditione constitutae sunt; in quibus quot Episcopi et monachi morabantur, tot in iis tanquam in speculis erant vigiles longe lateque prospicientes collocati, quos adeo perspicua macula tam diuturno temporis curriculo latere non potuit. Nec enim in latebris, sed in propatulo, nec inter plebejorum ultimos, sed in optimatum coetu sordes istae frequentabantur. Ut tam perspicacium virorum cognitionem, et purioris vitae sectatorem animadversionem effugere non potuerint.”

“Pluribus e Dorensium Rapothensiumque Episcoporum, Abbatumque serie non solum summa consuetudo ac familiaritas cum Tirconalliae Regulis, sed etiam cognationis contiguitas intercessit. Ita ut si Principum reverentia praesules ab iis objurgandis deterrebat; certe praesulum erga cognatis studium ad eos e feritate tanta eruendos attraheret. Putabimus ne SS. Columbam, Baithenum, Laarenum, Fergnaum, Suibhneum, Adamnanum, aliosque viros sanctissimos, in his partibus natos et pietatis informationem nactos, et impertitos acerrimos vitiorum proculcatores hos sentes, et tribulos increpationis falce non demessuisse? Quos si potestas istius mali abigendi defecisset, certe SS. Moelbridius et Malachias Hiberniae Primates hinc oriundi ritum adeo perversum latius serpere non paterentur. Nec ipsi principes crebra in alios liberalitate, in Deum pietate insignes, qui se multis humanissimos pluries exhibuerunt, Principatus initium ab inhumanitate tam execrabili ducerent. Qui si hanc impudentiam non vitro ponerent, eam supremi Reges Hiberniae, severis legibus proculdubio coercerent.”

‘Nullibi certe tam foeda alibi ludicra initiatione aliqui principatum auspicantur. In Carinthia quoties novus princeps Reipublicae gubernationem init, solemnitatem nusquam alibi auditam observant. In patentibus pratis erectis lapus marmoreus est, quem cum dux creandus est rusticus quidem, cui per stirpis suae successionem haereditario id officium debetur, ascendit, ad dextram bovem habens foetam nigri coloris, ad levam equa illi sistitur strigosa macieque insigni, frequens circa populus agrestiumque turba ingens. Dux inde futurus ex adverso movet purpuratorum multitudine saeptus precedunt Principatus signa,  p.437 omnesque in toto comitatu egregie culti praeter futurum ducem. Is agresti habitu, pileo tectus, calceos et pastoralem baculum gerens pastorem agit, magis quam principem. Hunc venientem intuitus qui lapidem obtinet Illirica voce quis est hic exclamat, qui tam superbe incedit? Respondet circumfusa multitudo Principem regionis adventare. Tum ille iustusne iudex? Salutem patriae quaerens? liberae conditionis? Dignusne honore est? Christianae pietatis cultor, ac defensor? Clamatur: est quidem et erit. Rursus idem, quaero quo me jure hac a sede dimovebit? Respondet Ducalis aulae magister, sexaginta denariis hic a te locus emitur, iumenta haec tua erunt, ad bovem et equam manum intendens, vestimenta quae Dux exuet habebis; erisque tu cum domo tua tota liber a tributo. Quibus dictis rusticus malam percutit alapa leviter incussa, iubetque aequum iudicem esse, praemioque abducta loco cedit. Tum lapidem Dux occupat, nudum gladium vibrans ad omnem se partem vertit, populum affatur, polliceturque se aequum iudicem futurum, ferunt et aquam agresti pileo oblatam potare, in futurae sobrietatis argumentum, &c., imperium Austricae Principes obtinent, et Archiducem appellant.’ (Joannes Auban de Moribus gent. lib. 3, cap. 18.)

‘Nec mirum est in Principum inferioris ordinis inauguratione ludicros gestus adhiberi; quando Imperator ipse Romanus post coronam auream a Pontifice receptam in montis Martii bis mille passus Roma dissiti vertice manu elata se gyrat dicens: “Omnia quae videmus nostra sunt” &c.’ (Cambrensis Eversus, pp. 315, 316, 317.)

To the foregoing observations of Keating and Lynch the Editor has to add, that most probably Giraldus never himself saw the ceremony of the inauguration of the prince of Tirconnell; and that he, therefore, repeated it from the report given him by some enemy of the Irish, as he did many other silly stories, such as the legend of the eruption of Lough Neagh, the legend of the speaking wolf, which predicted that the English would subdue the Irish, the story of the men who were wont to turn stones into red pigs and sell them at fairs, &c. &c. That he was never in Tirconnell, and therefore could not have been an eye-witness to the ceremony of the inauguration of the prince of Tirconnell, is pretty clear from his own words, in his Hibernia Expugnata, from which it can be inferred that he never dared to travel beyond the limits of the English power in Ireland, for, speaking of the English who had ventured into the territories of the Irish, he says, “Ubi capti decapitati, non redempti sed interrempti.”

That Giraldus's account of the inauguration of the prince of Tirconnell is a fabricated falsehood, and of a similar character with many others of his stories, is clear from the fact, that the Irish writers themselves, who often allude to Irish customs barbarous enough to modern ideas, never make any allusion to such a form of inauguration, and it is not for a moment to be supposed that the form used in inaugurating the prince of the Cinel Conaill tribe was different in any material point from that adopted by the  p.438 prince of the Cinel Eoghain, or any other of the ancient Irish septs. But happily for the character of the ancient Irish, the form of inaugurating their chieftains continued in full force, to its utmost acme of barbarity, till the reign of James I. of England, and we have on this subject the testimony of Spenser, who does not appear to have read a word of Cambrensis's great work on Ireland, and who, though pretty well primed with prejudices against the native Irish, still lived so near the age of historical veracity that we may safely believe him, particularly on this point, whereon he does not materially differ from the account left us by the native Irish writers of the usual form of the inauguration of their chieftains. Spenser lived many years in Ireland in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and in his curious work, entitled View of the State of Ireland (which is written in the shape of a dialogue between Irenaeus and Eudoxus), he gives the following account of the inauguration of the Irish chieftains:

Eudox. What is this which you call Tanist and Tanistry? they be names and terms never heard of nor known to us.”
Iren. It is a custome amongst all the Irish, that presently after the death of one of their chief lords or captaines, they doe presently assemble themselves to a place generally appointed and knowne unto them, to choose another in his steed, where they do nominate and elect, for the most part, not the eldest sonne, nor any of the children of the lord deceased, but the next to him of blood, that is, the eldest and worthiest, as commonly the next brother unto him, if he have any, or the next cousin, or so forth, as any is elder in that kindred or sept; and then next to him do they choose the next of the blood to be Tanist, who shall next succeed him in the said captainry, if he live thereunto.”
Eudox. Do they not use any ceremony in this election? for all barbarous nations are commonly great observers of ceremonies and superstitious rites?”
Iren. They use to place him that shalbe their Captaine upon a stone, alwayes reserved for that purpose, and placed commonly upon a hill; in some of which I have seen formed and ingraven a foot, which they say was the measure of their first captaine's foot, whereon hee standing receives an oath to preserve all the auncient former customes of the countrey inviolable, and to deliver up the succession peaceably to his Tanist, and then hath a wand delivered unto him by some whose proper office that is; after which, descending from the stone, he turneth himself round, thrice forward and thrice backward.”
Eudox. But how is the Tanist chosen?”
Iren. They say he setteth but one foot upon the stone, and receiveth the like oath that the captaine did.”

Dub. edit. p. 11, printed from the first edition, 1596.

Another writer who appears to have seen the ceremony of inaugurating an Irish chief with his own eyes, Philip O'Sullevan Beare, being born about the year 1588, and  p.439 who had never read a word of Cambrensis's work, thus describes the ceremony in his Historiae Catholicae Ibernicae Compendium, tom. i. lib. 3, fol. 33, p. b.


Ibernorum magnatum inauguratio, et apud eos esse novos aliarum gentium titulos

“Inaugurantur vero Iberni optimates, vel alii ab aliis, vel ab illis, quibus more maiorum est consecrandi facultas data. Ad quod in locum inaugurationi constitutum conveniunt, longis hominum agminibus, et solemni pompa comitati. Ibi intersunt iudices, qui, cui candidatorum principatus debeatur, ex jure, legibusque pronuncient. Mox consecrandi jurare coguntur, nunquam se contra fidem Catholicam aliquid machinaturos, aut permissuros, ut clientes, obaerati et suae dictioni subjecti moliantur. Quin etiam, si necesse habeant, sanguinem pro ea effusuros, et mortem oppetituros: subjectos sibi in officio contenturos, et inter eos justitiam exercituros. Inde a sacerdote sacrum Missae peragitur, et virga consecratur, quae in sceptrum novo principi traditur, qui certis et conceptis verbis, ab eo, qui inaugurat, prolatis, vel Osullevanus, vel Orellus, vel alius creatur et appellatur, et a circumstantibus renunciatur, nec amplius proprio baptismatis nomine solet vocari. Sic vetustati placvit nec hodie etiam displicet, etsi Marchionis, Comitis, Vicecomitis et Baronis dignitates quas Ibernia diu respuit, his antiquissimis titulis posthabitis, jam sint in magno usu et honore.”

This account of the inauguration of the Irish chieftains, by Philip O'Sullevan Beare, may be objected to, on the grounds that as there was no difference of religion among the Irish until shortly before the discontinuance of the custom of electing Irish chieftains, so there could have been no necessity of swearing to defend the Catholic faith. But it is highly probable that such Irish chieftains as were inaugurated in Munster during the rebellion of the Earl of Desmond, were obliged to swear that they would defend the Catholic faith to the utmost of their ability. In this view O'Sullevan's account may be regarded as correct, but it seems improbable that before the reign of Elizabeth, the chief to be elected was required to swear that he would defend the Catholic faith. This was a notion that sprang up in O'Sullevan's time, which then told very well among the Spaniards, who patronized the Irish; and it will be remembered that O'Sullevan's book was chiefly intended to rouse the Spaniards to sympathy with the Irish. It is highly probable, however, that the chief to be inaugurated was made to swear to the coarbs of the Church in his territory that he would preserve the rights and immunities of their churches, and to the utmost of his ability prevent the neighbouring chieftains from plundering their sanctuaries and termon lands. The next point which looks suspicious in P. O'Sullevan Beare's account is the consecration of the rod by a priest. No mention is made of such a consecration by Keating, who was  p.440 coeval with Philip O'Sullevan Beare, and who must have seen the ceremony as well as he, and no reference to such is found in any native Irish account; and indeed it looks very strange that if the wand were consecrated by a priest, it should not have been presented to the chief by the bishop, or one of the coarbs of the churches, rather than by the bard or lay chieftain. The fact seems to be, that the rod was not consecrated by any religious ceremony, but it is highly probable that when Dr. Sanders was sent to Ireland to instruct the Geraldines, he suggested to the Earl of Desmond that such Irish chieftains as were to be inaugurated in Desmond should be called upon to swear to defend the Catholic faith, and that the wand should be consecrated to render the ceremony more solemn and sacred. That the rod, however, was handed to the chief by the ollamh or chief poet, or by the historian or chronicler of the district, or by another chieftain, will be sufficiently obvious from the following authorities:
1. In a tract entitled Teagusc Righ, preserved in the Library of Trinity College Dublin, H. 1, 17, it is stated, that the Bard read the heads of this work to the chief to be inaugurated, and asked him if he were willing to preserve inviolable the laws written in this book, which when the chieftain had answered in the affirmative, he was presented by the bard with a rod.
2. The following account of the inauguration of the O'Dowd, inserted in the Book of Lecan in a beautiful hand, very nearly as ancient as the original, and which is undoubtedly authentic, will show that although bishops and the coarbs of churches were present at the ceremony, still the rod was handed to the O'Dowd or rather, as we are told by the writer of the Book of Lecan, was raised over his head by Mac Firbis, in token, no doubt, of the influence which the latter exercised over him by his advice and writings; and it is scarcely credible that the rod would have been so raised by the poet, if it had been previously consecrated by a priest, as Philip O'Sullevan Beare asserts..


“Agus tús dígi d'O'Caomain ó Ua n-Dubda; agus gan O'Caomain d'a h-ibhi no go tuga sé do'n fhilidh h-í, .i. do Mac Firbhisig, agus arm agus earradh, agus eich h-I Dubhda tar eis anma do ghairm dhe d'O'Caemain, agus arm agus earradh h-I Chaomain ag Mac Firbishigh; agus ní dingmhála O'Dubhda do gairm co brath, no go n-goiridh O'Caomain”


“And the privilege of first drinking [at the banquet] was given to O'Caomhain by O'Dubhda, and O'Caomhain was not to drink until he first presented it 1108 [the drink] to the poet, that is, to Mac Firbis; also the weapons, battle dress, and steed of O'Dubhda, after his nomination, were given to O'Caomhain, and the weapons and battle-dress of O'Caomhain, to Mac Firbis, and it is not lawful ever to nominate the O'Dubhda until O'Caomhain”

 p.441 1

“agus Mac Firbisigh an t-ainm, agus nó go n-abra Mac Firbisigh corp na slaiti os cinn h-I Dubhdha; agus gach cléirech, agus gach comharba cilli, agus gach Esboc, agus gach taoisech feroind do radha an anma a n-diaigh h-I Chaomain agus Meic Firbisigh; agus ata ní cena, da tegmad a Tir Amalgaid O'Dubhda ”


“and Mac Firbis [first] pronounce the name, and until Mac Firbis brings the body of the rod over the head of O'Dubhda; and after O'Caomhain and Mac Firbis every clergyman and comharba of a church, and every bishop 1109, and every chief of a district”

 p.442 1

“do bu dolta dho co Carnn Amalgaid do gairm anma dhe, ach go m-beith na taoisigh faris: agus no da tegmad a Carnn”


“pronounce the name. And there is one thing, should O'Dubhda happen to be in Tir Amhalgaidh [Tirawley] he may repair to Carn”

 p.443 1

“ingine Briain h-é, nír dholta do anonn do ghairm an anma, agus nir thigthi do anall ó Carnn Amalgaid, áir is é Amalgaid mac Fiachra Algaidh, do tochuil an carnn”


“Amhalgaidh 1110 to be nominated, so as that all the chiefs are about him: but should he happen to be at Carn Inghine Bhriain 1111 [in Tireragh] it is not necessary”

 p.444 1

“do féin do cum ainm tigearna do gairm de fein agus da gach duine dá n-gebadh flaithes na diaigh, agus is ann atá Amalgaid fein adhluici, agus is uadha ainmnigter an carnn; agus gach righ do clandaib Fiachrach nach goirfeadh ainm mar sin biaidh gair seichle do, agus ní ba h-oirrdric a shil nás a seimead agus ni fhaicfe flaithius De co brath. Finit Amen.”


“for him to go over [the Moy] to have the title given to him, and it is not necessary for him to come across [to Carn Inghine Bhriain] from Carn Amhalgaidh, for it was Amhalgaidh, the son of Fiachra Ealgach, that raised that carn for himself, in order that he himself, and all those who should obtain the lordship after him, might receive the style of lord upon it. And it is in this carn that Amhalgaidh himself is interred, and it is from him it is named. And every king of the race of Fiachra that shall not be thus nominated, he shall have shortness of life, and his race or generations shall not be illustrious, and he shall never see the kingdom of God 1112. Finit Amen.”

3. We are informed by Philip O'Sullevan Beare that one chief was often inaugurated by another. Of this we have a good example on record in the Court of Chancery in Ireland, namely, an abstract of a law suit which took place in 1592, before the Lord Chancellor, Adam Loftus, between Donell O'Donovan of Castle Donovan, chief of his name, and his brother Teige O'Donovan, who attempted to depose him, but failed. This document is of great importance to this inquiry, as the case was decided according to the Irish custom of Tanistry, and as it is perhaps the only registered law document in which the custom of inauguration of the Irish chieftains is distinctly recognized. The Editor is therefore tempted to present the reader with extracts from it.

To His Honorable Lordshipp the Lord Chancellor,

Your poore Supplicant Teige O'Donovane of Castledonovane, in the county of Corke, Gente. —That whereas he was seised in his demesne as of fee of the Manors,  p.445 Castells, Towneshipps, Lands, &c., of the Lordshipp of Clancahell, was wrongfullie disseised by Donell O'Donovane, comonlie called O'Donovane of Castle Donovan; and as the said Donell is a man of greater wealth and alliance in those parts your Supplicant may not have indifferent tryall at common lawe, and that the premises doe alsoe lie in a remote countrey, that therefore it may please your Lordshipp to cause the said Donell to appeare before your Lordshipp to answer to the premises.

Donell O'Donovane in answer saith, that the O'Donovan for the time being hath bene tyme beyonde the Memorie of Man seised of the said Lordshipp and hereditaments of Clancahell, and that the Custom of Carebry, where the said Lordshipp lies, is, and hath bene tyme beyond Memory, that the chieftaine of the said contrie of Cairbrie, called Mac Cartie Reough, and the moste parte of the gentlemen of the said contrie have and had the ellection, nomynatinge, and appointinge of the O'Donovan, for the tyme beinge, of one of the best and worthiest of the said Name, and whosoever the said Mac Cartie Reough and the greatest part of the said Gentlemen should nominate, appoint, and ellect for O'Donovan, and signifie the same by delivering a Rodd to the person so chosen, by the hands of the said Mac Cartie Reoughe, he should have and enjoye, during his lyfe, the said Castells, Lordshipps, and other hereditaments. — By virtue whereof one Dermot O'Donovan 1113, Great Grandfather to this defendant, being ellected and having received a Rodd of the said Mac Carthie Reough, enjoied the same, and after his decease one Dermond mac Conogher O'Donovan 1114 beinge ellected, enjoied  p.446 the same during his life, and after his death one Donell Mac Dermott 1115 being ellected, O'Donovan was also seised during his life, and after his death one Teige mac Dermond 1116 O'Donovan being ellected was likewise seised of the said Contrie, and after his death one Daniel Mac Teige 1117 O'Donovan, father to the Defendant, being elected, was likewise seised of the said Lordship during his life. And after his said Father's death, Sir Owen Mac Cartie, Knight, being Mac Cartie Reough, and chieftain of Carebrie, and the greatest part of the gentlemen of the said Countrie of Carebrie, have ellected, chosen, and nominated the defendant [as] O'Donovan, as best and worthiest of the said seapt of O'Donovans, and Mac Cartie delivered him a Rodd wherefore he entered to all the Lordshipp and Lands, and was seised without interruption these eight years past, as was and is for him lawful.

Whereto Teige O'Donovan replied, that he admitted that Mac Cartie Reough being lawfullie Mac Cartie, and no intruder, by assent of most of the freeholders, did use to invest and instal the worthiest of the O'Donovans in the chieftainrie, before which installacion the right of the chieftainrie, with the freehold and inheritance, was cast upon the said Worthiest of the O'Donovans, so as the investinge or installment did yield unto him but the name of Chieftane having the freehold and inheritance cast upon him theretofore; and, therewithall, by the usage and custom of the said contrie, an illegitimate, or base sonne, was to be secluded and put besides the Chieftainrie, Signorie, and inheritance, so that he that was lawfullie borne was ever interested by Custome in them and no bastard: and Donell mac Teige O'Donovan, father to this complainant, and supposed father to Donell, was seised of all those lands, and so died, having yssue this Complainant lawfullie borne, aud after espousalls with Ellen Ny-Learie, and the Defendant Donell was borne by the said Ellen before the said intermarriadge, so as the said Donell is base borne, and by the said Custome to be secluded. And howbeit Sir Owen Mac Cartie hath invested Donell in the said Chieftainrie, yet as this Complainant at that tyme was, and is yet within twenty-one years of adge,  p.447 therefore Donell being base-born, was not nor is yet capable. Besides that one Donell Mac Cartie is intituled to be Mac Cartie Reough, whereunto he had right by Her Highnes' Pattents, so as Sir Owen is an intruder, and the installment of Donell O'Donovan by said Sir Owen, who is an intruder, is avoyded, who is mightilie supported by Sir Owen by his potency and greatnes, for that Donell O'Donovane matched in marriage with a daughter of said Sir Owen: Werefore the Complainant prayeth humblie release from your Honorable Lordship.

Whereto Donell O'Donovane rejoineth — that Sir Owen Mac Cartie, now Mac Cartie Reough, was lawfullie intituled to the Chieftainrie of the Contrie of Carbrie, and lawfully seised as best and worthieste of the Mac Carties of Carbrie at the tyme of delivering the Rodd to this rejoinant, whoe mainteyneth himself to be best and worthiest of the blood of the O'Donovans, and saith he was borne after espousalls betwixt Donell mac Teige, his father, and father to the Complainant, and the said Ellen Ny-Learie, their mother, and not before. He also saith that the custom of the Countrie warranteth that Bastards, especiallie Muliers, by the Civill Law, might be O'Donovans: that the last Chieftain claymed the said Contrie but durynge his lyfe by the said custome, and not as his inheritance, so as nothinge could descend from him; and therefore forasmoche as this defendant is lawfullie intituled and seised of the said contre as “O'DONOVAN,” being best and worthiest of the bloud of the O'Donovans, and lawfullie is vested “O'DONOVAN,” according the Custome tyme beyond the Memorie of Man, all which he is readie to averr.

Teige O'Donovan to this further replies, that Sir Owen Mac Cartie is an intrudor and the Ceremony of giving a Rodd by him is not by the usadge of the said Lordshipp warrantable; further, if it fall out that Donell is illegitimate, as indeed he is, then is the averrment untrue, alledging him to be beste and worthiest of the O'Donovans, &c. &c.

Uppon all which matters Commissioners were chosen of both parties to examine their wytnesses — whereupon it was directlie proved by diverse good witnesses, and especiallie by Sir Ffynen O'Driscoill, Knight, and diverse good gentlemen, that Donell was born many years after the marriadge solempnised at Dromale, in the county of Corke, betwixt Donell mac Teige and the said Ellen Ny-Learie, his mother, who had other sons elder than Donell 1118, the Defendant, by reason whereof the complainant being  p.448 his younger brother, he had no title against the said Donell, the said Lordshipe being customarie, and Donell having proved the custome and his ellection as O'DONOVAN; — and for that it was proved that the father of both was made O'Donovan, and died seised of the Lordship and hereditaments of Clancahell, and the said Sir Owen Mac Cartie was Chieftain of Carbrie, by right, and not by usurpation, when he delivered a Rodd to Donell, now “O'DONOVAN”; and Donell being the elder brother of Teige, the Complainant, being bothe born of one father and mother after marriadge dulie celebrated betwixte them accordinge to the rites and ceremonies of the holie church, he had beste right to inherit or succeede their said father, and to be O'DONOVAN, and to have and enioie the Lordship, lands, tenements, and hereditaments of Clancahell.— And it is soe adjudged and Decreed, and the said Donell shall recover his charges and costs sustayned in this cause against the said Teige.— Yeoven at Dublin the 12th daie of Ffebruarie Anno Domini, 1592.

Adam. Loftus, Canc.

The form of the inauguration of the O'Donovan is more circumstantially described by John Collins of Myross, in his pedigree of the late General Richard O'Donovan of Bawnlahan. It is to be feared that he has supplied some things from his own imagination, which we know was sufficiently creative, for he was a poet, and though but a rude English scholar, he was the author of the beautiful Irish poem entitled Soliloquy in Timoleague Abbey, published, with an admirable translation by Furlong, in Hardiman's Irish Minstrelsy, vol. ii. p. 235. But he is entitled to some credit, as he was well acquainted with Irish history, and knew the traditions of the mountains of Carbery better than any person living in his time. The following is the account which he has given of the inauguration of Donell mac Teige O'Donovan, the father of Donell and Teige mentioned in the foregoing document; an account which, if true, presents a dreadful picture of the lawless ferocity of the times. After giving an account of the escape of Donell mac Teige in his infancy from  p.449 being murdered by his relatives, the friends of his father and enemies of his mother, he proceeds as follows:
“Immediately after this had happened, his mother [Helena Ny-Donovan] took him away privately out of the reach of his enemies, and with him took refuge in Ibh Leary, at O'Leary's mansion castle Carrignacurra, where they remained in a state of concealment under borrowed names, until he came to a proper age and was well educated, as Denis na Meeny always supplied his daughter and grandson privately with money and every other necessary wanting to them. When he came to the age of twenty-one years his mother divulged his name and parentage, and consequently that he was the lawful heir to the title and lordship of O'Donovan. O'Leary gave him his daughter Helena O'Leary in marriage with a great fortune, and soon after a splendid retinue and well appointed body of his friends attended him to Carbery, there to take possession of his ancient lands and royalties. He was received with joy and congratulation by his grandfather Denis na Meeny the elder and his son Denis na Meeny the younger, and by their party, as also by Mac Conolly, who had served as captain under his father and grandfather, and whose ancestors, for a long time prior to that period, had been a kind of hereditary life guard to the O'Donovan family, and on that account had seven ploughlands assigned to them by O'Donovan in the parish of Drinagh. At the same time a Jeremiah Donovan of a collateral branch was laying in a claim for the property, and was candidate for the name. This Jeremiah, who was called Diarmuid a Bhairc, or of the Bark, from having been bred at sea, had a large party to espouse his claim, and amongst which was Ire Donovan of Castle Ire,” [recte, Castle Ivor] “with his relations and followers, and the Sliocht Tioboit, or posterity of Tioboid, of which we have spoken before.”

“The election was to be held in the town of Ross Carbery, under the superintendance of Mac Carthy Reagh, Prince of Carbery, who then dwelt at Binduff Castle, now Castle Salem, and who had the hereditary power of inaugurating the O'Donovan. The form of the inauguration was to give the chosen candidate a straight white wand in his right hand, as an emblem of unbiassed rectitude, and to cause him to swear solemnly to rule with strict justice and equity, as in those times every representative, or head of a family, was absolute in his own principality, and had a gallows and fosse, the former for the punishment of male criminals and the latter for that of the female ones.”

“When the appointed day for the election came, Denis na Meeny and his party fell off to the south and met Ire with a division of his party at Ballaghalow, in the parish of Kilmackabea, to the west of Ross, slew himself, and cut off his party to a man. Captain Conolly, in company with Donell na g-Croiceann O'Donovan, O'Leary, and their party,  p.450 took the near way from Dromaleague to Ross, through the parish of Drinagh, and on his arrival found Diarmuid a Bhairc inaugurated, with the rod of justice in his hand, in the presence of Mac Carthy; wherefore he sternly demanded of Mac Carthy the reason, and, without waiting for a reply of any kind, ran Diarmaid a Bhairc through the body, who instantly expired. On which Donell na g-Croiceann was inaugurated and saluted O'Donovan! As many of the party and supporters of Diarmuid a Bhairc as were found in the streets of Ross were slaughtered and slain. The castle of Ire” [Ivor], “in the parish of Myross, was partly broken down and his lands taken and possessed by O'Donovan, and what survived of that branch were forced to quit that part of the country. The castle of Gortnaclough was also stormed, taken, and partly destroyed, and its lands taken by O'Donovan,” &c. &c.

This, however, cannot have been the original form of the inauguration of O'Donovan, neither was Ross Carbery the original locality at which the ceremony was performed, for, previously to the beginning of the thirteenth century, the sept were seated along the River Maigue, in the present county of Limerick, and the chief resided at Croom, or Bruree, and the probability is, that he was inaugurated on the moat at Bruree, not by Mac Carthy, but by his own people of Hy-Figinte. When the O'Donovans were driven out of the plains of Hy-Figinte, they encroached on O'Driscol and others, and taking their tribe name with them, transferred it to the territory over which they had acquired dominion, and which had been previously called Corca Luighe 1119; and we find that in the year 1200 Auliff, or Amlaff, More O'Donovan, who was slain at Kinneigh in that year, is mentioned in the Annals of Innisfallen as chief of the territory of Carbry, a name then recently transferred to Corca Luighe. But the descendants of Donell God [the stammering], the son of Donell More na Curra Mac Carthy, who died in 1185, increasing mightily in numbers and power, elected a chieftain for themselves  p.451 distinct from Mac Carthy More, and triumphantly obtained dominion over the whole barony of Carbery, in the county of Cork, and compelled O'Driscol, O'Donovan, O'Mahony the Western, and other septs, to pay them tribute as conquerors of the territory

Another part of the ceremony of inauguration not mentioned by any of the writers already quoted, is noticed in the Annals of the Four Masters, namely, that in many cases when a superior chief was inaugurated by an inferior chief, the latter put on his shoe or slipper — See these Annals at the years 1461 and 1488, where it is stated that at the inauguration of the chiefs of the O'Conors, Mac Dermot, chief of Moylurg, put on his shoe. It is also stated that in inaugurating the chief of the O'Neill family, O'Kane threw a shoe or slipper over the head of the prince. It is rather strange that Keating should not have noticed this ceremony.

From the foregoing authorities we may infer that the following conditions were generally requisite to constitute a legitimate instalment or inauguration of an Irish chieftain:

  1. That he should be of the blood of the original conqueror or acquirer of the territory, and free from all personal blemishes, deformities, and defects, and be of fit age to lead the clan to the field.
  2. That the greater part of his sub-chiefs and freeholders should declare in his favour.
  3. That the inauguration should be celebrated at a remarkable place in the territory appointed of old for the purpose, where there was a stone with the impression of two feet, believed to be the size of the feet of the first captain, chieftain, or acquirer of the territory.
  4. That the hereditary historian or chronicler of the territory should be present to read to the chief about to be installed the heads of the law relating to the conduct of the chieftain, and that the latter should swear to observe those laws and to maintain the customs of the territory inviolable.
  5. That after taking this oath, the chief laid aside his sword and other weapons, upon which the historian of the district, or some other person whose proper office it was, handed him a straight white wand as a sceptre and an emblem of purity and rectitude, to indicate that his people were to be so obedient to him that he required no other weapon to command them.
  6. That after receiving this straight white wand, one of his sub-chiefs put on his shoe or sandal in token of obedience, or threw a slipper over his head in token of good luck and prosperity.
  7. That after the foregoing ceremonies were performed, one of his sub-chiefs pronounced  p.452 his surname without the christian-name in a loud voice, after whom it was pronounced in succession by the clergy according to their dignity, and by his subchiefs and freeholders according to their respective ranks. After this the chieftain turned round thrice forwards and thrice backwards, in honour of the most holy Trinity, as the Irish still do all good things, and to view his people and his territory in every direction; which being done he was the legitimate chief of his name.

On the subject of the inauguration of Christian kings, the evidence given by Cumin and Adamnan, as above noticed, is the oldest on record. The most ancient authorities given by Selden for the coronation of Christian emperors, and for that of the Kings of France and England, are subsequent to the time of Adamnan, who died on the 21st of September, 704, in the seventy-seventh year of his age. The sacred cruet of Rheims, used in anointing the Kings of France, is not mentioned previously to the ninth century. In the Notitia Episcopatuum, printed at Rome in 1533, we are told that the ancient kings usually consecrated, according to the ceremony of the Roman Ritual, were those of Castile, Arragon, Ireland, Scotland, Poland, and Hungary. It is highly probable that the monarchs of Ireland, since the introduction of Christianity, were inaugurated by the Archbishop of Armagh, attended by the four provincial kings, who took a conspicuous part in the ceremony, and there is every reason to believe that the clergy were employed in the inauguration of the chiefs of large districts, such as were called righa, or kings by the ancient Irish, but that the lords of single baronies, or Triucha cheds, were appointed by the head chieftain, by consent of his tribe, with the simple ceremony of delivering him a rod. This is evident from various passages throughout the Annals of the Four Masters, which it would be too tedious to quote in the present work.

12. L recte M

Death of St. Gerald of Mayo.

See page 145, note a i. e. note 351 in the CELT edition. Dr . O'Conor, in his Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores, denies that the Annals of Ulster and Tighernach record the death of St. Gerald at 732; he says that at this year they record the death of Muireadhach, one of his successors, and that St. Gerald himself died long before. See his notes on the Annals of Ulster at the year 731, of Tighernach at 732, and of the Four Masters at 726. It is true that Dr. O'Conor is borne out in this opinion by the Annals of the Four Masters, in which it is expressly stated that Muireadhach was Bishop of Mayo; but the Editor is of opinion that the Four Masters have mistaken the original Annals of Tighernach, in which the passage stands as follows, without any punctuation: — “A. D. 732. Cath Connacht  p.453 in quo cecidit Muiredach Mac Indrachtaig Pontifex Muige h-Eo Saxonum Garailt obit.

Now it is quite clear from the two verbs cecidit and obit that two distinct persons are referred to in the entry, and that the passage should be thus punctuated: —
“A. D. 732. Cath Connacht, in quo cecidit Muiredach Mac Indrachtaig. Pontifex Muige h-Eo Saxonum, Garailt, obit,” i. e. “A. D. 732. The battle of Connaught, in which fell Muiredhach, son of Indrachtach. The Pontiff of Mayo of the Saxons, Gerald, dies,”i. e. “Gerald, Pontiff of Mayo of the Saxons, dies.” It is quite clear that Muiredhach was a chieftain, not a bishop, and it is more than probable that he was the son of the Indrachtach, King of Connaught, who is said to have been slain in the year 718 — Vide supra, p. 315, note h i. e. note 936 in the CELT edition.

Colgan also, at Mart. xiii. seems to think that St. Gerald of Mayo died earlier than 732; and Ussher thinks that he must have died before the year 697; but Dr. Lanigan clearly proves that both these opinions are groundless. The Four Masters enter the death of St. Gerald under the year 726, and in Mageoghegan's translation of the Annals of Clonmacnoise it is entered under the year 729; but as these Annals are antedated by a few years it is obvious that the same date is intended as in Tighernach. But it should be confessed here that even Mageoghegan has mistaken the construction of his original, which he renders thus: —“A. D. 729. The battle of Connaught was fought, wherein Moriegh Mac Inreaghty, Bushop of Moyoe of the English, was slain. Garalt died.” It should be, “The battle of Connaught was fought, wherein Moriegh Mac Inreaghty was slain. The Bushop of Moyoe of the English, Garalt, died.”

13. M recte N

Of the ancient divisions of lands called Ballybetaghs.

See page 204. — The following notices of the ancient Irish townlands, given by the Rev. John Keogh, author of the Irish Herbal, in a short account of the county of Roscommon, written by him for Sir William Petty's intended Atlas, are here presented to the reader in confirmation of what has been advanced by the Editor at p. 204, on the difference between the ancient and modern Irish townlands. This tract is preserved in MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, and is dated Strokestown, March 14th, 1683:

“Connaught (and, I suppose, other provinces) was anciently distinguished into countries called Doohie, or Tyre, named from such and such families, or nations inhabiting them, as in the barony of Athlone, Doohie Keogh, the country or nation of the Keoghs. In the barony of Ballintobber, Doohie Hanly, the country of the Hanleys,  p.454 and betwixt Elphin and Jamestown, that sweet country Teer O'Ruin [Tir Briuin] and Teer O'Byrne, the country of the Beirns.”

“These countries were subdivided into townlands (in some other parts of Ireland known by the denomination of plough-lands) which were called Ballys, as in Doohie Hanly, Bally nengulluh, [or] Gyllstown, Ballygilleclinne, the town of the Chlinnes, Ballyfeeny, &c., and each townland was divided again into quarters, which are generally known and distinguished by certain meares and bounds, and for that reason the name of quarter is used as though it signified a certain measure; and now the lands here are generally set and let, not by the measure of acres, but by the name of quarters, cartrons, and gnieves, a quarter being the fourth part of a townland, and a gnieve the sixth part of a quarter, and a cartron also the fourth part of a quarter (although in other parts of Ireland a quarter is the same part that a cartron is here, and a gnieve the fourth part of a cartron). I have been sometimes perplexed to know how many acres a quarter contains, but I have learned it is an uncertain measure, and anciently proportioned only by guess, or according to the bigness of the townland whereof it was a parcel. I have also busied myself with my own concerns to inquire what town, or general denomination of townland, each quarter belonged to, for the more convenient setting of tithes in main parcels by those general names of ballys, but therein I could not meet with satisfaction, it being a thing forgotten since the days of yore, and unknown to the most who yet still retain the names of quarters. And these ancient names of townlands have lost part of their general signification, being now applied only to some small parcells, as quarters or less pieces, and each other parcell of the ancient townland hath another name, according as the inhabitants were pleased to settle their habitations and little villages here and there sparsedly fixed and variously named. I have observed that most names of dwelling places in the beginning of them (before what other addition or surname they are distinguished by) have the following words: Bally, the town; Leghbally, the half town; Carhu, the quarter; Kill, the church; Liss, or Rath, the fort of earth; Cassel, the fort of stone; Carrig, the rock; Ath, the ford; Bealawh, the ford's mouth; Gleann, the valley; Knock, the hill; Ross, Cluain. What Ross and Cluain signify I have not yet learned, they being words not commonly used (but as parts of the proper names of towns) except in ancient times, only I take it Cluain is applied generally to a place enclosed with bog and river or the like, which is commonly the pleasantest and most commodious for habitations, but Ross, being of affinity to the Latin Rus, is applied to places of wider extent, as wildernesses and forests, places overspread with underwood, &c.”


14. N recte O

Cathal Dubh O'Dubhda.

See page 309, note k i. e. note 913 in the CELT edition, and pages 316, 317, note n i. e. page 316, note 942. — It is stated in the Historia familiae De Burgo, a curious MS. preserved in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin (F. 4.13.), that every Mac William is entitled to a tribute of five marks yearly out of the country of O'Dowd, and that the then O'Dowd, namely, Cathal Dubh, consented to the payment of this tribute, which is called a cios cosanta, i. e. tribute for protection. No date appears to this document, but it states that O'Dowd was present at the writing of it, who subscribes his name to it, and it is also attested by Cosny Oge Mac an Brehon, who was Brehon to Mac Maurice of Clanmorris. It is probable, however, that this tribute was not of long standing; but the power of the O'Dowds was very much crippled at this period by the O'Conors and others, so that Cathal Dubh found it his interest to pay the lower Mac William five marks a year for assisting him against them. Notwithstanding this security of the protection of O'Dowd by the lower Mac William De Burgo, the power of O'Conor Sligo continued to increase, for in the year 1581 he was lord of that tract of country extending from the River Drowes to Ceis Corainn, and from the River Moy, eastwards, to Lough Gill.

15. O recte P

The Lower Mac William De Burgo's possessions in Tirawley.

See pages 338, 339, i. e. p. 339, notes f and g i. e. 1014 and 1015 in the CELT edition. — The following list of the Lower Mac William's townlands, tributes, &c., in Tirawley, is taken from the Historia familiae De Burgo, already quoted:
 1 “Ag so barúntacht Tíre Amhalgaidh: locum comitis an tír féin .i. inadh an iarla; agus do fuair Mac Uilliam so innte, ocht fichid dég d'éirghe amach innte, mar atá trí fichid marcach glésta, agus sé fichid cethernach, agus naoi bh-fichid giolla capoll, fa n-a lóntuibh féin, agus tri fichid marg cíosa agus chomha.”


“This is the barony of Tirawley: the territory itself is a locus comitis, i. e. the place of the Earl. And Mac William obtained in it eighteen score of a rising-out [i. e. forces], to wit, three score accoutred horse and six score kerns, and nine score horse gillys [horseboys], all to subsist on their own provisions, and three score marks as rent and reward.”


“Ag so na fearoinn a bh-fuil sin; ar tús ann sa Bhacc thoir, se baile comhtha; agus anns a Bhacc thiar chúig bhaile chomhtha; ceathramha agus chuig bhaile”


“The following are the lands on which these are paid: — first in the eastern Bac, six townlands of reward, and in the western Bac five townlands of reward; a”

 p.456 1

“comhtha a n-Gleann Neimhthind, agus ag su na n-anmanda sin, .i. Baile in Chorráin, agus Baile na Craoibhidhe, agus leath-bhaile Maidheag, agus leath-bhaile Matha, agus leath-bhaile Caorthannáin, agus ceathramha Dairbhin, agus ceathramha Bhaile mhic Rémag, agus ceathramha Bhaile na Laighneach, agus ceathramha Bhaile an Bhruithneoguigh, agus leathbhaile Mhaol-átha, agus in Cheathramha chlochach, agus leath-bhaile Trintach, agus leath-bhaile Rátha Ruaidhin, agus Baile Easa Caoirigh, agus an Cheathramha riabhach, agus an Cheathramha chúigeadhach, agus leath-bhaile Ratha Toma, agus Ceathramha an charbuid, agus ceathramha Chille h-Achaidh, agus an Ceathramha mór, agus ceathramha Baile Hostin, agus cúig leith-cheathramha anns a Ros ó t-Sailin asteach, agus leathbhaile na Lagbhuaile; da uinge teasda do chúig mharg a n-Inis Cuadh, do chíos agus do chomha;”


“quarter and five townlands of reward in Gleann Nemhthinn, named as follows, viz., Baile an Chorrain, Baile na Craoibhidhe, the half townland of Maidheag, the half townland of Matha, the half townland of Caorthannan, the quarter of Dairbhin, the quarter of Baile mhic Remag, the quarter of Baile na Laighneach, the quarter of Baile an Bhruithneoguigh, the half townland of Maol-atha, Ceathramha chlochach [i. e. the stony quarter], the half townland of Trintach, the half townland of Rath Ruaidhin, Baile Easa Caoirigh, Ceathramha Riabhach, Ceathramha Chuigeadhach, the half townland of Rath Toma, Ceathramha an Charbuid, the quarter of Cill Achaidh, Ceathramha Mhor, the quarter of Baile Hostin; five half quarters in Ros from Sailin inwards, the half townland of Lagbhuaile; two ounces wanting of five marks in Inis Cuadh, as rent and reward;”


“dá mharg dhég do chíos agus do chomhadh a dhá baile Crois Mhuidhelína; Ocht pinginne agus fiche sgillinn a m-baile an Chorrbhaile; ocht pinginne agus fiche sgillinn anns a Bhaile meadhonach; ocht pinginne agus fiche sgillinn a m-baile Locha Bron; ocht pinginne agus fiche sgillinn a m-baile Chille h-Aodhain; ocht pinginne agus fiche sgillinn a m-Baile na Cobhruidhe; bonn agus uinge d'ór a g-ceathramhain an Cháirn; dá phinginn agus trí h-uinge anns a Cheathramhain mhóir; dá phinginn agus tri h-uinge a g-ceathramhain Baile na leice; da phinginn agus tri h-uinge anns a' cheathramhain Sdiallaigh; ocht pinginne agus fiche sgilling”


twelve marks as rent and reward in the two townlands of Cros Muidhelina; twenty shillings and eight-pence in the townland of Corrbhaile; twenty shillings and eightpence in Bailemeadhonach; twenty shillings and eight-pence in the townland of Loch Bron; twenty shillings and eight-pence in the townland of Cill Aodhain; twenty shillings and eight-pence in the townland of Cobhruidhe; a groat and an ounce of gold in the quarter of Carn; two-pence and three ounces in Ceathramha Mhor; two-pence and three ounces in the quarter of Baile na Leice; two-pence and three ounces in Ceathramha Sdiallach; twenty shillings and eight-pence in Baile an Oireacht; twenty shillings and eight-pence

 p.457 1

“a m-Baile an Oireacht; ocht pinginne agus fiche sgillinn a m-Baile Rátha Leacain; uinge d'ór a n-duthaidh Chloinne Philip; ocht b-pinginne agus naoi n-uinge a m-Baile Chille Brighde; ocht b-pinginne agus fiche sgillinn a m-Baile an Chaisill; ceathra h-uinge dhég a m-Baile Acha Liag; bonn agus uinge d'ór a m-Baile an Ghleanna; tri h-uinge a m-Baile Charna; bonn agus uinge d'ór a leatbhaile in Tobair; ceathra h-uinge dhég a m-Baile Faraidh; bond agus chuig uinge a leathbhaile Locha Deala; dá phinginn agus trí h-uinge a g-ceathramhain Chaisle; sgillinn agus uinge a m-Baile I Dubhthaigh; naoi m-boinn a g-ceathramhain Bhrechmhuidhe; da mharg am-Baile O'g-Comhain; dá phinginn agus tri h-uinge a g-ceathramhain Dairín; dá phingind agus tri h-uinge a g-Ceathramhain Chuain Néill; uinge a m-Baile Mic Cithol.”


in the townland of Rath Leacain; an ounce of gold in the territory of the Clann-Philip; eight-pence and nine ounces in the townland of Cill Bhrighde; twenty shillings and eight-pence in Baile an Chaisill; fourteen ounces in the townland of Acha Liag; a groat and an ounce of gold in Baile an Ghleanna; three ounces in Baile Charna; a groat and an ounce of gold in the half townland of Tobar; fourteen ounces in Baile Faraidh; a groat and five ounces in the half townland of Loch Deala; two-pence and three ounces in the quarter of Caisle; a shilling and an ounce in Baile I Dhubhthaigh; nine groats in the quarter of Breachmhaidh; two marks in Baile O'g-Comain; two-pence and three ounces in the quarter of Cuan Neill; an ounce in Baile Mic Cithol.


“Atáid na maoir d'á dhénamh d'fiaghnuisi ann so do réir mar fuaradar ó na sinnsearuibh táinicc rompa, gach fearann nach tiucfa d'á oighre féin a dhíol, an fearann d'fuasgra do Mhac Uilliam; agus fós damadh lúgha cíos Mhic Uilliam anns a bh-fearann iná cíos na d-tigearnaigh eile gan ar breith do na tighearnuighibh sin a g-cíos féin d'fágháil no go bh-faghaidh Mac Uilliam a chíos ar tús. Agus ni eile fós gur ab air an bh-fearann ata cion Mhic Uilliam, agus ní bh-fuil luagh air an chur do thagra leis.”


“The stewards bear testimony to this accordingly as they received it from their ancestors, that every land of which its own inheritor cannot pay this tribute is to be declared escheated to Mac William; and should Mac William's rent be less than that of the other lords, these lords cannot raise their rents until Mac William shall first receive his own rent. And moreover that Mac William's tribute is due of the land, and that there is no power of disputing it with him.”

The two documents which follow, taken from the Historia familiae De Burgo, will  p.458 show how the Barretts and Burkes stood in the years 1580 and 1584. The first is given in Irish 1120, with an original Latin translation, and the second is in Latin only.

In Dei Nomine Amen.


“As é ádhbhar in sgíbhinn si, dhá foillsiughadh go d-tárla baile Bel Leice do Shean mac Oilbhérus, agus d'a mac na diaigh, .i. Bháiter a Búrc, ó Bhairédachaibh, mar atá Tomás na geimhli agus a chlann, agus a Braitherocha, .i. Seann Bairéd agus a mac, agus Emain mac Maia, agus Uilleag, mac Maia Ruaidh; do bádar sin seal fada a n-diaigh an dúthchais do thaobh chúirti, agus seal oile do taobh a gcarod Gaedheal amuigh, agus ni fhuaradar toradh ar cheachtar díobh sin; agus rugadar do roghuin gurbh-fhearr leó maith Bhaiter a Búrc agus a shochar aca, iná beith a n-diaigh a n-dúthchais agus an chaisléin, agus nar derbhtha leo a fhagháil dá mhéd dá g-caithfidís ris. Ar an ádhbhar sin do rinneadar conradh re chéile leath ar leath, mar atá, cuid sinnsir ag Baiter uatha-son, .i. bota Bel Leice ar tús, agus leath soileir agus tighe meadhoin aca-son ó Bhaiter, agus leath badhúin agus dúthchais, agus inmhir, agus éisg, agus coicéid mar an g-cédna. Tuilleadh eile gach taobh a d-Tír Amhalghuidh 'n-a bfuil dúthaidh na m-Bairédach sin, a leath ag Bhaither, agus a leath aca-son, agus d'fiachaibh ar Bháiter a cumhachta féin do caitheamh re n-a buain amach annsa córuigh mar a chuid féin, agus an connradh sin aga d-tiucfaidh n-diaigh go brách ar a chéile do nós a g-connartha féin, agus d'fiachaibh orra ann so bheith ag”


“Universis et Singulis pateat per presentes, quod Manerium de Bel lecce pervenit ad Johannem [filium] Oliveri De Burgo ej usque filium Vaterum De Burgo, sed vere heredes ipsius manerii seu Castri, viz., Thomas Cathenarum Bared et ejus filii et fratres, viz., Johannes Bared ej usque filius Edmundus fitz Mayw Gullialmus fitz Mayw ruffi longo tempore in judicio et extra judicium convocato auxiliis tam Anglorum quam Hibernicorum contendebant de recuperatione ejusdem manerii; sed non obtinebant, tandem pacem concordiam et favorem prefati Vateri eligentes amicabiliter concordarunt sub forma quae sequitur, viz., quod ipse habeat supremam partem dicti manerii et dimediam partem solerii et domus medie ad eorum usum et dimediam partem Muniminis seu propugnaculi et terrarum piscariorum vectigaliumque. Item dimediam partem omnium tenementorum terrarum ubicunque in baronia de Tyramhalay jacent seu situantur ad eos de jure pertinentium prefato Vatero concesserunt, sub condicione quod eos in judicio et extra judicium legittime defenderet, et ipsi similiter seprefato Vatero in omnibus consilio auxilio et favore contra omnes assistant et hoc fedus et hunc contractum ad suos heredes assignatosque extendi voluerunt. Hee sunt terre et tenementa de quibus supradictum contractum inierunt secundum”

 p.459 1

“Báiter mar in g-cédna do nos mar is cóir dóibh bhéith aige an-aghaidh gach aoin. As í an dúthaidh ar a n-dernadar Bairéduigh agus Bhaiter a Búrc an conradh sin, do réir umhachta Thomais na geimle, mar fuaramar sgriobhtha í, .i. leath bhaile Bel Leice ar tús, agus a shochar éisg agus inbhir agus coiceid, agus naoi b-pinginne agus naoi n-uinge ar leath Baile na Cuirte, agus ceathramha Tulaigh cléibh, agus leith cheathramha na n-Guirtine, agus do fháguibh Tomás na geimhli le h-umhachta nach raibhe acht da cnoc fa geall do'n leath ceathramuin sin, .i. in Réisi, agus an Cnoc Leitheach a n-geall re x n-uinge, agus nach raibhe acht leithcheathramha anns na Guirtínibh agus anns a' Réisi agus annsa Cnoc Leitheach. Agus leath bhaile Locha Muighe Bron, .i. Trian na Scológ, agus Trian na Páirce, agus Trian an Oilean, agus leath ceathramha Chluana Alchuin agus leath ceathramha Bhaile na Leice, agus leath Ceathramha in Tuairín, agus se buin dég a cíos 'san m-bliadhuin, agus an ceathramha Sdiallach, agus leath an Charbhuid bhig, agus leath fearuinn an tighe moir, agus Cnocán Muiris, agus Tobar Tighearnáin, agus Droidhneachán agus Gargha Longain, agus leath coiceid Ratha Brannuimh, acht a trian sin ag sliocht Roibeard Baired, agus seacht n-galuin do Phíopa na Soileog as coiced Innsi na n-Gall agus x n-galuin eile do bhean Riocard mac Tomais Chaoich amach do féin agus d'á shliocht, agus leath bhaile na Raithnighe, agus ceathramha mor Bhel Tragha agus ”


“ultimam voluntatem predicti Thome Bared et antiquas Scripturas, viz., dimedium villate de Bellecce cum omnibus supradictis emolumentis Piscariorum et Vectigalium, et ix unxie cum ix denariis pro dimedio villate na Cuirte. Item quarta nuncupata Twla Cleyw, dimedia quarta na ngwrtyne. Sed predictus Thomas in suprema voluntate attestatus est quod solum duo colles predicte quarte, viz., an Resy et Cnoc Leytheach erant in pignore x unxiorum, et quod non erat in predictis particulis de Gurtyn, Resy, Cnocleytheagh nisi dimedia quarta. Item dimedia villata Loghabron, viz., Tryan na Scolog et Tryan na Parke, et Tryan an Oylen et dimediam quarte Clwyn Alchwyn. Item dimediam Bayle na Lecce, dimedium quarte in Tworyn et xvi. grotti annui census. Item quarta quod vocatur Styallagh, dimediam Carbayd byg. Dimidium predii in Tyghe Mor, et Cnocan Murys, Tobar Tyarnayn, Droynechan, Ortus Longayn, dimedium vectigalis in Rathbranna, preter terciam partem que debetur genelogie Roberti Bared, et septem galones ex Pipa na Soleog ex vectigali Insule na ngall, et x galones quos Richardus filius Thome Ceci sibi nomine vectigalis exegit ac sue posteritati. Et dimedia villa na Rathny, et quarta magna Bel Tragha, item ”

 p.460 1

“Baile Acha Liag agus treas mir Baile na Cabruidhe Ruaidhe, agus Baile an Ghleanna uile. As é cor ar a bh-fhuair Baiter a' Burc in tabhartus so maille re beannacht na n-oigheredh, agus do bheíth aige fein agus ag a shliocht 'n-a dhiaigh.”


Bayle Achalyag; item tertia villa na Cabray Rway; item tota Villa vallis. Et prefatus Vaterus Burk hanc concessionem et donacionem cum benedictionibus heredum premissorum tam sibi quam sue posteritate recepit.”


“Agus dá n-eirgeadh báthadh fine do na Bairedachuibh, sin a g-cuid duithche agus fineachuis do bheith ag Bhaiteir agus ag a shliocht 'na dhiaigh, do réir an chéd chonnartha. As í aois in tighearna in tan sa, .i. mile bliadhain, agus ccccc agus ceithri bliadhna agus ceithre xx. an Chéadaoin roimh n-Odluig, agus as é Sir Seoin Pioroid do ba Giuisdís a n-Eirinn o'n bainrighain Saxan .i. Elisabet, agus Risdeard Binggam 'na uachtarán ar cuige Connacht, agus Risdeard mac Oilbherus a Burc 'na Mac Uilliam an bliadhuin chedna sin.”


“Et si nullus ex antedictis donatioribus supervixisse act est quod hiis Vaterus jure hereditario succedat. Scriptum in Bellecce 1584, feria iiii. ante festum Nativitatis, Regnante Serenissimo principe Elizabetha et Johanne Perotho Deputato in Hibernia existente — Risterdo Byngam Provinchias Thomondie et Connachie gubernante — Risterdo Olivere De Burgo creato Mac William.”


“As iad fiadhnuisigh an connartha so, .i. Mac Philip, mar ata Emann Og, mac mic Pilib, agus Hiberd Meiric. Risderd Meiric sagart na fairche agus Uilliam Mac in Chleirigh, in sagart eile; agus gabha na fairche, Ricaird O'Murain; agus an Dubhaltach mac Ricaird Duibh mic Ribird, agus Tomultach Og, mac Mathgamhna I Uigin, agus Aongus mac Aodha Ruaidh I Uigin in sgribhneoir, agus Maolmuire mac Alasdruinn, mic Aodha Bhuidhe.”


“Hiis testibus presentibus, viz., Mac Philipp, cujus proprium nomen est Edmundus, et Risterdo Meric presbitero.”
“Ejusque Patre Hyberto et Willielmo Clery presbitero, et Richardo O Mwrayn fabro ferrario. Et Dualdo filio Richardi nigri Mac Roberd. Thomulteo filio Mathei y Hwyginn et Enea filio Odonis Ruffi y Hwygynn, ac Mylero filio Alexandri filii Odonis aliisque clericis et laycis.”

Meisi Aongus O'Huigin. Meisi Maolmuire Mac Alasdruinn. Meisi Uilliam O'Cleirigh, Sacerdos. Meisi An Dubhalltach Mac Ricaird Duibh. Meisi Ricard O'Muráin Meisi Mac Philib. Meisi Tomultach Og. Meisi Hiberd Meiric. Per me Richardum Merick, Sacerdotem Parochialem. Meisi Seaan Baired.  p.461 Meisi Robag Baired. Meisi Emonn Mc Maigiu. Meisi Ulliam Baired. Meisi Uilleag Mc Maigiu Tuaigh. Meisi Maoilere Baired. Meisi Artur Baired. Meisi Risdeard Mc Riberd an Tochair.

The second document is as follows:

“Omnibus has literas visuris et audituris innotescat, quod filii Risterdi Baired, eodem modo et eisdem condicionibus, contraherent et convenerunt cum Waltero Kytach a Burk, sicut ceteri alii eorum consanguinei, viz., quod Vaterus habebit dimediam partem omnium prediorum suorum, quocunque loco sita essent, sub condicione hac, ut Waterus eos in justitia sua defenderet pro viribus, et ipsi similiter cum fidelitate omni Vatero assistant, et presertim quod omnes qui eum erga predicta predia molestarent. Et tam Vaterus quam prefati filii Risterdi volunt extendi hunc contractum et obligacionem ad suos heredes et assignatos. Prediorum nomina sunt hec, semiquarta Clwyn Crayn, et semiquarta Clwyn na hatha, et semiquarta an Corrayncaym: Semiquarta vero na Cnoc est apud Vaterum ipsum in pignore 6 vaccarum fetosandarum, et septern vaccarum quas minores vocant, et quinque marcharum cum duabus unxiis: Item quarta de Cwan Neyll, sed ejus dimidia pars est in pignore v. Marcharum Ster. apud filios Mauritii hy Cernay, et alia dimedia pars apud eosdem in pignore unius Marche. Item sciendum est quod hec est pars que debetur predictis filiis Risterdi a suis consanguineis, viz., octava pars ejus partis quam a Vatero habent in Bellecce cum omnibus suis emolumentis et obventionibus. Insuper utraque pars contrahentium se obligat ut altera alteri pro viribus benefaciat, sive pauperes sint sive divites, sive fortes, sive debiles. Scriptum in Bellecce, Ann Domini Millesimo. ccccc. lxxxiiii. Januarii xiiiº. Hiis Testibus presentibus, viz., Risterdo Meric ac Johanne Roday Sacerdotibus, Johanne Bared, Heberto Meric, Tomultheo Juveni O'Hwyginn, ac Enea filio Odonis Ruffi y Hugynn, aliisque quamplurimis clericis et laicis.”

Misi Risdeard Meiric. Misi Sean O'Rodaibh. Misi Tomultach Og O'h-Uiginn. Misi Aongus O'H'Uigind.

16. P recte Q

St. Patrick's Travels and Acts in Tirawley, etc.

See page 311, note s i. e. note 921 in the CELT edition — “LXXVI. Peragratis variis Connaciae partibus ad austrum, trajectoque Muadio flumine, venit Patricius ad regionem de Tir-Amhalgaidh; ubi tunc erant duodecim filii Regis Connaciae, Amalgadii nempe, filii Fiachrii, de regno contendentes. Nomina horum filiorum erant Aengussius, Fergussius, Fethlemius;  p.462 Enda Crom, Enda Cullom, Corbmacus, Carbreus, Eochadius Diainimh, Eochadius alter, Eugenius Corr, Dubchonallus et Alillus Ainech. Aengussius autem aliis astutior, et in spem regni magis erectus, reliquos fratres, prasertim quos magis metuebat ut regni aemulos, curavit per suos conspiratores despicabilibus insigniri cognomentis, ut sic populi ab eis averterentur animi. Unde his moti viginti quatuor seniores, qui erant viginti quatuor veterum tribuum patriae praefecti, statuerunt neminem in suum Regem admittere, cuius honori aliquod despicabile cognomentum inferret notam. Lis ergo inter fratres orta eo vsque incrementum sumpsit, ut Temoriam ducta sit, Regis Laogarii et Eugenii eius fratris arbitrio decidenda.”

“LXXVII. Filii igitur Amalgadii in duodecim curribus profecti sunt Temoriam: Sed in libris Patricii invenitur quod exierint in iudicium tantum septem fratres ex eis. Inter Temoriam venientes erat quidam spectatae indolis, et multae gratiae juvenis, nomine Conallus, Endae Cromio inter fratres primogenito, natus, causam patris acturus, eiusque loco litem prosequuturus. Hunc iuvenem ob singularem gratiam, praeclarasque animi dotes, ante alios metuebat Aengussius. Unde cum ipse esset janitoribus aulae, et ministris Regis notus (erat enim olim apud Regem Laogarium in aula Temoriensi inter Ephebos educatus) hoc ab eis obtinuit, ut Conallo introitum et accessum ad Regem intercluderent. Cum ergo alii essent in aulam admissi, et ad Regis praesentiam ducti, solus Conallus domo patrui sui mansit exclusus: qui nesciens quid ageret, quove se verteret, audivit pulsum cymbali S. Patricii pro celebrandis divinis mysteriis in loco Tiprad Phadric dicto symbolum dantis. Accedens ergo Conallus perhumaniter virum sanctum salutavit, et in memoriam refricavit, quomodo ante dies multos infantes suae patriae 1121, in utero matrum existentes, clamaverint ad novae doctrinae quendam  p.463 advenam, ignotae linguae verbis dicentes; Hibernienses omnes clamant ad te pueri 1122, Patricius autem haec laeto animo audiens et excipiens, ait: ego sum ad quem illa directa sunt, et in maris Tyrrheni insulis existens ea audivi; et nescivi utrum in me, an extra me, prolata sunt verba. Et ibo tecum in regionem tuam baptizare, docere, evangelizare.

“LXXVIII. Post haec autem interrogabat Patricius, qua causa venerit Conallus  p.464 Temoriam. Causam auteram sui adventus exposuit Conallus, addiditque ea non obstante sibi Temoriensis aulae ingressum esse praeclusum. Cui dixit Patricius, ingredere nunc ianuis apertis, et ad Eugenium filium Neill amicum meum fidelem, qui te adiunabit; capiesque occulte annularem eius digitum, quod signum est inter nos semper; et factum est sic. Eugenius autem haec advertens, petiit quid placeat S. Patricio. Respondit Conallus, ei placere, ut Eugenius in praesenti lite sibi assistat. Post haec Conallus causam dixit coram Rege; et perorando dixit, si iuventutis floridaeque aetatis, quae patriam viribus tueri posset, spectande sit ratio, sibi, qui in hoc genere omnes adspirantes superaret, regimen esse conferendum: si vero senectutis et justitiae, patrem eius, omnibus esse praeferendum, qui reliquos fratres titulo primogeniturae et maturitate iudicii superaret. Unde motus eius rationibus Laogarius Rex, licet prope inuitus, adiudicavit patri eius paternum solum et solium modo jura suffragantibus persolui consueta, prius persolvat. ”

“LXXIX. Decisa sic lite filii Amalgadii, ne omnes bene contenti, revertuntur in patriam, quos, et praecipue dilectum suum Conallum, patriae isti fidem praedicaturus comitatur S. Patricius. Sed Aengussius pessime cum Conallo, ejusque fantore Patricio contentus, instigatus ad hoc a perfido Laogario Rege, statuit utrumque e medio tollere; impiumque conceptum fratribus suis Fergussio et Fedlimio, eorum animos ad idem facinus sollicitando, communicavit. Locus sceleri committendo condictus erat Corann regio Connaciae. Sed fratres eius recusarunt in tam impium facinus consentire, dicentes nolle se crimen sacrilegii in innocentem, sanctumque Dei Patricium, nec parricidii in Conallum nepotem admittere. Sed nec sic ad saniorem mentem rediit Aengussius, sed in concepta perseverans impietate, sceleris consiliarios et consortes admisit duos Magos Roen et Rechet de progenie Foelani militis: et cum duabus malefactorum turmis progrediens, in via per quam transibant, ante eos statuit insidias, laqueosque mortis: ubi et Roen Magus criminis socios animabat, promittens, si ipse primus ilium prodigiorum conclamatum patratorem Patricium aspiceret, eum sui visus maleficio, illico fore extinguendum. Quae impia malignantium insidiatorum consilia, diabolicaque proposita cum vir Dei in spiritu recognosceret, adhuc uno iusto milliari distans (erat enim ipse tunc in loco, ubi nunc est Crux Patricii1123 dicta; et insidiatores in loco,  p.465 in quo jacet Ecclesia de Kill-fhoirclann) a Domino suo instigatus, ad Magum dixit; non ita fiet, fili Belial; sed ego te prius videbo, teque terra, quam me minaris absorpturam, prius deglutiet viventem, nisi resipiscas. Cum autem primum in eius conspectum veniret Patricius, coepit terra dehiscere, et meatu facto magum Roen deglutire. Ad haec Magus timore perculsus, petensque veniam, et promittens poenitentiam a terra evomente in aera inter ventos rejicitur, et mox semimortuus deorsum demittitur. Similiter etiam et socius eius impoenitens Rechet a respuente terra proiectus in altum, denuo praeceps recidens in terram, ad saxum allisit caput, et mox fulmine percussit interiit. Saxum illud, ad quod allisit caput, vulgo vocatur ail an druadh, id est lapis Druydis. Estque Ecclesia in illo loco iuxta Coill Fochladh ad Orientem extructa, quae Cros Phadruic appellatur. Locus etiam in quo tunc erant insidiatores vulgo Tulach na n-Druadh, id est collis Druydum, nominatur, adiacetque praedictae Ecclesiae ad occidentem.”

“LXXX. Aengussius autem tam terribili spectaculo praemonitus valde timuit petiitque, et impetravit veniam, fidemque Christi tantis probatam prodigiis amplexus est: qui et enixe rogavit virum Dei, cui nihil putabit impossibile, ut suam sororem nomine Felimiam vitae dignetur restituere. Annuit Patricius et oratione ad Deum fusa, defunctam vita redonatam fratri praesentavit.”

“LXXXI. Quidam oculorum lumine orbatus audiens mirabilia, quae per mirificum Dei servum Patricium fiebant, transeunti Patricia occursurus acceleravit gressus: et qui, visu viae monstratore carebat currens per invia cadebat, et gressum mox resumens, denuo recidebat. Cernens eum quidam de clericis S. Antistitis risit, et sine miserecordia derisit coeci cespitationes. Quod indigne ferens vir sanctus, indignatione commotus ait; Tu dignus es qui beneficio oculorum, quibus male vides, orberis; et caecus ille fide plenus, suo infortunio remedium sedulo postulans, dignus quem sol justitiae amissi luminis redonet usura. Et vix verba finivit, cum ecce ex tempore clericus coecitate percussus, oculorum lumen amisit: et coecus abstersa caligine luminibus restitutus, coepit obvia clare videre, divinamque bonitatem summis laudibus exaltare. Coeco nomen erat Roan filius Conchnamha, fuitque servus olim Amalgadii Regis; et locus in quo sanatus est Roe Roain abinde vocatus, donatus est postea S. Patricio. Clericus autem vocabatur Midgna et ipse et alter Patricii discipulus nomine Donnmalius relicti sunt in quodam eremitorio, quod desertum Patricii nominatur, iacetque iuxta fontem prope Ecclesiam, Cros-Phadruic nuncupatam.”

“LXXXII. In loco Huachtar Charthuinn appellato venerunt duo claudi ad Patricium; coram quo, ut viscera eius ad misericordiam commoverent, prolixe conquesti sunt se facultate gradiendi, propter claudicantes pedes, destitutos; debere tamen propter rei familiaris curam per loca aspera, et invia inter montem et planitiem saepius iter  p.466 agere. Quorum miseriis vir misericors ex corde compatiens eos divina virtute erexit, et facultate expedite gradiendi donatos dimisit.”

“LXXXIII. Post istos claudos sic officio gradiendi restitutos, venit Patricius ad Ecclesiam de Domnach-mor 1124, ubi est episcopus Mucna1125 et inde ad Ecclesiam de Crosphadruic 1126, ubi venit ad eum quidam alius claudus genere nobilis, nomine Aidus, cognomento Longus, Aengussii ex Eochadio filio nepos, similemque imploraturus, et expectaturus gratiam. Quem et juxta expectationem, fideique meritum, vir sanctus officio pedum et facultate gradiendi restituit iuxta praedictam fontem, qui Ecclesiae de Cros-Phadruic ad occidentem adiacet. Aidus autem beneficio gratus dedit tunc Patricio quoddam praedium in quo fundavit Ecclesiam; e qua quietis locum duobus e discipulis Teloco et Domnaldo designauit.”

“LXXXIV. Post tot magorum supra memoratos congressus, singulosque in publicis certaminibus victos, partimque extinctos, et partim ad poenitentiam conversos; nondum destiterunt reliqui magi, sua malitia excaecati, eius praedicationi resistere, et vitam insidiari. Et cum viderent ipsum in publicis certaminibus continuo victorem non audentes amplius cum eo publice congredi, statuerunt eum stratis insidiis occulte e medio tollere. Unde novem ex eis in unum convenientes, in regione de Tir-amhalguidh occultas ei struxerunt mortis insidias. Quod cum videret vir illustris Amalgadii filius Enda volentes occidere Patricium, dixit filio suo Conallo; vade et custodi Patricium, ne magi occidant ilium. Ipse etiam Patricius sensit eos. Pro quo pugnans, tanti sceleris ultor ignis aethereus eos in numero novem combussit, et illico extinxit.”

“Peragrans postea vir Sanctus eandem regionem, venit ad locum amaenum ubi Muadius fluvius piscosus exoneratur in oceanum. In eo autem loco, pia terrae Principum liberalitate donato, ad ripam fluminis australem construxit nobilem Ecclesiam, sedemque postea Episcopalem Killaladh 1127 nuncupatam: cui et unum e discipulis Muredachum nomine, primum praefecit Episcopum.”

“LXXXVI. Ibi etiam vir sanctus baptizavit, Deoque consecravit duas celebratae sanctitatis virgines Crebream et Lassaram, Gleranno viro nobili Cuminei filio, natas. Hae sunt, quae inclusae in utero materno in regione de Caille Fochladh referuntur dudum ante in persona infantium Hiberniae clamasse ad S. Patricium, dum esset in insulis maris Tyrrheni efflagitando ut seposita mora ad Hibernos convertendos acceleraret:  p.467 earumque sacrae exuviae ut patronarum loci, in summa veneratione in Ecclesia de Kill-fhorclann, iuxta Muadium versus Occidentem asservantur.”

“LXXXVII. Inde progressus venit ad locum, qui a concessu publico, in quo cum subiectis populis congregati erant filii Amalgadii Regis, vocatur Forrach mhac n-Amhalgaidh1128. Ingentem ibi populi multitudinem cum suis principibus collectam reperiens, vir Apostolicus in medium coetum se contulit, et ad succisionem idolatriae gladium spiritus avaginavit, et verbo Dei velut romphea bis acuta, totius multitudinis corda penetravit, et in Christianae fidei ac doctrinae amplexum voluntarios perduxit. Eo die septem Amalgadii filios cum ipso Rege et duodecim millibus hominum, Christo lucrifecit, et in fonte qui Tobur enadharc nuncupatur, omnes baptizavit. Populoque noviter converso Manchenum cognomento Magistrum, virum Sanctum, et in Scripturis egregie versatum, fidei et doctrinae praefecit magistrum.”

“LXXXVIII. In eodem agro S. Patricius duo magna operatus est signa. Foeminam unam defunctam vitae restituit, et alteram cum sua prole in utero gestata, vita et mortali et aeterna, donavit. Hanc autem foeminam cum suo foetu mortuam resuscitavit vir Dei infra Ecclesiam de Kill-aladh. Et cum ad eam resuscitandam pergeret, eum comitati sunt Felimius, Amalgadii filius, et Conallus eius ex Enda fratre nepos; et Aengussius etiam Felimii frater, qui alia via superiori ad sepulchrum defunctae mulieris iter suscepit. Matrem autem cum prole iam resuscitatam sacra unda intinxit in fonte iam supra memorato: Et illa suscitata praedicavit turbis de poenis Inferni, de praemiis coelestibus: et per lachrymas rogavit fratrem suum, ut Deo per Patricium crederet: quod factum est; et baptizatus. Et in illo die duodecim millia baptizati sunt in fonte Oenadharca ut jam supra retulimus.

“LXXXIX. Retro flectens versus austrum, venit inde Patricius ad vadum quoddam iuxta lacum Loch Deala1129 vocatum, ubi statuit aedem sacram excitare: sed fundus erat versipellis Aengussii, qui viro Dei se opponens, animique duplicis, verbo et facto ostendens pravitatem; dixit se non ex sincera, sed ficta et turbata mente credidisse et baptismum suscepisse. Patricius haec audiens in perversum hominem, eiusque semen fulminavit maledictionis sententiam, precans et praedicens, nec ipsius nec seminis eius domicilium futurum nisi humile, eiusque posteritatem malis seditionum et homicidiorum notis fore notandam.”

“XC. Inde versus Orientem reflectens venit ad locum Leac-fionnbaile vocatum, qui est supra Ecclesiam de Kill-mor1130 ad ripam superiorem Muadii fluminis: ibique  p.468 nostrae religionis vexillum triumphale Christi crucem erexit. Sed locus iste a Monachis postea possidentibus, coepit Lia na manach1131, id est petra Monachorum appellari.”

“XCI. lbi etiam baptizavit virum Principem, Eochadium Dathia, sive Davide Fiachrii filio natum: cuius et uxorem Ectram nomine, paulo ante e viris excedentem, vitae restituit ad vadum ante fores Ecclesiae Kill-morensis iacens; quod ex eius nomine Ath-Echtra, id est vadum Ectrae nuncupatur. Cui vado et adiacet eiusdem foeminae sepulchrum, quod et similiter ab ea denominationem retinens, Feart Echtra1132 id est, tumulus Ectrae, vulgo appellatur, ut periti antiquitatum istius patriae ex continua traditione referunt.”

“XCII. Progressus inde Patricius ad alias Connaciae partes, S. Olcano discipulo suo mandavit, ut post multos labores in praedicatione Evangelii exantlatos, se ad locum quietis, et cellam construendam conferret, reliquam vitae partem in quiete et coelestium con templatione transacturus: et ut singularis obedientiae virtus in discipulo praecellens, et magistro probe nota, mundo etiam manifestaretur, iniunxit ei Ecclesiam aedificare, ubicumque Deus dignaretur ipsi de loco providere idoneo. Filius obedientiae de sui veracissimi Patris praecepti, alias incerti, seu indeterminati, certitudine nihil haesitans, absque mora, gestans in humero securim, arripit itineris initium, cuius et lineam et finem nesciebat Cerneus pater tantam filii resignationem, voce et consolatoria et prophetica ait; Olcane fili, cum benedictione perge, et ubi securis ceciderit, securus reside et aedificia. His auditis pergit S. Olcanus, et nescius quo pergeret, vel pedem figeret, cum venisset ad locum postea Kill-mor Uachtair Mhuaidhe appellatum, securis inopinato e scapulis cecidit, velati coelitus proiecta. Advertens autem vir Dei locum illum esse sibi a Domino designatum, coepit aedificare: et cum sudore multo aedificavit Monasterium, ubi factus est in gentem magnam.”

“XCIII. In cultu et irrigatione dominicae vineae indefesso studio, de die in diem progrediens vir Apostolicus, et singulos patriae non solum tractus, sed et angulos circumeundo, deflexit versus Boream, venitque ad locum Leac Bailbene, id est, petram Balbenii, vocatam. Ubi denuo filios Amalgadii sua benedictione munivit. Deinde per utrosque Bertlacios transiens, ab Occidentalibus ad Orientales Bertlacios profectus, venit ad Muadii fluvii ostia, ubi in Oceanum solvitur. Postquam una filia esset ibi submersa, fertur vir sanctus ita portum ilium benedixisse, et de eo pronunciasse  p.469 nullum in posterum in eo fore submergendum. Praedixit et Bertlacios Orientales ad iura Ecclesiarum suarum olim spectaturos: qui et in continua habent traditione Dominum regionis illius in periculis semper S. Patricii invocatione et patrocino fore protegendum.”

“XCIV. Ulterius progredienti viro Dei occurrit in finibus istis, et truculente occursat ei populus Gregragiorum; qui non tantum sunt conati ipsum a suis finibus excludere; sed et tanta mentis insolentia in ipsum insurrexerunt, ut ipsum et socios saxis et lapidibus impetierunt. Tunc justae indignationis spiritu motus vir Dei, fertur insolenti populo condignam factis mercedem apprecari, et sic apprecando maledictionis sententia praedixisse eos in omni conflictu caedendos, et ubique fore iugo servitutis et contemptui subiectos. Progrediens autem versus Septemtrionem, cum Muado flumine traiecto veniret in regionem Gregragiorum occurrerunt ei duo ex ilia gente Magi, qui statuerunt eum e medio tollere. Sed servus Dei virtute Domini sui instructas ab eis evadens insidias, praedixit ex eorum progenie magos et maleficos nunquam defecturos.”

“XCV. Adiit postea vir Sanctus Conallum charissimum suum; cuius probaturus, et remuneraturus mentis pietatem et resignationem ait; Placetne mi Conalle, monasticam a me suscipere tonsuram? Conallus autem respondit se cor habere paratum ad faciendum quod viro Dei placeret. Gavisus Patricius de tanta principis resignatione, eamque larga mercede remunerans, ait; Non fiet quod dixi, sed ego tuis defendar armis; tuque de semine tuo successores habebis condignos: et multi saecularis militiae gloria famosi, multique Christiana coelestis militiae professione conspicui athletae, de eodem prodibunt semine. Et mox cum baculo suo, qui baculus Jesu dicebatur, crucis signum eius scuto impressit, asserens neminem de stirpe eius in bello vincendum, qui signum illud in suo scuto impressum gestaret; ipsumque proinde Conallum Sciath Bachlach, .i. scuti baculati, appellandum. Nec mirum sane quod stirpe illa minime foret imbecillis, quae baculi Jesu, omne robur quantumcumque debile fulcientis, impressum signum in suis insignibus, ut symbolum promissae victoriae, iure haereditario gestaret.”

“XCVI. Inde progressus peragrando oram maritimam regionis de Hui Fiachrach, venit S. Antistes ad fluvium quendam; quem, cum ob magnam aquarum illuviem traiicere non posset, sterilitatis maledicto subiectum pronunciavit. Moram tamen iuxta eius marginem contraxit in loco, Buaile Phadruic appellato, in quo crux iuxta tumulum posita conspicitur. Ad ipsum in illo loco commorantem venerunt. S. Bronius Episcopus de Cassel-Irra et S. Mac-rime Tutelaris Ecclesiae de Corca Raoidhe; et ibi eis scripsit alphabetum. Et audivi (inquit vetustus author) ab alio quod in illo loco dedit dentem ex ore suo Episcopo Bronio, propterea quod charus esset Patricio” 1133.


“XCVII. Baptizavit vir Dei in istis partibus septem Drogenii filios unumque ex eis sibi elegit in alumnum, nomine Mackercam: quem videns parentibus praedilectum, quia eum in partes longinquas secum ferre non audebat, commisit S. Bronio Episcopo educandum. Et ipse est, qui praefectus est Ecclesiae de Kill-roe-mor1134 in regione Amalgadiae. Tunc etiam, vir sanctus iecit fundamenta Ecclesiae de Cassel-Irra1135; in cuius atrio est saxum, super quem cecidit dens eius supra memoratus.”

“XCVIII. Susceptum iter prosequutus per oram maritimam Borealis Connaciae, venit Patricius ad fluvium Sligeach 1136 appellatum: ubi exhaustum corpusculum volens reficere, petit a piscatoribus quatenus velint retia tendere, et suae piscationis beneficio de aliqua piscium refectione providere, qua praesentem relevet naturae necessitatem. Illi responderunt, licet res illa videretur difficilis tempore illo hyemali, se tamen velle eam in gratiam tanti hospitis attentare. Attentarunt, magnumque coeperunt salmonem, quem viro Dei laeti obtulerunt. Quorum benignum obsequium remunerans vir Dei, ipsis bene precatus est, flumenque benedixit, apprecans, et apprecando praedicens, nullo anni tempore pisces in eo defecturos. Quod veridicum oraculum rei continuo probat eventus: nam fluvius ille ita exinde abundat salmonibus, ut nullum sit anni tempus, in quo recentes in eo non reperiantur salmones.”

“XCIX. Erat inter Patricii discipulos unus, nomine Rodanus vir profundae humilitatis et observantiae . Hic ut erat obedientiae singulare specimen, quia omnia ad Magistri nutum faciebat; ita bruta animantia eius nutui per omnia parebant. Praefectus enim a Magistro armentis fratrum pascendis et custodiendis, ita hanc curam obibat ut vituli ad ubera matrum sugenda non accederent, nec ab eis recederent, nisi ad eius, licentiam dantis, vel revocantis, nutum. Hunc Patricius postea iuxta virtutum  p.471 et meritorum exigentiam Episcopum ordinavit, et Ecclesiae de Kill-rodain in regione de Muiresch-aigle 1137 praefecit.”

“C. Patricio Connaciae circuitum ad exitum prope ducenti et transeunti, constructis insidiis occurrerunt viri Calregiae de Culechernadan1138 armorumque ac clypeorum strepitu, clangoribus, et clamoribus excitatis satagerunt sanctum Dei, ejusque socios terrere, ac de suis finibus fugatos propellere. Ad quos vir sanctus quod in spiritu vidit, dixit; quia contra inermes armati insurrexistis; et pacis et salutis nuncios e finibus vestris effugare contendistis; vos ipsi vestrique posteri in die belli, velut oves, in fugam acti, hostibus terga dabitis. Haec illi audientes, valde consternati sunt, et super temeritate sua poenitentiam agentes, omnes praeter quinque in genua provoluti veniam humiliter postularunt. Vir misericors paululum, velut deliberans, tacuit, et mox alio praesago et consolatorio oraculo ad eos ait; stabit fixum quod Dominus per os meum loquutus est: attamen quia erroris veniam humiliter postulatis, in nullo conflictu, etiamsi omnes Counnacii vos insequantur ultra quinarium numerum ex vobis occumbent. Et hoc oraculum impleri continuo probat eventus.” — Septima Vita S. Patricii, lib. ii. — Colgan, Trias Thaum. 140.

17. Q recte R

Eoghan Beul, King of Connaught.

See page 312, note y i. e. p. 313, note 927 in the CELT edition. — In the Life of St. Ceallach, Bishop of Kilmore Moy, who was the son of this Eoghan Beul, there is a curious account of the battle of Sligeach (Sligo), in which his father, Eoghan, fell. It makes distinct mention of this king's onchu, or banner, and of the meirgeadha, or standards, which his chieftains carried on their plundering excursions into the other provinces. It goes on to state that Eoghan lived three days, or, according to others, a week, after being mortally wounded in the battle, in which time he advised the Hy-Fiachrach to elect his son Ceallach King of Connaught, and requested of them to go to Clonmacnoise, where he was under the tuition of St. Kieran, and in treat of him to come home with them and accept of the kingdom,  p.472 for that his second son Muireadhach, otherwise Cuchoingeilt, was not of age to succeed him. They did so, and Ceallach was induced to go with them, contrary to the wish, and without the knowlwdge of his saintly tutor, who thereupon pronounced a course against him which finally wrought his destruction; for though he was afterwards reconciled to St. Kieran, and raised to the episcopal dignity, the curse could not be revoked, and he was afterwards driven from his bishopric, and, as already stated in Addenda G, murdered by his own four pupils, at the instigation of Guaire Aidhne, King of Connaught. King Eoghan ordered himself to be interred in a standing position, with his red javelin in his hand, and with his face turned towards Ulster, as if fighting with his enemies. This was accordingly done, and the talismanic result was, that as long as the body was left in that position the Connacians could not be defeated by the Ultonians, but whenever they came in collision the Ultonians were defeated by the Connacians. The Ultonians, on learning the cause of this, disinterred the body of Eoghan Beul, and carrying it north of the River Sligo, buried it with the face under, at the cemetery of Aonach Locha Gile near Lough Gill, in the present county of Sligo. This supersittion is so curious, that the editor hopes to be excused for giving the original account of it, word for word, with a literal translation.


“As bert fos Eogan a adnacul ocus a gha dearg ana láimh is in uadh. “Ocus tobair m'aighi ar in tuaisgirt, ar taebh na tulcha i ngebaid in tuaiscert re cath cuigedh Connacht, agus aigheadh m'uaighi-si forro, agus mé féin innti ar in corughadh sin.” Ocus do coimlead co fír an sgel sin; uair gach inadh a tegmad Clanna Neill d'á cheile ocus Connachtaidh, do muigeadh maidhm do gnúisib ar Clannaib Néill ocus ar in tuaiscirt ann; conad h-í comhairle do rinni Clanna Neill agus tuaiscirt Erenn uime sin, teacht sluaigeadh mór co Ráith O Fiachrach, ocus Eogan do thógbháil as in adhnacul, ocus a thaisi do bhreith leo tar Sligeach fo thuaidh; ocus ro h-adhnaiceadh tall h-é, a n-aenach Locha Gile, agus a bél re lár, co nach beith doib sin 'na chonair teithighthe do cinnti re Connachtaib.”


“Eoghan also told them to bury himself with his red javelin in his hand in the grave. “Place my face towards the north, on the side of the hill by which the northerns pass when flying before the army of Connaught; let my grave face them, and place myself in it after this manner.” And this order was stricly complied with; and in every place where the Clanna Neill and the northerns were routed, being panic stricken by the countenances of their foes; so that the Clanna Neill and the people of the North of Ireland therefore resolved to come with a numerous host to Raith O'bh-Fiachrach and raise [the body of] Eoghan from the grave and carry his remains northward to Sligo. This was done, and the body was buried at the other side [of the river], at Aenach Locha Gile, with the mouth down, that it might not be the means of causing them to fly before the Connacians.”


The custom of thus interring Irish kings and chieftains in a standing position is often referred to in Irish historical tales. It is stated, for example, in the Leabhar na h-Uidhri, a compilation made at Clonmacnoise in the twelfth century, that the monarch Loeghaire, who was cotemporary with St. Patrick, but who had never been converted to Christianity, was interred in the external rampart of Rath Loeghaire, at Tara, in a standing position, with his military weapons upon him, and having his face turned southwards upon his enemies, the Lagenians, as if fighting with them, or bidding them defiance.

The following very curious allusion to the same King Loeghaire, and to the custom of the internment of kings in a standing position, with their arms, is found in the Book of Armagh, which contains perhaps all the old fragments of irish literature now remaining to us:
‘Perrexitque ad civitatem Temro ad Loigairium, filium Neill, iterum, quia apud illum foedus pepigit ut non occideretur in regno illius. Sed non potuit credere, dicens: “Nam Neel pater meus non sinivit mihi credere, sed ut sepeliar in cacuminibus Temro quasi viris consistentibus in bello: quia utuntur gentiles in sepulcris armati prumptis armis facie ad faciem usque ad diem Erdathe apud Magos, id est judicii diem Domini. Ego filius Neill et filius Dunlinge im Maistin in Campo Liphi, pro duritate odivi”&c. ’ (Annotations of Tirechan, Book of Armagh, fol. 10, a, 2.)

There is a curious little poem quoted by Duald Mac Firbis in his large genealogical work, describing the residence of King Eoghan Beul, but the Addenda to this volume having been already extended to too great a length, the Editor thinks it better to reserve it for some future work. It was situtated on the island of Inis Eoghain, in Lough Mask, on which the Editor saw distinct traces of its earthern ramparts in the year 1838.

John O'Donovan's Addenda and Corrigenda are integrated into the electronic text; and the list (pp 473–476) is omitted from this electronic edition.


Do críochnuigheadh an obair si, iar mór shaothar agus dúthracht, a n-Ath Cliath Duibhlinne, an t-ochtmhadh la déag de mhi Iuin, 'san mbliadhain d'aois ár d-Tighearna 1844, le Seaan, mac Eamainn Oig, mhic Shen Eamoinn, mhic Uilliam, mhic Chonchubhair Ui Dhonnabáin; agus má gheibheann an léightheoir ní inbhéime innte, creideadh sé gur tar díthcheall an fhir friotail do chuaidh; agus cuimhnigheadh lucht a h-inchreachta nach bh-fuil obair dhaondha fá'n ngréin saor ó lochtaibh, agus gur minic do h-inchreachadh deagh-shaothar go h-éagcórach tre fhormad agus mhiosgais n-easccarad, agus fós tre a n-aineolus.

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  1. Fol. 83 to 85. — See page 176, note v. i. e. p. 177 note 426 in the CELT edition. 🢀

  2. There can be no doubt that the Mac Firbis held the townland of Lecan Mac Firbis in right of his profession in 1560, when the castle was built there, but in the reign of ames I. a great revolution took place in Tireragh; William Chapman, Esq. received a grant of Rossleagh, and William May, Esq. a grant of Castleconor, which had been till then one of the principal seats of O'Dowd; and O'Dowd was transferred, hither and thither, until at last he was fixed in the mountains of Coolcarney, in 1656. That Mac Firbis was deprived of his inheritance about the year 1608, very little doubt can be entertained, and that O'Dowd had then but small means to support a historiographer can be clearly shown from the Anglo-Irish records of this period. 🢀

  3. Fithel was chief Brehon of Ireland in the reign of Cormac Mac Art, who became monarch of Ireland in the middle of the third century. Some law tracts ascribed to him are still extant. The Teagasg Rioghdha, or Royal Precepts, are said to have been written by King Cormac himself, in his old age, for the instruction of his son Cairbré Liffeachair. Many copies of the Teagasg Rioghdha are still preserved, and translated specimens of it were published by the Editor in the Dublin Penny Journal, 1832, 1833, pp. 213, 231. 🢀

  4. Archbishops of Tuam, under John De Burgo, who died 1450. 🢀

  5. See Cambrensis Eversus, pp. 157, 158, 159. 🢀

  6. Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin — He was King of Connaught, and was raised to the throne of Ireland in the year 358. — See O'Flaherty's Ogygia, Part III, c. 79. 🢀

  7. These are the — This passage, enclosed in brackets, is taken from Duald Mac Firbis's smaller Genealogical compilation, made in 1666, of which a good copy is preserved in the marquis of Drogheda's Library, and another in the collection of Messrs. Hodges and Smith, Dublin. His larger work was commenced in the college of St. Nicholas, in Galway, in the year 1650🢀

  8. Hy-Fiachrach of the Muaidh, i. e. the inhabitants of Tir Fhiachrach, now Tireragh, on the east side of the River Moy, in the county of Sligo. The reader is to take notice that Fiachrach, which occurs often throughout this volume, is the genitive form of Fiachra, a man's name. The River Moy is famous in ancient Irish history (see Life of St. Cormac, by Colgan), and now remarkable for its salmon fishery. It is called Moda by Adamnan (Vita Columbae, Lib. 1, c. 6), Moadus by Giraldus Cambrensis, Muadius by Colgan, and Moyus by Ware, and at present Muaidh, in Irish, by the natives. It rises in the barony of Leyny, in the county of Sligo, flows, by a circuitous course, through the barony of Gallen, in Mayo, and, passing through Foxford and Ballina, discharges itself into the bay of Killala, forming for some miles the boundary between the counties of Mayo and Sligo. 🢀

  9. The Hy-Amhalgaidh of Iorrus, i. e. the descendants of Amhalgaidh, who dwelt in the present barony of Erris, in the north-west of the county of Mayo. 🢀

  10. The Men of Ceara, i. e. the inhabitants of the barony of Cara, in the county of Mayo. 🢀

  11. Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, i. e. the inhabitants of the diocese of Kilmacduagh, which comprises the entire of the territory anciently called Aidhne. — See Map of the Tract on Hy-Many. 🢀

  12. Cineal Guaire, i. e. the descendants of the celebrated Guaire Aidhne, King of Connaught, in the seventh century. 🢀

  13. Cineal Aodha, na h-Echtghe — This was the tribe name of the O'Shaughnessys of Gort Inse Guaire, in the south-west of the county of Galway, who were called na h-Echtghe, because their country comprised a portion of the mountainous district of Sliabh Echtghe, now called Slieve Aughty, and sometimes corruptly Slieve Baughta. 🢀

  14. Coill Ua bh-Fiachrach. — This name, which is anglicised Killovyeragh, is still well known in the county of Galway, and applied to the north-western portion of the barony of Kiltartan. It appears by an inquisition taken at Galway in 1608, that “Killovyeragh, O'Heyne's country, being estimated only as forty-five quarters of land, doth consist of 8640 acres, which maketh [in reality] three skore and twelve quarters.” — See Map prefixed to the tract on Hy-Many, for the situation of this territory. 🢀

  15. Five sons — Only four of the sons of Fiachra are here named. His fifth son was Dathi, who became monarch of Ireland, and is mentioned p. 17. 🢀

  16. Eric, i. e. mulct, fine, or reparation. 🢀

  17. Sechnall the Saint — The pedigree of St. Sechnall, or Secundinus, the son of Darerca, the sister of Patrick, is given differently by Colgan🢀

  18. The Ui Amhalgaidh, on the Muaidh, i. e. the inhabitants of the present barony of Tirawley, which is bounded on the east by the River Muaidh, now the Moy. 🢀

  19. The plain of Muirisc, daughter of Liogan, that is, the plain called after Muirisc, the daughter of Liogan, for some account of whom see Dinnsenchus, Lib. Lecan, fol. 247. It is the name of a narrow piece of level land stretching from the foot of Croaghpatrick, in the county of Mayo, to the margin of Clew Bay. From the monastery of Muirisc in this place the barony of Murresk, anciently called Upper Umhall, was named in 1585. 🢀

  20. The plain of Muidh or Muaidh, i. e. the plain through which the River Moy flows. It does not appear to have been the name of any distinct principality or territory, but a natural appellation given to the region traversed by this river. 🢀

  21. Aengus, son of Nadfraoch, King of Munster, was slain in the battle of Cell Osnata, in the plain of Magh Fea, now Kellistown, in the barony of Forth and county of Carlow, in the year 439. 🢀

  22. O'Ceallachain, now O'Callaghan; but O'Callaghan of Erris is not to be confounded with O'Callaghan of Munster, who is of a different race and a far more distinguished family. 🢀

  23. O'Caithniadh — There is not one of this name in Erris at present, and it is believed that the family is extinct. 🢀

  24. Mac Coinin — This name still exists, but is variously anglicised Cunnion, Cunniam, Canning, &c. 🢀

  25. O'Muimhneachain — This name is still numerous in Erris, but anglicised Minahan, or Mynahan. See notes to the Topographical Poem of Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis, toward the end of this volume. 🢀

  26. Mag Fhionain, now always anglicised Gannon. 🢀

  27. O'Gearadhainn, now Gearan, but the name is scarce in Erris. 🢀

  28. O'Conboirne, now always anglicised Burns, but the name is more common on the east side of the Moy than in Erris. 🢀

  29. O'Muireadhaigh, now Murray. 🢀

  30. Lagan, a district in the north of the barony of Tirawley, in the county of Mayo, for the extent of which see notes to Gilla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis's poem. 🢀

  31. The hill of Budh — This was the name of a celebrated hill not far from Rathcroghan, in the county of Roscommon. There is another hill of the same name near the town of Strabane, in Tyrone. Bodhbh Dearg was a Tuatha De Danann chieftain, and the son of Daghda, monarch of Ireland. 🢀

  32. Dun Finne, now Dunfeeny, or Dunfinny, the name of an old church and parish in the north of the barony of Tirawley, and county of Mayo, about nine miles north-west from Killala. The old church of this parish was built within the earthen fort, or dun, from which the place originally received its name. 🢀

  33. Gleann an Chairn, now Baile an Ghleanna, or Glynn, a townland in the parish of Dunfeeny. The family names here mentioned are all obsolete at present in the barony of Tirawley. 🢀

  34. Lios Leitreach — This was the name of a fort in the townland of Ballykinlettragh, in the parish of Kilfian, in the barony of Tirawley. The name Mac Conleitreach is now obsolete. 🢀

  35. O'Fionnacain, now Finnagan, but the name, though common in other parts of Ireland, is scarce in this district. 🢀

  36. Fionnchalamh, now obsolete. — See Notes farther on, and Index. 🢀

  37. St. Cormac — For some account of this saint's visit to Tirawley, see his life as translated by Colgan, Acta Sanctorum, p. 752, and also the Irish life preserved in the Book of Lecan, from a copy of which Colgan made his Latin version. 🢀

  38. Cill Achaidh Duibh, called Cill Ardubh in other authorities. The place is now called Killarduff, and is a townland containing the ruins of an ancient church, situated in the parish of Dunfeeny, in the barony of Tirawley, and about a mile below the village of Ballycastle. 🢀

  39. Dael, now the Deel, a river which rises to the south of the townland of Glendavualagh, in the parish of Crossmolina, in the barony of Tirwaley, and flowing through the centre of the parish, and through the little town of Crossmolina, discharges itself into Logh Con, at its northern extremity. Our author, in his pedigree of the family of Walsh, describes this river as flowing by the country of the Clann Robert, in Tirawley. 🢀

  40. Traigh Murbhaigh — This, as our author informs us elsewhere, was the ancient name of the strand called Traigh Ceall in his own time. This strand is situated at the village of Rathlacken, near Killala, in the barony of Tirawley. The Roman Catholic chapel of Lacken stands at its western extremity. 🢀

  41. Fearsad Tresi, i. e. the passage or trajectus of Tresi. It is now, and has been for centuries, called Fearsad Raith Bhrain, i. e. the passage or trajectus of Rafran. It lies just under the abbey of Rafran, in the parish of Killala, and barony of Tirawley. There are two round stones on each side of the fearsad, or channel, to point out its position. 🢀

  42. Ard O'n-Aodha, i. e. altitudo nepotum Aidi — This name is now forgotten in the country. 🢀

  43. Cill Cumaoin, more correctly called Cill Chuimin in the Book of Lecan, and elsewhere by our author. The name is now anglicised Kilcummin, and is that of a parish in the barony of Tirawley, about four miles and a half north of Killala, on the wet side of Killala Bay. The ancient church of this parish is one of great antiquity, built of very large stones in the primitive Irish style. At this church was preserved some years since a flat stone called Leac Chuimin, to which the peasantry resorted for many superstitious purposes, but it was removed by Dr. Lyons, now parish priest of Kilmore-Erris, who caused it to be built up in the wall of the new Roman Catholic Cathedral, at Ballina, for “certain weighty reasons.”
    This pedigree of St. Cuimin is not given by the O'Clerys in their Genealogies of the Irish Saints. 🢀

  44. Cantred of Bac, is still well known in the country by the name of the Two Backs, and lies between Lough Con and the River Moy, in the barony of Tirawley; for a more definite description of which see Notes to the Topographical Poem of Gilla Iosa Mor mac Firbis further on. 🢀

  45. Gleann Nemhthinne, now anglicised Glen Nephin, for the extent of which see notes of Gilla Iosa Mor mac Firbis's Topographical Poem🢀

  46. The half cantred of Breudach — This territory was nearly co-extensive with the parish of Moygawnagh, in the west of the barony of Tirawley. 🢀

  47. O'Lachtna, now always O'Lachtnain in Irish, and anglicised Loughnane and Loftus. Dr. Martin Loftus, formerly professor of Irish in the College of Maynooth, is of this family. 🢀

  48. Of the Glenn, i. e. of Glen Nephin. 🢀

  49. The Leabhar Balbh, i. e. the Dumb Book. This book, which is now unknown, would appear to have been called the Dumb, because it chronicled events which many of the chieftains in power did not wish to be known. But of this more distinctly hereafter. 🢀

  50. Lachtna was Mac Firbis, that is, the Lachtna, after whom the family of O'Lachtna was called, was of the Mac Firbis tribe. 🢀

  51. O'Maoilruaidh, now Mulroy, but the name is not in the district. 🢀

  52. Ard Achaidh, now Ardagh, a parish in the barony of Tirawley, about two miles and three quarters west south west of the town of Ballina. 🢀

  53. Lios Chuimin, i. e. Cuimin's fort. The name is now unknown, though it is highly probable that the fort remains. 🢀

  54. O'Toghdha — This name is now unknown in the district. 🢀

  55. O'Glaimin, now obsolete. 🢀

  56. O'Luachaibh, is written O'Luachaim in the Book of Lecan, but the m is evidently intended to be pronounced as if aspirated. The name is now obsolete. 🢀

  57. O'Gilin — This name not extant in the district, though common in other parts of Ireland. 🢀

  58. O'Learghusa — This name is now anglicised, correctly enough, Larissy, and is found in various parts of Ireland. 🢀

  59. St. Tighearnan, of Oireadh Locha Con, i. e. St. Tiernan, the patron of the chuch or abbey of Errew, on Lough Con. A celebrated relic of this saint, called Mias Tighearnáin, i. e. St. Tiernan's dish, is still preserved at Rappa Castle, in the barony of Tirawley. In the Book of Lecan, fol. 46, the pedigree of this St. Tighernan, or Tiernan, is given as follows: — Tighernan, son of Ninnidh, son of Cairpri, son of Amhalgaidh, son of Fiachra, son of Eochaidh, monarch of Ireland; so that he must have flourished in the latter end of the fifth century. 🢀

  60. O'Gaibhtheachain — This name is now correctly anglicised Gaughan, and is still common in the district. 🢀

  61. O'Flainn, now O'Flynn. 🢀

  62. O'Maoilfhiona — There is scarcely one of this name now in Tirawley, though they were formerly very powerful. The little town of Crossmolina, in Irish called Cros Ui Mhaoilfhiona, i. e. O'Molina's Cross, took its name from them. 🢀

  63. Calraighe Muighe h-Eleag — This territory was nearly co-extensive with the parish of Crossmolina, in the barony of Tirawley. See Notes to the Topographical Poem of Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis🢀

  64. Muinter Fothaigh, &c. &c. — These, which were probably tribe names, are now unknown in Tirawley. 🢀

  65. Reachtabhra — This line is supplied from the Book of Lecan, fol. 79, page a, col. a. It does not belong to the heading Cineal Eunda. 🢀

  66. Fergus — This line is given by our Author without any heading; for it does not belong to Cineal Eunda, under which he places it. 🢀

  67. Donncathaigh — This line is supplied from the Book of Lecan, fol. 79, page a, col. b. 🢀

  68. O'Tighearnaigh, now anglicised Tierney, without the O'. 🢀

  69. Kings of Ceara, i. e. chiefs of the territory of Ceara, now the barony of Cara, in the present county of Mayo. 🢀

  70. O'Uathmharain, now obsolete. 🢀

  71. Mac Neill — Duald Mac Firbis spells this name Mac Nell, but the Editor does not think it necessary to follow him, in this innovation, in the translation, as he has the authority of the Book of Lecan for making Néill the genitive form of Niall in almost every instance; but the original text of Duald Mac Fibris shall not be altered in any instance, although it has been deemed necessary to preserve a uniform orthography of the names of men and places in the translation throughout. This family is now extinct. 🢀

  72. [Cuan — This pedigree of Cuan, enclosed in brackets, is supplied from a copy of Mac Firbis's smaller work, compiled in 1666, in the collection of Messrs. Hodges and Smith, p. 173. For the situation of the tribe called Clann Chuain see Notes to Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis's poem. 🢀

  73. Succeeded Niall. — Dathi succeeded his uncle Niall of the Nine Hostages in the year 405, according to O'Flaherty and the Irish Annalists, and was the last of the line of the Pagan kings of Ireland. — See additional remarks on this subject in the Addenda to this volume. 🢀

  74. Ath Talmaide — This place is now unknown, at least to the Editor. 🢀

  75. Bodaighe — Unknown. 🢀

  76. Rath Cruachan, now Rath Croghan, near Belanagare, in the county of Roscommon. 🢀

  77. Magh Ailbhe — This, which is latinised Campus Albus, was the ancient name of an extensive plain in Leinster, extending from Slewmargy, in the Queen's County, in an eastern direction, and comprising portions of the barony of Idrone, in the county of Carlow, and of the baronies of Kilkea and Moone, in the county of Kildare. Bealach Mughna, now Ballaghmoone, to the north of Carlow, is described in all Irish authorrities as in Magh Ailbhe. Ussher, in his Primordia, pp. 936, 937, thus describes this plain, on the authority of an ancient Life of St. Munnu: — “Campus ad ripam fluvii quem Ptolemeus Birgum, nos Barrow vocamus, non procul a monte Margeo positus.” In a curious ancient poem, describing the monuments of Leinster, it is called the finest plain in Ireland. 🢀

  78. Magh Circan, now unknown. 🢀

  79. Srath — There are many places of this name, signifying holm or strath, in Ireland and Scotland, but the situation of the site of this battle is not defined. 🢀

  80. Muir n-Icht — This is the name by which the ancient Irish writers always call the British sea which divides England from France, and some have supposed it to be derived from the Iccian harbour, which Caesar states that he sailed by to Britain. Hoewever this be, there can be no doubt what sea the Muir n-Icht is, from the many references to it in the old Irish MSS.; Ussher, Primordia, p. 823, says, “Est autem mare Icht (ut ex Albei etiam et Declani Vitis didicimus) illud quod Galliam et Britanniam interfluit.” 🢀

  81. Leatha — Duald Mac Firbis, in his annotations on the Life of St. Patrick, says, that Leatha was the ancient Irish name of Italy; but Mr. Patrick Lynch, in his Life of Saint Patrick, page 77, says, that it was the Hibernicised form of Letavia, a name by which a part, and sometimes the whole, of Armoric Gaul was called by the writers of the middle ages; and he has been followed by Lanigan and others. See Addenda to this volume, where the subject will be further discussed. 🢀

  82. The Alps — Sliabh Ealpa is the name by which the ancient Irish writers designate the Alps. 🢀

  83. To revenge, &c. — This would appear to be a mistake, for the monarch Niall of the Nine Hostages was not slain by a foreigner, but, according to all the authorities, by Eochaidh, son of Enna Ceinseallach, King of Leinster, who discharged a poisoned arrow at him on the banks of the Loire. But it may have happened that Eochaidh remained abroad, and that Dathi went to Gaul in pursuit of him. See Addenda to this volume. 🢀

  84. Formenius, &c. — He is called Formenus ri Tracia in Leabhar na h-Uidhri, fol. 35, p. b, col. a. No account of this king is to be found in any foreign writer, as far as the Editor has been able to discover. Keating calls him Parmenius, a holy hermit, and O'Flaherty, in Ogygia, Part III. c. 87, p. 416, calls him “quidam Eremita S. Firminus” who, according to the Book of Lecan (fol. 302, b), was a king; but he does not call him King of Thrace. 🢀

  85. A circular tower, — Tor cathrach. O'Flaherty, in Ogygia (loco cit.), translates this turris, and describes it as seventeen cubits high. Keating calls it a duirtheach, or hermit's cell. 🢀

  86. Eleven feet from the light — The reading in Leabhar na h-Uidhri is, ocus oen traig dec uad-som co solsi. From this it would appear that the diameter of the tor, including the thickness of the wall, was twenty-two feet. 🢀

  87. Expertness — This derivation of the name of King Dathi is also given in Leabhar na h-Uidhri, fol. 35, p. b, col. a, but in the margin, and in a hand somewhat more modern than the original. Keating too gives the same derivation of the name, explaining daithi by the modern word tapa, expert, active, dexterous. 🢀

  88. Feradhach — Keating also says that Fearadhach was his first name, and he calls Dathi his forainm, i. e. his cognomen. 🢀

  89. In a blaze of fire — The reading is nearly the same in Leabhar na h-Uidhri, fol. 35, p. b, col. a. Ruc tra Dia uaidib Formenus, i n-a dluim thened, mile chemend ó'n tur. This reading i n-a dhluim thened means that Formenius's body was converted in a blaze of fire, and in this subtle form removed from the tower, and from the impious assault of King Dathi and his Pagan plunderers. But i n-n dluimh tenead, as the text is given by our author, means that his body was raised up in, i. e. within a mass of flame, which is a more correct idea, and seems to have been derived by the original writer from the fiery chariot of Elias. 🢀

  90. And he prayed, &c — The original runs in Leabhar na h-Uidhri (loco cit.) as follows (lines 2792–95 of CELT edition): — Ocus ro guid Formenus in comdid na bíad flathius Da Thí ní bád sía inná sin ⁊ ro guid ná bad airdairc a ligi. Ní rabi trá do sáegul ocond ríg acht airet ro bás ac taithmech na cathrach in tan tánic saiget gelán do nim chuci co fúair a bas. “And Formenus prayed God that the reign of Dathi might endure no longer, and he also prayed that his monument might not be remarkable. The king enjoyed life only while he was destroying the tower, when a flash of lightning came from heaven upon him, so that he died.”
    Keating gives the story of the death of Dathi as follows: — Do ghabh Dathi, mac Fiachrach etc. The rest is omitted here; compare p. 412 of the slightly differing ITS-based CELT edition. 🢀

  91. The learned say, &c. — This passage, which differs so materially from the previous story, is not given in Leabhar na h-Uidhri, but it is in the Book of Lecan, and in another MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, H 3 17🢀

  92. Formenius then went &c. — This passage is in Leabhar na h-Uidhri, but in a more modern hand inter lineas🢀

  93. Amhalgaidh, the son of Dathi — Leabhar na h-Uidhri has the following observation interlined here: — da Amalgaid ro batar and .i. Amalgaid mac Fiachrach ⁊ Amalgaid mac Nath Í cited after CELT edition of LU, line 2797, gloss by hand H. i. e. “there were two Amhalgaidhs, viz. Amhalgaidh, the son of Fiachra, and Amhalgaidh, the son of Nathi” — From the former the present barony of Tir-Amhalgaidh, now anglicised Tirawley, has derived its name. 🢀

  94. He carried &c. — Atnaig a athair leis.Leabhar na h-Uidhri. Atnaig is an ancient verb signifying tug, i. e. he brought. 🢀

  95. These are the names &c. — The names of these battles, with some slight difference of orthography, are given in Leabhar na h-Uidhri, but in the margin, and in a hand somewhat more modern than the original text of the book. 🢀

  96. Dungal &c. — The names of these servants who carried home the body of Dathi are also given in Leabhar na h-Uidhri🢀

  97. Cairrthe dhearg — This passage enclosed in brackets is taken from our author's smaller work, compiled in 1666. The Cairrthe dhearg is still to be seen at Roilig na Riogh, near Rathcroghan. It is a pillar stone of red grit, about nine feet in height, on a small mound, now called Cnocan na g-corp, about 200 paces to the north of the Pagan cemetery called Roilig na Riogh; but tradition at present has no recollection of its marking the sepulchre of Dathi, so that the imprecation of Formenius seems to have had its effect, when he prayed that his monument might not be honourable or conspicuous. No authority has been discovered for making this red pillar stone the monument of this monarch, except the smaller work, compiled in 1666, by Duald Mac Firbis. Whether he had any written authority for the fact, it is now, perhaps, impossible to determine, but the Editor is of opinion that he had no authority for it but the tradition of the country, which was, no doubt, in his time very vivid. The Editor saw this stone in the year 1837, when it was standing on the small mound already mentioned; but it has since been thrown down by the cattle, and is now lying prostrate, to the disgrace of the neighbouring gentry; the O'Conors, it must be hoped, will restore it. 🢀

  98. Poetical inspiration — It was the belief in Ireland in Pagan times that a poet's mind was capable of being rendered prophetic by the aid of certain charms or incantations called Imbas for Osnae and Teinm Loeghdha; for some account of which see Battle of Magh Rath, pp. 46, 47, note (b). Torna Eigeas is said to have been chief poet of Ireland, and the tutor of the monarch Niall of the Nine Hostages, who was slain in the year 406. 🢀

  99. Rithlearg — Retairic in Leabhar na h-Uidhri. It is the name of a kind of metrical prose put into the mouths of Druids and poets while under the influence of the Teinm Loeghdha. Also called “rhetoric”🢀

  100. Man of dignity — In the Book of Lecan the reading is feargaidh, i. e. the fierce or angry, and in Leabhar na h-Uidhri it is ind aig, i. e. of valour. These differences are traceable to the carelessness of transcribers, and sometimes to the obliterated state of the original MSS from which the copies were made; for when the original was effaced or defective in some words the transcribers often filled up the blanks according to their own judgment. 🢀

  101. Who brought the hostages &c. — In the copy of this poem in Leabhar na h-Uidhri this line reads, tuc in rig dar muir na rian, i. e. who brought the king over the sea of roads, and this is obviously the true reading. 🢀

  102. Reveal their appearance — In Leabhar na h-Uidhri, fallsigthe rath, of well-known prosperity. 🢀

  103. The three tons of Eochaidh Feidhleach — Eochaidh Feidhleach was monarch of Ireland, according to O'Flaherty's Chronology, A. M. 3922, and had three sons, Breas, Nar, and Lothar, and six daughters, Mughain, Eile, Meadhbh, Deirbhre, Clothra, and Eithne, who are all much celebrated in Irish romance. 🢀

  104. Eochaidh Aireamh — He was brother of Eochaidh Feidhleach, and succeeded him as monarch of Ireland, A. M. 3934, according to O'Flaherty's Chronology; (Ogygia, Part III c. 44, p. 271), who states that he was killed by lightning at Fremoinn, a hill in Teffia, in Westmeath (now Frawin Hill, to the north of Mullingar); but, according to Keating, he was slain at the same place, by a warrior called Siodhmhall, which perhaps should be written Sidhmaol, as in this very ancient poem the slayer of this monarch is called the great Maol🢀

  105. Derbhre is written Drebriu in Leabhar na h-Uidhri, and incorrectly called Deirdria by O'Flaherty (Ogyg. p. 267). She was one of the six daughters of the monarch Eochaidh Feidhleach. — See note 103 on Eochaidh Feidhleach above. 🢀

  106. Clothra — She was another of the daughters of Eochaidh Feidhleach, and gave name to the island of Inis Clothrann, in Lough Ree, an expansion of the Shannon between Athlone and Lanesborough. 🢀

  107. Meadhbh, Latinized Mauda by O'Flaherty, and pronounced Meave. She was another daughter of Eochaidh Feidhleach, and a most celebrated character in Pagan Irish history, who is still vividly remembered in the traditions of the country. 🢀

  108. Muireasg — She was a daughter of Hugony Mor, monarch of Ireland, A.M. 3619. Book of Lecan, fol. 16, b, b. 🢀

  109. Eire, Fodhla, and Banba &c. — According to all the accounts of the Tuatha De Dananns, these were the three Queens of the Tuatha De Dananns at the arrival of the Milesian or Scotic colony from Spain. — See Keating's History of Ireland, where almost all the bardic accounts of them are collected. 🢀

  110. The three sons of Cearmad — These were the three Tuatha De Danann kings who ruled Ireland at the period of the arrival of the Milesian or Scotic colony. They were the husbands of the three queens above mentioned. 🢀

  111. Sith Truim, or Sith Druim — This, according to Keating, was the ancient name of the rock of Cashel. 🢀

  112. Lughaidh, i. e. Lughaidh Lamhfhada, or Lughaidh the Long-handed, king of the Tuatha De Dananns, a character much celebrated in ancient Irish stories (see Ogygia, Part III. c. 13), and still the hero of many traditions. 🢀

  113. Liatruim — This was one of the ancient names of Tara Hill, in Meath. — See Dinnseanchus and O'Flaherty's Ogygia, Part III. c. 55. 🢀

  114. Daghda — He was King of the Tuatha De Dananns for forty years, and is much celebrated in Irish stories. 🢀

  115. Midir — He was the son of Daghda, and is much celebrated in Irish stories as Midir of Bri Leith, a hill near Ardagh, in the present county of Longford, where it was believed his spirit continued to reside long after his death. There is a very curious romance about this personage in Leabhar na h-Uidhri, which preserves one of the oldest poems in the Irish language. 🢀

  116. Cobhthach Caol — He is generally called Cobhthach Caol m-Breagh, i. e. Cobhthach the Slender, of Bregia. He was the son of Ugaine, or Hugony the Great, and monarch of Ireland in the year of the World 3665. 🢀

  117. Ugaine — He was a celebrated monarch of Ireland of the Scotic or Milesian colony, and ascended the throne in the year of the World 3619, according to O'Flaherty's Chronology. 🢀

  118. Feidhlimidh Reachtmhar, or Felimy the Lawgiver. He was monarch of Ireland early in the second century. For some account of him see Keating's History of Ireland, O'Flaherty's Ogygia, p. 306, and Colgan's Trias Thaumathurgae. p. 447. 🢀

  119. The descendants of Conn, i. e. Conn of the Hundred Battles, who became monarch of Ireland in the year of our Lord, 177. — See Keating and O'Flaherty's Ogygia, Part III. c. 60, p. 313. 🢀

  120. Art — He was the son of Conn of the Hundred Battles, and monarch of Ireland in the early part of the third century. It is stated in Leabhar na h-Uidhri that this monarch was converted to Christianity and interred at Trevet in Meath. 🢀

  121. Cormac — He was the son of Art, and is generally styled O'Cuinn, as being the grandson of Conn of the Hundred Battles. He was one of the most celebrated of the Irish monarchs, and, according to Leabhar na h-Uidhri, embraced the Christian faith to the great annoyance of his druids, and was interred at Ros na riogh (now Rosnaree, near Slane, in the county of East Meath). Keating adds that St. Columbkille afterwards came to this place, and said three masses over the grave of his royal ancestor. 🢀

  122. The saint after the destruction of his walls — In Leabhar na h-Uidhri the last line of this quatrain reads better thus: Ni bad ardairc, a Chruacho. This quatrain is evidently misplaced, for it relates to Formenius the Eremite and the monarch Dathi. It should be introduced after the first quatrain; but as it is given last in all the copies, even in Leabhar na h-Uidhri, a manuscript of the twelfth century, the Editor does not feel himself at liberty to alter its position. Keating, in his History of Ireland (reign of Cormac O'Cuinn), quotes a considerable portion of this poem, which shall be here given, that the reader may have the advantage of Dr. Lynch's Latin translation of it. {Compare the slightly differing text in the ITS-based CELT edition, G100054, vol. 1, p. 350. [BF]}
    Dá phríomh-roilig, iomorra, do bhí a n-Eirinn i n-allod, a n-aimsir na Págántachta, i n-ag-cuirthí urmhór ríogh Eireann, mar atá Brugh na Bóinne, agus Roilig na ríogh, láimh re Cruachain. Is follus gur bh' ionad adhlaicthe do ríoghaibh Eireann Brugh na Bóinne as an seanchas thuas; agus is dearbh gur bh'ionad coitcheann adhlaicthe do ríoghaibh Eireann Roilig na ríogh a g-Cruachain, do réir Thórna Eigeas san laoidh-se síos am' dhiaidh: The poem and its Latin rendering are omitted here; the reader may however consult the ITS-based CELT edition, G100054, vol. 1, p. 350–52, and the corresponding English translation in T100054, vol. 1, p. 351–53. [BF] 🢀

  123. Twenty-four sons — It is strange, however, that only twenty are given by name. 🢀

  124. Oilioll Molt — He succeeded Laoghaire, the son of Niall, and was monarch of Ireland for twenty years, and died A.D. 483. 🢀

  125. The Borumean tribute — This was a very exorbitant mulct on the people of Leinster, said to have been first imposed by the monarch Tuathal Teachtmhar, A.D. 144. It was paid with great reluctance till the latter part of the reign of Finnachta Fleadhach, and was the cause of much bloodshed, as the Lagenians seldom consented to the payment without a battle. It was finally remitted in the year 693, by Finnachta, at the request of St. Moling, to the great annoyance of the magnates of the Hy-Niall race. The monarch Brian, the ancestor of the O'Briens of Thomond, afterwards renewed this impost, for which he received his well known appellation of Brian Borumha. A historical tract on the Origin and History of the Borumean Tribute is preparing for publication by the Irish Archaeological Society. 🢀

  126. Cuil Fabhair — This place was near Fore, in the county of Westmeath. 🢀

  127. Breaghmhuigh, a rich plain comprising the greater portion of the present county of East Meath. 🢀

  128. [The pedigree of the Clann Firbis — This passage is supplied from Duald Mac Firbis's smaller work compiled in the year 1666. 🢀

  129. Cineal Fechin, a territory in the south of the present county of Galway, comprising a considerable portion of the barony of Leitrim — See Map in the Tract on Hy-Many. 🢀

  130. Boirinn, now Burren, a rocky barony in the north-west of the county of Clare. 🢀

  131. Kings of Connaught — For the periods at which these kings reigned, see list of the Kings of Connaught towards the end of this volume. 🢀

  132. Sal Srotha Derg, an ancient name of the River Moy. 🢀

  133. Ard na Riagh, now Ardnarea, a village on the east side of the River Moy, in the barony of Tireragh and county of Sligo. This village, which may be now considered as a suburb to the town of Ballina, is connected with it by a bridge over the River Moy; but the locality originally called Ard na riagh, i. e. the hill of executions, immediately adjoins the village to the south, and is now generally called the Castle Hill, from a castle which formerly stood upon it. 🢀

  134. Ard na Maol, i. e. height or hill of the Maols, i. e. where the four youths whose names began with the word Maol were interred. For a more circumstantial account of the execution and interment of the four Maols, see Dinnseanchus in the Book of Lecan, fol. 246. The monument raised over these youths is still in existence, and situated on a hill on the west side of the River Moy, nearly opposite the hill of Ard na riagh, in the parish of Kilmore-Moy and barony of Tirawley, a short distance to the south of the town of Ballina. It is a remarkable Cromlech supported by three pillar stones, and fixed as level as a horizontal dial. It is now popularly called the Table of the Giants by the natives when speaking English, and Cloch an togbhála, i. e. the raised stone, in Irish. This is the only Cromlech in Ireland which can be satisfactorily connected with history. In the Dinnseanchus this monument is called Leacht na Maol, and said to occupy a lofty situation, which, coupled with the description of its situation on the other side of the Moy opposite Ard na riagh, leaves no doubt of its identity. 🢀

  135. O'Maoilaichen, now unknown. 🢀

  136. O'Broduibh, not known. 🢀

  137. O'Maoilbhreanainn, now always anglicised Mulrenin; the name is numerous in many parts of the province of Connaught. 🢀

  138. O'Creachain is probably the name now anglicised Creaghan and Greahan. 🢀

  139. The Three O'Suanaighs — These were three saints of some celebrity in Irish history. 🢀

  140. Cluain Eochaille, now Cloonoghill, in a parish of the same name, barony of Corran and county of Sligo. 🢀

  141. Sean bhothach, called Sean boithe Sine in the Annals of the Four Masters, ad ann. 601, now Templeshanbo, i. e. the church of Sean boithe; it is situated at the foot of Mount Leinster, in the barony of Scarawalsh and county of Wexford. The country anciently called Hy-Cinsellaigh comprised the entire of the present county of Wexford, and parts of those of Carlow and Wicklow. 🢀

  142. Ceall mhic Duach, i. e. the church of the son of Duach, now Kilmacduagh, in the barony of Kiltartan, in the south-west of the county of Galway. 🢀

  143. Rathain, generally called Rathain Ui Shuanaigh in the Irish Annals, now Rahen, in the barony of Ballycowan and King's County, and about five miles to the west of the town of Tullamore. There are remains of two very ancient churches at this place, of which a minute description is given in Mr. Petrie's Essay on the Round Towers of Ireland. The death of Fidhmuine, who is called anchorite of Rathain, is recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters at the year 750. 🢀

  144. Cionn Saile, now Kinsale, a well-known town in the south of the county of Cork. 🢀

  145. Glascharraig, i. e. the green rock, now Glascarrick, a well-known place on the coast near Gorey, in the north-east of the county of Wexford; but no tradition of the saint is now preserved there. Fidhairle Ua Suanaigh is called of Rathain by Tighernach and the Four Masters, but they differ about the year of his death, the former placing it in the year 763, which is no doubt the true year, and the latter in 758. 🢀

  146. Disert Ui Triallaigh, on the brink of the Casan Ciarraighe — This place is still well known, and is the name of an old church near the south bank of the River Feal, to the west of Listowell, in the barony of Clanmaurice, and county of Kerry. The name Casan Ciarraighe, i. e. the path of Kerry (it being the high road into the country), anglicised Cashen River, is now applied to that part of the River Feal extending from the point where it receives the River Brick to the sea; but it is highly probable that the appellation of Casan Ciarraighe was originally applied to the river as far as it is navigable for a currach, or ancient Irish leather boat; and the fact that this church of Disert is described as on the margin of the Casan is no weak corroboration of this opinion. 🢀

  147. Ciarraighe Luachra was the ancient name of a territory comprising the greater part of the present county of Kerry, as appears from O'Heerin's Topographical poem, and many other authorities. 🢀

  148. Fisherman — Salmons still much abound in this river; and when the Editor visited the church of Disert Triallaigh, in the summer of the year 1841, he was ferried across the river to the church, which is on the south side, by a fisherman, in a part of the present county of Kerry, as fishing cot, or small flat-bottomed boat. 🢀

  149. Glasan Ui Triallaigh — The Editor could find no account or tradition of this relic in the neighbourhood of the old church of Disert Triallaigh, so that it has probably been for some time lost, or carried away from the locality. 🢀

  150. Triallach — If this be true it looks very strange that Ua, or O should be prefixed to this name. It is probably a mistake, for, if true, it would go to prove that Triallach was the name of his grandfather, and not of himself. No account of this Triallach has been as yet found in any other authority. His name is not entered in any of the Irish calendars, nor is his festival day now remembered at his church of Dysart, in Kerry. 🢀

  151. The celebrated prophet Cutemhen — In the Book of Lecan, fol. 80, page a, col. 1, he is called Cutemnen. The Editor has not yet been able to find any other notice of this Cutemhen or his prophecies. 🢀

  152. Muinter Mochain, now anglicised Mohan or Moghan, and the name is still common in the north of the county of Roscommon. The O'Clerys give also the pedigree of Domhnall O'Mochain, abbot of Boyle, who died in the year 1441; it runs thus: — “Domhnall, abbot of Boyle, son of Diarmaid, son of Muirgheas, son of Simon, son of Nichol, son of Domhnall, son of Donnchadh, son of Muircheartach.” 🢀

  153. Cill Athracht, i. e. the church of St. Athrachta, now Killaraght, a parish in the barony of Coolavin, in the county of Sligo. Athrachta was cotemporary with St. Patrick, from whom she is said to have received the veil in the year 470. Her holy well in this parish is still held in the highest veneration, and visited by pilgrims, but the Editor has not been able to determine whether her cross is still in existence. The present head of the Mac Dermotts, who styles himself the prince of Coolavin, incorrectly, his real title being the chief of Moylurg, holds this saint in such veneration that he has given her name to one of his daughters. 🢀

  154. Gregory, Archbishop of Tuam — Gregory O'Moghan was promoted to the see of Tuam in the year 1385, but deprived in 1386. His death is recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters at the year 1392, in these words: — “A.D. 1392. Gregory O'Mochain, Archbishop of Tuam, a pious and charitable man, died.” — See also Ware's Bishops. The O'Clerys carry the pedigree three generations later, thus: — Maghnus and Diarmaid, sons of John, son of Gregory, son of Simon, &c., so that it would appear that this bishop had been married before he received holy orders. 🢀

  155. Gleann Maoilduin, at the Eidhneach — The situation of this valley is unknown to the Editor. But it is highly probable that it was the ancient name of the valley through which the River Inny, in the west of the barony of Tirawley, flows. 🢀

  156. Umhall — This territory, which is very celebrated in ancient Irish history, and of which, since the establishment of surnames in Ireland, in the tenth century, the O'Malleys have been hereditary lords or toparchs, comprised the present baronies of Burrishool and Murresk, verging on the Atlantic, in the west of the present county of Mayo. Sir Samuel O'Malley is believed to be the present senior representative of the chiefs of Umhall. 🢀

  157. Cill Cuimin, now Kilcummin, a very ancient church which gave its name to a parish in the barony of Tirawley, and county of Mayo, lying on the western side of the Bay of Killala. The name O'Cuimin is now anglicised Comyn, or Cummins. 🢀

  158. In the church, &c. — This passage is very obscure and unsatisfactory, as it does not inform us which of the three saints who bore the surname of O'Suanaigh is referred to; and as we are given elsewhere to understand that one of these brothers was at Rathain, another at Cionn Saile, and the third at Glascharraig, it is not easy to comprehend what is meant by this passage at all. The probability, however, is, that one of these brothers returned to his native country in his old age, and was interred at Cill Cuimin, and that his tomb was well known there for ages after. The old church of St. Cuimin Fada is one of extreme antiquity, and there are several old tombstones in the churchyard, but none at present bearing the name of O'Suanaigh, nor is the Uluidh mhor, or great cairn or tomb, in which was interred Cuimin, the ancestor of the family of O'Cuimin, who were comharbas, airchinnechs, or wardens of this church, now identifiable or traceable. For the meaning of the word Uluidh see Battle of Magh Ráth, p. 298, note (o) where it is shown that uluidh is still a living word. 🢀

  159. O'Dorchaidhe — This name is still common in the county of Mayo, and anglicised Dorcey, Darcey, and sometimes even D'Arcy. 🢀

  160. O'Goirmiallaigh, now Gormley, but this family is to be distinguished from that of O'Gairmleadhaigh, or O'Gormley of the province of Ulster, who are of a different race, and a far more distinguished family. 🢀

  161. Partraighe, now anglicised Partry. For the situation and exact extent of this territory, which still retains its ancient name, see notes to the Topographical Poem of Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis, which will be given further on. 🢀

  162. Well has he defended. — The language of this quatrain is very much transposed; the natural order would be the following: Well has O'Dorchaidhe of the lofty mind
    Defended that land of heroes
    The country of Partraighe of fine hazel trees,
    With a yellow-knotted spear-shaft in the battle. 🢀

  163. O'Dorchaidhe of Gaillimh, i. e. the O'Dorceys or Darcys, of Galway. This family have taken the name and arms of the D'Arcys, and are now considered an offset of the D'Arcys of Meath; but this is a perversion of history which the Editor feels himself called upon to notice and correct. It is clear from Mac Firbis, who wrote in the College of St Nicholas, at Galway, in 1645, while the celebrated lawyer Patrick Darcy was living, that they then considered themselves to be of the ancient Irish race, though they were not able to supply him with more than eight generations of their pedigree (and there can be little doubt that these were supplied by Patrick the lawyer), viz., from James Riabhach, the head of the family in Mac Firbis's time, up to Walter Riabhach, the first of the family who, “according to the people of Galway themselves,” settled in the town of Galway. In the last edition of Lodge's Peerage was published a pedigree, patched up by one of the family, who very ingeniously engrafted this family on that of the D'Arcys of Meath, and accounts, by a bold assertion, which is not proved, and which cannot be true, for the manner in which they obtained possession of the estate of O'Dorcey of Partry, in the county of Mayo. This pedigree, which is most ingeniously put together, deduces the descent of the Darcys of Galway from Sir John D'Arcy, who was Chief Justice of Ireland in 1323. But that the reader may clearly see where the forgery begins, this fabricated line is here annexed:
    1. Sir John D'Arcy, Chief Justice of Ireland in 1323.
    3. William, born 1330.
    3. John.
    4. William.
    5. John.
    6. Nicholas, captain of horse, who married Jane, daughter and heir of O'Dorcey, of Partry.
    7. Thomas.
    8. Conyers.
    9. Nicholas.
    10. James Riveagh I., of Galway, who died in 1603.
    11. Nicholas -----------------------------------------11. Patrick, the lawyer.
    12. James Riveagh II.
    This forgery could never, in all probability, have been detected, were it not that the honest and laborious Mac Firbis had committed the real descent of the Darcys of Galway to writing, before the family attempted to conceal their Milesian origin. It is curious to observe in this memoir, published in Lodge's Peerage, a perfect agreement with the line given by Mac Firbis up to Conchobhar (the grandfather of James Riabhach the elder), which the fabricator anglicises Conyers; but here the forgery commences, for this Conyers was the son of a Patrick O'Dorcey, not of a Thomas D'Arcy, as the fabricator would have us believe. The name Thomas, however, is given by Mac Firbis in the next generation, and it is evident that both had the same Thomas in view; but instead of making this Thomas the son of Walter Riabhach, the first of the family who settled in the town of Galway, as Mac Firbis was informed by the family themselves in 1645, the fabricator makes him the son of a Nicholas Darcy, captain of horse (and uncle of Sir William D'Arcy, of Platten, in the county of Meath), who, “being stationed in the county of Mayo, married Jane, daughter and heir to O'Duraghy” [O'Dorcey], “of Partry, in that county, who brought him the large estate of that family.” Where is his authority to prove this marriage, or that O'Duraghy had large estates in Partry at the time in which he makes this Capt. Nicholas flourish? Here he undoubtedly engrafts the pedigree on a false stem, and then easily mounts up to Sir John D'Arcy, Chief Justice of Ireland, by the true generations of the Meath family. This was a poor shift to erect a respectability for a family who were already respectable enough by allowing them their true descent. The wish to be considered English also prevailed among the Kirwans of Galway, but the Editor never heard that they went so far as to fabricate a pedigree to that effect; he has been told, however, that the late Major Kirwan, of Dalgan, was constantly in the habit of stating that his own name was originally Whitecombe, of which Cíor bhán was but an Irish translation; the name Kirwan is, however, in Irish O'Ciardubhain, not Cíor bhán, but the family was never of any celebrity in Ireland until they made fortunes in Galway as merchants and shopkeepers. Not so, however, the O'Dorceys, they were chiefs of the territory of Partry in the year 1417, when Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis wrote his topographical poem.
    Should it be objected that the Christian names occurring in the line of pedigree given by Mac Firbis are English, such as Nicholas, Walter, James, &c., and that these names suggest a strong argument in favour of the fabricator of the pedigree published in Lodge's Peerage; to such objection may be replied, that English names are also found among other families of undoubted Irish origin, which names were derived from their intermarriages with English families; that this surname was O'Dorcey in Mac Firbis's time, not D'Arcy, and that the Christian-name Nicholl was in use among the O'Dorceys, of Partry, as early as the year 1306. — See Mageoghegan's Translation of the Annals of Clonmacnoise, at the year 1306. — See also the pedigree of O'Mochain above, in p. 42, from which it appears that the names Gregory, Simon and Nichol, were in use among that family even in the fourteenth century. 🢀

  164. This was the celebrated lawyer Patrick Darcy, of Galway: he was the second son of James Riabhach the elder, was born in Galway in the year 1598, died in Dublin in 1668, and was interred in the abbey of Kilconnell, in the county of Galway. For some notices of this remarkable man the reader is referred to Ware's Writers and Hardiman's History of Galway, p. 11, &c. 🢀

  165. The Hy-Eachach of the Moy — The situation of this tribe will be pointed out more distinctly in the Notes to the Topographical Poem of Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis🢀

  166. O'Maoilfaghmhair — This name still exists in the district, but is anglicised Milford, which is calculated to disguise the Irish origin of the family. 🢀

  167. Cill Ealaidh, now Killala, in Tirawley. 🢀

  168. Mac Celes, of Cill Ealaidh — This is probably the family now called Mac Hale. 🢀

  169. Clann Cele — These seven bishops of the Clann Cele are not given in Ware's list of the bishops of Killala, nor has the Editor been able to find any notices of them in the Irish Annals. The earliest notice of the see of Killala collected by the Four Masters is at the year 1235. At the year 1257 they record the death of Maelpatrick Mac Cele, archinneach or herenach of Killala, and this is the earliest notice of the name of Mac Cele to be found in their work. 🢀

  170. O'Criadhchen — This is probably the name now anglicised Crean, which is still numerous and respectable in the county of Mayo. 🢀

  171. O'Leanain, now Lennon. 🢀

  172. O'Flaitile, now anglicised Flatly and Flatilly; and in some parts of Ireland it has assumed the strange form of Flattery! 🢀

  173. Ros Serce, now called Rosserk, a townland containing the ruins of a small but very beautiful abbey, in the parish of Ballysokeery, and barony of Tirawley, about four miles due north of Ballina. The abbey is about five centuries old, and there is no portion of the original church of the Virgin Searc now to be seen. 🢀

  174. Duirtheach — This word, which very frequently occurs in the Irish lives of the primitive Irish saints, is generally applied to a small oratory, or a hermit's cell. — See Fleadh Duin na n-Gedh, p. 16, note (n) for a fuller explanation of it. 🢀

  175. Aidhne — This territory was co-extensive with the diocese of Kilmacduagh, forming the south-west portion of the county of Galway. It was bounded on the north by O'Flaherty's country, on the east by Moenmoy, on the south and south-west by the territory of Cineal Fearmaic, in Thomond, and on the west by Burren and the Bay of Galway. — See Map prefixed to the tract of Hy-Many. 🢀

  176. Dubh-ros, i. e. the black promontory, now Duros, or Dooross, near the little town of Kinvara, in the barony of Kiltartan, and county of Galway. The word Ros, when topographically applied, has two distinct meanings, namely; 1, a point of land extending into the sea, or a large lake; and, 2. a wood. Its diminutive form rosán or rasán is still used in the spoken Irish to denote a shrubbery or underwood. 🢀

  177. The country of Ealla — This is still the name of a well-known district and now a barony, in the county of Cork, and takes its name from the River Ealla, or Alloe, which flows through it. The name is always anglicised Duhallow from the Irish Dúthaidh Ealla, i .e. the district or country of Ealla. 🢀

  178. Eoghan Taidhleach, i. e. Eoghan the splendid. He was otherwise called Mogha Nuadhat, and was the father of Olioll Olum, and the ancestor of the most distinguished families of Munster. He was contemporary with Conn of the Hundred Battles, whom he compelled to divide Ireland with him into two equal parts. 🢀

  179. Race of Geanann, son of Deala — He was a Firbolgic King of Connaught, and ruled, according to Keating and the ancient MS. accounts of this colony, over the district extending from the Luimneach, or Lower Shannon, to the River Drobhaois, now the River Drowis, the boundary between Connaught and Ulster. There was another tribe of the name Tradraighe seated in the territory of Tradry, or Tradree, in the barony of Bunratty, and county of Clare. 🢀

  180. Race of Conn, i. e. of Conn of the Hundred Battles, monarch of Ireland. There was another tribe of the name Caenraighe seated along the Shannon, on the south side, who gave name to the barony of Caenraighe, now Kenry, in the county of Limerick. 🢀

  181. O'Duibhghiolla — This name is now obsolete in the territory of Aidhne, or lurks under some disguised form. 🢀

  182. St. Sarnait — This is evidently the female saint now corruptly called St. Sourney, to whom there are wells dedicated in the district of Aidhne, and whose church still stands in ruins on the great island of Aran, in the bay of Galway. There is no mention of this Sarnait in the Book of Lecan🢀

  183. Aodh, son of Cobhthach — If this be true, O'Shaughnessy does not descend from Guaire Aidhne, King of Connaught, which was the boast of the Irish poets of the three last centuries, for Guaire was the son of Colman, the brother of the Aodh, who is here stated to have been the ancestor of O'Shaughnessy. Notwithstanding this statement, our author himself, in giving the pedigree of Sir Diarmaid O'Shaughnessy, deduces his descent not from Aodh, but from his brother Colman, through Guaire, King of Connaught, but it is highly probable that O'Shaughnessy is of the race of Aodh, as he is always mentioned in the Irish Annals as chief of the Cineal Aodha. In the Book of Lecan, the genealogical MS. of the O'Clerys, and in all the copies of Keating, the pedigree of O'Shaughnessy is deduced from Guaire Aidhne. This error seems to have arisen from mistaking Aodh, son of Cobhthach, the real ancestor of the Cinel Aodha, for Aodh, the grandson of Guaire Aidhne. This subject will be further considered in the pedigree of O'Shaughnessy, at the end of this volume. 🢀

  184. Bec, son of Aodh, son of Cobhthach — This descent of O'Cathail, now Cahill, is correct. as it agrees with what is stated about the descent of the Cineal Aodha, of whom he was a branch. One of this family was chief of the Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne in the year 1147. — See Annals of the Four Masters at that year. 🢀

  185. Gailbhighe — His real name was Gealbhuidhe. He was slain in the battle of Ardee, in the year 1159, according to the Annals of the Four Masters🢀

  186. Colman, son of Cobthach — This line of pedigree contradicts what is already stated, namely, that O'Shaughnessy is of the Cineal Aodha, and descended from Aodh, son of Cobhthach, not from his brother Colman, the father of Guaire Aidhne, and the ancestor of the Cineal Guaire. It is, therefore, highly probable, if not absolutely certain, that the three generations here enclosed in brackets were thrown in by the modern genealogists to make it appear that O'Shaughnessy was the senior representative of Guaire Aidhne, King of Connaught, so celebrated by the Irish bards as the very personification of hospitality (for the name Guaire Aidhne and generosity are nearly synonimous terms with the Irish bards). It will, however, appear from the descent of the Cinel Aodha above given, p. 55, that O'Shaughnessy is not of the race of Guaire. — See this subject further discussed, in the Pedigree of O'Shaughnessy, in the Addenda at the end of this volume. 🢀

  187. Muinter Scannlain, now anglicised Scanlan. This family sunk at an early period, under the O'Shaughnessys and O'Heynes. 🢀

  188. Guaire, the son of Colman — This passage, treating of the descendants of Guaire Aidhne, and here enclosed in brackets, is taken from the Book of Lecan, fol. 80, p. b, col. 3.
    That O'Shaughnessy is not of the Cinel Guaire, or race of Guaire, is further corroborated by the Topographical Poem of O'Dugan, in which he mentions Mac Giolla Ceallaigh [Kilkelly] O'Heidhin [O'Heyne], and O'Clery, as of the race of Guaire, but O'Shaughnessy and O'Cathail he mentions as of the Cineal Aodha. The following are his words:  🢀

  189. O'Maghna — This is probably the name now anglicised Mooney, of which there are some respectable families in Westmeath. 🢀

  190. Mac Giolla Ceallaigh, now sometimes anglicised Kilkelly, and sometimes Killikelly, and the name is still very respectable in the county of Galway. 🢀

  191. O'Cathan, now Kane; but this family is to be distinguished from the O'Cathains or Kanes, of the county of Derry, who are of the race of Eoghan, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages. 🢀

  192. O' Mochan, now Mohan. 🢀

  193. O'h-Oirechtaigh, now Heraghty, and some have corrupted the name to Geraghty, which is the name of a family of different descent and more celebrity in Irish history. 🢀

  194. O'Marcachain — This name is still numerous in the county of Clare, where it is anglicised Markham, and sometimes translated Ryder, because the Irish word marcach signifies a horseman. 🢀

  195. Mag Fhiachra — This name is still to be found in Aidhne, anglicised M'Keighry, and by some metamorphosed to Keary, and even Carey. 🢀

  196. O'Caemhagan, unknown to the Editor. It would be anglicised Kevigan. 🢀

  197. O'Dubhagan, now Dugan and Duggan, but this family is to be distinguished from the O'Dubhagains of Hy-Many. 🢀

  198. Mag Flannagan, unknown to the Editor. 🢀

  199. Mac Conghaola, now probably Conneely. 🢀

  200. O'Hedhin, now O'Heyne and Hynes. It is curious that Mac Firbis dropped the i in the first syllable of Eidhin, for in their own country it is pronounced diphthongally like the German ei or the English eye; but this was to conform with his own system of orthography alluded to in the Preface to this volume. The pedigree of this family shall be fully discussed in the Addenda to this volume. The O'Clerys give the line as follows: — Muircheartach and Eoghan, two sons of Donnchadh, son of Aedh, son of John, son of Eoghan, son of Giolla na Naomh, son of Giolla Ceallaigh, son of Aedh, son of Conchobhar, son of Flann, son of Giolla na Naomh, son of Aidhin from whom the surname, son of Cugaela, son of Giolla Cheallaigh, son of Comaltan, son of Maolceararda, or Flann, son of Maolfabhaill, son of Cleireach, from whom are the O'Clerys, son of Ceadadhach, &c., as in Mac Firbis. 🢀

  201. Laighdiagan, now anglicised Lydican: it is the name of a townland containing the ruins of an old castle, situated in the parish of Ardrahan, about four miles south-east of the little town of Kinvara, in the barony of Kiltartan, and county of Galway. 🢀

  202. Eoghan Mantach, i. e. Owen the toothless. It appears by an order of the Council of Connaught, dated Dublin, 13th May, 1586, that Owen Mantach O'Hein, of Lydegane, in the barony of Kiltaraght [now Kiltartan], in the county of Galway, was the chief of his name. — See Pedigree of O'Heyne in the Addenda to this volume. 🢀

  203. Airchinneach, of Cill Mhic Duach, i. e. herenach of the lands belonging to O'Heyne's Monastery, at Kilmacduagh. 🢀

  204. Dun Eoghain, now Dunowen, the name of a townland containing the ruins of a fort in which stood a castle in the parish of Kilmacduagh and barony of Kiltartan. — See ordnance Survey of the County of Galway, sheet 122. 🢀

  205. Dun Guaire, i. e. Guaire's fort, or fortified residence, now Dungorey, a castle in good preservation, situated immediately to the east of the little seaport town of Kinvara, in the barony of Kiltartan. This castle was erected on the site of the palace of Guaire Aidhne, King of Connaught, the ancestor of the O'Heynes, who erected this and several other castles in its vicinity. It is stated in Lewis's Topographical Dictionary that “the castle of Doon belonged to Flann Killikelly, but that about the reign of Henry VIII. Rory More Darag O'Shaughnessy took it from him, totally demolished it, and erected one near its site, which he named Doongorey.” But this is a vague tradition not supported by any historical authority, as will be shown in the pedigree of O'Heyne at the end of this volume. 🢀

  206. Luacharnach, i. e. rushy land, now Lougharnagh, a townland in the district of Coill O'bh-Fiachrach, in the barony of Kiltartan. 🢀

  207. Mac Giolla Cheallaigh, now anglicised Kilkelly and Killikelly. The chief seat of this family was the castle of Cloghballymore, more, still standing in ruins in the parish of Kileenavarra, barony of Dunkellin, and county of Galway. 🢀

  208. Mac Giolla Cheallaigh — This line of Mac Giolla Cheallaigh's pedigree is inserted from the genealogical MS. in the handwriting of Peregrine O'Clery, now preserved in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy; it comes down seven generations later than the line given by Mac Firbis. In the same MS. is given another line of pedigree of this family, which cannot be considered correct, but it is added here that nothing relating to this family may be omitted. “Flann, son of Murchadh, son of Giolla Cheallaigh, from whom is Mac Giolla Cheallaigh, son of Aodh Cleireach, from whom are descended the Clann Clery of Breifny-O'Reilly, being of the tribe of Diarmaid Ruadh, — from whom is called O'Ruaidhin, — son of Aedh, son of Colman, son of Cobhthach, son of Gaibhnenn, son of Conall, son of Eoghan, son of Eochaidh Breac, son of Dathi, son of Fiachra, son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin.” 🢀

  209. Flann, son of Lonan — He was a celebrated poet of Connaught, and flourished towards the close of the ninth century. He is styled the Virgil of the Race of Scota by the Four Masters at the year 918. — See O'Reilly's Irish Writers, pp. 58, 59. 🢀

  210. [When the English invasion, &c — All this matter enclosed in brackets, down to the end of the pedigree of the O'Clerys, has been inserted from Peregrine O'Clery's genealogical MS now deposited in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy. Mac Firbis has omitted this family altogether, but, as it appears from the authentic Irish Annals that they had supplied many distinguished chiefs to the territory of Hy-Fiachrach Aidhne, the Editor, deeming it a pity that they should not have their place among the families of the race of Guaire Aidhne here treated of, has taken the liberty to lay before the reader the account which this family have written of themselves. And as a branch of them became poets and historians to the chiefs of Tirconnell, their genealogical compilation is as much entitled to respect and historical credence as that of Mac Firbis, or any other Irish compiler of their time. 🢀

  211. William the Conqueror — This is not William the Conquerer of England, but William Fitz Adelm De Burgo, who is generally styled the Conqueror by Irish writers, because he conquered the province of Connaught. This celebrated man, the ancestor of all the Burkes of Ireland, died in the year 1204, according to the Annals of Clonmacnoise and the Four Masters, in both which his character is described in such words as show that he was no greater favourite with the Irish, than with his own countryman, Giraldus Cambrensis, who in his Hibernia Expugnata (lib. ii. c. 16, Camden's Edition, p. 793), draws his character in very black colours. The Irish writers of the seventeenth century, however, attempted to break down the testimony of Giraldus, and of the older native writers, but with little success, as they have not been able to find any one good trait in his character on record. Connell Mageoghegan, who was probably related to the Burkes, has the following very curious note on the horrid account of his death in the Annals of Clonmacnoise: “These and many other reproachfull words my author layeth down in the old book, which I was loath to translate, because they were uttered by him for the disgrace of so worthy and noble a man as William Burk was, and left out other his reproachfull words, which he (as I conceive) rather declared of an evil will, which he did bear towards the said William, then any other just cause.”
    Duald Mac Firbis also attempts, in his pedigree of the Earl of Clanrickard, to defend the character of Fitz Adelm by stating that Giraldus was prejudiced against him; and it must be admitted on comparing the character which Giraldus gives of Fitz Adelm, with that of his (Giraldus's) own uncle Fitz-Stephen, that there was more or less of prejudice in the way; but still when it is considered that William Fitz Adelm De Burgo's character, as drawn by Giraldus, does not much differ from that given of him in the Annals of Clonmacnoise, it is clearly unfair to conclude that both are false, though it may be allowed that both are overdrawn, as Giraldus was undoubtedly prejudiced, and as the Irish ecclesiastic, who compiled the Annals of Clonmacnoise, could not be expected to give a perfectly impartial account of an invader and conqueror, who had plundered the church of Clonmacnoise and all the most sacred churches of Connaught. 🢀

  212. Iorrus Iarthair, i. e. the western Iorrus. This is evidently the barony of Erris, in the west of the present county of Mayo. There are other smaller districts called Iorrus verging on the ocean, in the west of the county of Galway, as Iorrus Aintheach, Iorrus Mor, and Iorrus Beag. 🢀

  213. Tir Amhalgaidh mhic Fiachrach, i. e. the country of Awley, the son of Fiachra (brother of the monarch Dathi); now contracted to Tirawley, a barony in the northeast of the county of Mayo. 🢀

  214. To Munster, where they dwelt in the vicinity of Kilkenny — This is in accordance with the ancient division of the provinces, not with that in the time of the writer, for then Kilkenny was in the province of Leinster. But, according to the ancient division of the provinces, — which the O'Clerys knew far better than the modern, — Urmhumhain, Ormond, or East Munster, extended from Gabhran, now Gowran, in the east of the present county of Kilkenny, westwards to Cnamh-choill, now corruptly Cleath-choill, near the town of Tipperary — (not Knawhill, as Haliday states in his translation of the first part of Keating's History of Ireland), — and from Bearnan Eile, now the Devil's Bit Mountain, on the frontiers of the baronies of Ikerrin and Eliogarty, in the county of Tipperary, southwards to Oilean Ui Bhric, or O'Brick's island, near Bunmahon, in the present county of Waterford. 🢀

  215. Breifne Ui Raghallaigh (anglicised Brennie, and Breffny O'Reilly), was the ancient territory of the O'Reillys, and comprised the entire of the county of Cavan, except the baronies of Tullyhunco (Tealach Dhunchadha) and Tullyhaw (Tealach Eachdhach), which were separated from Breffny O'Rourke, when the county of Cavan was formed. 🢀

  216. Cinel Conaill mhic Neill, i. e. the race of Conall, son of Niall. Here the name of the people is put for that of the territory, which is very usual with Irish writers; but when they wish to distinguish the country from the people they prefix Tir, as Tir Conaill instead of Cinel Conaill. This territory comprised originally the entire of the present county of Donegal, except the territories of Inishowen and Magh Itha, now the barony of Raphoe, which belonged to the Cinel Eoghain, or race of Eoghan, who was the brother of Conall; but in later ages these territories were ceded to O'Donnell, and were considered a part of his country of Tirconnell. 🢀

  217. The two laws, civil and canon — Connell Mageoghegan says, in a note in his translation of the Annals of Clonmacnoise, at the year 1317, that the old Irish “Fenechus or Brehon Lawe was none other but the Civil Law which the Brehons had to themselves in an obscure and unknown language, which none cou'd understand except those that studied in the open schools they had.” But this assertion, made in 1627 by a man who evidently was not acquainted with the Brehon Laws of Ireland, written “in an obscure and unnown tongue,” or with the civil law contained in the Pandects of Justinian, cannot be considered true, unless we are to suppose that by the word civil he meant merely the municipal common law of the Irish. Nothing is more certain than that the Brehon or Fenechus Laws of the Irish had been in use among them for ages before they became acquainted with the Civil Law or Pandects of Justinian; for it does not appear that the Irish had any acquaintance with this law until about the beginning of the thirteenth century, when it was established all over the west of Europe. About the year 1130, a copy of Justinian's Pandects being discovered at Amalfi, soon brought the civil law into vogue all over the west of Europe, where, before that period, it had been quite laid aside and almost forgotten, though some traces of its authority remained in Italy, and the eastern provinces of the empire. This now became in a particular manner the favourite law of the clergy, who borrowed the method of many of the maxims of the canon law from it. The study of it was introduced into several Universities abroad, particularly that of Bologna, where exercises were performed, lectures read, and degrees conferred as well in this faculty as in other branches of science: and many nations on the continent, just then recovering from the convulsions consequent upon the overthrow of the Roman empire, and settling by degrees into peaceable forms of government, adopted the civil law, being the best written code then extant, as the basis of their several constistitutions, blending and interweaving it among their own customs, in some places with an extensive, in others a confined authority. — See Domat's Treatise of Law, c. 18, sect. 9, and Epistle of Innocent IV. in M. Paris, at the year 1254.
    It appears to have been first introduced into England by Theobald, a Norman abbot, who was elected to the See of Canterbury in the year 1138: he was much attached to this new study, and brought over with him in his retinue many learned proficients in it, and among others Roger, surnamed Vacarius, whom he placed in the University of Oxford to teach it there. How soon after it found its way into Ireland cannot be easily determined. No mention is made of the civil law in the Irish Annals before the thirteenth century, and it is quite evident that breitheamhnas so often mentioned meant the Brehon and Canon Laws.
    At the year 1126 the Four Masters record the death of Maoiliosa Ua Coinne, the most learned of the Irish, in history, in judicature (breitheamhnus), and in the Urd Padraig; but it will appear from many entries in the Irish Annals that here were professors of the civil and canon laws in Ireland in the thirteenth century, and very many in the beginning of the fourteenth. The following entry, in the Annals of Clonmacnoise, as translated by Connell Mageoghegan, is curious as throwing some light upon this subject:
    “A.D. 1328 Morish O'Gibelan, master of art, one exceeding well learned in the new and old laws, civille and cannon, a cunning and skillfull philosopher, an excellent poet in Irish, an eloquent and exact speaker of the speech, which in Irish is called Ogham, and one that was well seen in many other good sciences. He was a cannon and singer at Twayme, Olfyn, Aghaconary, Killalye, Enaghdown, and Clonfert. He was official and common judge of these dioceses, ended his life this year.”
    This passage is given by the Four Masters thus:
    “A.D. 1328, Maurice O'Gibellain, chief professor of the new Law, the old Law, and the canon Law, a truly learned philosopher and a Cananach coradh of Tuam, Elphin, and Achonry, Killala, Annadown and Clonfert, the official and the general Brehon of the archbishoprick, died.”
    Now it is quite evident that by the old law is here meant the old Brehon law of Ireland, which had been modified by the ancient Irish ecclesiastics at various periods, and that by the new law is meant the Justinian Code, or civil law, then lately introduced. That the ancient Irish ecclesiastics had adopted the Brehon law as modified by the early saints of the Irish Church, is clear from the laws themselves, which contain several ecclesiastical and monastic rules and regulations; but how far the Justinian Code, or civil law, modified these in the thirteenth or fourteenth centuries is unknown. Various laws of the primitive Irish saints are referred to in the Irish Annals, but whether these were monastic rules or municipal rules or regulations for the people in general, is not yet ascertained. The following laws are mentioned in the Annals of Clonmacnoise as translated by Connell Mageoghegan: — the laws of St. Kieran, at the year 740; the laws of St. Patrick, at 761; the laws of St. Coman, 790; the laws of St. Brandon, 740; the laws of St. Ailbe, 790; the laws of O'Swayne of Rahyne, 740. 🢀

  218. Eas Ruaidh — This abbey which took its name from the celebrated cataract of Eas Ruaidh, or Eas Aodha Ruaidh, on the River Erne, was erected for monks of the order of St Bernard by Flaithbheartach O'Muldory, in the year 1184. Its ruins are still to be seen close to the shore, a short distance to the north-west of the town of Ballyshannon. 🢀

  219. Ollamh, pronounced Ollav, means a chief professor of any art or science. 🢀

  220. Ard Carna, now Ardcarne, in the barony of Boyle, and county of Roscommon, and about four miles due east of the town of Boyle, where there are the ruins of a church and village. Maolcaoimhghin O'Sgingin, who was herenach of the church of Ardcarne, died in the year 1224, according to the Annals of the Four Masters🢀

  221. Magh luirg an Daghda, i. e. the plain of Daghda's track, generally anglicised Moylurg. It was the name of the plains of Boyle, that is, of the level part of the present barony of Boyle, lying south of the River Boyle. 🢀

  222. Niall Garbh, son of Aodh, etc. — His death is recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters at the year 1348. His father Aodh died in 1333, and his grandfather, Domhnall Og, in 1264. 🢀

  223. As her dower — Tinnscra means a reward, portion, or dower. It was the custom among the ancient Irish, as among the Eastern nations, that the husband should make a present to his wife's father, or to herself upon his marriage. This custom is still in use among the Turks. The meaning of the word tinnscra is established beyond dispute by a passage in the Leabhar Breac, which states that Rabecca was the first who received the tinnscra from her husband. 🢀

  224. In the year of our Lord 1382 — The death of Giolla Brighde O'Sgingin, “intended Ollamh of Tirconnell,” is recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters at this year. This, however, contradicts the assertion that Niall Garbh, the son of Aodh, son of Domhnall Og O'Donnell, was the chief of Tirconnell when Cormac O'Clery first went to that country, for this Niall Garbh O'Donnell, as we have already seen, was slain in the year 1348, and if Giolla Bhrighde O'Sgingin was dead before Cormac O'Clery's marriage with his sister, Cormac O'Clery must have been in Tirconnell at least thirty-four years before his marriage. But the fact undoubtedly was, that Niall Garbh O'Donnell was not the chief of Tirconnell at the time, but his son Toirdhealbhach an Fhiona, and that the first of the O'Clerys settled in the territory about the year 1382, immediately after the death of Giolla Bhrighde O'Sgingin. 🢀

  225. Niall, the son of Toirdhealbhach an Fhiona. — This Niall died in the Isle of Mann in the year 1439, a hostage in the hands of the English. His death is thus recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters: — “A.D. 1439, O'Donnell (Niall Garbh) died in the Isle of Mann in captivity. He was the select hostage of Tirconnell and Tirone and all the north of Ireland, and the chief subject of conversation in Leath Chuinn during his time; — harasser and destroyer of the English (until they took revenge for all) and protector and defender of his tribe, against such English and Irish as were his adversaries, both before and after he became chief of his tribe.” 🢀

  226. Craoibheach, pronounced Creevagh, district in the parish of Kilbarron, barony of Tirhugh, in the south of the county of Donegal. 🢀

  227. As he was a proficient, etc. — This sentence is very confused in the original, but there can be no doubt that the meaning intended to be conveyed by the writer is the following: — “This Diarmaid of the three schools, being a great proficient in his hereditary science of history, received from O'Donnell a new grant of lands, called Craoibheach (on which he had his residence for some time), and which he enjoyed, together with the lands which he inherited from the O'Sgingins, to whom O'Donnell's ancestors had made grants of several townlands.” The sentence should be thus constructed in the original: —
    “O rop adhma an Diarmait si is in ealadhain ro padh toich do, .i. h-i seanchus, do rad O Domhnaill (Niall, mac Toirdhealbhaigh an Fhíona), do an fearonn dia n-garar an Chraoibheach, — i n-a m-baoi a áitreabh agus a ionatacht athaidh, — la taobh na bh-fearonn n-aile do rad-sat a shinsir-siomh d'Ua Sgingin feacht riamh.” 🢀

  228. Cill Barrainn (i. e. the church of St. Barrfhionn), now Kilbarron, a townland giving name to a parish in the barony of Tirhugh, in the county of Donegal. For a view of some fragments of these stone houses, situated on a precipitous cliff, see the Irish Penny Journal, January 16th, 1841, p. 225. 🢀

  229. Ceathramh na Cuchtrach, i. e. the kitchen quarter. This name is now obsolete in the parish of Kilbarron. 🢀

  230. Ceathramh an Tighe Cloiche, i. e. the quarter of the stone house; but the name is now obsolete. 🢀

  231. Cill Domhnaigh, now Kildoney, a glebe in the parish of Kilbarron, lying to the south of the River Erne, In an inquisition held at Lifford on the 12th of September, 1609, this townland is called Kildoned, and it is stated to be in the tenure of the sept of the O'Cleries. 🢀

  232. Cuil Remuir, was the ancient name of a quarter of land near the sea, in the same parish; but the name is now obsolete. 🢀

  233. Druim an Chroinn. There is a townland of this name in the parish of Templecarne, in the Barony of Tirhugh. 🢀

  234. Magh Ene — This is called Magh g-Cedne by Keating and O'Flaherty, Moy-Genne in the Ulster Inquisitions, and Magh Ene by Colgan, Trias Thaumathurgae p. 180, col. b, where he thus points out its situation: — “Magh Ene est campus Tirconnalliae ad australem ripam fluminis Ernei inter ipsum et Drobhaois fluvium protensum.” This plain extends from Belleek to Bundrowes, and from the mouth of the River Erne to Lough Melvin. 🢀

  235. Who was with O'Neill, that is, who was poet to O'Neill. He was slain by O'Donnell's people in the year 1583, under which year the Four Masters have preserved the following very curious notice. After giving an account of a fierce battle fought between O'Donnell and O'Neill near the river Finn, in which the latter was defeated, they proceed as follows to record the fate of their own distinguished relative: — “On this occasion numbers of O'Neill's people were slain and drowned, and among others O'Gormley (Cormac, son of Hugh) and Maelmuire, son of Diarmaid, son of Mathghamhain, who was son of Tuathal O'Clery the only hostage of O'Neill and the Cinel Eoghain; for his father and O'Neill himself had been born of the same mother, and Maelmuire, on account of his relationship to O'Neill, had been in possession of all O'Neill's wealth, and O'Neill would have given three times the usual price for his ransom, if ransomed he could be, but he was first mortally wounded and afterwards drowned by O'Donnell's people who were in high spirits and rejoiced greatly at seeing him thus cut off.” 🢀

  236. Maurice Ballach, i. e. Maurice the freckled. He was a learned historian and poet, and was hanged in the year 1572, together with others of the Irish literati, by the Earl of Thomond, who wished to exterminate that class in Ireland. The Four Masters have the following remark on this cruel act: — “This abominable deed gave birth to the composition of several satirical and denunciatory poems against the Earl.” 🢀

  237. Lughaidh, son of Maccon — He was the head of the Tirconnell branch of the O'Clerys, and the most distinguished of the Irish literati of the north of Ireland in his time. He was the principal poetical combatant on the part of the northern bards in the contest with those of the south of Ireland, which took place about the beginning of the seventeenth century, respecting the claims of the rival dynasties of the northern and southern divisions of Ireland to supremacy and renown. The poems written on the occasion, styled the Iomarbadh, or Contention of the Bards, are preserved in several Irish MSS., the most ancient of which is the O'Gara MS., now preserved in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy. Besides these poems Lughaidh wrote Annals of his own time, which the Four Masters state were used by them in their Annals. He held all his lands till the year 1609, and was selected as one of the “good and lawful men” of the county of Donegal, appointed to inquire into the king's title to the several escheated and forfeited lands in Ulster. An inquisition was held by these commissioners at Lifford on the 12th of September, 1609, in which it is stated that “the parish of Kilbarron contains five quarters in all, whereof one quarter is Herenach land possessed by the sept of the Cleries as Herenaches, paying thereout yearlie to the lord busshopp of Raphoe thirteen shillings, four-pence Irish per annum, six meathers of butter, and thirty-four meathers of meale; and that there is one quarter named Kildoned” [now Kildoney Glebe], “in the tenure of the said sept of the Cleries, free from any tithes to the busshop.” And again, “that there are in the said parishe three quarters of Collumbkille's land, every quarter conteyning sixe balliboes, in the tenure of Lewe O'Cleerie, to whom said lands were sithence mortgaged for fortie pounds by the late Earle of Tirconnell, and that the said Lewe hath paid thereout yearly unto his Majestie, sithence the late Earle's departure, four poundes, two muttons, and a pair of gloves, but nothing to the said busshopp.” For some account of the lineal descendants of this Lughaidh see the Pedigree of O'Clery in the Addenda to this volume. 🢀

  238. Conaire — He was one of the compilers of the Annals of the Four Masters, and the transcriber of the greater portion of the copy of the second part of that work, preserved in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy. 🢀

  239. Maolmuire, i. e. Bernardin — He was guardian of the convent of Donegal in the year 1632, when the Four Masters commenced the compilation of their Annals, and again in 1636, when the same work was completed, as appears from the testimonium prefixed to the second volume of the work, now in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy. 🢀

  240. Tadhg of the mountain, i. e. Michael — He was the chief of the Four Masters, and the author of an Irish Glossary, published at Louvain in 1643, which has been of great use to Lhwyd and all subsequent Irish lexicographers. He spent ten years travelling through Ireland to collect manuscripts for the use of Colgan in compiling his Acta Sanctorum; in the Preface to which work Colgan gives a high character of him. 🢀

  241. The Muintir Cleirigh of Tir-Amhalgadha, i. e. the O'Clerys of Tirawley, in the county of Mayo. The reader is referred to a note on the pedigree of O'Dowd, where he will find the affidavit of John O'Cleri, a member of this branch of the family, made in 1452, concerning the descent and former possessions in Tireragh, of Hugh O'Dowde, of Stalinge in Meath. 🢀

  242. Cill Cainnigh, i. e. Cella Sancti Cannici, now Kilkenny. Several of the name Cleary are now to be found throughout Leinster, but the name has been in many instances anglicised to Clarke. The Editor never met any member of the [] Clearys of Leinster, who knew any thing of their pedigree or origin, nor does he believe that the pedigree of any branch has been preserved, except that of the literary Tirconnell family. 🢀

  243. Historical poem — This poem is not quoted in the Book of Lecan🢀

  244. Page 298 — This reference, and that to page 247, at the end of the next paragraph, are to the pages of our author's MS. written in 1645. 🢀

  245. Battle of Damh-chluain — This battle is not recorded in the Annals of Clonmacnoise, the Four Masters, nor in any other authority that the Editor could find, except the Book of Ballymote, fol. 145, b, a. Damh-chluain signifies the insulated pasturage or meadow of the oxen. There are many places of the name in Ireland, now anglicised Doughlone; but the Damh-chluain here referred to, is stated to be situated in the territory of Hy-Briuin Eola (now the barony of Clare, in the county of Galway), on the frontiers of Conmaicne Cuile, now the barony of Kilmaine, in the county of Mayo. 🢀

  246. Tulach Domhnann. This place is called Tulcha Domhnaill in the Book of Ballymote, but it is difficult now to determine which is the more correct name, or where the place is situated. See further remarks on this battle in the Addenda to this volume. 🢀

  247. Mullach Ruadha, now Mullaroe, or Red hill, in the parish of Skreen, barony of Tirerach, and county of Sligo. 🢀

  248. Hill of the weathers — The Rev. Patrick Mac Loughlin, in his abstract of the Book of Lecan, translates this passage thus: “'Tis said that Ruad, daughter of Artach Uchtleathan, was wife to Dathi, and mother of Fiachra Ealgach and Oilill Molt. 'Tis said that Ruad being buried in the hill called after her Mullach Rutae, a carn cloch was raised over her, and that she died by the breath, or sentence” [recte birth] “of her Fiachra. Before, it was called Tealach na molt, because it was a place near which her sheep were usually shorn” [recte slaughtered]. But that this is a garbling of the original text will at once be seen by the intelligent Irish scholar. The reader is referred to O'Flaherty's Ogygia, part III. c. 87, and also to Keating's History of Ireland (reign of Oilioll Molt), in which the story is told in such plain Irish that the drift of it cannot be mistaken. Keating's words are thus translated by Dr. John Lynch: “Molti agnomine ideo affectus, quod matrem ejus Orachi filiam ilium utero gestantem ovillae carnis manducandae cupido incesserit; adstiterat nimirum ovillam expetenti Fiala Eochi Siadi filia, tenuis fortuna foemina, quae infantulo statim ac e materno alvo emersit Molti agnomen, quod ovem significat, indidit, utpote qui materni uteri claustris adhuc inclusus, ovinae carnis comedendae desideria flagrasse videbatur.” See also p. 22, note f i. e. note 90 in the CELT edition. 🢀

  249. While Fergus — The passage here enclosed in brackets is supplied from the Book of Lecan. The story of Tain Bo Flidhisi is still preserved in a vellum MS. H 2 16 in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. The Fergus here mentioned was the celebrated Fergus Mac Roigh, King of Ulster in the first century, who was dethroned by his successor Conchobhar Mac Nessa. 🢀

  250. Domhnall Dual-bhuidhe, i. e. Donnell of the yellow locks — There are many wild legends still told of this Domhnall in Erris, one of which was published by Mr. Patrick Knight in his account of the Irish Highlands. The fort and grave of Domhnall Dual-bhuidhe are to this day pointed out at Dundonnell in the valley of Glen Castle, in Erris. He was one of the chiefs of the fierce and warlike Gamanradii of Erris, who were a tribe of the Firbolgs much celebrated in Irish historical stories. 🢀

  251. Tir-Fiachrach, now Tireragh, a barony in the north-west of the county of Sligo, on the east side of the Moy. This formed but a small portion of the country of the Hy-Fiachrach, which extended from the river Robe to the river of Drumcliff, below the town of Sligo. The name Hy-Fiachrach, i. e. Nepotes Fiachri, was derived from a different Fiachra, namely, from Fiachra, the father of King Dathi, and the grandfather of the Fiachra from whom the country or barony of Tireragh took its appellation. 🢀

  252. Obtaining knowledge — In the Book of Lecan fol. 80, b, the reading is “ag fádbhail feasa ocus eoluis”, i. e. obtaining knowledge and information. It is to be regretted that the mode of obtaining their information is not mentioned. Perhaps the Druids obtained whatever knowledge they possessed of future events by observing the aspects of the planets and the indications of the heavens from the summit of this conspicuous hill? No other meaning can be reconciled to the situation of the place. The Rev. P. Mac Loughlin translates it: “It was called also Cnoc na n-Druadh, where Dathi kept his Druithi;” but this is not the correct translation of the original. 🢀

  253. Dr. Keating — Dr Jeffrey Keating had finished his History of Ireland in the year 1629, as appears from memoranda in several of the copies, that is, sixteen years before Duald Mac Firbis commenced the compilation of his larger work in Galway. The authority here referred to by our author is evidently the Book of Lecan, but that from which Keating drew his account of Dathi is unknown to the Editor. 🢀

  254. Inis Amhalgaidh, in Loch Con, now, according to the oldest of the natives of the district, corrupted to Inishlee, the present name of a small island in Lough Conn. — See notes farther on, and Book of Lecan, fol. 247, a, a, where it is stated that the island was a holy habitation, that is, had a church or chapel upon it. 🢀

  255. Dun Maoilduibh, at Iasgach — This was the name of an earthen fort near the river Easkey, in the barony of Tireragh, and county of Sligo, about eleven miles and a half north north-east of Ballina. 🢀

  256. Magh Bron — This was the name of a small district in the present barony of Tirawley. — See notes to the Topographical Poem of Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis🢀

  257. Ath fen, i. e. the ford of the chariot, now unknown in Tirawley. 🢀

  258. Carn Amhalgaidh — For the situation of this carn see note on the inauguration of O'Dowd, further on. 🢀

  259. Lecan, now generally anglicised Lackan, on modern maps, though the name is better known to antiquaries by the form Lecan, in consequence of the book compiled by the Mac Firbis at the place having been so called by Irish writers. Lackan is a townland in the parish of Kilglass, barony of Tireragh, and county of Sligo, where are the ruins of a castle built by the family of Mac Firbis, who were hereditary historians to the O'Dowds. 🢀

  260. Dubhaltach Og, i. e. myself — This pedigree is marked as defective in the smaller compilation made in 1666, though given consecutively, and as if perfect, in the larger work, compiled at Galway; and certain it is, that twenty-nine generations are not enough to answer the period of time from Dubhaltach, who commenced this compilation in 1650, up to Dathi, who became monarch of Ireland in 405. One fact, however, must be acknowledged, that it appears from all the authentic Irish pedigrees that more than thirty years, the average standard laid down by Newton, must be allowed to each generation. 🢀

  261. Cuchonn — The original is here effaced, but there is very little wanting. 🢀

  262. It is said, etc. — This passage enclosed in brackets is taken from our author's smaller work compiled in 1666. 🢀

  263. O'Maoilduin now Muldoon, but the name, though common in other parts of Ireland, does not exist in this district. 🢀

  264. Mac Gilla na n-each, now obsolete. Giolla na n-each means juvenis equorum🢀

  265. Mac Giolla duibh, now Gilduff, and corruptly Kilduff. It is strange that modern usage has almost invariably changed the Gilla of the original Irish into Kill in the anglicised form, as Kilroy for Gilroy, Kilkenny for Gilkenny or Giolla Cainnigh. 🢀

  266. O'Duibhscuile, now obsolete. 🢀

  267. O'h-Almhec, now obsolete. It was anglicised Helwick. 🢀

  268. O'Muirgheasa, now Morissy, without the prefix O'. 🢀

  269. O'Maonaigh, now Meeny. This name is still found in Tireragh, In other parts of Ireland it is anglicised Mainy, and sometimes Mooney. 🢀

  270. Mac Giolla Riabhach, now Mac Gilrea, and in the north of Ireland barbarously rendered Mac Ilrea, in imitation of the Scotch, who write Mac IIwane for Mac Giolla bhain, Mac Ilduff for Mac Giolla duibh, &c. 🢀

  271. O'h-Aodha — This name is still in Tireragh, and always anglicised Hughes. The same name, but borne by a family of a different race, is rendered O'Hea and Hayes in Munster. 🢀

  272. O'Donnchadha — This name is now obsolete in Lower Connaught. In Munster it is anglicised O'Donoghoe, in Ulster Donaghy, but the families whose names are so anglicised are of a different race from that in question. 🢀

  273. The following agreement — Similar privileges were ceded by the O'Conors of Connaught to the O'Finaghtys of Dunamon, chiefs of Clann Conway, in acknowledgment of the seniority of the latter. These privileges are described by our author in the Pedigree of O'Finaghty, and his words are here translated for the satisfaction of the reader:
    “Connmhach” [the ancestor of O'Finaghty] “was the eldest son of Muireadhach” [the ancestor of the royal family of Connaught], “and in consequence of this seniority, the descendants of Connmhach [though inferior in power] are entitled to great privileges from the descendants of the other sons of Muireadhach, viz., to drink the first cup at every royal feast and banquet; and all the descendants of the other sons must rise up before the representative of Connmhach. O'Finaghty was the royal chieftain of Clann Connmhaigh, and had, before the English invasion, forty-eight ballys” [i. e. large ancient Irish townlands] “lying on both sides of the River Suck; but the Burkes drove him from his patrimonial inheritance, and there lives not at the time of writing this book” [1645] “any of the family of O'Finaghty more distinguished than the good and pious priest James O'Finaghty, whose brothers are William and Redmond.” 🢀

  274. Caomhan's representative, i. e. the chief of the O'Caomhain family. This name is still numerous in Lower Connaught, but has been most generally, though corruptly, anglicised Cavanagh, to assimilate it with that of the more celebrated family of Leinster. In some parts of Lower Connaught, however, it is correctly anglicised Keewan and Keevan. This family sunk into comparative insignificance in the fourteenth century, and though they seem to have held their little principality till the beginning of the fifteenth century, the Irish annalists have preserved but few notices of them. Under the year 1294 the Four Masters enter the death of Diarmaid O'Caomhain, and under 1306 that of David O'Caomhain, who was lord of the territory extending from Tuaim da Bhodhar to the River Gleoir. But shortly after this period they disappear from history, and they are all at present reduced to obscurity and indigence. 🢀

  275. Tuaim da Bhodhar, i. e. the tumulus of the two deaf persons. This place is still well known, and the name is anglicised Toomore. It is the name of a townland and parish in the north of the barony of Gallen and county of Mayo, containing the little town of Beal Easa, now called in English Foxford. 🢀

  276. Gleoir. — According to a local antiquary, who was a very good Irish scholar and a living library of Irish traditions, the late Shane Bane Tympany (Mac an Tiompánaigh), this was the ancient name of a small river, now commonly called the river of Coillin, or Liathmhuine, anglicé Leaffony, which rises to the south of the townland of Townalaghta in the parish of Kilglass, barony of Tireragh and county of Sligo, and flowing nearly in a northern direction, empties itself into the bay of Killala at Poll an Chaonaigh, anglicé Pollacheeny, in the townland of Cabrakeel. 🢀

  277. David, son of Aodh — This David being the twenty-seventh in descent from Dathi, the last pagan monarch of Ireland, seems to have flourished about the year 1447, for the celebrated Maolruanaidh O'Dowd, chief of his name, who was the same number of generations removed from King Dathi, died in that year. It is evident that the O'Caomhains, or Kavanaghs of Lower Connaught, sunk into insignificance about this period, as Mac Firbis carries down their pedigree no later. The last of this family mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters is David O'Caomhain, who is styled lord of that tract of country extending from Tuaim da Bhodhar to the River Gleoir, and who was slain in the year 1306. He was evidently the David given in the above line of pedigree as the twelfth in descent from Caomhan. 🢀

  278. O' Dubhda — This name is variously anglicised, but the form O'Dowd seems to be that most generally adopted, though the present head of the name, Tadhg or Thaddaeus O'Dubhda of Muine Chonallain, now corruptly Bunnyconnellan, always writes it O'Dowda, following the authority of the more ancient of his family deeds, in which the name is generally so written. In the old English Inquisitions, and other documents relating to Lower Connaught, it is generally written O'Dowde, though the native Irish pronunciation is O'Dooda (the d's pronounced thick as in the Spanish and Italian languages). Connell Mageoghegan in his translation of the Annals of Clonmacnoise, made in 1627, always renders this name O'Dowdie, which is not very far from the Irish pronunciation. In the south of Ireland, where there are many of this name, and probably of this race, it is anglicised among the peasantry Doody, and in the county of Derry, where there are several of the name, but of a different race, it is anglicised Duddy or Duddie, a form not to be approved of. 🢀

  279. Who assumed the chieftainship himself — No account of these slaughters, mutually committed by these families on each other, is to be found in the Annals of the Four Masters, nor does Duald Mac Firbis himself give any date for them in his Annals of the O'Dowd family. If we calculate by generations we must come to the conclusion that these occurrences took place before the English invasion, for Niall, son of Aodh, son of Niall O'Dowd, who slew David and Domhnall O'Caomhain, was the seventeenth in descent from King Dathi, and Taithleach O'Dowd, lord of Tireragh and Tirawley, who was slain in the year 1192, was the nineteenth generation from the same monarch, so that Niall would appear to have lived about sixty years earlier. 🢀

  280. Maolruanaidh, son of Aodh — The death of this Maolruanaidh is entered in the Annals of the Four Masters at the year 1005, where he is called lord of Hy-Fiachrach Muirisce. His father, Aodh, who is called by Mac Firbis, in his Annals of the O'Dowd family, King of North Connaught, died in the year 983. 🢀

  281. This is the Domhnall — The date of this occurrence is not given in the Annals of the Four Masters; but, as Domhnall's father died in 1005, we may suppose it to have taken place a few years later. 🢀

  282. Magh Eleog is the ancient name of the level part of the parish of Crossmolina, in the barony of Tirawley, through which the River Deel flows. 🢀

  283. Maoileachlainn — This Maoileachlainn, Melaghlin, or Malachy, from whom almost all the subsequent chiefs of the O'Dowd family descended, died in 1005, the same year in which his father also died. 🢀

  284. Domhnall Fionn — The death of Domhnall Fionn O'Dowd, lord of Hy-Amhalgadha, now Tirawley, is entered in the Annals of the Four Masters at the year 1126, but whether he was this Domhnall Fionn or not, cannot be clearly determined, as the name of his father is omitted by the annalists, a thing very unusual with them. It is, however, highly probable that they were the same. 🢀

  285. Taithleach, King of Hy-Amhalgaidh and Hy-Fiachrach, i. e. of Tirawley and Tireragh. He was slain in the year 1128, in a battle fought at Ardee, between the cavalries of O'Conor, King of Connaught, and Mac Loughlin, Prince of Aileach. 🢀

  286. Cosnamhach Mor — The murder of this great warrior is mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters at the year 1162, but the trifling cause is not added. The fighter of an hundred men is a usual expression in Irish stories to denote a man of extraordinary puissance and valour. 🢀

  287. Inis Cua, now Inishcoe, a townland extending into Lough Con, in the southeast of the parish of Crossmolina, in the barony of Tirawley. 🢀

  288. Donnchadh Mor, son of Aodh &c. — He was a very famous chieftain of the O'Dowds, and flourished about the years 1207, 1213. In 1213, according to our author, in his brief Annals of the O'Dowd family, he sailed with a fleet of fifty-six ships from the Hebrides into Cuan Modh, now Clew Bay, landed on the Island of Inis Raithin there, and compelled Cathal Croibhdhearg, or Charles the Redhanded O'Conor, King of Connaught, to give him his own principality free of tribute. 🢀

  289. Brian — This Brian was chief of the territories Tireragh, Tirawley, and Erris, and was killed in the year 1242, while on his pilgrimage to the abbey of Boyle. 🢀

  290. Maolruanaidh — He was slain by the O'Conors in the year 1238, according to the Annals of the Four Masters🢀

  291. Muircheartach — He seems to have succeeded his brother Brian in the chieftainship, for in the year 1246 he is called the O'Dowd in the Annals of the Four Masters. He was slain in the year 1248 by the son of Felim O'Conor, under which year he is called by the Four Masters lord of that tract of country extending from Cill Dairbhile [now St Dervila's church, in the west of Erris] to the strand of Traigh Eothaile. 🢀

  292. Taithleach — This was the celebrated Taithleach O'Dowd, surnamed Muaidhe, i. e. of the Moy, who was slain by Adam Cusack, on the strand of Traigh Eothuile, in the year 1282. 🢀

  293. Brian O'Dubhda. — He was the celebrated chief of the O'Dowda, generally called Sean Bhrian, i. e. Old Brian, in the pedigrees. He was chief of the O'Dowds in the year 1316, when he fought at the famous battle of Athenry, and died in the year 1354. Our author says, in his short Annals of the O'Dowd family, that this Brian was chief of his name for eighty-four years, but this cannot be considered true, as his father was living in the year 1282, and Conchobhar Conallach O'Dowd, who died in 1291, was lord of Tireragh, according to the annalists. 🢀

  294. Donnchadh Mor O'Dubhda — He was the ancestor of a powerful sept of the O'Dowds seated in the territory of Cuil Cearnadha (Coolcarney), and called the Clann Donnchadha O'Dowd. He died in the year 1337, under which year he is styled by the Four Masters Tanist of Tireragh. For some curious account of the territory of this sept, inserted in a more modern hand on fol. 85, p. b, of the Book of Lecan, see the Addenda to this volume. In this account Donnchadh Mor, the ancestor of the Clann Donnchadha O'Dowd, is said to have been the elder brother of Taithleach Muaidhe, “who deprived him of his birthright, but this genealogy being in opposition to the original text of the Book of Lecan, and to the pedigree compiled by our author, cannot be considered authentic; but the whole notice is well worth preserving for the topography and historical facts which it preserves.” 🢀

  295. Mac Maghnus, of Tir Tuathail — This Mac Manus was a branch of the Maguires of Fermanagh, and resided at Seanad Mic Maghnusa, now called Ballymacmanus and Bellisle, an island in the upper Lough Erne, to the south of Enniskillen. 🢀

  296. Maoileachlainn Carrach, i. e. Melaghlin, or Malachy the Scabbed, was slain in the famous battle of Athenry, in the year 1316. 🢀

  297. Donnchadh Og, i. e. Donogh, or Denis Junior. He was head of the Clann Donnchadha, or Clandonogh O'Dowd, and died in the year 1384. 🢀

  298. Conchobhar, i. e. Conor, or Cornelius. He was slain in the year 1363 by his own people. 🢀

  299. William, Bishop of Killala — He died in the year 1350, and the notice of his death is entered in the Annals of the Four Masters: — “A.D. 1350. William O'Dowd, Bishop of Killala, founder of many churches and sanctuaries, a pious, charitable, and humane prelate, died.” 🢀

  300. Cosnamhaigh, more correctly Cosnamhach. He was slain in the year 1367, in a battle fought on the famous strand of Traigh Eothuile, between two chieftains of the house of O'Conor. Traigh Eothuile, which is a very famous locality in Irish history, is a large and beautiful strand at the mouth of the Bellasadare river, in the barony of Tireragh, and county of Sligo. It is about one mile square, extending from the strand road to Beltraw. 🢀

  301. Muircheartach Cleireach — He became chief of the sept called Clann Donnchadha, or Clandonogh O'Dowd, on the death of his father in 1384, and died in 1402. His death is thus noticed in the Annals of the Four Masters: — “A.D. 1402. Muircheartach, son of Donnchadh O'Dowd, a noble and hospitable man, died and was interred at Ard na Riagh [Ardnarea abbey].” 🢀

  302. Taithleach — He died in the year 1404, according to the Annals of the Four Masters🢀

  303. Conchobhar — He was chief of the Clandonogh O'Dowd, and was slain in the year 1438, under which the Four Masters have the following notice of him: — “A.D. 1438. Conchobhar, the son of Muircheartach O'Dowd, lord of the Clann Donnchadha [Clandonogh] O'Dowd, was treacherously slain by his own kinsmen, namely, Taichleach, the son of Cormac, who was the son of Donnchadh O'Dowd, Ruaidhri, the son of Taichleach, and Lochlainn, the grandson of Lochlainn O'Dowd, assisted by Henry Barrett, and three of his sons.” 🢀

  304. Donnchadh — He was living in 1439, at which year the Four Masters have the following notice of his doings: — “A.D. 1439. Domhnall, son of Ruaidhri, who was son of Taichleach O'Dowd, was deprived of his eyes, and afterwards hanged by Donnchadh, son of Muircheartach O'Dowd; and Cathal, son of Cormac O'Dowd, and his son, were killed by Tadhg Ruadh, the son of Muircheartach O'Dowd, at the instigation of the same Donnchadh.”
    The names of some of these worthies are not to be found in the pedigrees; so that copious as these pedigrees appear to be, they are, nevertheless, clearly imperfect. 🢀

  305. Brian, the son of Taithleach — This is the celebrated Sen Bhrian, who died in 1354, after having been more than fifty years chief of his name. After completing the genealogy of the Clann Donnchadha, our author here returns to that of the chiefs. 🢀

  306. Domhnall Cleireach — He succeeded his father in the chieftainship in 1354, and died in 1380. 🢀

  307. Maolruanaidh — He and his wife, the daughter of Mac Donogh, of Tirerrill, died in the year 1362. 🢀

  308. Maghnus Cleireach died in the year 1359. 🢀

  309. Brian Og — He was slain by the Barretts in the year 1373. No notice of the other sons of Sen Bhrian is preserved in the Irish Annals. 🢀

  310. Bun Finne, i. e. mouth of the River Finn, now pronounced Bun Fhinne, and anglicised Buninna. It is the name of a townland in the parish of Drumard, barony of Tireragh, and county of Sligo. On an old map showing part of the coast of Donegal, Leitrim, and Sligo, preserved in the State Paper Office, London, a castle under the name of "Ca. Bonin," is noted immediately to the north of Tonerigowe [Ton-rego], and near the brink of Ballysadare Bay, in the parallel of Knocknaree. In the Down Survey this townland is called Carrowcaslane [i. e. Cattle quarter], alias Bonanné; and in the deed of partition of O'Conor Sligo's estate, dated 21st July, 1687, it is called Bonin. 🢀

  311. Ceathramha Lochain, i. e. the quarter of the small lake, now Carrowloughaun, situated on the coast in the north of the parish of Screen. 🢀

  312. Ruaidhri, i. e. Rory, Roderic, or Roger. He succeeded his father in the year 1380, and died 1417, at which year the Annals of the Four Masters contain the following notice of his death: — “A . D. 1417. O'Dowd (Ruaidhri, son of Domhnall, son of Brian, son of Taichleach), fountain of the prosperity and wealth of Tireragh, died in his own house after the festival of St Bridget, and his brother, Tadhg Riabhach, assumed his place.” 🢀

  313. Tadhg Riabhach, i. e. Teige, Thadaeus, or Timothy the Swarthy. He succeeded his brother, Ruaidhri, in the year 1417, and died in 1432, as we learn from the following notice of him in the Annals of the Four Masters: — “A.D. 1432. Tadhg, the son of Domhnall, who was the son of Brian O'Dowd, lord of Tireragh, a man who had restored the hereditary properties in his territory to the lawful proprietors, both lay and ecclesiastical, and a respecter of learned men and poets, died on the 16th of January.” It is stated in the margin of the autograph original of the Annals of the Four Masters, preserved in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy, that the Book of Lecan was compiled in the time of this chieftain. 🢀

  314. Diarmaid — He died in the year 1439, under which year he is styled in the Annals of the Four Masters “heir apparent to the chieftainship of Tireragh.” 🢀

  315. Eoghan — He was slain by O'Donnell's cavalry in the year 1420. The other sons of Domhnall Cleireach are not noticed in the Annals. 🢀

  316. Donnchadh Ulltach, i. e. Donogh, or Denis the Ultonian. He died of the plague which raged in Ireland in the year 1439. 🢀

  317. Tadhg Buidhe — He was chief of the O'Dowds for three years, and was slain by his own cousins, the sons of his uncle, Ruaidhri, in 1443. In our author's smaller work, compiled in 1666, he deduces the descent of Captain Dominic Barrett from this Tadhg Buidhe O'Dowd, as follows: — “Captain Dominic Barrett, son of John Roe Barrett, by Elis, daughter of Tadhg Riabhach, son of Tadhg Buidhe (half brother by the mother of Randal Mor Mac Donnell, who was slain in the battle of Sruthair), son of Cosnamhach, of Ardnarea, son of Maghnus, son of Tadhg Buidhe, &c.” And he adds, “I have heard that Tadhg Riabhach, the grandfather of Captain Dominic, obtained possession, and received the rents of Longphort Ui Dhubhda, in Tireragh; but he was afterwards hanged by Domhnall O'Conor, at Bel an Chlair, in Leyny, O'Hara Reagh's country.” 🢀

  318. Ard na Riagh, now Ardnarea, on the east side of the River Moy, and forming a suburb to the town of Ballina. 🢀

  319. Eisgir Abhann, i. e. the esker, or low ridge at or near the river. This place is mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters at the year 1512, when the castle was besieged and taken by O'Donnell from Ulick, the son of the Lower Mac William Burke, who had taken it from the lawful proprietor. On an old map preserved in the State Paper Office, London, this castle is shown on the east side of Killala bay, under the name of Uskarowen, which is a tolerable attempt at representing the Irish sound in English letters, but Eskerowen would be more correct. That this is the place now called Iniscrone will be proved in the notes to the poem of Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis, who calls it by the strange name of Sais Sgrebainn. 🢀

  320. Baile Ui Mochaine, i. e. O'Moghany's town. It is still so called by those who speak Irish, and correctly anglicised Ballymoghany. It is a townland in the parish of Castleconor, east of the River Moy, in the barony of Tireragh. 🢀

  321. Baile an Chaislen, i. e. the town of the castle. It is still so called in Irish, and properly translated Castletown, which is the name adopted on all modern maps. It is situated in the parish of Easkey, on the west aide of the River Easkey, near its mouth — See Ordnance Map of the County of Sligo, sheet 11. 🢀

  322. Longphort Ui Dhubhda, now Longford, in the parish of Dromard, which lies on the west side of Ballysadare Bay. In the reign of William III. the castle of Longford successfully resisted two attacks of a detachment of troops under Major Vaughan. In the demesne of Longford, now the property of the Crofton family, are the ruins of an old chapel said to have been built by the O'Dowds. 🢀

  323. Leabha an Eich Bhuidhe, i. e. the bed of the yellow steed, would be anglicised Labbanehwee, and was undoubtedly the name of some building attached to the bawn of the castle of Longford, but the Editor does not know whether this name is still preserved. 🢀

  324. Albanach Mor — He was evidently Randal Mor Mac Donnell, mentioned in note t i. e. 317 and who was slain, in the year 1570, in the battle of Sruthair, now the village of Shruile, in the county of Mayo. 🢀

  325. Droichead Atha, i. e. the bridge of the ford, now Drogheda. The truth of this account of the flight of Aodh or Hugh, the son of Tadhg Buidhe, is proved by two affidavits, which he himself caused to be enrolled in Dublin in the year 1458, that is, about three years after the killing of his father by the sept of Ruaidhri. These affidavits are in Latin, and preserved on a Plea Roll, No. 406, preserved in the Bermingham Tower, Dublin, aº. 36. Hen. VI. 1458, and the following translated extracts from them will not be out of place here, as confirming our author's account of the flight of this individual:
    “A . D. 1458 — Hugh O'Dowde, of Staling, gentleman, required the following depositions, taken before Nicholas Younge, Notary, in the Taverner's Street, Dublin, to be enrolled.”
    In Dei nomine, Amen. Remond Burke, of Iniscoe, in Connaught, gentleman, being required by Hugh O'Dowda, son of Teige, to declare the truth, and examined on oath says, — that he knows the said Hugh; that the sept of Roger, son of Donell O'Dowda, three years since slew the brothers of the said Hugh, and expelled himself by force from his towns and lands in Tireragh, in Connaught, left to the said Hugh and his brothers by their father Teige; that there were fifty-eight quarters of land; that when the deponent came to Dublin he inquired from the said Hugh why he was in Dublin, and if he was married; Hugh answered that he was glad to see him; that he (Hugh) came to Dublin to see if he could meet with any of his friends; that he dwelt at Staling; that he was married there, and had a son Hugh. Deponent asked him did he wish to return to Connaught? to which he answered, that his posterity might; but for himself that if he got the whole of Tireragh, he would not think his life safe, and would not live there; that the said Hugh asked the deponent to attend before a notary and testify the truth, which he has now done accordingly.”
    “John O'Cleri, of Lacan, in Connaught, gentleman, aged sixty years, sworn, says that he was born in Tireragh; that he knew the said Hugh, the son of Teige; and that the sept of Roger, the son of Donell O'Dowda, through envy and avarice, slew the brothers of the said Hugh in defence of their possessions, and expelled he said Hugh out of all his possessions in Tireragh. That the deponent received for three years the rents of the lands of the said Teige, and knows that the said Teige was seized before his death of the following lands, which he divided among his sons, viz., the towns and lands of Ardnaree, Clounte, Choillin, Clounslegan, Ragibock, Scurmore, Urlare, Caraghmore, Bellacastlan, Boreagh, Castlanlaragh, Cnocan-Mac-Murtagh-Riogh, Tobberbonac, Mulliroo, Choillin, Floughmoioin, Ballaluiog, Lisnarge, &c. That the said Teige died in the peaceable possession of all the said lands, and that the said Hugh is the right heir of all and singular the same.” 🢀

  326. Bhailiseach — It is doubtful whether our author intended this to represent the name Walsh or Wellesley? Both families were in this district. The Editor knows several of the name Do Bhailisi in the county of Kilkenny, where it is always anglicised Wallace; but this is probably not the true form, as in the Irish the preposition Do, which indicates a Norman origin, is always prefixed. The family name Do Bhailisi, which, if analogically rendered, would make in English De Wallisi, also assumes the form Bhailiseach, to denote one of the family. In Kilkenny the family name Walsh is called in Irish Breathnach, i. e. Britannus, never Bhailis, and is considered to be a totally different name from Do Bhailisi; but our author, in his pedigree of the family of Walsh, p. 839, writes the name both Bhailis and Breathnach; so that he may probably have intended to express by Inghean an Bhailisigh o'n Seandroicheatt, the daughter of Walsh of Old Bridge. But this is far from being certain. 🢀

  327. John — It appears from a Chancery Decree preserved in the Rolls Office, Dublin, dated 2nd May, 1557, that “John Dowde, of Stalinge, as administrator of his father, Hugh Dowde, complained agaynste one Peter Russell, of the Shephouse, husbandman, who married Joan Dowde, daughter of the said Hugh, and who got with her in marriage from the said Hughe, one-third of the land of Stalinge, called Baggots fearme.” 🢀

  328. Who are now in Ath Cliath — Some of the O'Dowds, of Stalinge, on the Boyne, near Drogheda, afterwards removed to Dublin, where they became very wealthy. On the Patent Roll of the fifteenth year of King James the First, are two deeds relating to the O'Dowds of Dublin, one dated 8th June, 1614, whereby Nicholas Weston, of Dublin city, grants to Francis Dowde and Charles Dowde, of Dublin city, merchants, the pools of Lanagh and Bealagaly, in the River Gadcon, otherwise Kilcomon, in the county of Mayo.
    The other is dated 30th June, 1612, whereby Sir Richard Nugent, Baron of Delvin, granted to John Dowde, of Dublin city, alderman, the fishing of Rabran river from the sea to Ballanefanny; the fishings of salmon and other fish within the flow and ebb of the tide in the river or bay of Bonitrahan, and the fishings of salmon and other fish within the flow and ebb of the tide of the waters of Gadcon, otherwise Killcomayne, from the main sea to Farsindvinegemine, in the county of Mayo. In the will of Lysagh O'Connor (Faly), Esq., dated 5th September, 1626, this alderman John Dowde, of the city of Dubin, is also mentioned; and the testator, who was a gentleman of high rank in the country, appoints him one of the overseers of his will, and bequeaths to him “my blacke Phillippe and cheney cloake lyned with bayse.” This will, which is a very curious document, is preserved in the Prerogative Court, Dublin. 🢀

  329. Their own history relates — This shows that our author had seen a history of the Dowdalls, which traced them to an Irish origin. The general opinion is, that the Dowdalls, who were a very distinguished family in the county of Louth in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, are one of the old Anglo-Norman families of the pale; but the name is not found in any of the lists of the chieftains who came over with Strongbow, or any of the subsequent English leaders, nor is there any mention of them in the Anglo-Irish records as early as the period of the killing of Taithleach Muaidhe O'Dowd (1282); so that our author's assertion, that they are of the O'Dowd race, is not to be rejected without the most direct evidence to prove the contrary. 🢀

  330. Madruanaidh — He became chief of the O'Dowds in the year 1432, and enjoyed that dignity for eighteen years, according to our author in his Brief Annals of the O'Dowd family. 🢀

  331. William — The death of William, son of Ruaidhri O'Dowd, is entered in the Annals of the Four Masters at the year 1438. 🢀

  332. Brian — He was chief of the O'Dowds for two years. 🢀

  333. Edmond — He was chief of the name for half a year and five weeks. 🢀

  334. Domhnall Ballach — He succeeded Edmond, son of Cosnamhach, and was the chief O'Dowd for one year. 🢀

  335. Eoghan — He was chief of the O'Dowds, according to our author, for seven years, and is mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters at the year 1536, when his wife, the daughter of Walter Burke, was taken prisoner by O'Donnell. 🢀

  336. Cathal Dubh, i. e. Cahill, or Charles the Black. He succeeded his brother Eoghan as chief of the O'Dowds, but the length of his reign is not mentioned by our author in his short Annals of the O'Dowd family. 🢀

  337. Tadhg Riabhach. — He died, according to the Four Masters, in the year 1580, but they give his pedigree wrong, thus: “Tadhg Riabhach, son of Eoghan, son of Conchobhar, son of Teige.” The last generation should be Diarmaid. 🢀

  338. Dathi — He became chief of the name, and was slain in the year 1594. His death is thus entered in the Annals of the Four Masters: — “A.D. 1594, O'Dowd, of Tireragh, Dathi, son of Tadhg Riabhach, son of Eoghan, was slain by one of the queen's soldiers in one of his own castles, in Tireragh, on the Moy.” 🢀

  339. Tadhg Buidhe — He was set up as chief of the O'Dowds by O'Donnell in the year 1595, as stated by the Four Masters. 🢀

  340. Dathi Og — This pedigree, enclosed in brackets, is given from our author's smaller compilation, made in 1666. — See this pedigree carried down to the present day in the Addenda to this volume. 🢀

  341. Dun Neill, i. e. the dun or fort of Niall, now Duneal or Dunneill, otherwise called Castlequarter, a townland in the parish of Kilmacshalgan, barony of Tireragh, and county of Sligo. 🢀

  342. Cnoc na n-os, i. e. hill of the fawns — There is a well known hill of the name near Buttevant, in the county of Cork, where the celebrated Alexander Mac Donnell was slain in 1647, but whether it is the place here referred to it is difficult at present to decide. 🢀

  343. Eachros, now Aughris, a townland containing the ruins of an abbey, in the parish of Templeboy, in the barony of Tireragh, and county of Sligo. 🢀

  344. O'Caomhain, should be Mac Caomhain, i. e. son of Caomhan, for Cathal was the son, not the O', or grandson of Caomhan. — See pedigree. 🢀

  345. Aodh, son of Ceallach — According to our author, in his short Annals of the O'Dowd family, this Aodh, son of Ceallach was king of north Connaught, and died, in the year 983, and it is therefore a great anachronism to make this prince cotemporary with one who had been cursed by the Saxon St. Gerald, who died, according to the accurate Annals of Tighernach, in the year 732, that is, 251 years before the death of this Aodh O'Dubhda. This story, therefore, is clearly false, for Dubhda, the grandfather of Aodh O'Dubhda, or O'Dowd, who died in 983, could not, according to the laws of nature, have been born before the year 823, so that it cannot for a moment be assumed that his brother Caomhan could have been cotemporary with St. Gerald of Mayo. The truth is, that this account of the cursing of Caomhan by St Gerald is a mere legend, written centuries after the time, to sanctify the succession of the O'Dowds, and to account for the laying aside of the O'Caomhains, who are senior to them. A legend exactly similar to this has found its way into the Book of Fenagh from the Book of Kilmacrenan, to account for the elevation of the family of O'Donnell to the chieftainship of Tirconnell, and the downfall of the senior branches of the Cinel Conaill race; and various fables of a like nature have been foisted into the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, originally written by St Evin, but afterwards interpolated by various writers, to account for the extinction or obscurity of the races of chieftains, who opposed the saint in his pious intentions. The true account of the laying aside of the family of O'Caomhain is above given by our author, in page 109, and the present fable is not worth attention, except as a specimen of the sort of fabrications resorted to by the bards to flatter the vanity of the families in power. 🢀

  346. The wife of O'Caomhain, should be either the wife of Caomhan, or the wife of Cathal, son of Caomhan. 🢀

  347. Race of Diarmaid, son of Cathal, son of Caomhan — Besides the anachronisms of this story, it involves a contradiction, for Diarmaid, son of Cathal, son of Caomhan, would have carried as much of the blood of the offending woman as his brother Aodh, if this wicked woman was the wife of the grandfather, Caomhan, which she would appear to have been, as Caomhan was the person cursed on her account. If she was the wife of Cathal, son of Caomhan, then indeed Diarmaid, who was liberated from the curse, may have had none of her blood, as he was the son of her Cumhal, or handmaid, but then this Cathal could not have been called O'Caomhain, as in the text, but Mac Caomhain. And again, if the wicked woman was really the wife of Cathal, there appears no reason for the saint's curse against Caomhan, his father, for the crime of his son's wife, and should he happen to have had more sons than Cathal, it would have been very unsaintly indeed to curse the descendants of them all for the bad temper of the wife of one of them. The story should be told thus by our author: — “According to ancient writers the following are the privileges of the race of Caomhan, son of Connmhach, which were obtained by Diarmaid, son of Cathal, son of Caomhan, from Ceallach, son of Dubhda, and from his son Aodh, as a compensation for the loss of the chieftainship, and in consideration of kindred. According to the Dumb Book of James Mac Firbis, Gerald, the Saxon saint of Mayo, with his three hundred monks, had pronounced a curse against the race of Caomhan, in consequence of the conduct of the wife of Cathal, the only son of Caomhan, for she had turned him, late in the evening, out of the door of Caomhan's fort, called Cathair Mhor; and the saint prayed, and while praying foresaw, that there should never be a king of the race of Caomhan, from whom the family were about to be named. When Aodh O'Caomhain, the legitimate son of Cathal, by his wicked wife already mentioned, heard this, he became sorrowful for the curse pronounced against the race of his grandfather, in consequence of the insult offered to the angry saint by his own ill-tempered mother, from whom all the legitimate descendants of Caomhan were likely to descend; he therefore visited the saint to remonstrate with him about the nature of the curse, in the hope of inducing him to revoke it. But though the saint listened to the remonstrations of this only legitimate representative of the house of Caomhan, and felt that it was rather a cruel case that a whole tribe should labour under a curse for ever, still would he not consent to revoke the denunciation against Aodh, the remonstrant, or any of the descendants of the wicked woman; but he consented to avert the effect of his malediction from Diarmaid O'Caomhain, the illegitimate son of Cathal by the handmaid of the wicked woman, because he had none of the blood of her who had insulted him. To him and his race St. Gerald wished the chieftainship of the tribe of the O'Caomhains only to be transferred, but not that any of his descendants should ever aspire to the chieftainship of all the Hy-Fiachrach. The chieftainship of the Hy-Fiachrach was then vested in the race of Dubhda, but the following compensations and privileges were ceded to the race of Diarmaid O'Caomhain, the illegitimate son of Cathal, son of Caomhan, in token of the seniority of his family, viz., that their chief should possess a tuath in each territory belonging to the O'Dowd, in the region extending from the River Robe to the River Cowney; that he should have the privilege of first entering the bath, and of first sitting down at the feast, and of taking the first drink; that he should be O'Dowd's chief marshal, pursuivant, and the commander of his forces; that O'Dowd should stand up before him wherever he should meet him on every occasion whatever; that all those who should take arms, that is, military weapons, for the first time in O'Dowd's country, should take them from the hand of the representative of Diarmaid, son of Cathal, son of Caomhan, and from no other person; that O'Caomhain should get the fine called the Luach leasa from every chieftain's daughter upon her marriage; that the O'Dowd should never be nominated without the presence and consent of O'Caomhain, who should first pronounce his name and walk thrice round him after his nomination; that after O'Dowd's inauguration O'Caomhain should receive his steed and battle dress, and that Mac Firbis, the poet of the principality, should receive the like from O'Caomhain. These customs to last for ever.” For some account of the inauguration of the ancient Irish chiefs see Addenda🢀

  348. River Rodhba, now the River Robe, which flows by a very circuitous course through the south of the county of Mayo, passing through the demesne of Castlemagarret and through the town of Ballinrobe, to which it gives name, and discharging itself into Lough Mask opposite the island of Inis Rodhba, which also derives its name from it. 🢀

  349. Codhnach — This, as will be hereafter shown, was the ancient name of a small river which flows into the bay of Sligo, at the village of Drumcliff, in the barony of Carbury, and county of Sligo. The distance between these rivers shows the great power of the O'Dowd's in Ireland before they were encroached upon by the O'Conors of Sligo, Barretts, Burkes, and other families. 🢀

  350. And that whoever takes his first arms, &c. — This passage reads in the Book of Lecan thus: “Cach nech gebus arm, coma ó sil Diarmada, mic Cathail, mic Caeman, gebus a ched-gabail airm ar tus, ocus luach impidi cach ingine rig dia rigraid, ocus each ocus errad cach rig leo do gres, ar n-dul fa didean Garailt.” These words are thus paraphrased by the Rev. Patrick Mac Loughlin, in his abstract of the Book of Lecan, a manuscript in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy: “And all those who bore arms were to have their first arms from O'Caomhan, and every daughter born of the chief representative of the family was to have her request granted by the prince.” But he has not here given the true meaning of luach impidi, for we know from good authorities that it was the name of a fine paid on several occasions. Distinct mention is made of this fine in the Annals of the Four Masters at the year 1414, as paid by one of the Anglo-Irish inhabitants of the English pale to O'Conor Faly and Mageoghegan. “A.D. 1414. A great victory was gained over the English of Meath by Murchadh O'Conor, Lord of Offaly, and Fergal Ruadh Mageoghegan, Lord of Cinel Fiachach mic Neill. The Baron of Skreen, and many of his adherent gentlemen and plebeians, were slain in the conflict, and the son of the Baron of Slane was taken prisoner, for whose ransom fourteen hundred marks were afterwards paid. Dardis the Lawless was also taken prisoner together with numbers of others, for whose ransom twelve hundred marks were obtained, besides the fines called Luach leasa and Luach impidhe.”
    Luach leasa literally means reward, or price of welfare, and Luach impidhe reward, or price of intercession. Sir John Davis, in his letter to the Earl of Salisbury, makes mention of the latter fine in treating of the origin and duties of the Irish ecclesiastical officer called herenach. His words are: “The herenach was to make a weekly commemoration of the founder in the church; he had always primam tonsuram, but took no other orders. He had a voice in the chapter, when they consulted about their revenues, and paid a certain yearly rent to the bishop, besides a fine upon the marriage of every of his daughters, which they call a Loughinipy” &c.
    The term Luach leasa is frequently used by the Irish poets of the sixteenth century in the sense of omen of welfare. It is curious that our author has used the term Luach leasa instead of the Luach impidhe of the Book of Lecan; indeed it is likely that they are nearly synonimous, and the Editor is of opinion that the modern Anglo-Irish term luck-penny is derived from the latter. 🢀

  351. It was St. Gerald that baptized Dubhda — This cannot be true, for it has been already shown (note 345, p. 139) that this Dubhda could not have been born before the year 823, whereas, we have the authority of the very accurate annalist, Tighernach, for the fact, that St. Gerald of Mayo died in 732. The truth is, that St. Gerald had nothing at all to do with this compact between the rival brothers Caomhan and Dubhda, but it is highly probable that his comharba, or successor at Mayo, may have interposed to settle their disputes. — See Addenda🢀

  352. Hereditary proprietors — As the words dúthaidh, dúthchas, and dúthchasach occur so frequently in this topographical tract, it will be necessary to explain them here once for all. Dúthaidh, which is still a living word, signifies a tract of country hereditary in some family, as dúthaidh Seoigheach, i. e. Joyces' country, in the west of the county of Galway; dúthaidh an Bharraigh Mhóir, i. e. Barry More's country, or patrimonial inheritance, in the county of Cork. Dúthchas, when applied philosophically, means inherent nature, innate instinct, but when used topographically it means a hereditary estate, or patrimonial inheritance. Dúthchasach, which makes dúthchasaigh in the nominative plural, is a personal noun formed from dúthchas, and signifies an inheritor, or hereditary proprietor. These three words seem to be cognate with the Latin dos, whence dotarium, doarium, &c., in the mediaeval Latin, are derived. 🢀

  353. Triocha cheud — This was the ancient Irish name for a barony or hundred, and it appears from various authorities that it comprised thirty Ballybetaghs, or one hundred and twenty quarters of land, each quarter containing one hundred and twenty Irish acres. The Irish Triocha cheud would therefore appear to have been larger than the English hundred, or Wapentake, which consisted of ten towns or tithings, or one hundred families. 🢀

  354. Its full extent — The Rev. P. Mac Loughlin, in his abstract of the Book of Lecan, translates this passage thus: — “fol. 81, begins of the men of Ceara. This Tricha ceud had three lords (riga), viz., O'Muiredaig, O'Gormog, and O'Tigernaig, Its full extent in length and breadth, — a feadh agus allan — from Rodba to Rathain, and from Finglas to Maiteog Acha Gobhair.” This description of the extent of Ceara is not given in the topographical poem of Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis, from which it is evident that the prose account of the territories of Hy-Fiachrach was not wholly derived from that authority. As, however, this poem is the oldest named authority for the topography of Hy-Fiachrach, the topographical notes which might be here given, shall be reserved for the elucidation of that poem, and the Editor will only remark, in the notes to this prose list, such differences as appear between it and the poem. 🢀

  355. Rodhba, now the River Robe, which anciently formed the southern boundary of the territory of Ceara, though it does not bound the modern barony of Carra, which retains the old name. 🢀

  356. Rathain, the name of the northern boundary of Ceara, is now called Raithin; it is a townland containing a gentleman's seat, on the boundary between the baronies of Carra and Burrishoole, a short distance to the west of the town of Castlebar. 🢀

  357. Fionnghlais, i. e. the bright stream, was the ancient name of a stream forming the eastern boundary of the territory of Ceara, but it is now obsolete, and it would perhaps be idle to conjecture what stream it is, as the eastern boundary of the modern barony of Carra may not be the same as that of the ancient territory, but if we draw a line from Aghagower, which was on the western boundary of this territory, in an eastern direction, we shall find that it will meet a lake and small stream at Ballyglass, on the boundary of the baronies of Carra and Clanmorris; which stream may have been anciently called Fionnghlais. 🢀

  358. Maiteog of Achadh gobhair — This is said to have been the ancient name of Maus, or Mace, a townland a short distance to the east of the village of Aghagower, and which is now a considerable distance west of the boundary of the modern barony. 🢀

  359. Achadh Gobhair, now Aghagower, a village containing the ruins of an ancient church and round tower, in the barony of Murresk, and county of Mayo. This, though it pretty fairly represents the present pronunciation, is certainly not the true spelling of the name, for we have the authority of the most ancient lives of St. Patrick to show that the ancient form of the name was Achadh Fobhair, and even now it is pronounced Achadh Fhobhair. The author of the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick speaks of this place as follows: — “Progressus Patricius pervenit usque in Umalliam, quae est regio maritima occidentalis Connaciae. Ibi extructae ecclesiae Achadh fobhuir praefecit, et in episcopum consecravit, S. Senachum, Tirum vitae innocentia et animi submissione celebrem.” Lib. ii. c. 62. And again, c. 68, “His peractis descendit de monte [Cruach Patraic] Patricius … ac in ecclesia jam memorata de Achadh fobhuir reliquam paschae celebravit solemnitatem.” Colgan, in a note, thus describes the situation of this place: — “Ecclesia de Achadh fobhuir est dioecesis Tuamensis et comitatus Mageonensis in Connacia. Et licet hodie sit tantrum parrochialis, et caput ruralis decanatus, fuit olim sedes Episcopalis.” The name Achadh Gabhair, as in the text, would mean “field of the goat”, but the correct ancient name, Achadh Fobhuir, signifies field of the spring, and the place was so called from a celebrated spring there, now called St Patrick's Well. Vallancey, without knowing the original orthography, translated the name Aghagower, fire of fires; and observed that though it was vulgarly believed to mean “ford of the goats”, still he could not alter his own opinion of its meaning as long as the round tower, or fire of fires was standing at the place; in which process of reasoning he errs in both points of view, for the name does not signify fire of fires, nor does it appear that the tower ever bore such a name, or was used for a purpose that would support such a name, for it is now, and has been from the period of its erection, called Cloigtheach Achaidh Fhobhair, i. e. the belfry of Aghagower. 🢀

  360. Bunreamhar, now anglicised Bunrawer, a well-known townland in the parish of Ballintober, in the barony of Carra, and joining the boundary of the parish of Aghagower. — See Ordnance Map of the county of Mayo, sheet 88. This name is not given in the poem of Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis🢀

  361. Abhainn na Mallachtan, i. e. the river of the curses. This is called Abhainn Induar, i. e. the cold river, in the poem of Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis, which affords an additional proof that the compiler of this prose list had other authorities besides that poem. — See note 363, p. 152. 🢀

  362. Partraighe — These boundaries of Partraighe are not given in the poem of Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis, and it will be therefore necessary to point out their situations in this place. The name of Partraighe, though not recognized as a baronial or parochial division, is still known in the country, and has been recently applied by the Poor Law Commissioners to a district nearly co-extensive with the parish of Ballyovey, in which there is a range of mountains still called Slieve Partry. It should be further remarked, that the parish of Ballyovey, anciently called Odhbha Ceara, is always called the parish of Partry by the Roman Catholics, and that the seat of John Lynch, Esq., situated on Lough Carra, in this parish, is called Partry House, so that the name of this territory has not shared the fate of many others, which are locally lost. 🢀

  363. Ath na Mallachtan, i. e. the ford of the curses or maledictions. This name is now lost, but the old natives of Partry believe that it was the name of a ford on a stream which rises in the mountain of Formnamore, and discharges itself into Lough Mask. 🢀

  364. m Glaisi Guirt na Lainne — This name is now corrupted to Glais Gort, or Glashgort, which is that of a townland in the parish of Ballintober. — See Ordnance Survey of the County of Mayo, sheet 99. 🢀

  365. Caol, now well known as the bridge of Keel, Droichead an Chaoil, — which stands over the narrow strait connecting Lough Carra and Lough Mask, to the north-west of the town of Ballinrobe. 🢀

  366. Fal, now Faul, and sometimes called Kilfaul, which is the name adopted on the Ordnance Map, a townland on the mearing of the parishes of Ballyovey and Ballintober, and bordering on Lough Carra. 🢀

  367. Baile Ui Bhanan — In Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis's poem it is expressed O'Banan ó bhaili féin, O'Banan of his own town, i. e. of the townland called after himself. It is still called Baile Uí Bhánáin by the natives, who speak Irish very well, and anglicised Ballybannon or Ballybanaun. It is situated in the parish of Ballyovey, not far from the margin of Lough Mask, and contains a Roman Catholic chapel. It is called Ballybanaan on Bald's Map of the County of Mayo. 🢀

  368. Magilin of Muine — O' Gillin in the poem. Muine, or Carrowmoney, is still the name of a hamlet and townland in the parish of Ballyovey or Partry. 🢀

  369. Mac Oglaoichs — This is not stated in the poem. The meaning of Mac Oglaoich is not given in any Irish Dictionary, but there can be little doubt that it was the same as the Galloglach of later ages. 🢀

  370. Magh na Bethighe, i. e. the plain of the birch. The extent of this district is not given in the poem. The name Magh na Bethighe is now lost, but the alias name of Lughortan is well known, being that of a townland in the parish of Ballintober, containing the ruins of a castle said to have been erected by the family of Burke. It is anglicised Luffertaun, which represents the local pronunciation correctly enough, though the same name is rendered Lorton, and even Lowerton and Lowertown in other parts of Ireland. The true Irish spelling, however, is Lubhghortán, but the orthography was corrupted at an early period, for we learn from Cormac, in his Glossary, that Lughbhortan was the form of Lubhghortan, i. e. an herb garden, in his own time. 🢀

  371. Callainn — This, which was undoubtedly the name of a river, is now obsolete. It was probably the name of the Claureen river, which falls into Lough Carra. There is a river named Callan in the county of Armagh, another in Kerry, and the town of Callan, in Kilkenny, derived its name from the river on which it is built. 🢀

  372. Uluidh Caolainn, i. e. the carn, stone altar, or penitential station of the virgin St. Caolainn, the patron saint of Termon Caolainn, in the parish of Kilkeevin, near Castlerea, in the county of Roscommon. The Editor made every search and inquiry for Uluidh Caolainn, in the neighbourhood of Luffertaun, in the year 1838, but was not able to identify it, and is satisfied that the name is lost, though the monument to which it was applied may remain. 🢀

  373. Baile Chille Buaine — This is called Baili Chilli Buanaindi in the Book of Lecan, fol. 82, b, a. 🢀

  374. It extends — This extent of Magh Fhiondalbha is not given in the Topographical Poem of Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis, which shows that this prose account of the estates and families of Hy-Fiachrach was not derived from that authority only. 🢀

  375. Baile Riagain — The three sub-divisions of the townland of Baile Riagain are not given in the poem. 🢀

  376. Baile an Chriochain Bhuidhe, now Creaghaunboy, in the parish of Magh Fhionnalbha, or, as it is anglicised, Moynulla, or Manulla. — See Ordnance Map of the county of Mayo, sheet 79. 🢀

  377. Baile an Smotain, now the townland of Smuttanagh, in the same parish. There is a townland called Gortnasmuttaun, in the parish of Ballyhean. — See Ordnance Map of the county of Mayo, sheets 79 and 90. 🢀

  378. Baile na Greallcha — This name is now obsolete, but it must have been applied to a denomination of land adjoining Creaghanboy or Smuttanagh, in the parish of Manulla. 🢀

  379. Fiodh Cruaiche, i. e. the wood of the round hill. The subdivisions of this townland are not given in the poem, and the third denomination is not added in the prose list, either as given by our author, or in the Book of Lecan. It should be also remarked, that neither the name of the large denomination nor any of those of its sub-divisions, are now retained in the barony of Carra. 🢀

  380. Baile Ui Ruairc, i. e. O'Rourke's town, now Ballyrourke, a townland in the parish of Balla — See Ordnance Map of the county of Mayo, sheet 90. 🢀

  381. Bel na Leice, i. e. mouth of the ford of the flag stone. This, which is called by the alias name of Baile an Bhealaigh, i. e. road-town, in the poem, is most probably the present townland of Ballynalecka, in the parish of Ballintober, and barony of Carra. There is a Baile Ui Chiaragain, i. e. town of O'Ciaragain, now anglicised Ballykerrigan, in the parish of Balla. See Ordnance Map of the county of Mayo, sheet 90. 🢀

  382. Baile Carnan Tornaidhe — This is called Baile Crannain in both copies of the poem. 🢀

  383. Magh Roisen — This name is not given in the poem, for it is evidently not the same as Tuath Ruisen, mentioned in note o, p. 158 i. e. p. 159, note 393 in the CELT edition. It is evidently the present townland of Rusheen, lying between Clogher and Lisrobert — See Ordnance Map of the county of Mayo, sheet 100. 🢀

  384. Baile Lis Aiche — Not in the poem. 🢀

  385. Baile an Regles — This is called An Regles, i. e. the church, in the poem, but it is mentioned as the property of Mac Gilla Fhaelain, and O'Cuachain is omitted altogether. The name O'Cuachain is, however, still in the district, but disguised under the anglicised form of Gough. 🢀

  386. In Ceara — O'Caomhain had other estates elsewhere. 🢀

  387. Ros Laogh, now Rosslee, a parish in the barony of Carra, lying about six miles south south-east from the town of Castlebar, on the road to Hollymount. This name is not given in the Topographical Poem of Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis, nor are the limits of O'Caomhain's estate, in Ceara, mentioned, except under the name of Tuath Ruisen. 🢀

  388. Cluain Lis Nellin, now obsolete. 🢀

  389. Beul Atha na Lub — This name is still well known in Carra, it being the Irish name of Newbrook, the seat of Lord Clanmorris. 🢀

  390. Beul Atha na g-Carr, now the townland of Ballygarries, in the parish of Ballyhean, and barony of Carra. 🢀

  391. Muilenn Tiormain — This name is still retained, but somewhat corrupted, being anglicised Mullencromaun, which is a townland in the parish of Drum, in the barony of Carra. 🢀

  392. Attacottic district — Tuath Aitheachda, i. e. territorium Attacotticum, or a district not in the possession of freemen of the Scotic or Milesian blood, but occupied by a tribe of the Firbolgs, the remnants of whom, wherever they were seated, were styled Aitheachs, i. e. Attacotti or Plebeians, by their conquerors. This district is not called Tuath Aitheachda in the poem of Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis, which shows that the compiler of this prose list had his information from other sources. It is very curious to find that a part of the district here described still retains the name of Tuath Aitheachda, now anglicised Touaghty, for it is the name of a small parish near Beal Atha na Lub, or Newbrook, in the barony of Carra. The copy of this prose tract, in the Book of Lecan, adds, that this district was conferred on O'Caomhain by O'Dowd, in consequence of his nobility and relationship to the latter, and that it continued in the possession of that family from that to the time of the writer. Do chomhartha uaisli ocus ardbraitris, conad rodisli duchusa d'á síl ó sin ille in tuath sin. 🢀

  393. Tuaith Ruisen — This, which is the only name for O'Caomhain's estate, in Ceara, given in the poem, is evidently the true ancient name of the territory. Roslaogh, the first name for it, given in this prose list, is evidently the ecclesiastical name of the district, or name of the parish, which was derived from the situation of the parish church in the townland of Roslaogh, now Rosslee. 🢀

  394. Cillin na n-Garg, is written Cill na n-Gragal in the Book of Lecan, but in both copies of the poem it is Cillin na n-Garg, as in the text, which seems to be the true reading. 🢀

  395. O'Culachain — This name is to be distinguished from Mac Uallachain of Hy-Many, though both are now anglicised Cuolahan. The name O'Culachain is still in Carra, and sometimes correctly anglicised Coolahan. 🢀

  396. Baile Tobair Padraig, i. e. the bally or townland of St Patrick's well, now Ballintober, in the barony of Carra, and county of Mayo, where there are the magnificent ruins of a monastery erected by Cathal Croibhdhearg, or Charles the Redhanded O'Conor, in the year 1216. 🢀

  397. And the person who was bishop — The portion of this passage enclosed in brackets is taken from the copy of this prose list, preserved in the Book of Lecan. The Rev. Patrick Mac Loughlin, in his abstract of the Book of Lecan, thus renders this passage: “Gilla an Ghoill Mac Neill was the last lord of Ceara, in the time of Taithleach Mor, son of Aodh O'Dowde, and” [recte who] “possessed from Rodba to Codnach, and was buried at Bally tobair Padraig. Their cotemporary bishop was Maelisa Mac Mailin.” The name of this last lord or King of Ceara, of the ancient Irish race, is not given in the poem of Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis, nor in the Irish annals. Taithleach Mor, the son of Aodh O'Dubhda, or O'Dowda, who was cotemporary with him, was killed in the year 1197, according to the Four Masters. The Bishop Mael Isa Mac Mailin would seem to have been Archbishop of Tuam, but no notice of him is found in the Annals of the Four Masters, or in Ware's Bishops🢀

  398. In point of genealogical relationship — Vide supra, page 17, where the genealogy of Cuan, the ancestor of the Clann Cuain, is given. 🢀

  399. A river of the name Siuir — This river is not mentioned in the poem, and the name is now obsolete, unless Toormore river be a corruption of it. 🢀

  400. Caislen an Bharraigh written Caislen an Bharraich in the Book of Lecan, fol. 82, b, b. This is the name by which the town of Castlebar, in the barony of Carra, is called at the present day, and in the Annals of the Four Masters at the years 1412, 1576, and 1582. It signifies the castle of Barry, or Barry's castle, and there can be no doubt that it received that name from a castle erected there shortly after the English invasion by one of the family of De Barry, who was afterwards driven out. Downing, who wrote a short description of the county of Mayo, about the year 1680, for Sir William Petty's intended Atlas, thus speaks of this town:
    “Next to Belcarra, four miles distant, stands Castle-Barry, a corporation. It is called in the king's writ the most western corporation, and a very fair, large bawn and two round towers or castles therein, and a good large house in the possession of Sir John Bingham, and his heir, the youngest of the three knights Binghams that commanded since Queen Elizabeth's time; that is, he left it to Sir Henry Bingham's nephew, having no issue of his own body. This castle did formerly belong to the Burkes; first of all after the invasion it is said to have belonged to the Barrys, of whom it took its name.”
    Again, in speaking of the priory of Ballyhaunis, the same writer has the following notice of the family of Barry having had possessions in this country: — “It” [the priory of Bellahawnus] “stands on a fair hill over a small river. It is said to have been, before the foundation thereof, a manor-house belonging to the Lord Barry, about the beginning of the English invasion. Certain it is, that upon the beginning thereof, the Fitzgeralds, ancestors of the Earls of Desmond and Kildare, the Lord Barons of Kerry, and the Barrys had large possessions in the counties of Mayo and Sligoe, till they were driven thereout by one Burke.” He might also have added the family of Butler, for the abbey of Burrishoole was erected by one of them shortly after the English invasion. 🢀

  401. Ruaidhri Mear, the son of Taithleach O'Dubhda — See Notes to the poem of Giolla Iosa Mor Mac Firbis🢀

  402. Tomaltach Mor Mac Dermot — This sentence should be written th