CELT document T600008

Rosa Anglica

Unknown author

English translation

Edited by Winifred Wulff

Rosa Anglica


Sicut dicit Galienus primo de ingenio sanitatis.

As Galen says: ‘do not frequent too much the courts and halls of the great, as I never did, until you have (a knowledge of) your books, {non visites nimis curias et aulas principum: sicut nec ego feci quousque sciverim libros.}’ (R. A. 3, 2nd ed.) ‘for it is not conceivable that there would be anything by which a man could reach closer to God than learning, {non est possibile per aliquod fieri proximius deo quam per scientiam.}’ (R. A. 3) according to Galen, therefore I thought to make this book for the humble, and ‘I pray the people who will have this book, that they chew it not with their doggish un-understanding teeth, but use it humbly, for everything that is said here, will be proved according to authority or long time (of study). {Rogo tamen ut istum librum videntes non dente canino mordeant, sed humilitate pertractent, quia quidquid hic dicetur erit vel authenticum, vel longa experientia approbatum: [quae haec omnia Joannes de Gadesden 7timo anno lecturae meae compilavi].}’ (R. A. 3)

‘It is thus I wish this treatise to follow on {Circa quem librum talem volo observare processum.}’ (R. A. 3): to give the name of the disease first, then its description, its causes thereafter and then its signs, both general and special. And Johannitius says that things that are accidental to the patient are signs to the leech. Then the prognostics of life or death, and lastly its cure as Johannes Mesue says.

1. De Tertiana.

‘Since he speaks first of common diseases, and since it is fever that is commonest amongst them, and amongst fevers tertian fever, therefore it is meet for us to speak of it first. {Quia ergo tres primi libri erunt de morbis communibus & inter eos communior est febris & inter febres communior est colerica: ideo primo de ea tractandum est.}’ (R. A. 3)


‘Fever is the same as natural heat turning to fieriness, {Febris, nihil est aliud, nisi calor naturalis mutatus in igneum}’ ((1. Aph. 16) R. A. 669, 4th ed.) according to Hippocrates and Galen. Averroes (says ‘fever is heat that afflicts and injures the works and actions, and thus it is right to understand this i.e. that in the humours {} are [humoral fevers]; [Ephem]era in the spirits and hectica [in the] close strong [members] {Febris est calor, qui totum corpus laedit; omnes videl: actiones & passiones membrorum: & hoc debet intelligi sic; febres humorales sunt in humoribus; Ephemerae in spiritibus; Hectica in membris solidis [etc.]}’ (R. A. 670.) ‘The heat that is in the [adjacent(?)] members {} is febrile and not fever {} occupies the whole body {} species unless {} prevent it, as Avicenna says, {Et calor qui est in partibus vicinis, est accidens morbi, & febrile, non febris: & ista occupat totum corpus secundum diversas partes, nisi impediatur, ut docet Avicenna.}’ (R. A. 670) and ‘choleric fever is {} of the body and phlegmatic fever {} of the body, unless other {} prevent it {Unde cholerica, est circa choleram; phlegmatica circa, vel in toto, phlegmate, nisi impediatur propter oppilationem, vel propter aliquid tale.}’ (R. A. 670) {} thus.

‘Let us speak now of choleric fever, and there are two forms {} continual fever i.e. fever {} that seizes a man usually, such as {} the other form non-continuous, but intervals between, such as true tertian or notha tertiana {Nunc de cholerica febre dicamus: quae duplex est, continua, & interpolata. Interpolata est tertiana pura, vel notha: continua est kaûsos (sic).}’ (R. A. 670); (and) ‘understand that tertian {} afflicts a man from one tierce to the other, i.e. that {} afflicts {} every third day or the third hour of every day {Dicitur tertiana, quasi tertium diem terens; hoc est invadens, seu affligens tertio die.}’ (R. A. 670), for it is {} ‘choler has the dominance and moves {} of the day till noon, and it is clear from this {} there is {} or double tertiana {} the matter from three to three {sicut dicitur ... cholera rubra ab hora diei tertia, usque ad horam nonam dominatur, regnat, atque movetur. Ex his apparet, sive sint duae tertianae, sive una simplex, quod moveatur, vel de tertio die, in diem tertium: vel de tertia hora, in tertiam horam sequentis diei.}’ (R. A. 670.)


Let us speak now of the description of tertian fever. ‘This is tertian fever i.e. unnatural heat generated from increase (?) of choler which afflicts every action and {} from a third to the next third time {Est igitur Tertiana febris, calor non naturalis, generatus ex inflammatione cholerae ... laedens omnes actiones & passiones membrorum; de tertio in tertium affligens.}’ (R. A. 671.) Understand that ‘there is natural choler and unnatural, and there are species of unnatural choler, such as notha tertiana, and there are species of that, for notha tertiana is formed from the combination of phlegm and choler; and it is formed from burning, such as cholera aeruginosa and cholera prasina, and Isaac says fever is not formed from these, and Averroes says it is. And thus that should be understood, i.e. these kinds are deadly {} and so a fever is not formed from them that can be cured, and so both authors are saved {Naturalis, & non naturalis. Non naturalis est multiplex: notha propter adiustionem phlegmatis: & notha propter adiustionem cholerae aeruginosae, quae vocatur ... prasina: sed ex istis non fit febris, ut dicit Isaac; quod tamen Averroes ... negat. Verum ipsa est mortalis, ideo non fit ex ea febris salubris: & sic uterque autor salvatur.}’ (R. A. 671){} And there is ‘notha tertiana from the mixture of phlegm, and there are two kinds of that. One from the combination of subtle phlegm, the which is cholera citrina, and the other of gross phlegm the which is cholera vitellina {Est & cholera notha, & non vera, propter admixtionem phlegmatis subtilis, & illa est cholera citrina: & est notha per admixtionem phlegmatis crassi, & illa cholera est vitellina.}’ (R. A. 671.)

Item understand that ‘fever is not formed from pure choler, but from subtle choleric blood, or choleric moisture with which phlegm is not mixed {de cholera pura non est febris: ... est subiectum salubrium: sed sanguis subtilis cholericus, aut humiditas, in qua dominatur cholera. Et si dicat Averroes, vel alius Antilogicus, quod de cholera pura non fiat tertiana pura ... Respoendeo, hoc verum esse, de sanguine cholerico, vel de humiditate cholerica, cum uqa non miscetur phlegma.}’ (R. A. 671), and if Averroes or anyone else say that tertian fever is formed from pure choler, I say that that should be understood thus, i.e. it is caused by subtle choleric blood or choleric moisture with which phlegm does not  p.9 mix (? is not mixed). And if anyone say it is not meet to give a laxative in tertian fever, since Hali says there is no laxative that purges red blood (and) ‘I say there is no laxative that purges pure sanguine humour without an alteration (?) though sanguine humour is purged on being changed, or else, I say that that part of choler is purged that is along with the blood {Respondeo, verum esse, quod sanguinis puri, non alterati, nec mutati non sit laxativum: attamen possibile est, ut pars cholerica in sanguine purgetur, aut alteretur.}’ (R. A. 671.)

Let us speak now of the causes of tertian fever, and understand that this is the strongest cause by which it is generated i.e. when a sanguine complexion is dominant in heat and dryness, ‘it has a disposition to generate heat in itself {& praeparationem, ut generetur in eol talis calor.}’ (R. A. 672), and this is the cause of the fever called tertiana continua, and the matter is inside the veins. ‘The second cause preparative to unnatural heat {Secunda caussa est praeparans ad calorem innaturalem ...}’ (R. A. 672) is the excess of the third digestion in the proper members, and this is the cause of the fever called tertiana interpolata, for its matter is outside the veins.

‘And these fevers have many other particular and special causes {Sed caussae in particulari & speciali sunt multae.}’ (R. A. 672), such as hot, dry, immoderate foods, or that excess of this food be eaten, or too little of it, or that it be eaten fasting; for it is changed then in the stomach or in the liver to heat and strong dryness, and brings the stomach and the liver to that complexion, and the blood that is formed from that food is hot, dry, and immoderate, ‘and choler is increased in quantity and made immoderate in (its) quality, and it hinders the operation of the gall; it will not draw choler, and remains thus along with the blood, and will be odious to nature {& mutliplicatur cholera in quantitate, & impeditur operatio fellis, non trahens choleram; & sic remanebit cum sanguine & inflabitur: quia fiet odiosus naturae.}’ (R. A. 672),  p.11 and corrupts and putrefies; ‘for when choler goes from its natural way in quantity and quality or in both, it then turns to sanguine humour {quando exit cholera a sua via naturali ... tunc remanebit infusa sanguini.}’ (R. A. 672), and the members that are nourished on this blood go by degrees from their own natural complexion to a hot, dry, evil complexion, and form diseases from choler in this way. Another cause of this fever is hot, dry air, and too much labour and over-sleeping, ‘and accidents of the soul, as anger and fury, and affections of the heart, and other things like them {vigiliae multae, & accidentia animae; sicuti ira, furor, affectus cordis [etc.]}’ (R. A. 673.)

Regarding the ‘signs of tertian fever, and understand that there are two signs proper to the fevers caused by corruption {quod signa generalia febrium putridarum propria, tantum sint duo.}’ (R. A. 673.) ‘One sign of them is that there is no hypostasis at the beginning of the fever, for the heat is troubled, so that it cannot digest the humours. {i. est, quod urina in principio hypostasin non habet: quia calor est impeditus super humorum digestionem.}’ (R. A. 673) The other sign i.e. the pulse is variable; ‘this variableness is on account of the excess of the humours or their malice {varietas enim fit in putridis propter humorum multitudinem ac malitiam ... [Aliud signum est, quod quando patiens ponitur in balneum, & sentit horripilationem, tunc adest putrida: si non, Ephemera.]}’ (R. A. 673, cf. B par. 7.)

‘Understand that special signs, that is, certain signs of the fever called tertiana interpolata are recognised i.e. an interval between them, and by three things it is understood {Circa signa specialia febris tertianae interpolatae, est sciendum: quod ipsa cognoscitur ex tribus notis.}’ (R. A. 673), i.e. by naturals and by unnaturals, and by something that is against nature, as Isaac says. Naturals, such as age and complexion; unnaturals, as are air and season; and regarding the  p.13 thing that is against nature, ‘as are the occasions that come from the matter of the disease, like rigor that comes in the beginning of the paroxysm {sicunt occasiones quae fiunt a materia morbi: rigor, frigus, tarditas accessionis}’ (R. A. 674) and things like these. This fever is recognised by naturals, for it often seizes a person who has a warm, dry complexion, young in age, and especially if he have black, curly hair, and he himself lean, and have a lax body, for the ‘tertiana that is formed from the agreement of these particular matters {tertiana quae fit cum convenientia istorum particularium.}’ (R. A. 674) is true tertian fever. This fever is recognised by unnaturals, for it often comes in summer, and when the air turns to heat and dryness; and it is recognised by labour and the operations of the disease, for if he be a person ‘who does work to excess in health, it brings him to heat and dryness {si ... fuit laboriosus, aut studiosus, aut solicitus: quia solicitudo & labor excitant calorem.}’ (R. A. 674.) This is recognised by ‘praeternaturals {res contra naturam}’ (R. A. 674), since it is formed by hot, dry, choleric matter, for when it is ‘near the noble sensitive members a tedious burning rigor should arise then, as if needles {vicina membris sensibilibus, necesse est ut eam praecedat rigor molestissimus, pungitivus, quasi fierit acu.}’ (R. A. 674) or thorns were tormenting him, and this should come at the beginning of the paroxysm, for when the sharpness of choler, that he is not wont to, goes through the sensitive members, it irritates him and generates a sort of trembling in them, and it is of this I say “rigor”.

Item ‘Nature goes to the interior members on account of the hurtful thing that torments her and the members, and the exterior members cool until the matter heats {Similiter natura refugit da interiora, propter rem nocivam pungentem, & tunc exteriora refrigerantur, quousque materia calefiat.}’ (R. A. 674) and inflames; and the heat is spread throughout the whole body, ‘for the heat is choked at the beginning of the disease and the paroxysm by corrupt humours {tunc in principio calor obtunditur ab humore putredinali.}’ (R. A. 674), and when it corrupts entirely  p.15 and is mixed with the natural heat, it spreads throughout the whole body and the heat is choked on account of this, and great is the inflammation it causes, and it causes extreme sleeplessness and pain and burning in the liver; and the sharp vapours that arise from the body destroy the appetite and cause bitterness in the mouth at the end of the fourth paroxysm, for this is the stasis of the fever. And these folk who have the fever ‘fling their clothes off them {pannos as se rejiciunt}’ (R. A. 674), and at this time choleric sweat comes, or choleric vomiting, or choleric faeces, for if the matter be light, it is purged by sweat, and if it be heavy and gross, it is by the faeces, and if intermediate between, them it is by vomiting.

Signs of this disease as regards the urine i.e. ‘subtle thin red-brown urine {Urina in haec febre est rubicunda, ignea, subtilis.}’ (R. A. 675); and the cause of its being red is the heat of the body, and the cause of its thinness is the dryness of choler. Item ‘urine red-brown in colour and thin in substance, bright below and dark above, in a young choleric person along with the particular matters, signifies true tertian fever. Item urine black in colour and thin in substance, and dark above in a phlegmatic person and in a woman, signifies double tertiana {Urina rubra in colore, subtilis in substantia, clara inferne, obumbrata in superficie, in iuvene phlegmatico, aut muliere, duas tertianas significat. Urina rubra in colore, subtilis in substantia, obumbrata superne, in sene; duas tertianas significat.}’ (R. A. 675.) Item urine red-brown in colour and thin in substance and dark above in youths, signifies the fever called Item tertiana continua. Item urine red and high in colour, and troubled in substance, and leaden-coloured above, signifies tertiana continua from natural choler.

And Galen says there is no difference between tertiana and causon as regards the matter from which they are formed,  p.17 for it is from choler they are both formed. And ‘this is causon i.e. when choler has the dominance {} [burning inside the veins {} near to the heart] {Sed kaûsos [sic], est cum ipsa cholera dominatur &augmentatur ebulliens intra venas, cum sanguine mixta in locis propinquis cordi.}’ (R. A. 675) or to the stomach, or to the lungs. ‘[This is tertiana,] when choler moves [throughout the body in the places that are more remote from the heart than that ...] {tertiana vero est, cum cholera movetur per corpus in locis a corde remotioribus.}’ (R. A. 675.)


2. ‘Regarding Sanguine Fever etc. {De Synocho non putri, seu Febre sanguinea.}’ (R. A. 810)

i.e. the fevers caused by blood called synocha and synochus. Synochus comes from corrupt blood within the vessels, and synocha from an excess of blood without putrefaction. Galen1 says, since the blood is the friend of nature it may be corrupted and 2 brought under her ruling; if it be brought on account of sharpness of choler and become corrupt, the thin part of it turns to choler and the thick part to melancholy; and the contrary of this i.e. that sanguine humour is capable of putrefaction and corruption and generates fever. The doctors agree with this statement, and it is not right to oppose their sayings, but to treat them with honour: nevertheless we have said the blood is naturally in the veins and arteries and is ruled by nature and her instruments, that is by the natural heat. When choler penetrates thither it disturbs their natural moderation, and sometimes it grows hot of itself naturally and becomes corrupted [or] the thin part is burnt and nature heats it. And when nature overcomes it, it is evacuated by crisis, or by nose-bleeding, or the haemorrhoidal or menstrual flow. At another time it cannot be evacuated from the veins, but settles in some member forming the imposthume called phlegmon.  p.21 Sometimes nature can do neither of these things, but [the matter] remains in the veins externally, and when brought under [the ruling of] nature it is corrupted and causes acute fever.

If we speak [of the forms of this fever, there are three,] 3 i.e. aumasticus which increases continually; epamasticus which decreases continually; and homotonos which remains in one state. In the first form there is {} that dissipates and does not consume, and therefore it is weaker, and in the second form there is heat (?) that dissipates and is {} and therefore it is stronger and is greater {} according to the consumption of the matter. In the third form the dispersal and the consumption are equal, therefore it remains in one state and the judgment thereof is equal as to life or death. At another time it disperses more than it corrupts, and that is the way to health, for when the crisis comes, there is but little matter. Yet another time the putrescence is greater than the consumption, and that is bad and dangerous.

The causes of these fevers are oppilation and repletion, much resting as well as many other signs 4; the consumption of food that increases sanguine humour, such as eggs, salmon 5, and the like; avoiding accustomed work and purging, and practising laborious exercise along with repletion of the body;  p.23 the mutilation (want) of a member whitherto much blood was wont to flow; much foods 6 that generate watery blood, and fruit, milk and fish, for such easily turn to purely watery humours 7 and contract putrefaction, cause oppilation and greater heat, and give rise to the fever called synocha 8. And should the leech be careless in opening the obstruction or evacuating it, it readily turns to the fever called synochus. Therefore Haly9 says the excess does harm in three ways: as regards quality only, as the blood when it heats and generates the fever called ephemera; ‘or he takes the blood there for the spirit, which is generated from the thinnest part thereof {Vel capit sanguinem pro spiritu, qui ex parte purioris sanguinis generatur.}’ (R. A. 811.) Or the excess is generated as regards quantity alone, when the blood increases in quantity only, its quality only being good, and not a corrupt quality 10, it then causes the fever called synocha. And the pus in the imposthume injures by reason of quality and quantity [combined].

Galen and Avicenna are against this, for Avicenna says there are but three simple fevers, a fever from phlegm, one from choler and one from sanguine humour; for when it (the blood) corrupts, it causes not a simple fever, but a compound fever; for the blood is moderate, and when it heats and putrefies, the thinner part turns to choler, and the thicker to melancholy. Avicenna11 says he found much [adverse] criticism regarding this saying of Galen's, and says [moreover] that sanguine humour generates one simple fever only. I say with regard to this briefly: if vapour arise on account of the  p.25 corruption of the blood, it turns to choler, and the blood putrefies by itself by reason of the antecedent cause of the combination. Of these Galen takes one view and Avicenna another.

These are the indications preceding this fever: heaviness of the head, and puffiness of the eyes 12, plethora of the veins, redness of the face, fatigue of the whole body as though after labour. The concomitant symptoms 13 are frontal headache; the sick man imagines he sees a lighted candle before him 14; perturbation of mind; something lacking in the sight; undulating full pulse; sweetness in the mouth; urine thick, strong and leaden-coloured on top 15; itch in the nose, on the neck, and where the cupping horns are placed; shortness of breath; profound sleep; difficulty of conversation; and an imposthume at the base of the ears and the tongue. These symptoms are more pronounced in synochus than in synocha.

Item no cold or horripilation precedes this fever, because the blood giving rise to it 16 is in the veins, excepting if it be caused by the imposthume called phlegmon, situate on the liver or the midriff 17; for then come paroxysms like to tertian fever 18, because it heats as if it were choler.

Item Averroes says the signs manifesting this fever are those that signify the dominance of sanguine humour; the which are 19: heaviness in the head, the eyes, and the temples,  p.27 especially in the season of sanguine humour; sleep, yawning, perturbation of mind, sweet taste in the mouth, and a flow of blood from the nose, the anus or the womb, if the region, the season 20, and the age be in agreement; and itch on the place of blood-letting 21; he sees red objects in dreams, blood or flowers or beautiful gardens in dreams.

These are the signs that follow this fever: swelling of the face, and flaccidity of the whole body; sometimes smallpox, or measles, or chickenpox (?) 22, or quinsy supervenes and other evil symptoms which are wont to come in time of plague and are caused oftenest by corruption of the blood. These symptoms are less pronounced in synocha than in synochus, on account of the putrescence; therefore the latter is like to ephemera.

Prognosis of aumasticus 23; the which is a deadly kind for the most part, for it is the worst of them. The crisis comes most frequently on the seventh day, and it the fever is terminated 24 sometimes by a noticeable evacuation, and at other times by an insensible one. The crisis in this species is imperfect, for it turns sometimes to causon or frenzy, and at other times to lethargy, or smallpox, or measles: sometimes to subeth25. Sometimes the belly swells and a noise is heard therein, like unto the voice of the tympan and thunder, and an “outgoing” checks not this 26. It may be recognised by the signs of digestion on the third day, or the fourth, if the crisis will come on the seventh day; and sometimes it is ended on the fourth day, and sometimes later.


Item epamasticus 27 is the best of these and homotonos the mean. Item should broad black pustules, or green leaden hued ones, appear on the sufferer from this fever, it is a sign of death. Item if the eyes shed involuntary tears in this fever, it is a sign of death, unless there be an imposthume or an itching on them in the lids. 28 Item heaviness after sufficiency of sleep is a bad symptom and a sign of death, and likewise great difficulty in drawing breath on account of the violence of the disease. Item when small black pustules 29 arise on the tongue of sufferers from this disease, or any other acute sickness, it signifies death, and especially if they desire hot things. Item if on the knee of the sufferer a little black pustule 30 arise with redness round it, it is a sign of death; and though these pustules disappear suddenly, unless they were wont to be on him in health, it is a cause for fear. A red imposthume on any principal member is dangerous, more especially if it appear on a place whither that member sends its excess, 31 or near thereunto.

The cure of this fever demands the evacuation of the matter, alteration thereafter, and rationing of food and drink. The evacuation is ordered first here, but not so in other fevers, except those from blood, if it be pure, as in synochus. 32 Note, much purging is demanded in this fever, such as blood-letting, cupping, scarification33 of the small of the foot and the nose, and by the haemorrhoidal and menstrual flow: and laxative medicaments avail here, and clysters, and suppositories. The letting of a vein is the last and the best of them; and if the  p.31 force and the age and the season permit it not, let the horn be applied to him, and the blood of the small of the foot 34 is best here. If he abide that not, reduce his food and drink, employ sweating, and rub the members; the which Hali teaches when he speaks of superfluous repletion. This is manifest in synocha, for Hali35 says, it has no other cause but plethora and excessive oppilation, produced by red blood, wherein the excessive quantity is at fault. 36

Since we have spoken of phlebotomy, it may be asked, is it meet to let a vein here, till weakness seize the sick man? They say it is meet, for Galen says, when we bleed a patient in acute fevers, it is till weakness seizes him, for that cools the whole body at once, quenches the fever, and relaxes the bowels; the sweat breaks out, and many folk have I cured entirely thereby. Therefore it is meet to bleed a sick man usque ad syncopen. Item Avicenna says the same, but Averroes is against it, and says, the patient should not be bled to the point of faintness. Avicenna says that it is better to remain within the limit in drawing off superfluities than not to perform the letting. Item he says again, it is better to increase the number of times, than the quantity. Item he says again, in excessive repletion it is meet for the evacuating to be equable, 37 by drawing off the matter gradually, and such purging does no harm to the weakened body, and therefore still less to a strong 38 body. To this I say, with Averroes, that it is imprudent to continue the letting till the sick man is at the point of collapse; for Galen says: 39 “See, O learned man, that weakness seize not thy patient under thy hands.” Thou mayest  p.33 continue till slight weakness of the branches lay hold of him, according to Constantine. Or as Avicenna says: “Cease not, till he be approaching faintness”; and there he speaks of the weakness of the branches and not of that of the force. 40

However, since Nature hates a sudden change, let the matter be drawn off gradually, to evacuate that which is superfluous. If it be asked of you what amount is excessive in physic, 41 since all the blood is good here, and therefore if one part of it is rightly excessive, then the other part is excessive too, and so it should all be drawn, if one part is drawn; I say, for example as follows, that one pound only is excessive, and if it be drawn off, Nature arranges the remaining part thereof; and since she gets help from the things nearest, she makes good what is lacking. 42 Neither is the reasoning correct 43 that all the blood is peccant and therefore it were right to draw it all off, for if some be evacuated, the other parts do not err; or else it is the parts farthest from the heart that are to blame, and the blood should be drawn from them. So the evacuation is in the branches and the deficiency likewise, and not in the root.

If it be asked what is the right time to let blood, Avicenna44 says, heed not the number of the days, but consider the force of the patient. If it be strong, let a vein on the fifth day, and not only on that day, but on every day thou shalt visit him. 45 Nevertheless Avicenna says, if a vein be not opened at the outset of this sickness, there is no use in bleeding him at all, and therefore it is not right to bleed him every time thou visitest him. I reply, in the case of putrid fever that  p.35 comes to increase after inception, there is no use 46 in bleeding; for he suffers laxatives more readily then than phlebotomy, 47 because the matter is digesting: (as) there is no digestion at the beginning of this fever; and therefore a vein may be opened then, if the force, the age and the season permit. Open first the medial vein in the right arm, then the medial vein in the left, 48 and thereafter that in the right. Whereupon let the Basilic vein in the right arm, and if needs must the same in the left. If that avail not, let the cupping horn and scarification be applied between his shoulders, and do the same to his calves and both sides of the hips; and let the saphenic vein be opened on both sides in these two cases, as well as the lower vein in the arm on both sides, but first from the right arm, because of the liver, which is the source of the blood.

If the sufferer be a plump infant, he may be bled a little then, for Averroes says Avenzoar bled his son at the age of three years. If it be a woman et menstrua retinentur, it may be relieved by a vein of the inner ankle, 49 and if the haemorrhoidal flow be withheld, relieve it by the same. I say it is better to open them externally, and if the veins of the anus be so relieved, apply boiled onions to the heads thereof. To him who is constipated, give a clyster in which are boiled violets,  p.37 mallows, mercurial, great mallows, bran, cassia fistula, and a little salt.

The proper purgatives to give here are those that purge choler, and purify the blood from burnt humours, as cassia fistula, tamarind, violets, borage flowers; the juice of bugloss, of rue, and of roses 50 (?); myrobalani citrini, chebuli, emblici, bellirici, and indi. If he have taken food previously, or be drunken 51, give him but little of these, and also if he be a person that consumes many cold things, as cold water, cold fruit and the like. The compound purgatives that avail in this case are: oxylaxativum, diaprunis, and triphera saracenica.

Let us now consider the cold things, and amongst these, cold water is most recommended for them, on the further conditions added thereto; 52 the matter should be digested in the intestines, and no hard imposthume present in the same: the upper and the lower part of the stomach should be neither weak, nor cold, nor any humoral putrescence therein, neither be there oppilation, nor excessive repletion. On these conditions the sick man (he) may drink as much as he please of the water, without taking breath; 53 having first been purged by bloodletting, for in every case this is best, unless drunkenness, or nausea (excessive filling) prevent it, and if so a clyster is more beneficial, or diet of food and drink, or suppositories, or rubbing. 54

Item if the blood be thin, it should be thickened by these: plantago, poppy seed, and that of coltsfoot. If thick, let it be thinned by endives, scariole, chicory, lactuca (i.e. lettuce) if the sick man cannot sleep, and burnt ivory turnings. Item the following thicken the blood: diatragacanthum55,  p.39 gummi arabicum, berberis, sorrel, coriandrum, and sugar of roses. Item these are the comfortatives: diatrionsantalon; and if he cannot sleep, diapapaver; and diatragacanthum frigidum if he have difficulty in drawing breath, nevertheless it is advantageous (?).

The cure of this fever called synochus is accomplished in two ways, by bleeding, and by cold water. Galen says a vein avails always if the force be strong, but it is not good as a rule to use cold water unless there be signs of digestion of food in the flux, 56 in the pulse or in the urine, and when the fever is greatest and sharpest. And therefore it is that if the blood be choleric cold water avails before the digestion of the matter, as it digests by cooling and by checking the malice, on the before-mentioned conditions, because cold water increases oppilation at times, and when a man drinks his fill thereof; for sometimes it cures, or at other times it turns to phlegmatica. Averroes57 says, this is preferable to death, and therefore he says it is better and more proper to give him camphor in electuaries and foods and drinks; for a drink of barley water, and andivia mixed with camphor, is made against the thirst, because it greatly cools.

Item it is proved that it avails not in either of these (?), for Galen says it is not conceived (?) that the fulness that is in  p.41 the veins can be purged by laxatives, or it is not possible, and the veins of him who has great thirst 58 are full. I reply absolute fulness is when all the humours increase equally in the veins, the which truly cannot be purged by any simple laxative medicament, though perchance it might by a compound one; and fulness and repletion outside of the veins is when one humour alone increases, and the name thereof is the “fulness of an evil humour”, 59 the which may be purged by laxative medicine.

If it be said with Galen, that the increase of all the humours should be evacuated by blood-letting, and if it be only of one humour, then by laxatives, and therefore, that it follows that purgative medicine is for sanguine humour alone; I agree, but we should not use it without preparing with the following 60: aloes, centaury, juice of honeysuckle and agaric. Regarding the word Averroes spake, that it were impossible to purge the fulness in the veins with laxative medicaments, I say this is how that should be understood: “impossible”, that is, “not easy” or “difficult”. When one humour alone increases outside the veins, it is easy to purge it with laxatives, but in the case of fulness of the body in the veins, it is not good for them. 61

These are the foods 62 that avail in this fever. Pottage made of oatmeal and chicken broth; barley sowens 63, and bread seethed in milk of almonds; and chicken broth with lettuce, if the force be weak; fresh water fish and meat that  p.43 is close-grained and free from taint, with juice of sorrel, and acid syrup 64, or syrup of violets or nenufar.

As we have spoken of blood-letting, note that it is most proper and avails most for persons of robust and stout habit, and from whom but little is dissipated. Not thus for the folk who have thin bodies and dominance of choler in the pit of the stomach, as for them it avails not. In cold wet weather it avails most, and for dark folk who are wont to consume much meat. 65 It may be asked here — if there be little good blood in the body, and many crude humours, does a vein avail in that case? It is proven according to Galen that it does avail, and Hippocrates says, regarding the people that fill themselves excessively and are drunken (?), who cannot but have crude humours, and where there is little good blood and a plethora of raw humours, blood-letting is beneficial.

Item I suppose, for example, that there comes an imposthume of the breast or lungs from phlegm, along with drunkenness, and rawness of humours, and there is little good blood present then, because of the quantity of phlegm and the fever; no one denies that in such a case, letting a vein is not good nor any other sudden quenching; if any one say bloodletting avails not in this case, it is true, for the good blood would go out and leave the bad within. I say against this that Nature is wise, and there is no limit to her skill in ruling the animal, and if that is true, she will retain the good blood inside for herself, and let the bad go. Item Galen says, it is the blood that Nature purges ultimately from the superfluous substance of the humours; therefore she retains the good blood for herself at last, through her skill: the bad blood will go out and the good blood will remain within. Galen(?)  p.45 says the contrary of this in The Regimen of Health, where he says blood-letting avails not in this case. This is the reason: because a vein is only beneficial in two cases, i.e. when red blood alone has the dominance, or else all the other humours combined, according to Galen; and sanguine humour has not the dominance here, for it does not increase (?), but diminishes, nor the other humours combined, but the crude humours only hold sway; and so in this case, according to the rule of Galen, blood-letting does not avail.

Item Galen allows that it would avail, but it does not because the humours are crude and viscous, and though the aperture be big, they could not emerge because of their thickness. Therefore if there be but little good blood, that is 66 what gets out first, because of its thinness, and the wider the opening the easier is the exit. From this it is clear that in acute putrid choleric fevers, where there is not so much thickness, if the opening be narrow, the good thin blood comes out first, and if it be increased thereafter, the corrupt blood emerges.

Item if a vein be opened in this case, it will do great harm, which Galen warns us to avoid; namely, it draws the crudeness of the humours from the little veins to the big veins, and if they be in the big veins it draws them to the members; and it were great harm to nourish the members by the crude humours; and therefore a vein avails not in this case. Nor yet lesser things, for a bath is not beneficial, nor labour, nor coition; but rather abstinence, solitude, long sleeping, light rubbing on the members, and things that comfort them.

As to the first reason, I say a thing can be over-filled in the absence of crude humours, though they be old in the filling (?); and there are people who have narrow veins and  p.47 who though they eat little food, digest it well in the stomach and the liver, and none the less do they fatten excessively. Or else we may say: there is so much matter undispersed, because of its (?) labour, that if it be not purged suddenly it would choke them: and nothing evacuates with greater suddenness than a vein; so if it avail not for its own sake, it avails for the excess. In the same way I answer the reasoning he made regarding an imposthume of the breast or lungs. As regards the other argument, that Nature is skilful in her works, I say that is true, when she is greatly troubled therein; and for the other reason, I say the comparison is not right, because there is a big opening in the veins, which the laxative medicaments have not, but they go from the big veins to the narrow veins which are at the back of the liver, and from thence to the still narrower veins called meseraic. Thus it is easy to retain it finally, and therefore at last that thing is expelled which increases most, or which nature needs least.


3. B. Non-material sicknesses i.e. Ephemera 67 and Hectica. 68

These are two fevers and since the cause of a species 69 of hectica is ephemera, we should rightly speak of it first according to Averroes. Ephemera is so-called, because efemiron in Greek is the same as a certain fish in Latin, the which fish 70 is only alive for one single day; and in the same way this fever does not continue beyond one day in its own course. Ephemera is a fever resulting from exceptional immoderation of the spirits 71 which does not last beyond twenty four hours, as regards its own nature. And therefore note, there is true ephemera, and false: the true ephemera does not continue beyond a natural day without finishing; the false continues at times till the third and at other times till the fourth day, and the cause of it is the grossness of the matter in the body, or the blocking up of the pores, the which prevents opening; or because of the oppilation of the pores from an external cause.

Gilbert72 says that it is not because there is no matter in it that this fever is said to be non-material, but because it has no peccant humoral cause that precedes it, (like hectica). And 73 though Avicenna puts down this fever as coming from many causes, such as excessive flux, coition, or excessive  p.51 drinking, hunger, syncope, want of sleep, and many more of the like; nevertheless these may be reduced to four causes 74 alone. The first of these from an external cause which heats and blocks the pores actually or potentially, as is the heat of the sun or of a fire, or a bath with hot things in it, or one wherein is sulphur or cold water; briefly everything that closes the pores and prevents the escape of the vapours. Note, the diversity of fever is understood according to the diversity of the bodies and the vapours; for if the body be hot and dry, and the vapour(s) likewise, this stoppage is caused by the blocking of the pores and the like; then this fever called ephemera is easily generated. And if the body be hot and moist, the vapour is thus retained, and therein putrid fever is easily generated.

The second cause: 75 hot food and drink; and warm dry medicines; as are strong, old, pure wine, garlic, onions, pepper and euphorbium, without being used to them. The third cause: 76 disturbance as regards the body or the soul, such as anger, immoderate exercise and the like. Should there be causes present, they can be broken and brought hereunto.


The fourth cause 77: imposthumes that arise in the inwards, whither are banished the surplus of the chief organs.

See now why diseases are said to be non-material. Since a humour is peccant in every sickness in the world, if the matter be harmful, the member is injured; therefore since blood is in every member, 78 a perceptible injury cannot be made therein unless the humoral matter be infected or injured. 79 Item Averroes says, in truth, no disease whether simple or compound is without matter 80; no simple disease for there is no one cause in the body which is hot only or cold only, without matter; nor compound, for there are composite causes (diseases) in the body, hot and moist, hot and dry, cold and moist, cold and dry.

Item I say that the fever called ephemera injures the vital spirit first, and the animal spirit or the natural spirit thereafter, the which are in the humours; or the humours adjacent to them are infected, but the spirits are infected soonest, but not so that it is necessary to undertake some other operation against them, that was not done against the humours, or vice versa. It is sufficient to effect one change only, and ephemera heats it. Hence Avicenna says there is no fever therein, until fiery heat seizes the entire heart; the which is not material, as there  p.55 is no peccant matter 81 there in its substance to be purged by medicine. Therefore Isidorus says, in the same way purging does not necessarily avail in every sickness wherein is a peccant humour, such as causon from burnt choler.

Note 82 that there is an external cause ... the fault of a humour or humours, because of their quantity; the letting of a vein avails there. In one kind there is the fault of a humour on account of causon or putrid substance or quality wherein drawing avails; and in another kind it is the fault of humours, as regards their 83 own sharpness and vehemence; wherein a change avails. Therefore there is the fault of a humour in every disease, nevertheless it is not material, that is it has no matter in it, which is subservient to, or necessary for, evacuation.

Avicenna says, these are the ordinary signs of this fever i.e. it comes from a primitive cause, and not from an antecedent cause, unless it be false ephemera, and it does not begin with horripilation and shivering (?), unless it be true ephemera, which is produced by oppilation of the pores through humoral matter, for this is intermediate between true ephemera and  p.57 putrid matter called putrida. And the pulse and the urine vary little from the normal and the heat neither irritated nor burning to the touch, but is like the heat of a man labouring and angry, and is terminated by natural, moderate sweat oftimes. Avicenna applies another sign to it, as follows. 84 Let the sick man be put in a bath, and if unwonted horripilation and shivering (?) result therefrom after a space, understand that it is putrida, and if a change come not to him then but such as is wont, understand that it is ephemera.

Draw special indications of the primitive causes from the patient himself, i.e. should the head 85 be hot from the sun to the touch; if the colour of the skin 86 turn dark and livid, it is from cold, and if it become hard and dry, as though it were stretched, that is produced by styptics; should there be heat round the liver in the natural spirit 87, it is caused by drink or food, and the urine is highly coloured; if it come from hard labour, the body is weaker and there is pain in the joints; if from anger, the eyes are protruding 88 and the face red, unless the anger be mixed with depression, because he cannot wreak vengeance 89; and in that case he turns pale, and undergoes many changes of colour. If it come from depression alone, the eyes are sucked back (sunken); and if from poison, there is great heat and dryness internally, which causes violent thirst, and they say these are the people of melancholic humour.

Prognosis of this sickness. Understand, it is difficult to recognise this fever, but once recognised the cure is so  p.59 much the easier. Thus, if the pulse be variable and the urine undigested, he passes into putrid fever, particularly 90 if the urine be evil-smelling. If the body be dry and hard to the touch and this not resulting from styptics externally, there is danger of its turning to hectica, and for that reason let there be no delay in curing him.

Item91 the people who fall oftenest into the disease called hectica, or tertian fever, are those who have a hot dry complexion, but they whose complexion is hot and moist, fall quicker from ephemera into the complexion of putrid fever; thereafter those in whom heat is greater, and again those in whom dryness is greater, and if the complexion be hot and dry, and the sick man suffering from hunger, want of sleep, or bodily labour, he falls swiftly 92 (?) into ephemera; and unless he get food at once, he passes into putrid fever.

The cure of these cases is brought about in two ways. The first of these, by changing the hot dry complexion; the other, in that something may be done against the extrinsic causes whence this fever is produced, along with a regimen of food and drink. 93 The first thing is accomplished by cold moist remedies according to particular matters 94, such as complexion, age, habit etc., and the causes it produces (?); the cooling is produced by itself or by accident. By itself i.e. cold foods or medicines that cool internally: by accident, that is by a bath of hot or tepid water. A bath avails much in this fever, for it disperses the vapour, which if it were not dissipated would throw the body into acute heat and turn to corruption;  p.61 so the bath is a common remedy for all who have this fever, and especially if it be on the decrease; and it should 95 be avoided by those ready for the corruption of the matter (putrid fever).

The following is a special cure for this case: to do something against the external cause whence the fever comes; whether it be caused by fire or by the sun. Put the sick man in a cold place and cool the air with a linen cloth, in the same way as a bellows cools it. If the pain  96 be in the head, let cold water be poured thereon, for it cools quickly; and put him in a bath of hot water and let him remain long therein; thereafter let it (the cure) be accomplished by rubbing with oil of roses or water rue (?) or violets.

If the cause be styptic, a bath of hot water relieves; and let the whole body be rubbed with oils that are aperient without being styptic, and other things such as camomile oil and do not rub it in until he has had the bath. And do not give the bath more than once unless the fever return. And if it be seen that it does not avail him, understand there is plethora present or that he has an internal stoppage; then let a vein and move the bowels with laxatives, for that remedy is medial between ephemera and putrida. If the cause be cold, put him  p.63 in his bed 97 with boiled herbs beside him, so that he sweat, for this is better than putting him in a bath of hot water, and let him be rubbed with hot things, according to hot action (?) 98.

If the cause be produced by hot food, give him a vinegar syrup and cold things, that cool the stomach and the liver within and without; bread made with vinegar, triasandal (diatrionsan:) along with camphor. If the cause be labour or motion, let him rest and rub oil of camomile and violets to his joints; and apply fomentations thereto, of roses, violets and camomile. Give them (the patients) food that nourishes well, such as eggs, small fish, and the genitals of a cock. To escape this fever coming from fatigue 99, know ye, whatever man may make a long journey, if he carry ragweed in his hand, the walking will not hurt him, as 100 Alibertus says.

Give roots of ragweed tempered by subtle wine, or with good broth, at the end of the day, to him who is tired after walking, and the fatigue will go from him, as though it had never been — so says Dioscorides. And whoever goes a journey, if he carry a staff of tutsan 101 he will not stumble against a stone, or anything else, nor will walker's abrasion (?) 102 seize him; and if it do, he need only rub on oil of roses, or the yolks of eggs, raw or heated. This is useful for friars, who walk the country, or the people of pilgrimage, or for envoys, according to Serapion.

[If it be caused by want of sleep and he have constipation], 103  p.65 give him a clyster or honey suppository; 104 and if the food be swimming in the stomach, make him vomit 105: let him not take food till it be digested, and thereafter pay no heed to the fever, but comfort the stomach so that it digest the superfluities. If the bowels be relaxed, apply hot wormwood juice to the mouth of the stomach, and give easily digested foods, tending to coldness with some astringency, such as rose and nutmeg, and the like. If the matter come from hunger, give him food, and especially if choler be the peccant humour, or be dominant therein, for they are unable to take any meal. 106 If it be produced by imposthumes, let them be cured in the way stated in the treatise on imposthumes 107: therefore the nutriment of food and drink of those suffering from these fevers should tend towards cold and moisture, except when it is caused by consuming too much food.

Since 108 we have spoken much concerning water in these diseases, it may be asked whether it avails in fevers in every age. It is asserted that it avails not in any age, for it does not help youths as they need much nourishment to increase their growth, and there is not that nourishment in water; so it avails them not. Item it does not help young people, for by their like they are maintained, while water is contrary to their complexion; and so it avails them not. Item it is not good for the old, as it is like their complexion; in those immoderate people when like is put to like, it increases it, makes it vehement; and so it is not good for the old. Galen is against this in Regimen, where he says, good water avails for every age. And I say there is nothing in the world more efficacious for every age, in general, than water; and therefore we should  p.67 take much pains to find good, pure, cold water. Let us take for example food and air and the other particular matters in turn, and I say they are the moderate things that benefit moderate things, and that they are common to immoderate things. I say also, though the age be moderate or immoderate, it i.e. water (?) is not merely advantageous, but necessary or almost so; for when the food is thick in comparison with water, it cannot penetrate to the members, if it be not thinned; therefore since water is thin and fluid, it makes a way for the food to the members without doing the least harm. Neither wine nor milk nor any other simple does the like, and therefore there is nothing more beneficial to every age than good water. As to the reasons given against this part, I allow them; for in the way he gives the reasons, it does not avail; nevertheless it benefits in making a way for the food to the members, as aforesaid.

Note, these are the conditions of good water. One condition is that it heats easily and cools suddenly. Another that there be no foreign bodies visible therein. Another that it be not turbid. Another that it be not ugly and evil-tasting. Another condition is: if two waters be taken and a little lixivium  109 mixed therein, then whichever does not become turbid, is the better of them. Another condition: take two identical cloths and wet them entirely in two different waters equally, and dry them equally; whichever cloth dries quickest, that water, wherein it was wet, is the best water. Another condition: take equal quantities of two different waters, and which ever is lightest is the best. He says also not to use water that goes through pipes, for according to all true doctors it is not good.


4. C. Hectica 110

Etica or Hectica is a non-material sickness. It is moreover a wasting fever, and they say that it is a continuous fever, 111 without the fault of a putrescent humour, which has its origin in the heart 112 and the close members; and thereof are three varieties.

The first of them is light, 113 that is, when the external heat is kindled in the natural and radical juices, and in the roots that are in the substance of the little veins, at the time the moisture called rose is kindled. The second is in the moisture which is in the flesh, and when it is dispersed, it can be cured at times by food alone, and that is when the fluid called cambium is kindled. 114 The third 115 form is the worst of them, when the external heat deepens itself in the close spermatic members; and this is when the moisture called gluten is corroded (?), for it binds the members together.

The following are the causes of hectica. Everything that heats, and dries, and burns the heart, and the close members; and it also comes from other diseases preceding it, such as ephemera and causon and their like. And especially to those to  p.71 whom abstinence is ordered in a wrong season, 116 or who are refused a drink of cold water at a time when they should drink it; for it is easy for them, and those of a hot dry complexion to pass into hectica; also for lean people. It comes also through the fault of the heart, the lungs, and the chest, as are phthisis, and apostema, and their like. It is produced by accidents of the soul, which are long and puissant 117, and especially pain and depression and oppression of mind, anger, and labour that fatigues body and soul, and long lying in prison. Therefore Avicenna says, he who leaves his usual work 118 passes into hectica; the which is surprising, for they who avoid labour, rest for the most part, and resting moistens the body.

Item he who does this, takes to himself a disease from fulness of humours; so it is not a wasting sickness he contracts. 119 Item he who forsakes his work, becomes cold thereby, therefore I say there are two hecticas: hectica that comes from old age, and that which comes accompanied by fever. He who avoids his work, contracts the hectica of old age, for the excess remains in the body, and that weakens it and the digestion, and causes diseases from fulness of humours: that being so, it throws a man into old age, the which age is cold and dry as the heat is weakened on account of the excess remaining in the body, and so the digestion is weakened, and the food is not sufficiently digested in the stomach or the liver: for the error produced in the first digestion is not corrected in the second, according to Isidorus; nor in the third, therefore the members receive neither plentiful nor sufficient nourishment, and are impoverished, and so hectica follows the  p.73 swelling. 120 Through this we should say, the first thing to be consumed in hectica is the recent fattening surrounding the firm solid members internally (the which is not the fat bordering on the skin), and thereafter the older fattening is consumed. 121 Or the species of hectica are defined (?) 122, not according to the consumption 123 of the various liquids, but because of that of the various members, such as the fat and flesh first, the arteries and veins thereafter, the bones and the cartilages in part. 124 Thus he who contracts hectica passes into diseases produced by fulness of humours 125 per accidens, into accidental flux, and moisture, such as dropsy.

Speaking of the hectica that comes (along) with fever; sometimes it comes accidentally, for he who avoids his work, retains the superfluities, which through want of windiness go to heat, and corrupt. Hectica follows every putrid fever that comes frequently, or continues and remains long. In this way, I grant that heavy labours and weak immoderate exercise produce hectica of themselves, while long lying in prison and avoiding regular occupation cause it accidentally. Excessive coitus does the same, also great flux of the belly (diarrhoea), excessive haemorrhoidal or catamenial flow, or that of urine, or excessive vomiting; constant vigil, or excessive meditation; and everything that heats and dries the body unduly. Avicenna says, fever is frequently generated by too violent purging, and especially hectica.

Signs of hectica. The pulse and the heat126 of the sick  p.75 man should be noted at the end of three hours after taking food, and observe whether it (the heat) is greater in the nerves (?) than in the veins 127 or in the places nearest to them; for when the heat is equal there is no difference between them, as regards its own nature. The skin becomes withered, the which is a sign of the first form of hectica, which is hard to recognise and easy to cure, according to Avicenna; for he says, the first form may be recognised through its want of dryness. 128 And Galen says, the heat increases in sufferers from hectica when they eat food; and Averroes says, this occurs three hours thereafter, that is, when it is digesting. 129 And 130 I say, when the patient consumes food, i.e. extra food, it cools the body forthwith, and when he consumes food in the natural way of digestion in the stomach, along with a kind of digestion in the liver, then it is dispersed throughout the members, so that it heats then, and thereafter heats the members as a cloth that is in the day about a man, takes heat from the body, and itself heats the body thereafter. In the second variety of hectica understand that dryness is apparent therein, and whatever time he takes food, so much the greater is the inflammation and his pulse is the less thereof, and there is no sign of hectica more certain than that. In the third form of hectica, the eyes are sunken, the skin drawn, and the belly adheres to the back, the pulse is hard and taut as it were a  p.77 cord being stretched, the urine is like oil, and should it strike against a stone it emits a dull sound. 131 Therefore when the fever sets in, it impoverishes the body, dries the skin, the face becomes deformed, and the eyes deepen. When it reaches the last stage of hectica, you will see his eyes as though there were ashes scattered on them, and the lids are drawn down like one who has spasmus; 132 the skin of the forehead is drawn and dry; the ears become yellow, and the skin of that part called mirach is dry and wrinkled. Mirach is the membrane that lies outside siphac on the belly, with siphac within, the which separates the nutritive organs from those of generation, and the intestines are contained therein. The pulse is stretched like a cord, weak and rapid, and the urine like oil.

Item133 the bodies called crimnodes are present in the urine from the burning of blood and flesh, in the first form of hectica, and also in its combination with the second form. The bodies come like scales from the surface of the strong members, but the bodies like bran from their centre, which is a sign of the third form of hectica, and these are the worst therein: and the smaller they are, the worse; for then they come from the strongest members. If the bodies called crimnodes should come from one member only, then the bigger they are the worse; and so Egidius was not right in saying that the bodies called crimnodes signified the third form of hectica. Sometimes the bodies like bran come from the bladder, 134 then the urine is a good colour; and at other times should they come from the whole body, as in hectica, then it is evil-coloured.


Crimnodes are fat particles 135 like wheat broken large or badly ground. When there is fat in the urine, if it come from the whole body, and appear slowly, it will be like a fishing net, in the first form of hectic fever. If it come suddenly, it comes from the kidneys, and the colour of fever will not be on the urine. If the sediment 136 be as thick as a spider's web, it is a sign of the second form of hectic fever, and if it be like oil it typifies the third form. For Averroes says, it is seldom this fever comes except after the fever called ephemera; save in bodies predisposed to it, or else after a putrid fever. Therefore it is necessary to know what are the signs of the combining of this fever i.e. ephemera with hectic fever, 137 and they are as follows: excess of vigour on the third day particularly as regards heat, as ephemera often begins to decrease after twelve hours, and when it goes beyond twelve hours with no signs of decreasing, but continues every day till the end of the third day, 138 then it is hectic fever.

These are the signs of the combination of hectic fever with putrid fever: the urine and the faeces are fatty, and paroxysms 139 come, accompanied by shrivelling of the skin, which remains hot and dry after the decrease of the fever and the paroxysms. Understand there is only one paroxysm 140 in true hectic fever, in which are the four stages of disease. If true hectic fever come from an inflammatory imposthume 141 the pulse will be very rapid.

These are the signs of stasis in this fever: if hectic fever come, the nails bend and sharpen; the skin appears as  p.81 though there were dust thereon from sunburn, and dried mucus matter 142 from the eyes. The eyes are not opened because of the difficulty of raising the eyelids and the brows, but remain shut as though the patient were asleep. The nose becomes pinched, 143 and the hair of the eyebrows grows long, the shoulders are drawn up, and then is the stasis of the second form of hectic fever; and when at the decrease the cartilages 144 dissolve, then comes the third form of hectica. Item in the first form of hectic fever, the patient is better after a meal than before. In the second form, he is better before it. In the third form it is equal.

Prognostics of this fever which is called hectic. Note, it is easy to cure the first form of it after it is recognised, though its recognising is difficult. The diagnosis of the second form is easy, but its cure is difficult. And for no power in the worid can the third form be cured, 145 for it is not possible to moisten the strong members, that is, especially, the spermatic, once they get dry. Item when the nails bend, and the hair falls, death will be near; and if diarrhoea come, the strength will collapse suddenly. A flux is almost always bad at the end of every long sickness; and if the calves swell, it is probable that the patient will die before the third day. When the palms are dry to the touch, and hot after food, the matter has turned to phthisis. Item if the appetite fail, and he is not able to take or swallow food, on account of the dryness of the gullet, and can only consume wet things, then death is near.

Item when hectic fever 146 comes from the stomach,  p.83 Hali says it is curable: for when hiccup is produced by dryness of the same, it is likewise curable. And Galen says, the cause is the same when either hiccup or hectic fever is produced by dryness of the stomach, as 147 hiccup is only an unreal spasmus of the stomach: and therefore when it comes from dryness of the nutritive juices, it is curable. The same is true in hectic fever arising from the stomach in the first form; nevertheless, when hiccup or cramp arises from inanition of the spermatic juice, it is incurable; this is not the case in the stomach, except it suffer consumption or labour (?), as in the case of hectic fever and phthisis patients.

The cure of this fever is accomplished first by cold moist things, and by cold wet foods; then by electuaries; then by baths; then unguents; and then by regimen of food and drink; and after that by things 148 that correct the air, and through the cure of the accidents. These are the cold wet thin things: food and medicaments. These are the medicines: common syrups, syrup of water rue, syrup of roses, and of violets. If it be accompanied by putrid149 fever, then a vinegar syrup is good, and simple and compound oxymel. 150

Item make this drink for hectic fever patients.


Take a portion of water rue roots; a fistful of each of these: andivia, liverwort, bear's-foot, and water rue (?). If inflammation of the liver or putrid fever follow, take half a fistful of scariole, dandelion and chicory; and unless the sick man suffer from a loathing of food 151, it is good to give a handful and a half of violets and lettuce. Since sleep greatly moistens sufferers from hectica, lettuce seed 152 is good, and lactuca therein, and lactuca itself, and white poppy seed, and coltsfoot; and the four large cold seeds, ½ ounce of each of these things, and 1/4 lb. figs; ½ quart of almonds; an ounce of roses if the stomach be too hot; ounceii of sanders, red and white, if the liver be too hot; ouncei of calcined ivory turnings if the heart be too hot, and ½ ounce of camphor. Flowers of water rue and violets are advantageous here; if he have constipation 153, and give ½ quart of each of these and ½ ounce of cassia fistula, if it be the first form of hectic fever, and a quarter of licorice, and a pound of cleaned barley, if the lungs be too hot. A pound or two of sugar, 154 or more according to the means of the patient; though the more sugar there is in it, the better. Make him this syrup, with well water or rain water or barley water, on a slow fire without smoke, to be taken at bedward, or on rising. If the stomach be cold, and the season winter, give it tepid, and if not give it cold, but not so in other fevers, as the heat is in the solid members here. Item this syrup is good for sufferers from hectic fever, and phthisis, and the cough; and for those recovering from some other long hot sickness, and especially for those who indulge in an excess of sexual intercourse and study, 155 and therefore I call it “the Golden Syrup”.


The following are the thin foods 156 that cure: barley water, filtered tisane, white wine, watery and sweet-tasting; broth of capons and hens; milk, barley or oaten sowens unflltered, cullis, 157 and water of meat. These things are good here, for Galen says that it is easier for a man to fill himself with drink than with food, 158 and this should be understood of thin food, or of fat, as the digestion in these is weak. (And) Averroes says, tisane is the best food for folk who have a warm dry complexion to take after bathing, if the weather be warm and dry, because it cools, moistens, and helps the expulsion of excess in every weather, and in every way. I say likewise, a hot, dry complexion is accidental here. And if you say there is no excess matter in this case, because it is not a material sickness, then I reply that superfluities are generated therein, through the excessive weakness of force, or the want of digestion, though they be scarce and not the matter of this disease. 159

The tisane should be made of barley thus: let it be cleaned and boiled until it is broken up, and then strain it, or else put barley in a glass vessel 160 full of water, and boil it without smoke. Some people put the following quantity in: 3 161 lbs. barley, and 6 lbs of water, others put in 20 162 lbs. of water, but there is nothing in it but that it must be boiled down to 2 lb.

And Averroes says, wine is good for sufferers from hectic fever, watery white wine, sweet-smelling, and every other watery wine, along with barley water, provided that it  p.89 be drunk after the digestion of the food. It will give greater relief than syrup, 163 for the wine prevents the food from swimming about in the stomach, disperses the flatulence, provokes the urine and the sweat; and helps nature to expel excess matter, when those who have this fever suffer from want of digestion, and especially when they suffer from want of sleep and worry. Avicenna says moist things do harm in hectic fever, as they are heating, and wine should be understood here, for it is wet. But Isidorus says, wine is wet as regards melancholy, and dry as regards phlegm. It is wet according to complexion, but since it provokes the sweat and the urine, it is easily turned to choler; therefore it is dry as regards virtue, and not as regards material dominion, 164 wherein it is wetter, nor as regards formal dominion, wherein it is drier; as is said, for example, that it is wet in substance, i.e. thin, or otherwise that it moistens according to its substance (substantially) because it is easily converted to red blood; nevertheless since it is dry, it is not good here, except thin watery wine taken seldom and in small quantities when the force is weak.

Bernard says 165, note that new wine is hot in the first degree, old wine hot in the third degree, and medium wine in the second degree. Old wine is good {} as a remedy only; 166 and new wine is neither good as food nor as a remedy; but medium wine is good as food, and drink, and remedy. Wine is good for hot people, for it purges them; and for moist people, for it moderates the moisture and ripens it; and for cold people, for it brings them to moderation; and it is good for  p.91 dry people, as it moistens and cheers them. According to this it is good for every complexion — that is, good wine.

It is not good for every age as it is only adding fire to fire to give it to youths, according to Avicenna; and as much as it comforts the old, so much also it injures the young. Galen[?] says, if wine be drunk in moderation when it is required, it comforts the natural and animal forces, and gives good cheer and confidence. However much it gives relief if taken in moderation, it does still more harm if taken immoderately, for if the stomach be choleric, it turns it to choler; and if cold, it turns it to acidity and causes paralysis and cramp; and he who has a weak head gets drunk easily. Drunkenness comes from weakness of the brain, or excessive strength of the wine, or emptiness of the stomach, or from its being full of humours; therefore it is a rule that it is not right to drink wine without eating something first.

It is not proper for a man who has a weak head to drink wine, except a little with water; so anyone who is at a feast, or drinking with friends, if he cannot keep his head, let him eat pears or the stalks (?) of cabbage, or its seed after his meal. If ill hap cause him to get drunk, as he will notice first by his tongue stumbling, let him get up and vomit. If it be a man, wash his extremities and rub them and his testicles with salt; and if a woman, wash her extremities and her breasts; let water be dashed on the face, and rub the head with rose water, and let him be a day and a night without food or drink. On the following day, let him do work and bathe, and let him eat something late, avoiding things hard to digest: and I say  p.93 it is not seemly for a Christian to get drunk with his own knowledge. For though there come vomiting and sweat thereafter, yet it is very dangerous to vomit, for fear lest he fall into epilepsy, or apoplexy, or in the case of a woman, suffocatio hysterica. So there is many a way that is better than this of purging the body, and it is all against God and reason.

Let those of hot complexion drink white wine, thin, and tempered with water, for there are no comforts in wine but for moderate or cold bodies; and let no one drink wine after coition or heavy work, unless he take a rest thereafter, or unless he eat something that will bring comfort to the stomach.

Note, thin 167 food is the remedy that avails most in this sickness, e.g. milk, according to Averroes. The best milk here is firstly breast milk, then ass's milk, then goat's milk, and then cow's milk, and it were better the butter be taken off it. When putrid fever is joined to hectic, Galen says, milk is no use then, for it is easy to corrupt milk, and sperm, and blood. 168 He (Galen) says, indeed, sperm is not out of the vessels an hour, or a moment, till it is corrupted.

The milk should be drunk from the breast by sucking, and if this be loathsome to the patient, let him take it as hot as possible. 169 Take a vessel full of hot water, and put another vessel washed with hot water on top of it, and milk the milk into the latter; let it be drunk in haste, and it should be taken fasting, as much thereof as a man will be expected  p.95 to digest, because it turns to curds easily in the stomach, and then it is nothing but poison. Therefore it is best only to give a little of it at first, and increase it by degrees until it reaches a pound, according to Averroes. Otherwise bring it to the boil, and add a little water, and honey, and salt, or else add mint, or its juice, and quench red hot river stones or hot iron therein, and thereby so much the longer it will be without corruption; it will not curdle, 170 and so much the quicker will it leave the stomach; if it curdle, that will be known by the pulse, which is then weak and tight; if it does not curdle, then the pulse is strong and full, according to Galen. He says it is recognised by the smallness of the belly, that the milk is digested, and if it be ass's milk it is longer in curdling there. He teaches that the ass should be fattened with barley and lettuce and the like.

Note, these are the best broths in this sickness: broth of beef, chicken, capon, mutton (ram's meat), soup of cabbage and peas. These are good for those who have hectic fever, or whatever fever they have, except ague (sharp trembling). 171 And note, though people say that meat water and broth172 are the same, yet that is not true. Meat water consists in cutting the meat fine, and boiling it, bruising it and squeezing and extracting the juice therefrom: it is generally known what  p.97 the broth of meat is ... (?) Do not give soup of cabbage or peas in this fever if there be flux.

Two remedies are ordered here, called ordeatum and avenatum; one made from barley and one from oats. To make ordeatum, take the husks off the barley, and wash it well in frequent changes of water, and boil it as long as you would boil beef. 173 Then bruise it well in a mortar, and add almond milk to it, strain it through a cloth, and boil till it begins to thicken; it is improved by boiling meat with it. In the same way avenatum174 proper is made, the which is naught but a kind of pottage, of oatmeal along with water and meat, and that forms the gruel that the English make with gross oatmeal and water and meat, which is a good thin pottage with ale. It is good for hectic patients and people going into a decline, and for almost all people.

An electuary175 is good in these fevers, early, called violet sugar {} rose sugar, given after a meal and made as follows: ℞ 1 lb. of sugar; drachm i 176 of pearls; and drachm i t of white and red coral; make a powder of them, and mix with sugar of roses, to be taken with rosewater. Give this electuary at bedward 177 and on rising: ℞ ounce ii of each of these: diatragacanthum frigidum, diapenidii frigidi without cinnamon. Mix them well and drink with barley water. If putrid fever 178 be combined with hectica, rosata novella is good {} in the first form of the combination of putrida  p.99 with hectica. If possible let a little blood then, because we 179 ought to check the putrid matter first, as it kills a man quickest, and here diatriosant: and diarrhodon abatis are advantageous.

Understand, unless putrida be in conjunction, or there be an imposthume on the intestines, or the sick man have a cough, a bath is good in this fever twice a day, after the food is digested, if he be used to it; 180 but it should only be tepid, because heat resolves and heats and purges, and therefore it is no use in this non-material 181 fever. He should also not be in the bath so long that he sweat 182 therein, but cold water should be poured on him at once, or else sprinkled, so that it hurt him not. A bath of tepid or hot water does not avail them for the purging of their bodies, so that they might endure cold 183 water at the end of the bath, according to Galen.

Averroes says cold water is best therein, if he be able to endure it with equanimity, and rub the extremities and the spinal column afterwards with oils, compounded of oil of violets, and water rue, or of roses or some styptic thing in which is some cold, 184 in order to retain the moisture of the bath inside. Let him be dried then with a soft linen cloth, and put to bed with cloths 185 round him; then give milk as before mentioned. When that is digested, bathe him again as before mentioned. When that is digested, bathe him again as before, and put him and put him in an empty 186 dwelling, lonely and sweet-smelling, in which is little air, and thereafter open the windows to cool the air,  p.101 for the air should be tempered 187 where he has no clothes on, while he goes into the bath. Let there be a cold bright cloth in sight of his bed, on which is sprinkled rose water, after the bath and the unguents. Have a vessel full of cold water in which are sally leaves and rose and vine leaves near to his bed, and spread sally leaves round it, gathered before sunrise, whereon rose water 188 is sprinkled, and let him sleep after eating. If the weather be hot, 189 let the air be cooled by water violently shaken, raised up in a vessel, and let down again into a vessel that is low.

If it come from the stomach, or the chest, or the kidneys, or the intestine called jejunum, the evil complexion spreads throughout the whole body. If from the heart, give cold cordials, such as roses, camphor, flowers of water rue, bone of stag's heart and the like. If it be caused by an imposthume, let it be cured as before mentioned. 190 If from heat of the liver, or from the midriff, the lungs, the womb, or the intestine called colon, or the veins called meseraie, then allay the matter whence it came first.

The following is the most appropriate and best bath here, a bath of warm milk, 191 and as it would be too costly for poor people, let them boil three gallons, or four of new milk, soak a sheet folded in three therein, and before it begins to cool, put it about the sick man. Have milk slightly heated, at hand 192 to pour on him for fear of his being injured by cold, and dry him  p.103 thereafter with a fine linen cloth. This is good for everyone who is in consumption, unless 193 fever or an imposthume be present.

Note, the cold of milk does less harm to the body than the cold of water, though cold of any kind is harmful to sufferers from hectic fever, according to Galen, on account of their leanness; and as he says, no cold thing gives help without harm; 194 therefore give cold things in the best order possible. Item take a large number of yolks of eggs, mix them well with new milk, and make a bath of them; it is not necessary to rub in unguents after this, as the yolks keep in the moisture of the milk.

The following plasters 195 are good for the stomach, the liver, and the warm dry members: rose, mastych, sanders, and wax for the stomach; hepatica, mastych, lignum aloes, and calcined ivory 196 for the liver. These are the juices 197 that are good for them: juice of houseleek, liverwort, sorrel, coltsfoot, lettuce, endive, plantago, and flour of barley meal; or put the substance of these in a linen cloth, and apply them to the part in which is heat, and it should be frequently198 changed; and if you do not this (frequent changing), it will do harm.

This is the nourishment (diet) that is ordered them: milk to be drunk as aforesaid; a bath to be taken after digesting food, and let him eat a little easily-digested food with moist substance 199. On digesting this he should bathe, and be anointed as above.


These are the meats best in this case: chickens 200 fattened on wheat, and yolks of eggs are good here, and a custard 201 made of them with a little wine. Capons are good fattened on wheat; partridges, and pheasants, 202 and lean pork. Averroes says, the latter is most nourishing, but only give a little of it, well pounded and well chewed. 203 Give especially the meat of the back, a little of which is good along with bread.

Item take barley or wheat, and boil it well in milk, or water, with many snails, 204 and feed the hens thereon; in this way they are good for lean people, as they fatten them. Item fatten a capon on the flowers of a tree that bears fruit in the first month 205 of summer; the which is good for sufferers from hectica. Item make small portions 206 of figs, and give to the hens to fatten them. Piglings 207 and flesh of kids roasted, can also be given in this sickness, on taking off the hard, outer parts (crackling) that are on them; and flesh of lambs and kids 208 is good here; and I do not say to give meat to them, except that which has been mentioned hitherto.

These are the herbs that are good for their pottage: liverwort, mallows, violets, lettuce, patience, but lettuce is specially good for sufferers from hectic fever, as they need it to make them sleep. As their powers are weak and they cannot eat much at a time, their food should be divided, and a little given often. The fish that is best for them is freshwater fish, on which are scales.


The best bread for them is bread of barley and wheat mixed; 209 and add a little salt to it, and wash it in water or wine before it is eaten. Let it not be so new that it be hot. 210 It may be soaked in new milk, in which way it forms a good food, and very fattening. Let him not eat marrow or brains. 211 Nevertheless an ointment may be made and rubbed on the chest and joints of marrow of deer and calves, mixed with unsalted butter, fresh pig's lard, and that of hens; and add a little wax and gum arabic. This is very good, if hectic fever come from the midriff. 212

These are the symptoms thereof, delirium (want of sense 213) and shortness of breath; for in the delirium that is caused by the midriff, the breathing is short and quick, and in that that comes from the brain there is no great harm to the breathing, but rather to the eyes and nose, and drops of blood drip from them. Galen says, if this fever come from the midriff, the breathing 214 is now too short, now too long, and now too slow, and sometimes when he breathes in 215 the air, he has to draw in twice and do the same to expel it.

Item in this sickness the following are good: maidenhair, mint, pollitricum, together with liquorice and mallow flowers, also roses along with the large, cold seeds, and sugar. Rub salt and vinegar to his veins and feet, and wash them with sally and vine leaves. A laxative clyster is good in hectic fever, of violet oil and salt. Rub violet oil round the midriff,  p.109 and soak a linen cloth in cold juices and lay it thereon. It is not meet to cool that part too much, lest it provoke the cough. Put lettuce, poppy and coriander in their food. Cold air, produced naturally or artificially, is useful here, and is all but sufficient cure. In all hectic fevers where a man cannot take food, it is good to give a clyster made of cullis of chickens and capons, together with beef-tea, as 216 the attractive force draws away from the navel. This is clear in pregnancy; that is, it draws back (?) in the intestine called jejunum, for the clyster goes so far, and not beyond, except by violence.

Concerning the accidents 217 that come in this fever, understand that flux is dangerous in this case, as also in phthisis and dropsy. If it occur, give sugar of roses, red coral and pearls, together with mastych. Item take two handfuls of each of the following: plantago, ribwort, and shepherd's purse; ouncei of roses, and 3 handfuls of lettuce, and parched barley and make a drink thereof with water wherein is quenched red hot iron, together with sugar. Item it is possible to give a pottage of ram's flesh, and almond milk, and plantago, and liverwort, and cabbage leaves boiled in water and squeezed out.

Item take small white pullets, for those are the coldest, and feed them on barley boiled in sumach and violets: let him drink the broth of these birds and eat their substance. 218 Item if the sick man suffer from heat or burning along with the flux, let him take pills made of camphor along  p.111 with rose water, or plantago219, as follows: ℞ drachm i burnt ivory; drachm i of armenian bole; drachm iii of roses, and drachm ii of coltsfoot; and make pills of them, with poppy juice, or that of plantago; add drachm ii of camphor, and red coral. Item in this flux, milk is good, wherein are quenched river stones, heated red-hot two or three times, unless putrid fever be present; nevertheless, sufferers from hectic fever ought only to take milk before food. It is meet for them to use it from the beginning of spring to the end of summer, and though it is good for them at other times, yet not as good as then.

Here it is to be noted that an astringent bath is good for them, and Averroes says it is in the decrease of flux that it avails, and not in the static condition, as it would draw the matter of the disease all over the body. This bath is good here: take young cats 220, cut their entrails out, and put their extremities with cold wet herbs, such as rose, willow, and vine leaves, and lettuce. Add plantago by reason of the flux, and ribwort, tartary, 221 and leaves of the pear tree or oak, and boil them together in water, and bathe the sick man in it, as often as you wish, since it is not a material sickness, unless an imposthume, or putrid fever, be joined thereto, or raw humours, or corruption.

Regarding the hectic fever that comes from old age, following the consumption of the strong close members; note, it is found in old people and cold consumptive people, 222 and dry people and melancholics and young people; and honey and milk avail for the most part. However, Galen says honey does great harm to those who have hectic fever resulting  p.113 from old age, and he says he saw himself an old man 223 of a hundred years, and the food he would take oftenest was goat's milk, and sometimes he would eat a little bread, and other times he would mix it with honey, and boil it with bread or blackberries or mint.

It 224 is asked whether milk is good for old people, and it is certain that it is not; for hot moist things are best for the old. Galen says milk is cold, and therefore is not suitabie for them. Item milk is among the foods which corrupt easiest, for it is a susceptible thing; and such is not suitable for old people; and therefore it is found that it is not right to give it to them.

There are three substances in milk: curds, whey, and butter; and that is not suitable when the strength is weak, as in the case of old people; therefore milk is not good for them. Galen is against this in his book concerning the maintaining of health. I say, according to the intellect of Galen and his mind, that milk is good for old people, and there have been people who lived a hundred years on milk as food; though it is necessary to digest it well in the stomach, without letting it form curds nor turn to windiness nor cause oppilations, hence it is not good for those who have narrow veins naturally unless salt and honey be mixed with it, that it form not curds nor oppilations nor turn to windiness and in this way it is good, for it is easy to digest, and penetrates easily and agrees, though it is not easy to eat anything else after it, till it be digested.

Regarding his first reason, when he says milk is cold, I say that there are two cold parts in milk and one hot; namely, the butter, which is more nutritive in that way, than when it is separated from it, for the whey helps it to penetrate; and the curd  p.115 stimulates the strength when it is not separated, though the danger is that it curdle in the stomach. If this be prevented, it is good, for it is hot as regards the butter, though the other two parts be cold. I say regarding the other two, that they can be saved from corruption by salt after it has been put into the body on digesting it well; for it is not good any other way. This is soon recognised by the weight, the contortions (?) and the like. With regard to the third reason, I say that there are not three substances actually present in milk, but only theoretically and potentially (i.e. in latency); and it is all the better for this, as the whey helps to penetrate before the butter, and clears the passage of urine and faeces; while the curd is present in latency 225, and helps the weak members.

Gaddesden says milk is not good for all old people, but only for those who can sleep and digest it well, and who do not feel any pain in the sides, 226 especially the right side; whose veins are wide, and who do not suffer from sour eructations or flatulence after it. Give sweet-tasting milk to them, from an animal pastured in a good meadow. 227

The following herbs are good for them: woodbine, parsley, mallows, endives, smallage, yellow-flag, not kail; 228 and fresh meat is good for them; and they should eat dried figs, ginger and cassia, 229 as these purge them well; kneaded 230 bread,  p.117 boiled well with honey or wine, is good for them; also a bath of sweet water and wine, as it moistens them well. Also moderate exercise and sleep, for Galen says, they suffer much from want of sleep, hence they should get lettuce, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, spikenard, and lignum aloes. Wine, new or old, is not good, but only medium wine, and let them drink plenty of it; for Galen says, to give wine to youths is naught but adding fire to fire when the fuel is weak 231: and he says to give it in moderation to young folk, but to the old as much as they wish, unless the head and the nerves be weak. Those whose veins are wide should take milk along with honey and salt, and dried figs with nettle seeds the first day: good claret helps them, made from sweet-smelling spices; 232 and let them avoid blood-letting and coition, or too much of the same, or meditation or cogitation, 233 though occasionally anger suits them well, as it heats them; but in moderation. Galen says no man ever died of it; and neither depression, 234 nor repression, nor work is good for them, except a little, but instead of the work let them take a bath.

If you say wine helps them, therefore milk does not, because preservation is brought about by likes, not by contraries 235; then I say it is proper to preserve healthy people in health and rule them by their likes, but old folk are not well except with complaining. Galen says they should be called neutral, and therefore they should be kept on moderate things, in which is some heat and some moisture.

Item a laxative clyster is good for them, of oil of  p.119 violets or common oil, in order that the bowels may be kept relaxed, and if necessary give a little senna, as it is good for the sight. Item if fattening 236 be desired, take pitch and soften it between your fingers beside the fire, and apply it to the sufferer after bathing, and change it often, the which draws the blood to the surface of the skin. The bath that is desired for fattening, should be taken after food, before the digestion is complete, unless the closing of the veins or an imposthume be feared. In that case, let them be rubbed with oil of roses or lilies, and again apply the pitch, and repeat often; otherwise let the body be slapped frequently with little rods, 237 and apply a poultice of pitch; and it is right to do this in order to fatten the members that have gone to wasting: and both the bath and the emplaister should be local. Note that vinegar is not suitable for lean old men to take, nor any acid things, as they reduce flesh. In the same way winelees, which people take often as a laxative, and old people should only take a little, as they are but lights ready for extinguishing. 238

Item Galen says, boiled 239 onions are good for them, and garlic, if they be used to it, and make them a sauce of ginger, mustard, and cinnamon, anise, cucumber, mint, parsley, mace, cloves, and the like; or this sauce: mint, parsley, sage, dittany and pellitory; and this is good against cold, and flatulence of the stomach, its weakness, and that of the intestines: if he suffer from hiccup, let him use anetho, and let him hold his breath, and let hot things be applied to the stomach, as for instance, 240 a hot hand, a hot pillow, or a hot plate {}.


5. D. Cardiaca Passio 241 etc.

Cardiaca is a tremulous movement of the heart, praeter naturam which is caused by fear, or compression, or depression. 242 The cardiaca that is called syncope is a movement 243 whereby motion and sensation are removed from the body for the greater part, through weakness of the heart; and syncope is synonymous with little death.

There are two causes of cardiaca, an internal, and an external. The following are the external causes: excess of heat that comes suddenly, or excess of cold, or excessive weakness of nature, such as excess of sweat; a bath made of rotten wood 244 as Galen says, and everything that causes nature to collapse suddenly; coitus superfluus, accidents of the soul, and everything that disperses the heat suddenly from the heart, and drives unnatural heat in suddenly to it. Poison, on being taken, has the same effect, and the bite of a poisonous reptile, 245 and everything that weakens the heart and its force; worms, and excess of food and drink; pestilential air, and bad time of plague, intercourse with a woman suffering from lepra, and too much meditation. 246

These are the internal causes: 247 diseases which have affinity  p.123 with the medial members, such as the heart; and therefore cardiaca comes from diseases of the brain, such as the falling sickness and apoplexy. It also comes from diseases of the stomach, such as distension and exhaustion, and stomach ache, for Galen says, the mouth of the stomach is more sensitive than any other member; and colica and iliaca have the same result. The same is true of every flux, whether it be diarrhoea; haemorrhage, either haemorrhoidal or catamenial; or sweat, if it be excessive.

Item the same effect is caused by anything that drives bad vapour to the heart, such as worms; 248 matrix in qua retinentur menstrua corrupta; corrupt humours in the liver, or the spleen; and it is produced by the clogging of the pores and the passages; through excessive heat of the heart, and thinness, or heat, or cold of the humours; and through excessive pains of the teeth, the head, or any other part of the body; or through ulcers, imposthumes and pus; and because of sickness that comes from 249 aches of the teeth, or nerves.

Galen gives manifest causes for this disease, such as diarrhoea, haemorrhage, weakness, hectic fever, and long sickness, for then the weakness is great and consumes the spirits, as those recovering from a long sickness have but little blood and heat and spirit in them, and natural heat. Therefore the heart is weak, and when a burden is put on anything weak, it trembles suddenly, and is very unsteady (?) 250 because of it.

For Avicenna says that the spirit is the root and the heart the branch, and when the fundament is injured, every instrument that comes from it is injured; but there is a  p.125 doubt, is it the spirit that is the root of the heart? It has been affirmed that it is not, for the spirit is engendered in the heart.

Avicenna says the heart is the prime (earliest) 251 thing in the body, and the spirit whence it comes; therefore it is the heart that is the root, and the spirit the branch. Item the heart can be, although the spirit is not, 252 prior to the existence of the spirit, for it is said in Prognostica that it is into the heart life comes first, and goes from it last; therefore the heart is the root of the spirit.

Avicenna is against this, when he says the spirit is root, and the heartis branch. Galen is against this in Prognostica, where he says the body 253 is compounded of the carrier, and the carried; the spirit or the force is the carrier, and the body the carried; and therefore the spirit is the root.

We say in this connection, that “spirit” can be understood in two ways, one with regard to the natural heat, and the other with regard to the vapour that is subtler than it. For there are two vapours in the heart: the denser vapour, that is 254 the natural heat, and the vapour that is subtler and hotter, which is the spirit, and it is of this that Galen speaks in Prognostica.

I say, as Isidorus says, that there are two lives: the life called nutritive, and the life called sensory. 255 Taking the spirit as the life force, it is said that it is the first instrument of the soul. And thus Galen says that the body consists of that which carries, and that which is carried. The force is the carrier or  p.127 the active spirit along with the force which it carries; therefore I say, the body is heavier dead than living, because of the loss of the spirit that carries and lightens it. In the same way Galen says there is erective force in the body of a man standing, for if there were not, he would fall. This is clear in the case of weak people, for through the weakness of their erective force, they cannot remain standing. He says in like wise, of the bird which when flying through the air lingers hovering by virtue of that spirit, for Avicenna says, the spirit is the carrier of the force. Having regard to these facts, we say the spirit maintains and is root, and the heart is branch.

Heart is taken in two ways: one improperly, 256 of the lump of flesh from which the heart proper is generated. The shape of this mass is as is the shape of a cone, a little before the soul is put in. Heart is taken properly after it has been formed in such wise, on the addition of the soul, and according to the former mode the heart is prior quoad generari to the other members of the body; but not prior quoad generatum esse, by priority of time but only by priority of nature. However, it is prior by priority of time to those other members that are required for the well-being of the body such as arms and legs. 257


Or it could be said, the force is in the spirit as in the root, 258 and in the body of the heart as in the branch, and therefore the heart is a branch of the force, for it is from the force heart is said to be heart. But spirit is spirit as long as that 259 vapour lasts which is called the spirit according to Galen, that is, the temperate vapour, and this statement is not amiss; 260 but taking the spirit as brother to the natural heat, as Damascenus says, it only lives as long as the man lives, for it then grows cold, and the natural heat corrupts, and putrescent vapour takes its place. Or I say, the spirit is the root which forms the heart and the heart is comforting branch, for when it (the spirit) helps the heart, the heart helps the members.

I say now as a first reply, 261 that this spirit is generated in the heart, however it (the spirit) is the co-formative 262 root of the instrument (i.e. the heart) coming with it (i.e. the spirit) in which it works, for it (the spirit) is generated in another place than the heart, if we mean to speak of the secondary and accidental generation, for instance the animal spirit in the head; for that takes to itself there the power on account of which it is called “animal” by which it sets in motion the animal forces which are called sensation and movement.

I reply secondly, 263 that it is into the heart that life comes soonest of all the constant members, although not of the fluid members, such as the spirit and the humours, according to Averroes. Or else I say they could come together, that is  p.131 to say, that the heart is prior as regards sovereignty, and that the spirit is prior as instrument, and is the root of the instruments 264 of the heart. If it be said that it is the work 265 of nourishing that is first used (?), and therefore the liver is prior, I answer that the liver is (merely) the first to exercise (?) the first (i.e. primary) function, and not (first) by priority of universal dominance 266 and dignity, for there the heart is prior, nevertheless as regards the priority of partial dominance, 267 the liver, the brain and the testicles are prior; that is, they are principal as regards dominance and superiority of office. There are many principal members, such as the stomach, and the lungs, for Galen says there are seven principal members, according to the number of the seven planets.

The external causes are known by the patients own indications. If cardiaca come from the defect 268 of another member, it is recognised by that sickness and its signs. If it come from the blood, 269 it will be recognised by those things, that are natural, unnatural or contrary to nature. If the urine be red and thick, the pulse undulating, the face red, and there be heat round the neck, 270 and the patient suffer extreme thirst, and he be young, liberal, 271 and jolly, and favour foods that increase sanguine humour, then it is right to say the cardiaca comes from sanguine humour. If the urine be thin and yellow, the pulse rapid, accompanied by great heat, and the patient be used to hard work and running, and foods that engender  p.133 choler, then it is right to say the cardiaca comes from that humour.

If it come from phlegmatic humour, the urine will be thick, scant, the pulse irregular, 272 and the patient somnolent, and if he be young, and it be winter time, the phlegmatic fluids will be seen to go to the heart, preventing its natural movement, and therefore it beats in an irregular and tremulous manner.

If the cardiaca come from melancholic humour, and the season be autumn, the patient will be low-spirited 273 and timorous, and it is not surprising that melancholics be fainthearted, for they bear the cause of fear in them, according to Galen; therefore it is seen to be caused by the melancholic vapours invading the heart. For Galen says the heart is noble 274 and deems it degrading to endure those loathsome vapours, and therefore it beats irregularly; and there is trembling in the head, 275 the hands and the feet whenever the force cannot control the matter or the member, 276 for it is a compound motion, as opposed to natural motion, for a limb to tremble.

If the cardiaca come from worms, it is worse before food than after, for whenever the patient begins to take food, the worms flee up before it. If it come from inanition, it is worse before food than after, and if from repletion it is worse after food. If it come from sudden flatulence, it will leave him suddenly; and if from heat, the pulse and the breathing are rapid and irregular; and if from cold, 277 the breathing is slow and irregular.


The following are the signs of the weakness of the heart, called syncope. The patient will have a slow, uneven pulse; the colour of the face changing; the eyes closed as if for sleep; and sweat round the neck. On seeing him thus, you may say the weakness called syncope is at hand.

There are three signs of the weakness called syncope, prognostica, demonstrativa and memorativa. These form the prognosis: trembling of the heart, the colour of the face changing to an unnatural hue, the pulse fluctuating to slowness, and cold of the extremities. These are the demonstrative symptoms of syncope: want of sensation and motion, and the hue of the face as of one dead. These are the symptoms as to memory: the things which recall and signify the internal and external causes already mentioned. If syncope come suddenly without external or internal cause, that is a sign then that it is caused by diseases proper to the heart itself, and this form is bad and is fatal. 278 The patient should be asked if he feel density or rarity of the heart, or heat or cold, and the causes can be recognised therefrom. If it come from poison, it is recognised by a bad taste in the mouth, and by other symptoms of poison. 279

If trembling of the heart continue long in this disease, it signifies death. 280 Item if a man suffer from continued tremor cordis in this illness, and syncope come suddenly, bleed him (?). When the evil complexion is excessive, it weakens the force, and the weakened force induces tremor, and tremor causes syncope, and syncope causes death.

Item if a man suffer prolonged syncope, and the hue of the face turn to the colour of ashes or green, or black, that is a sign of sudden death. Item when anyone has syncope,  p.137 if powder be put in (up) his nose to make him sneeze, and he does not sneeze, it is a sign that there is no manner of cure for him.

Item whether the imposthume of the heart be big or small, if it be big or if it be small, if it be cold or hot. 281 If it be hot, it kills on the first day; if cold, on the second day; if small like a pimple, on the fourth day it causes nose-bleeding and kills. 282

Item accidental mental pain comes to the heart, weakening it, 283 such as depression, worry (mental oppression) or anger; but physical pain comes to it less; and if it come, he will not endure it long, for death intervenes before pain is confirmed in the heart.

Item if there be a wound in the heart, look whether it be in the right half or the left. If in the right half, whether it be big or small. If it is big, it kills forthwith; if it is small, it kills the first day. If in the left half, it kills the first day, or whatever time it comes, whether it be big or small. For Galen says, the split that is made in the heart is deadly undoubtedly; but not necessarily so a gash in the other organs, unless it be big; and he says (also), a split is not worse in the other organs, such as the lungs, for they are always in motion. 284

Item Avicenna says, the heart cannot suffer injury or imposthume, and he 285 says in the book De Animalibus, that the heart cannot endure heavy sickness. He  p.139 says on the other hand, the heart suffers syncope, i.e. “little death”, and it suffers imposthume, according to the reasoning of Avicenna, which is, that an imposthume can exist in every member; as everything that can be increased naturally by taking nutriment to itself, 286 can be increased unnaturally by excess of nourishment.

I say that the heart endures serious disease often, that is, it suffers it a short time, but not for long, as do the other members, for the heart does not suffer a heavy illness, except from a slight cause. 287 I say also, an imposthume can be on the heart, but it does not suffer it to be confirmed therein, for death comes without delay before the static period; and therefore, I say that pain seizes the heart for a time, but constant pain does not seize it; or it could be said that the heart suffers pain through “sympathy” with the other members, and the union (?) therewith, and not from its own proper disease. 288 It can be said that the heart does not contract an imposthume in its own substance, for if it did, its own function would be impeded, that is, life, and death would come. For Avicenna says, the heart contributes to every member, and does not receive from them. 289

Much is needed for the cure of this case. The first thing, is to comfort the heart, and then to digest the matter, then its evacuation, thereafter dieting and then particular treatment at the time of the paroxysm.


As to the first of these, understand that sweet-smelling things are meet in every case of tremor cordis. If the cause be hot, cold sweet-smelling things should be given, along with a few hot things: so that they may be the more penetrating. If the cause be cold, hot sweet-smelling things should be given, along with a few cold aromatics; unless the cause be too strong, 290 for in that case only contrary things should be given.

There are many {} simples that are required for relieving the heart, and many compound things, and there are hot simples and cold simples and medium compounds. 291 The following are the hot simples that relieve the heart: amber, i.e. the sperm of the whale, and storax, and calamint, lignum aloes, nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves, sweet-smelling wine, elecampane, saffron, melissa, mace and setwall.

The following are the cold simple cordials: rose, nenuphar, camphor, sorrel, vinegar, rose water, and coriander, sweet pears, peony, 292 and sour milk, tisane, violets, coral, dandelion, 293 camphor, burnt ivory, tamarind, and silver.

The following are the temperate cordials: pure gold, and borage flowers, provided they make for heat, 294 also bugloss and its juice. The following are the temperate cordials, verging towards cold: 295 ivory turnings, bone of stag's heart and burnt silk, 296 although they incline to heat and dryness: they lit. it  p.143 can be taken thus, or raw; they lighten the sight if they are rubbed on the eyes, and refresh the memory, therefore it comforts the animal spirit, and the natural spirit also, as it fattens the body, and the life spirit, according to its property, as it illumines it.

These things are good in those two cases: coral, pure silver, 297 pearls, borage, bugloss, saffron, burnt ivory, melissa, lingua avis, spikenard, and lignum aloes. Of compound things, there are cold and hot; the following are the cold composites: syrup of roses, and of violets, and nenuphar; diatrionsantalon; sugar of roses, and of violets; and diadragacanthum frigidum. The following are the hot compound things: diamargariton, mithridatum, and rosata novilla. The following are the temperate composites: diaboraginatum, 298 diarrhodon abatis.

Give him my own electuary, ℞ drachm i ½ of cinnamon, and drachm i of each of these: spikenard, lignum aloes, sanders, anise, endive; drachm ½ of each of these: red roses, gariofil, cummin, and red sanders; a scruple of each of these: cardamomum, spodium, i.e. burnt ivory; drachm ½ of each of these: storax, calamint, borage flowers, bone of stag's heart, unbored pearls; and 1 lb. of sugar. Make this with two parts of honey and rose water and the third part of water of borage; and it is good in every weakness of the heart, whatever time it occurs; 299 and I have often proved its goodness myself.

Item in (cases of) weakness of the heart, drachm ii of juice of bugloss 300 is good regularly if the cause be cold; and it improves it to add gariofles. Item against syncope and palpitation of the heart give drachm i of gold filings; and drachm iv of these: been albi, and been rubri; drachmiii of red and white coral; drachm i of  p.145 pierced pearls; drachm ½ of bone of stag's heart; make a powder and use in food and drink. I do not know of a better cure than it for diseases of the heart, and it is called “Golden Powder”; and it is not known how often it has been approved in this case(?). 301

Item lignum aloes is good, and good sweet-smelling wine, wherein lignum aloes is steeped for a time, and it should be given to drink in tremor cordis and syncope. The sign of trembling cardiaca is to put the hand on the left breast; and if there be tremor, then it is trembling cardiaca; and if not, it is syncope, which is called “little death”. Item bone of stag's heart is good along with good wine, in which has been put water of roses and bugloss,  302 and it avails in every kind of cardiaca, for it purges melancholy from the pericardium, and so comforts the heart.

Understand that a thing is said to comfort the force in five ways. 303 One by strengthening the spirits, and restoring them, as do sweet-smelling things. Another way by restoring the humours and strengthening them, as do wine and easily digestible foods. According to this, bread 304 soaked in wine or capon broth strengthens the force through nourishment. Another way, by increasing the natural heat, as do hot things. Another way, by contracting and uniting parts of the stomach and the heart moderately, as do styptics. So rose and other styptic things comfort internally and externally as emplaisters, for every force is stronger by union than by division. Another way, by evacuation of excess matter, as do laxatives; and so agaric is a cure that affects the heart, and myrobalanum, for  p.147 they purge the gross, melancholic, corrupt vapours of black bile from it. 305

So treacle is good against poison, for it helps the heart in fighting against it, that is, against a drink of poison, or the bite of a poisonous reptile 306 or of a mad dog. In the same way tormentil is good, along with a fatty broth or juice of bugloss, against every poison. The force can be comforted aiso by dilating the heart moderately, as does saffron, but it is not proper to give more than a little of it; for Avicenna says, if much of it is given, it kills him who takes it, by the excess of mirth it causes and incites. 307

Item let a powder be made of roses, lignum aloes, saffron and gariofles; and mix rose water with it, and soak a new linen shirt therein, and let the person who has the disease wear it, for it renews and comforts and vivifies the heart; and this is good for hectics, consumptives, melancholics, and other trist folk. 308 Understand that it is not proper to give a simple medicine in affections of the heart, unless some cordial be given with it.

The second thing mentioned is accomplished by the varying of digerents according to the changes of the peccant matter. If sanguine humour be responsible, 309 digest the matter with borage and bugloss, by making a syrup of them, and with syrup of roses, in which is put black sanders and camphor; and take their flowers, and put them in a linen bag. If choler be responsible, digest the matter with syrup of borage, bugloss, violets, and nenuphar to which is added sanders, and roses and camphor, and take the flowers of these herbs {} 310 after  p.149 putting them into a bag. If phlegm be responsible, digest it by syrup of borage and bugloss, and by oximel of squills, 311 in which is put nutmeg and marjoram; and let him smell 312 an apple made of the sperm of the whale, and lignum aloes, and nutmeg. If melancholy be responsible, digest it with syrup of borage and bugloss, and syrup of fumitory, and with oximel of squills in which is lignum aloes, and cinnamon, and gariofil.

If the matter come from flatulence, the member should be rubbed, and let the sick man take diagalanga, garyophyllatum, diacyminum; and avoid all things that cause flatulence, such as peas and beans and the like. If the matter come from worms, give ounceiii of juice of elecampane, along with juice of smallage, for these kill the worms, when given with vinegar syrup or sour milk; and cabbage seed and hemp seed do the same, and ounceiii of roots of elecampane kills them.

The third of the things we mentioned is fulfilled by laxatives, 313 and things that purge the matter of the disease, and that bring comfort to the heart, according to their property; such are, in the case of sanguine humour: cassia fistola, violets, bugloss and borage flowers, to be given along with capon broth or whey of cow's milk after straining. A vein should be opened in this case, provided that it purge the cause, 314 the heat, and the spirit; and though this causes greater weakness than any other purging, according to Galen, nevertheless it avails. This is how that should be understood: that purging by blood causes greater weakness than purging by any other medicament. 315 Where he speaks of a vein, this  p.151 is how that should be understood: when a vein is let excessively it causes greater weakness than any other purging through medicine, for the vein purges every humour and the heat and the spirit, and no other purging does as much; neither is the spirit purged to the same extent by any other purging, except it be a remedy of poison which brings a man to syncope. 316 It is of the purging that does not speak of (cause?) syncope 317 and does not exhaust the force, that I speak. Indeed, no other purging causes the patient weakness as does letting a vein, because of the suddenness with which the blood comes out, and the heat and the spirit also. For in the other purgings, the humours, the heat and the force are purged more gradually, unless the retentive (?) force be impeded, 318 or a laxative be given in excess.

If the matter come from choler, let it be purged with violet, tamarind and cassia fistula; for Avicenna says, tamarind comforts the heart in people of evil complexion with a tendency to choler, for it moderates the heat of choler, and cleanses it by the laxative power it has. In the same way, myrobalani comfort the heart when there is depression present or weakness from thinness of the blood. For Avicenna says, they cool according to complexion, and according to force they purge the burnt matter therein. Similarly rhubarb comforts the heart by relieving the liver first, as the heart is life to the liver, according to Aristotle. 319 The following are the composites that purge choler: violet-sugar, diaprunus, 320 diarhabarbarum, and electuaries of juice of roses.


If the matter come from phlegm, let it be purged by agaric and turpeth, along with a little ginger, and give him a drachm or two with sweet-smelling wine. These are the compound things that purge phlegm: hiera picra Galeni, and hiera Logodion. If the matter come from melancholy, let it be purged with senna and polypody, and of the latter Avicenna says it rejoices the heart per accidens by drawing off melancholy 321 from the brain, the heart and the whole body, but anise and cummin should be boiled therewith to overcome the flatulence. These are the compound things that purge it: diaboraginatum {} 322

The fourth thing mentioned is accomplished by digestible foods, which easily turn to the nature of spirit; 323 and therefore Avicenna says, water of meat is good here, as it turns easily to the nature of spirit. And know, according to Avicenna, that the force is increased by wine, and subtle foods, and by sweet odour, by joy and tranquillity, and by avoiding depression and anger, and by rejoicing in pleasant things, and by remaining with friends. Therefore Constantine says, on the authority of Galen, that conversation between lovers and sages removes trouble from people, and from the interior members. 324

Item roasted chickens are good, larded and sprinkled with wine and syrup of roses, the wine to be sweet-smelling.


If the cause be cold, let him drink 325 it hot with gariofles; and if hot, let him take it cold; and if he can eat meat {} 326

This is the nutriment that is good in the weakness called syncope, if the cause be hot: sour milk, when the butter has been taken off it, cold fish, sugar, 327 ripe (black)berries, good pears, and sweet-smelling apples. If the cause be cold give warm yolks of eggs, and a custard, 328 and meat, and eggs whipped up with milk, and saffron prepared with broth of capon, and beef. Squeeze the soup out of them then, and pour wine over it, the which food is very good.

Item roast chickens, partridges, or mutton, or pheasants, and put therein gariofles, and lard, and sprinkle rose water with sweet-smelling wine thereon; let the patient smell it for long; then bruise it well, and put in a linen cloth, and squeeze the juice out of it, heat it, and give to the sick man, and he will get great comfort therefrom.

Item give nutritious easily-digested foods to those who suffer from wasting of their flesh (consumptives), and give aromatics by degrees in small quantity; and give these sweet-smelling things upwards 329 to a woman suffering from syncope through suffocatio matricis, and give them downwards to the men who suffer from weakness. Give these nutritious and easily-digested foods to those who suffer from wasting of their flesh, and give a little of the sweet-smelling things by  p.157 degrees to them who are weakened by 330 inanition, not by repletion; for they err who give wine, and sweet-smelling things internally to people suffering from heart-weakness and loss of force through distention; so food should not be given in every weakness called syncope, for there is more need of purging by clysters and vomiting and abstinence, and to cure them by rubbing and by bandaging the extremities. 331

The fifth thing mentioned is fulfilled by sneezing, and by rubbing 332 the extremities, and by sweet-smelling things. Therefore when a man is in a paroxysm of this sickness, let a hen-feather soaked in strong vinegar be put up his nose; to compel him to sneeze, and it will check the paroxysm.

Item let rose water, or any other water, be poured suddenly about his face, the which avails in the paroxysm, although it does harm thereafter if it remain long on his body, as in the case of syncope caused by crude humours and by fear. 333 For that increases the crudity of the matter and keeps it and the spirit inside, and therefore the water shouid be poured on him suddenly and not be permitted to remain on him. Sometimes the water should be poured on gradually and allowed to remain, as in the case of syncope caused by joy, or by fiux; thereafter he should be made to vomit, and rub the nose 334 and shoulder-blades, and fumigate them, and the belly, 335 according to Galen. 336 Cold water avails poured suddenly in this case, because of the shock which excites the heat, but 337 it were better then to excite  p.159 it by rubbing and sweet odours. In a cold case, however, resulting from repletion, it is not good 338 to pour the water at first, but at the end, not on account of the complexion, but of the shock it gives. Then let sweet-smelling things be applied in this case, 339 such as sanders, violets, and nenuphar, placed in a linen cloth; but in a cold cause add lignum aloes and laudanum. If it come from phlegm, give alipta moschata, and rub the extremities, and especially when the matter comes from repletion. If the matter come from poison, give tormentil with wine or milk in it, or nuts with figs, and warm juice of milfoil. Put a broad stick between his teeth, and call him loudly by his proper name, 340 and give treacle to him, and diamargariton and wine.

In the case of trembling cardiaca, rubbing of the extremities and round the heart avails; and let him smell the following: 341 ambergris, and roses, for cold things should be mixed with hot and dry here, so that they may last the longer, also hot things with cold, so that they may penetrate the easier. Let a linen cloth be soaked in rose water and put round the heart, 342 and it will relieve it, and give mace and gariofles to cornfort it. A light bath is good in cardiaca or syncope.

If it come from flatulence, it is good to rub the extremities with a hot cloth, and to put reddened 343 oats round the stomach, and use dianthos (?) and diamasum, and let everything  p.161 that engenders flatulence be avoided, as peas and beans and hot bread. Hot bread 344 though is good on being soaked in wine, for it increases the force and the heat, and preserves a man from poison and from plague etc.


6. E. Apostema 345 est, etc.

Galen says an imposthume is the same as a swelling according to the ancients 346 and nescoid in Gaelic is the same as apostema in Latin; apostema is the same as ‘a tumour after leaving its natural disposition. {Dicitur enim apostema a post & tumor .i. posterius tumor .i. tumor superveniens post dispositionem naturalem.}’ ([R. A. 943.]) And therefore it is called tumour, so that it might not be thought that the superfluous fat the body takes to itself because of nourishment of food and drink is imposthume.

Another doctor says apostema is the same as a swelling beyond nature. 347 Hali says apostema is a compound sickness, that comes from malice of the complexion, and quantity, and form. 348 Avicenna says apostema is a compound disease in which is found every kind of sickness, for a malicious complexion and composition are therein; and it errs 349 in its position and quantity, because of excess of malice and repletion (and) separating the parts one from another, 350 as an imposthume is never without malice of complexion, and composition, along with matter, i.e. peccant humour.

Constantine says that this is not true, for he says in the ninth book of Pantechnes that ‘a hot imposthume arises from malice of complexion, without peccant humour. {... quasdam phlegmonas nasci a mala complexione.}’ (8 Pantechnes cap. 12 [R. A. 944.]) I say  p.165 in this regard, as does Galen, that a hot imposthume 351 may be understood in two ways; one of them regarding acute hot imposthumes, that are formed often by sanguine humour, and the other, because of excess of heat and burning; and it is thus Constantine understands it; for he says, a limb suffers heat and redness in this disease, as in fever.

And Constantine says on the eighth book of his Pantechnes, that apostema is the same as fatness or swelling, that a member suffers on account of excess of humours. And Galen says, regarding the fifth section Hippocrates wrote, that apostema is swelling and fatness beyond nature in bodies; 352 therefore since unnatural swelling can be in every member, so also an imposthume can be in every member. And it is clear, according to Galen, that swelling in excess of nature can be in every member, for Avicenna says thus: every member that can be increased naturally by taking nourishment to itself, can be increased unnaturally and every member can be increased naturally by taking nourishment, because it is nourished; therefore it can also be increased unnaturally, (and) therefore, an imposthume can be in every member. 353

And Avicenna reasons in the same way with regard to the teeth and the bones; and regarding imposthumes of the brain called frenzy accordingly: 354 I grant that imposthumes can be on the brain, but Serapion says they can not, for it is a soft, wet, fluid member and so does not suffer matter to remain, 355 therefore imposthumes cannot be thereon.

To this we answer and say, there remain four things proper for an imposthume to form in a member: the first is the flowing of excess towards the member; the second the member absorbing it; the third its retention there; the  p.167 fourth fatness or swelling: 356 and of these the first three can be in the brain, but the fourth cannot occur there obviously, i.e. the swelling. Nevertheless I say Avicenna allows that imposthumes can be on the brain in its own substance, for it is a tough, earthy 357 member, and therefore it retains the matter of the imposthume; the which is true.

Still greater is the doubt as to whether an imposthume can be in the heart, for Avicenna says the heart does not suffer imposthume, and Hali says a man dies before the pain is confirmed in the heart. And I say with regard to that, that every imposthume is fatal in the substance of the heart, and therefore it does not suffer it to be stabilized therein, that is its stasis, for it is with regard to its stabilizing he says stasis, or the end of its increasing, because a man dies before he reaches the “static” period. 358

These are the causes 359 of imposthume: Firstly, matter flowing or being sent from one member to another. Secondly, excess of nourishment collecting in the same member.

The first of these is produced by six causes. First, the strength of the member that expels the matter, for Galen says, the strong members send their excess to the weak members, and the noble members to the ignoble. Second, the weakness of the evacuatory force in the member that receives the matter. Third, the quantity of the matter. Fourth, the width of the pores. Fifth, the want of nutritive force and power of360 conversion in the member, to which the matter has been sent. Sixth, that the members 361 which receive the matter are subject to the members that put it from them. Constantine puts these causes  p.169 in the eighth book of Pantechnes, and 362 these two further causes may be added to them: — namely, the movement of the member to which the matter is sent, and its heat.  363 For Galen says, it is easier to pour the matter to a member that moves and heats, than to other members; therefore the imposthumes that move and are caused by crisis are oftener formed in the joints, than in other places, because of the amount of movement and space therein.

The cause of imposthumes formed from excess of nutriment gathering in a member, 364 is the want of nutritive force in the member, that cannot digest perfectly the food that comes to it; and the excess matter grows gradually until it fills the member.

This is how an imposthume grows in a member when it comes from malice of complexion therein, or through excess that is sent to it from another member, stronger than itself; and it cannot expel or digest in itself: the excess remains in the member and forms an imposthume in the following manner; if sanguine humour  365 or any other humour is drawn to the member in such quantity that it fills the veins entirely, then the veins are stout and full, like a vessel, and some of it flows from the pores to the space in the member surrounding it, which it fills, and separates the parts, forming the swelling there that is called imposthume.


There are six species of imposthumes in general 366 according to the matter367 from which they are made, i.e. the four humours, wateriness and flatulence. From sanguine humour is formed the imposthume called phlegmon, i.e. great swelling; 368 and so there is a difference between it and the imposthume formed from choler, 369 for in that there is only a little swelling, and it is sharp without being broad. If therefore sanguine humour is strongest, phlegmon is its name, and if phlegm is strongest, a soft imposthume is generated there called zimia. 370

371 If it be choler; the imposthume engendered is called erysipelas. If it be inflammatory melancholy that is strongest, the imposthume called cancer ulceratus is formed (at first?). If acid melancholic humour is strongest therein, then is formed the imposthume called sclerosis, that is a hard imposthume. If sanguine humour is strongest, the imposthume called carbuncle is formed, for it reddens like a coal of fire, the which is a compound imposthume.

Note that there are imposthumes both compound and simple, the latter from one humour only. Avicenna says: is the blood thick or thin? If it be thick, it forms an imposthume phlegmon, that affects the flesh and the skin together, accompanied by throbbing; if it be thin, it forms an imposthume that affects the skin only, without throbbing, and spina is its name. If it be formed from sanguine humour and choler, and sanguine humour be the stronger, there is  p.173 formed the imposthume called phlegmon, or erysipelas. If choler, then is formed that called erysipelas phlegmonides. 372

Avicenna also says that hot imposthumes are formed from choler373 and that there is thin choler, thinner choler, and very thin choler. From thin choler, 374 the imposthume called formica corrosiva is formed; from thinner choler, that called formica miliaris, the which is more in the flesh than in the skin, and is like a big ant. From very thin choler is formed the imposthume called formica deambulativa.

Let us speak now of the cold imposthumes, and of the four things of which they are formed, i.e. of phlegm, and melancholy, flatulence, and wateriness. In the imposthumes formed by phlegm, some are made of thin phlegm along with a little choler, of such are (the) pimples that grow in the night, and they are called “daughters of the night”. 375 Others are formed of gross phlegm, 376 such as neck boils, and imposthumes of the armpit, and the groin, and of this kind are warts. Of medium phlegmatic humour is formed a soft imposthume, without pain. 377

From melancholic humour is formed sclerosis, that is a hard imposthume, and cancer, that is a canker, and glandules, that is imposthumes which are like acorns and which separate themselves from the member and are wrapped up in  p.175 skin; 378 and scrophulae379they also adhere to the skin, and not to the member. The two other imposthumes mentioned, cancer and sclerosis, stabilize themselves in the substance of the member, and there is a difference between them, for sclerosis remains in the member without pain and hinders sensation, 380 while cancer is mobile and painful, and does not hinder sensation unless it be there too long, and kill the member.

These are the watery imposthumes, dropsy, hernia (i.e. the dipping), and sometimes there is a watery imposthume on the peritoneum. 381

These are the imposthumes formed from windiness, that is one 382 in which there is a swelling, as there were breath in it, and the flesh and the skin separate one from the other, and when it is seized, it so to speak gives with you: another imposthume called cachexy has windiness in it, in the substance of the member and when it is seized it does not give with you, but disperses through the pores.

And know ye, that the imposthumes formed from the four humours have four seasons, inception, increase, stasis, and decrease. 383 Inception, when the matter begins to move to the surface of the member and begins to increase. Increase, when it enlarges and swells. Stasis, when it remains and does not increase any more. Decrease, when it begins to diminish and ripen, and then turns to pus, or disperses without sensation, or becomes hard, for these are the four 384 ways in which imposthumes finish.


These are the signs whereby is recognised the matter from which the imposthumes arise; colour and pain and accompanying fever, speed or slowness of movement, the feel 385 when touched by finger or palm, as Hali says.

These are the signs of the imposthumes that are formed from sanguine humour, redness386 and swelling round them, fulness of the veins, throbbing, flaccidity, and leaping. Averroes says the signs are red colour along with extreme heat, and great pain. These are the signs of the imposthumes that are formed from choler, the member becoming yellow, violent pain, and thinness of the humours; and of this kind is the imposthume called formica deambulativa. Symptoms of the imposthume formed from phlegm: the member white, without great pain even on pressure, and it is soft: and swollen with a broad base. Symptoms of the imposthume formed from melancholy; no great pain, colour black, dark and swarthy, earthy (?) and the veins round it are full of melancholic humour.

If the imposthume come from matter poured from member to member, 387 it comes suddenly, and if from excess of nourishment 388 in the member, it comes slowly, by degrees. If the imposthumes be compound, they will have compound signs, according to the humours of which they are formed. If sanguine humour be responsible, and be strongest therein, the colour of the imposthume will turn to dull red. 389 If choler dominate, it turns to bright red unless it become purulent. If salt phlegm be strongest therein, it will become white, with a kind of yellowness, because of the mixing of phlegm with choler, for choler is bright when it is not mixed with any other  p.179 humour: usually there is itching in the place wherein is salt phlegm. If melancholy be strongest, the colour is black and blue and heaviness, insensibility, and great hardness are present, for if there be sensation it would not be formed from pure melancholy. No imposthume is formed from pure melancholy, but from dense, black, earthy (melancholic) blood only, for Averroes assents that it does not cause fever unless it be mixed with phlegm, or red blood; therefore it does not form an imposthume, for the matter of both is the same. 390 And Isaac says in the treatise he himself wrote on the urine, if an imposthume were formed of corrupt burnt humours turning to the nature of poison, such as formica, carbuncle, anthrax, and noli me tangere, it will be evil-smelling, with pain and itch, a blue black colour, corruption and mortification of the member.

Note, imposthumes are generated in the internal members, as they are in the external, and some of them kill suddenly on account 391 of the nobility of the humours, and the members and the violence of the fever and the pain; such are diseases of the heart, and its imposthume: other things kill more slowly, such as imposthumes of the liver, the spleen, the reins, and the stomach. There are other things again that have special names, such as imposthume of the ribs, called pleurisy, and this is why it is so called: — pleur in Greek is the same as easna in Latin (sic) 392 and in Gaelic, and “sis” is the same as position, therefore it is called pleurisis from its position on the rib, or near if, on the midriff. Peri-pneumony,  p.181 i.e. imposthume of the lungs. Frenzy, i.e. imposthume of the brain.

And there are four signs 393 by which an internal imposthume is recognised, swelling, pain, injury to the functions, and the things we have mentioned, as are urine, faeces, and their like. And there are five special signs of true pleurisy, that cannot be separated from it, as are difficulty of drawing breath, continuous fever, cough (and) pain in the side; and Avicenna adds the fifth sign to these, a serrated pulse, like the teeth of a saw, 394 striking at long intervals with a pause between.

Note, a hot imposthume is said to arise in two ways, i.e. it may come from hot matter naturally, or it may assume heat accidentally, through putrefaction, as Avicenna says.

These are the symptoms of imposthumes on the lungs, undulating pulse, heat between the shoulders, redness of the cheeks, puffiness of the eyes, very high fever, and difficulty in drawing breath, as though “he” were being suffocated.

Symptoms of imposthume on the liver: the pulse 395 less than that above mentioned, pain along with heaviness, dry cough, frequent change of appearance, blood in faeces, and the patient does not lie on his right side; the urine turbid, like water that meat has been washed in; the shape of the imposthume is like the new moon, and the body is lean.

Symptoms of imposthume of the spleen: swelling, and hardness 396 in the left side only; it is otherwise as regards oppilation and hardness if no imposthume be present, for then  p.183 there is hardness in them both; for the spleen is a long loose member situate in the left side, and ordained to purify sanguine humour, though Averroes says, the spleen is sometimes found on the right side, and the liver on the left (side), but since it is seldom found physicians pay no heed to it. 397

Symptoms of imposthumes of the reins: — pain, heaviness, steady fever; and if it be in the right kidney, the pain rises till it reaches the liver; and if in the left, it sinks to the bladder. 398 If the cause be hot, the pain is acute and darting; if cold, the pain is heavy, unless the cause be windy, for in that case the pain is light, and moves about from one place to another.

Symptoms of imposthumes formed through crisis, 399 that turn to pus: when the sickness 400 is not acute, without hot matter present from hot humours, and the force is neither strong nor weak, but between them. These imposthumes come out in medial diseases 401 that do not cause death suddenly, nor quick recovery; for it is necessary where this imposthume arises, that the disease be of long (chronic) 402 duration, and the humours gross and hard to digest, and that the matter be not wholly purged, as Galen says in the second book of Prognostica, for then the matter is terminated through the imposthume or by degrees 403 or through an insensible dissolution. Galen says in the third book of Prognostica, when the humours are hot, the  p.185 force cannot be strong, and this is how that should be understood: in a disease that comes from hot humours, and finishes by this imposthume; the force cannot be strong, but weak, for if 404 it were weak, it would be bad, and 405 if it were strong it would finish the matter by diarrhoea or sweat, or insensibly (?) and that is the way in cold humours. 406

If the disease come in winter or 407 on an old person, and if no crisis or other purging come to him, by the end of twenty days, and the sick man improving, then it is a sign that it will finish in an imposthume, 408 and where most sweat comes, there the imposthume will form. If the veins of the temples dilate409 and beat, and the breath be quick, it is certain there will come an imposthume at the base of the ear, or the cheek, or in the throat. If there be strong tension below the midriff, or in the groin, or in the thighs, 410 accompanied by pain and inflammation, that is a sign that the imposthume is in the lower members.

Galen says in 411 laborious fevers the imposthume is formed chiefly in the joints and in the cheeks because of the weakness, the movement, and the looseness of the members, and their flaccidity. For the movement draws the excess matter to itself, and the fever sends it to the weak members; as the doctor says, 412 nature readily sends the matter and the excess of the humours, towards the weak members.


Let us speak now of the urine, that is, of the urine of those who have this disease, i.e. imposthumes. Note, if there be two colours on the urine, the colour of camel 413 wool on top, and the lower part of the colour of inopus, that is the sign of an imposthume. If the urine be like that of a brutish beast, that is a sign 414 of frenzy; if the matter be dense and watery, it signifies lethargy.

Item if the urine be red-brown, 415 turning one day to the colour of inopus, and leaden on top, with saffron-coloured foam; that is a sign of a hot imposthume on the liver. Item if the urine be turbid, scant, and raw, that is a sign of a cold imposthume on the liver. Item if the urine be thick in substance, and somewhat high (?) coloured, 416 together with many little bright granules in its midst, that is a sign of an imposthume of the stomach, from phlegm.

Item if the urine be low 417 in colour, according to Egidius, and thin in substance, and much radiance in it like a sunbeam, with little bodies like ashes underneath; that is a sign of imposthume or stoppage of the spleen. Item if the urine be black in colour like the hue inopus, at the beginning of the disease, that is a sign that death will result 418 therefrom; at other times it typifies an imposthume on the kidneys, if it be scant.

Item if the urine be of the colour called cyanose, 419 which is a composite colour of white, black, and red along  p.189 with fatty corpuscles, that signifies an ulcer in the bladder arising from an imposthume therein. If there be red sand in it, that shows the kidneys 420 are not sound; sometimes this sand comes from the burning of sanguine humour in the veins, and then the urine is high-coloured: if it come from the kidneys it is not high-coloured, but whitish, being drawn from them before it is digested: in this way the sand results from the burning of blood, 421 and is soft; at other times it signifies a stone in the kidneys, and is not soft, but hard, as is generally clear in the matter of stone.

Let us speak now of the prognosis of this disease of imposthumes. Hippocrates says, the pain is stronger when ripening, than when they are matured; Galen says this is true, especially if the pus be expelled. 422 Note, some imposthumes are terminated by the end of twenty days, others by the end of twice twenty, and others by the end of three times twenty days. If the matter be hot and the member hot, it is finished by the end of twenty days: if the matter be hot and the member cold, or the matter cold and the member hot, it is finished by the end of twice twenty days; and if the matter and the member be both cold, that finishes by the end of three times twenty days. Let that be counted from the day on which these accidents appear, and become stronger or more serious than they were at first; i.e. shivering, 423 and horripilation, and sharp fever. Expect that the imposthume will break by the end of twenty days or twice twenty days from then, or by the end of three times twenty.

Item if the matter of an imposthume on the surface (?) 424 disappear suddenly, it means one of two things: the  p.191 matter resolves itself imperceptibly, or else it goes back inside to gather again in the entrails,425 and that is bad and dangerous; for if the matter turn in again, the fever continues together with the other accidents, 426 that the matter gave rise to at first, and the sick man is none the easier; but when the matter is dispersed imperceptibly, the fever ceases and the sick man gets relief.

Note that there are five causes by which the matter of the disease disperses imperceptibly (i.e. the matter of the imposthume). These are, the thinness of the humours, the rarity of the member, the heat of the air, the virtue of the remedy, and the strength of the patient's vigour, as Galen says in the second book of Prognostica.

Item all imposthumes occur more frequently in winter, than at any other time, and remain longer, and if they be relieved they do not come back again, as Hippocrates says in the third book of Prognostica; and it is of the imposthumes occurring in crisis, 427 caused by cold humours, that he speaks; for those humours are more numerous in winter, and it is then these imposthumes are most frequent and most plentiful.

Item an imposthume that is in a principal member, and is without pain, signifies that nature has lost the guiding force 428 there and especially if it be formed of sanguine humour or choler. And Damascenus says, 429 a painful imposthume is seldom caused, except by hot humours, and Hippocrates says in the first book of Prognostica that the hard imposthume which is formed painlessly, is not dangerous, but if it be formed  p.193 with acute pain, it is dangerous; excepting such imposthumes formed from a humour in which are hardness and dull pain. Item430 the imposthume that does not turn to running does not cause unnatural external heat431 such as that formed by flatulence which 432 becomes hard. The imposthumes that are on the noble internal members cause fever, and some of them cannot be easily felt, as are imposthumes of the chest, or lungs; and there are others hard to take hold of, such as imposthumes of the liver, the spleen, the stomach, the small intestines, the kidneys and the bladder, as says Averoes.

Item the imposthume that appears below the navel, seldom turns to running, because of the coldness of the place wherein it is. Item the imposthume that has a sharp head, and is not broad below is better than the imposthume that has a broad base without a pointed head; 433 for the former shows the strength of the force that expels the running (pus).

Item when an imposthume of the side 434 turns to one of the lungs, or frenzy to lethargy it is bad; but it is less harmful if it be an imposthume of the lungs that turns to one of the side, or lethargy to frenzy — as Avicenna says. He says also, when the matter goes from a noble member to an ignoble member, that it is a good sign; but when it goes from an ignoble member to a noble member, or to a member that cannot digest it properly, it is a bad sign. Note, fever and trembling, come often when the pus is formed, because of the matter breaking and burning the skin. 435

Item hard imposthumes that are on the liver 436 can be cured at the beginning of the matter, with great difficulty;  p.195 thereafter it is not possible, for it turns to dropsy within fifteen days; and then the hardness is not apparent to the touch, and that is the dropsy that cannot be cured. Note, the imposthume that is at the back 437 of the liver is usually cleared up by three things, by urine, by sweat, and by nose-bleeding; and an imposthume inside the liver is most 438 times terminated by flux, by sweat, or by vomiting.

Item a hot imposthume, that is in fleshy places 439 is occasionally terminated by dissolution, for the nature of the flesh is weak and loose, and it is near to moisture: 440 an imposthume that is in a sinewy member 441 gathers slowly, and disperses more slowly; for the gathering is slow there, and the harder it is, the slower does it disperse, as Galen442 says on the 3rd section that Hippocrates wrote, and Isidorus443 says in the 3rd part that Damascenus made “that which comes easily goes easily”.

Item every imposthume that is formed from contraries, the more direct it is the worse it is, for it shows the amount and the badness of the matter which nature cannot control or endure, because of its contrariety. For Galen says the disease in which are many and diverse kinds of matter is longer than the disease in which is one kind of matter only, though it be much, for nature cannot digest much and diverse matter, in a short time. This is how that should be understood, of compound diseases caused by heat and cold, as compared with diseases caused by heat only; and it is not right to take it of diseases compounded of heat and cold, as compared with  p.197 those caused by cold 444 only, for simple quotidian fever is longer than hybrid (?) tertian, caused by choler and phlegm.

All imposthumes caused by burnt matter, 445 such as anthrax, formica, carbuncle and the like are worst and deadliest, and if accompanied by fever, the patient seldom recovers; and therefore they greatly err who open the black pustules, before they are ripe: if they are opposite the heart or near it, it is fatal, and if they vanish suddenly without relieving the patient, it is a sign of death.

Item every imposthume, out of which blood or yellow matter comes before the seventh day, unless it be broken by force, is fatal; for nature cannot evacuate the matter (of the imposthume) suddenly, by the digestion of a certain thing outside of nature, for the digestion that nature does at the beginning of the matter does not avail. Nevertheless if many good signs come from it afterwards, there is a chance (?) that he will not die quickly. 446

Note, moreover these are good signs in every disease; the sick man's force strong and he himself constant 447 and the breathing good, and he evacuates easily and entirely the matter of the disease; equal heat in the body; and no violent thirst; that he be right as regards urine, faeces, sweat and sleep. And whoever is thus, will get over any material sickness. The author of this treatise puts that into Latin verse; and these are his words in Gaelic, 448 (i.e.) force, mind, lightness, spirit, sleep, and beating. Gaddesden says, these signs are good in  p.199 this disease, and this is how he explains them: the force to be strong and powerful; lightness, 449 that is, the patient finds relief from the sickness after the signs of digestion;  450 and speaks with reason; spirit (?) i.e. the species of heat or cold evenly balanced; of sound mind i.e. he should be sane with no ravings arising therefrom; sleep, i.e. to be good, and untroubled by imaginings or ugly visions; beating, i.e. a strong beat apparent in the pulse, for unless it were thus the symptoms would be bad. 451 But although Avicenna says we did not know how many good signs we viewed with horror, such as the heaviness of sleep, the exhaustion of the pulse, and the want of sweat; yet the patient came out of it at last to the crisis. Nevertheless that happens seldom, and therefore these signs are dubious, and therefore an accurate prophecy cannot be made here, as happens often in acute sicknesses. This word “beating” can be explained another way; i.e. the beating of food on being chewed in the mouth: for it is a good sign if the sick man can masticate his food well, and beat it hard with the teeth, and swallow it properly. 452

Since we spoke above of the symptoms and causes of imposthumes, let us speak now of their cure. The cure is varied according to the stages of the disease, 453 for it is meet in the beginning to give repercussives; and in the increase, when it grows and broadens, repercussives along with maturatives but more of the repellents. At the stasis give maturatives  p.201 only, or more of them, and less of the repercussives or an equal amount of both, and in the decrease, things that disperse the matter.

Item it is proper in the beginning to apply repellents to them (i.e. the imposthumes) except in certain cases. One case, when it is clear that the body is full of evil humours, and again when the matter is poisonous as in anthrax and carbuncle for then it should rather be drawn off than repelled, or if the imposthume be near to a principal member. Another case is if the force be weak as in those rising from a long sickness, old people, children and pregnant women, 454 for Damascenus says the repulsion is hindered in imposthumes in three ways: by a humour, if it be poisonous or raging, for there is beating 455 then according to (the) force, or by a humour that errs as regards quantity, because of its amount, so that it fills the vessels; 456 and it is not right to cause repercussion then, but to reduce 457 it according to its force, because if the force be weak, a repercussive should not be given. Another case where a repercussive should not be applied: if the imposthumes be in the groin, or the throat, or in the armpits; for it is thither the noble members send their surplus, and if the repellent be given there the matter is returned to themselves then, and that is a great danger. Another case is, if there be an imposthume on the anus, a repellent should not be given, for it is thither all expel their excess. Another case: if it be an imposthume resulting  p.203 from crisis, a repellent should not be given except if the matter flow towards a painful noble member, such as the eye for then it is meet to apply it. 458

The cure of hot imposthumes is effected in two ways: by the purging of the humour of which the imposthume is formed, and by removing the evil complexion. If the imposthume is caused by choler, it is necessary then to alter the evil complexion; if the imposthume is caused by phlegm, or corruption, then it is meet to give purgings. And Averroes adds a third method here, to remove the antecedent cause.

Note, imposthumes have antecedent causes, such as repletion 459 and primitive causes, i.e. external causes, such as a fall, a blow, or the bite of an animal. The imposthumes that are formed from primitive causes are sometimes formed with repletion of the body, and at other times without it, although there is local plethora in the member wherein is the imposthume, the which plethora is caused by the dispersal of the matter to the member. And this dispersal is caused by the repletion of the whole body, or by that of a member that is near to the imposthume, or by the strength of a member that expels its excess to another weak member, and the tying 460 of the members together helps to this end, or the wideness of the passages. Sometimes the cause of the drawing of the matter to the place of the imposthume is the hot evil complexion of the member, for attraction is the property of heat.

Another cause thereof, is the very great pain 461 of the member wherein is the imposthume; and the pain is caused by the bad complexion which generates it, or because  p.205 of the bad complexion which is caused by the excessive movement of the evacuatory force, when it expels its excess from it, as Galen says. It may be said according to this, that pain draws, 462 for it is the cause, according to Galen, whereby nature puts the matter to expel the injurious products; and so it only does harm by accident.

If repletion be the cause of that drawing, and if it come from sanguine humour, let a vein; and if it be because of the malice of another humour, purge him with a purgative or by vomiting. If both be responsible, let those three things be done; and let the drawing be done to the member that is farthest from you opposite it, such as, if there be a hot imposthume on the eye, 463 apply the (cupping) horn, along with scarification, to the back of the head; for this purges the matter, and draws it strongly in the opposite direction. Galen464 says if there be an imposthume on the right hand, let the blood be drawn to the left; and vice versa, 465 regarding the right, that is, if it be the right foot let (it) be drawn to the left foot. 466


56. Regarding the cure of warts etc.


Let the patient abstain from all melancholic foods, 467 such as beef (and) duck, (and) ganders, old salt-meat, kail, peas, cheese, meat fried in fat, entrails of animals; then take hens' feet and put them under cinders until their flesh and skin separate, then rub the hot skin on them (the warts) three or four times, and then extract the blood all round, with your nail. 468

Item take burnt willow bark and mix it with vinegar; this will cure warts on being applied to them, and porrigo and ficcus i.e. soft warts near the anus; there are a number of little granules in them as are in figs, and therefore they are called ficcus, for ficcus is the same as fig; and on whomsoever they be, let him drink the juice of pipinella, and apply it whole to them as an emplaister, and it heals.

Item a thing I have proved myself often on my own body, is to rub acrimony on them 469 (the warts) frequently and bruise with salt and vinegar, and apply it to them every day as an emplaister, and rub on portulaca every other day; the juice of willow leaves has the same effect.

Item droppings of goats and vinegar applied to them 470 avails; if it is put on hot to them often, it heals. Calsidus471 says a proper common remedy for them is to rub common burdock 472 and urine on them: if they be like acorns (glandulous) or like knots on a joint (nodular) then ashes of snails 473 along with stale unsalted lard helps them, and there is nothing  p.209 better for them than that, and it heals all the imposthumes that are like acorns. And Johannes de Sancto Amando says, that unripe figs mixed with vinegar cure them, and he calls this “the King's Remedy”. Item a cure in which is no deceit, is to wash them in the water in which a dead man has been washed. 474

And there are many kinds of these (warts), such as lupia, and acrochordones, and note, it is good to cut them, and cauterize the place, so that too much blood may not flow from them; or let garlic be broken together with salt, and change it between the day and the night three times, and continue using it well for nine days thus, and press them out with a plate. 475 If it be desired that blood shall not flow from them after the cutting, apply cobwebs to them, or white of egg along with the hair of a hare. And a common cure is to tie them round the base with a strand of horse hair, or a thread of silk, until they fall off. 476

And Averroes says that the imposthume called carbuncle is most frequent in time of plague when the air is corrupt, and therefore the blood boils 477 and putrefies; and an evil complexion and putrid fever composed of diverse humours come(s) thereafter. Formica is as follows: an imposthume that travels in the skin 478 and is not broad: sometimes there are broad 479 pustules, which move from one place to another, and form sores; they have wide roots and are of the colour of ashes (yellowish), and fiery choler is the cause thereof.

Anthrax 480 is a poisonous imposthume formed from  p.211 burnt humours, and felon is its name in English; the humours in this do not burn as much as in the imposthume called carbuncle. In it are many colours, such as yellow, red, blueblack, and black like a wheel (rainbow?) 481 because of burnt sanguine humour 482 and burnt choler which turn to the nature of poison and melancholy, and form ulcers. And for this it is called anthrax; antrum in Latin is the same as umha or clais483 in Gaelic, for they make a furrow in the place wherein they are. Their cure is similar to the above and consists of blood-letting and purgatives, and it is necessary to purge all the humours, for they are all to blame in this case. Understand it is not proper to open them (the imposthumes) until the matter is purged, for it does not find a channel for evacuation because of the amount of matter, therefore it goes to the heart, and because of the excessive pain, it kills; 484 as I once saw a man die on whom was a black pustule of this kind, on opening it with a needle.

Item in the case of these, let cold things and strong styptic things be avoided, and repercussives that repel the matter towards the principal interior members, and do not thicken the matter too much. Item avoid over-hot dispersives so that the hot matter be not inflamed; but apply dry cold non-corrosive things to them in which are some attractives, 485 such as plantago, barley meal, and bread of bran and alum along with vinegar. Note, as a general rule, every remedy for felon, cures carbuncle.


Since 486 we are speaking of felon, these are its prognostics: vomiting, strong pulse, cold sweat, heart weakness, and if that increase it signifies death. Item the felon which has the colour of flame is not curable. Item dry some pig's gall and apply a piece the size of the opening to the ulcer, and if none of it adhere to the sore, it is a sign of death, and if it do, it heals the felon: and likewise the bite of a mad dog.

Item for the cure of felon; open a vein in the same Curatio. member, 487 for it is a common rule that the matter should not be drawn to its contrary. 488 Put then, repercussives round it, and resolvents that be not too hot, on the imposthume itself. Give things against the poison internally, such as violet, and hypericon, and scabious; let the bowels be kept constantly relaxed with senna, and cassia fistula, and violets. In order to ripen and break the felon, let yolks of eggs, with a little salt and honey well pounded together, be applied frequently during the day; or let an emplaister be made of figs, or of sour dough, with oil (spurge?) 489 and salt.

Item if peacock's droppings be applied, it breaks, ripens, and heals the anthrax. Item bruise daisies between two stones, and put them on it and raw yolks of eggs, and burnt salt mixed well, and this will break it by the end of the third day. Item bruise pimpinella, along with linaria, the which is very potent in this case. Item bruise scabious along with lard, it is approved potent in this case, and clean the spot then, with juice of smallage, and pure honey, 490 and wheaten meal. If the pain be intolerable, take lily roots bruised and boiled in water, and apply them, or roots of lily and daisy, with  p.215 white of egg, and add a healing powder of mastyche, dragon's blood, roses, and the like. If it be desired to draw the matter from a noble member to an ignoble one, rub with juice of savory, 491 from the place where the felon is, to the place where it is desired it should go, and apply a resolvent poultice to it then.

Item against the Fire of God, 492 that is, the imposthume called erysipelas, take new cheese and bruise (?) it strongly, 493 and mix with honey, and rub thereon. Put leaves of kail on it after that, and it heals.

Let us speak now of imposthumes of the testicles; 494 sometimes the vessels harden, and imposthumes appear on them, 495 and (from this) there is swelling in their own substance at other times there is swelling 496 in them because of rupture and this has the appearance of an imposthume, but it is not so. And the following is the cause of it: ‘Est aliquando sperma, quod est in via, non habens completum exitum; sicut accidit illis, qui loquuntur cum mulieribus, & tangunt eas, amplexantur fortiter, cupiuntque coire, & tamen desiderio non satisfaciunt. Aliquando accidit induratio propter equitationem incommodam equi succusantis, vel propter saltum super sellam ascendendo, ante vel post sellam, super lignum. Aliquando propter pollutionem nocturnam inchoatam & impeditam.’ ([R. A. 930])

If it be caused by sanguine humour, then the colour will be red: if it be from semen the colour will be swarthy.

The following are the cures: give a clyster of rue and tutsan, cummin, pellitory, lovage, walwort, oil of roses, and benedict, sharpened with vinegar, and with agaric. Item  p.217 it is good to make him vomit with the middle bark of elder, 497 and he should eat but little food, and that easily digested.

If the evil be in the right half, 498 let a vein of the right arm for him; if in the left half open a vein in the left arm likewise: mix together cummin, flower of beans, oil of walwort and pellitory, and let it be applied to them, or whole beans, and wine, and bran. Item ℞ take pellitory, rue, camomile, mallows, pansy, 499 a fistful of each, and boil in water; put a stupe about the testicles of these; to be applied fasting.

If the cause be hot, let oil of roses be rubbed on it; if cold, rub on oil of camomile. 500 If the place be red, take tepid juice of plantain and dip a linen cloth 501 therein, and apply. Open the medial vein of the joint internal to it. 502 Apply the blood of a hare, hot, to it, and cassia fistula thereon, which ripens it and every other hot or cold imposthume also.

Item henbane 503 boiled in wine is good for every hot imposthume of the kidneys and testicles, on being applied to them and an emplaister of mallows. Item kail 504 ripens the imposthumes of sanguine humour, and softens their hardness, and duckweed (?) does the same. If the imposthume be phlegmatic or watery, let the matter be digested with the roots of smallage and radishes, and with watercress, hyssop, calamint, liquorice, and honey; let it also be purged with agaric, and again repeat the clyster, and the vomit. Then apply to them things that penetrate, as are southernwood, boiled in wine and vinegar.

Item moss of a tree (lichen?) boiled in wine or in  p.219 oil is good for every imposthume that is in a sinewy member: the scrotum is sinewy, 505 therefore it is good for it. Item watercress with water, honey, and salt avails for swollen testicles, if the cause be cold; and for every cold watery imposthume. Item turpentine and salted pig's lard is good for hard imposthumes. Item wallwort, and rue, and bean meal, is good as a poultice in every windy imposthume.

Item506 turpentine and flax seed, fenugreek, seed of mallows, saffron and finely sifted bran is good for every hardness and for every cold imposthume, though it be soft: 507 if there be pain in it apply anise to it, as it stops the aching. 508 Item fenugreek, 509 fried in butter or oil, is good for hard imposthumes, and it is hotter than flax seed. If you wish it to have a stronger effect, add lily leaves to them; for they stop the pain better than the roots, nevertheless there is a ripening, dispersive force in the roots, and Avicenna says lily leaves are good for hot imposthumes.

Let us speak now of the hot imposthumes 510 that are in the uterus, which are formed by an external cause, such as a blow, or a fall; or from an internal cause, such as retention of the menses, or difficulty of child-birth.

These are its symptoms: weakness of the heart, syncope, pains in the head and neck, heaviness of the eyes; flaccidity of the extremities; constant thirst; 511 the nature of the urine {} the disease called dysuria, and fever for the most part.

A cold imposthume is formed from external causes, as are a bath in cold water, a cold wind, sitting on a cold stone, and from cold viscous foods, 512 such as milk, or too much fruit. It is formed also from internal causes, such as retention of  p.221 urine, or excess of cold humours; the symptoms are, heaviness in the lower limbs, and occasional fever; and cold things afflict the person who has it. If it be a hard imposthume, there is hardness in the share, 513 and in the mouth of the womb, heaviness in moving the members, and especially in saphena and 514 veins of the ankle (?). It is not the same as mola matricis, for if a hand be placed on it hard, it moves from place to place, as though pregnancy were present.

Hot imposthume of the womb is cured 515 by letting the vein of the liver, 516 and the vein called saphena, for the catumenial flow is withheld therein in this tumour: cause vomiting afterwards, and make a tisane in which are boiled violets, and coltsfoot. Let the patient consume but little food and drink, and make long vigils, and place sweet-smelling things in the place wherein she is. Then put cassia fistula in her remedies; 517 boil mallows, flax seed, and plantain, 518 and mix oil of roses therein, then soak wool in it, and apply the wool thereto. Let it be ripened with mallows, and dactylis (?) and with gander's fat and barley meal; and put it as an emplaister on the share and the place where the pain is. If it be ripe, break it with figs and mustard, and with droppings of goats or doves, and clean the ulcer then with honey water.

Cold imposthume of the womb is cured by vomiting, by an attractive clyster, and by agaric; and digest the matter with fennel roots, smallage, maiden hair, caeterach, pollitrich, plantain roots, and scabious, a fistful of each of these; columbine, pimpernel, daisy, mulberries, fumitory, hypericon (?), half a fistful of each of these; a quart of liquorice, one ounce of fennel  p.223 seed, half an ounce of camomile seed or flowers, 519 and a drachm of violet flowers. Make a syrup of this with water and let it be used early, at noonday, and at bedward, and this syrup cures every imposthume and felon in cold weather, and delivers from poison; and from the columbine it is named. It is also good in hot weather provided one thing, that the cold things be increased in hot weather and the hot lessened. Violet water is good in the case of every hot imposthume mixed with nightshade (?) 520 and roses, and therefore bear this in mind for the use of every imposthume, except the imposthume of the brain called phrenesis.

And if the imposthume be hard, take marrow of stag, lard of gander and duck, beef marrow, hardened yolk of egg, butter, and red wax 521 drachm 2 of each; and take then fennel seed and flax seed, equal parts of each, and boil them in water or in wine, along with the things we said before, and let it be applied to the womb by 522 a pessary.

Item, in the same case, vine leaves are good, and oil and honey water, and leaves of kail. And Avicenna says, if a hard imposthume go uncured beyond a month, and 523 the pain be not checked then, it cannot be dispersed by treatment.

Item take old pig's lard drachm i½, 524 and the same amount of wax; drachm i of gander's fat, and drachm iv of honey and of butter, and drachm ii of galbarnum. Break the galbarnum in a mortar, along  p.225 with drachm iv of oil; melt all these things, and pass them through a cloth, and use this against every swelling and hardness, and against every cold disease and pain of the nerves.

Note the best marrow here is stag marrow, because of the thinness of their humours, 525 and after that calf marrow; the best fat 526 is duck, because it is thin, and not sharp; and after that hen fat; and the best fat among the fourfooted animals is lions', because of its thinness, then cows' grease, 527 and goats' thereafter.

Item another thing for dispersing and ripening imposthumes is flax seed, fenugreek, barley meal, wheaten meal, figs, droppings of doves, and oil, and sour dough boiled along with them; and apply it as an emplaister.

Item let a powder be made of doves' droppings, and mix it with oil, and that expels every hardness and every pain. If there be windiness in the womb, make the patient to sneeze, 528 and give diacyminum for that is good against flatulence. 529


8. F. De Lethargo.

Let us speak now of Lethargy. Lethargy is an imposthume on the posterior brain, as frenzy is on the facial cranium, the which is true lethargy, for lethargia non vera is produced by vapours that confound the memory, or by choler mixed with phlegm. Lethargia vera is produced by corrupt phlegm in the posterior brain, and fever accompanies it. 530

These are the causes thereof: — everything that increases phlegm and choler in the body and in the brain, such as leeks, and onions, and garlic, and watery fruits, wine, plethora of food and drink, “crapula”, drunkenness, much food, great consumption of white meat, bread soaked in fatty broth, fish, pork, and much resting; and it never comes alone, but follows another sickness, such as continuous quotidian fever, 531 which is usual. This imposthume is situated in the passages (?), and holes of the cranium (?), and seldom in the substance of the brain. 532

Its symptoms are as follows: — continuous slow fever, and little pain, forgetfulness, confusion of reason, the urine somewhat thick and turbid, as it were the urine of a brutish beast; much false sleep, and sometimes he forgets to evacuate urine and faeces. 533

If the matter be compound and phlegm be dominant,  p.229 the sleep is the heavier thereof, and the patient is taciturn, and dislikes moving, 534 and keeps his eyes closed as though he were devoid of life. If choler be strongest, then the patient is restless and sleepless, 535 and keeps his eyes open, gazing at one object for long. If both these humours be equal, the symptoms will be intermediate. If produced by phlegmatic humour only, the patient is yawnful at the beginning of the matter, and he suffers from an excess of saliva, and heavy sleep, and keeps his eyes and mouth shut, and if these be opened, he forgets to close them. The faeces are frequent, copious and moist, and the pulse and breathing scant and oppressed, 536 and if the sufferers from this disease be addressed in a loud voice, and called by their proper names, they answer; 537 but if permitted they relapse into sleep without delay, and that is not real sleep, but heaviness and stupor.

These are the symptoms of this sickness, as regards its prognosis: — blue black colour 538 of the face, swelling, and disorderly movements, for these things are proper thereto. 539 Item if he be morbid, 540 eating much, and have a voracious desire to eat more, say things that are not comely, and expel his spittle constantly, it is a sign of death; and more especially if there be cold sweat on the face and neck. If these signs do not appear, it is certain he can be cured.

Note there is a difference between this disease and the disease called suffocatio matricis, for in the former one can speak, and in suffocatio matricis one cannot, and if one attempt  p.231 to speak to anyone, one cannot. 541 And there is also a difference between it 542 and apoplexy and epilepsy, for those sicknesses come suddenly, while this comes but slowly, by degrees. There is another difference between it and the weakness called syncope, for in lethargy the face is as the face of a healthy man, and in syncope, it is as the face of one dead.

Note, it is necessary for lethargics, that people talk loudly in their presence. Tie their extremities tightly, (and) rub their palms and soles hard; and let their feet be put in salt water up to the middle of their shins, and pull the hair and nose, and squeeze the toes and fingers tightly, and cause pigs to squeal (?) 543 in his ears; give him a sharp clyster at the beginning of the case, in which is hiera picra Galeni, centaury, southern wood and wormwood, and the like, and open the vein of the head, or nose, or forehead, and draw blood from the nose with the bristles of a boar. 544 Put a feather, or a straw in his nose to compel him to sneeze, and do not ever desist from hindering him from sleeping; and let human hair, or other evil-smelling thing, be burnt under the nose. Apply moreover the cupping horn between the shoulders, and let a feather be put down the throat, to cause vomiting, and shave the back of the head, and rub oil of roses and vinegar, and smallage juice thereon. On the imposthumes consolidating on the third day, or the fourth, take castoreum, and juice of red mint(?), water, vinegar and smallage juice, and let them simmer together, and rub them on the back of the head, so that they,  p.233 and the matter therein, are digested, 545 or soak a cloth in it, and apply to the back of the head, and change frequently.

Item apply a poultice of pigeon's droppings, and honey, to the back of the head, which relieves it greatly. Item if he have some sense, 546 and desire to take a remedy, it is sufficient to cure if he drink mustard and beaver powder and mint juice frequently; and let galbanum and stag's horn be burnt, and let its smoke go up under his nose on waking. And if he have a little of his reason, let the matter be digested with a syrup, in which shall be put sage juice, and betony, and rue, and mint, calamint, anise, fennel seed, cummin, nettles, seed of rue, vinegar, a little honey and sugar. If the fever be acute, give him a little of the syrup in which maidenhair has been boiled. If it be slight or the matter composite, give syrup of violets, and digest with oxymel of squills.

If the matter be produced by phlegm, 547 the eyes are open, and the gaze fixed, accompanied by signs of motion (twitching?); 548 and let the matter be digested, then, by oxymel of squills, and by syrup of fumitory, and purged by hiera picra, sharpened with a little colocynthis, and with hiera logodium. If melancholy be responsible here, let it be purged with hiera ruphi and with diasene (senna). If the matter be composite, let the remedy be compounded of hiera picra and an electuary made of oil of roses. 549

Item let things be given to drink, and a gargarism, and then put treacle on the tongue, and if he can, let him swallow it. In order to restore their memory to them, make an electuary of two parts of lign aloes, and cassia linea, and the third part of euphorbium mixed with pellitory and honey,  p.235 and give them a little at a time. Shave the back of the head, then rub it hard, and scarify it and immediately rub in the same things boiled. If the cause be compound, take roses and violets, and camomile, and mellilot (?), and boil them, and let them be rubbed in briskly to the back of the head, and dry at once.

Item if frenzy turn to lethargy, it is a sign of death; and if vice versa, the sick man often recovers.

550Item take the heart of a robin redbreast, and put it round the neck of him who has this disease, and while it remains there he will not sleep. Item take the same heart, 551 and the heart of an owl, and hang them up above the man on whom is this disease, and who has lost his memory, and it will give it back to him. Item the heart of a swallow cooked with honey, the which compels him who eats it to tell things that happened, and things that did not happen yet. 552


9. G. Hernia i.e. Dipping (?)

Hernia is a disease in which that part of the peritoneum called siphac breaks, or is stretched, and widened, and because of this, the intestines fall into the scrotum, or swell in the groin with pain, and prevent a man from walking. 553

Note that there are many varieties of this disease; a form caused by flatulence, another caused by wateriness, one produced from humours, and one from flesh, another from varicose veins, and another from the entrails. And this is true hernia, for it is that form where the peritoneum called siphac breaks, and in it the entrails fall into the scrotum: yet another form is from that part of the peritoneum called zirbus.

Note that there is on the belly, first the outer skin, inside that the peritoneum called mirach, 554 then siphac, inside that zirbus, and inside that again the intestines themselves. And as the midriff forms a wall between the digestive organs, and the respiratory organs, so does siphac between the intestines and the organs of nutrition and generation. It is like a sack which keeps up the entrails, and therefore when it is broken, they fail down; and when it is stretched, there is swelling and pain in the groin. 555 They seldom fall into the scrotum556 then but when this happens without pain, fever, or an imposthume; that is true rupture.

Sometimes windiness penetrates into the scrotum and causes it to swell; at another time there is wateriness there, and sometimes one of the humours swells in it; another time  p.239 there is superfluous flesh present, and yet again the veins are filled with melancholic humour and they become swollen, the size of a finger. 557 Another time the peritoneum called zirbus falls, and the sinews 558 which propel the semen towards the testicles thicken when they stretch too much.

These are the external causes of rupture: — labour, much shouting, jumping, especially after food when the belly is full; excessive sexual intercourse, riding an unsafe horse immediately after food, laborious coughing and an overviolent sneeze. Another 559 cause thereof is the semen breaking away for expulsion and being prevented by some cause, and stretching the sinews by which it is propelled towards the testicles, and causing the sinews of the latter to swell, which produces the same disease: it is also caused by prolonged constipation and by the retention of flatulence, as in the disease called colica passio.

To prove whether the peritoneum is broken or stretched, 560 the patient lies supine, squeezes the swelling, and puts it in with his finger: then let him sit up, and tell him to cough, and if the viscera fall, it (the peritoneum) is broken, and if not it is stretched.

Item let a fire be made him of elder wood, and when he who suffers from this disease smells the smoke thereof, the entrails fall down, and there is great hacking pain 561 and (roaring) rumbling in the abdomen and intestines, which is heard throughout the house.


If it be caused by windiness, there is flatulence in the intestines and rumbling, and the flatulence moves from one side to the other; if a finger be put on it, no undulation (?) 562 is felt, neither is heaviness present, but lightness compared to the other varieties. If it be caused by wateriness, the scrotum increases in size, accompanied by heaviness, and brightness; 563 if you take hold of it with your fingers and feel the watery fluid in it, which yields to the touch, and does not yield when it is (?) flatulence then the sufferer is disposed to dropsy. If it be caused by fleshiness, the testicles increase without pain, or imposthume, together with a certain hardness, and when handled, hard flesh is felt round about them.

If it be caused by  564 varicose veins, the veins are hard and long, as though they were crooked rods, like those seen in the calves of beggars who carry great burdens. If it be from that part of the peritoneum called zirbus, though the sufferer lie supine the matter is not returned. 565 If it be the true form it returns easily if he lie supine. If it be the sinews, by which the semen is propelled that are relaxed, because the holes in them are large and loose, it is easy for the viscera to fall into the scrotum, and the name of these sinews isdidimi. If it come from the humours, the body is full of evil humours, without pain, and if the matter be grasped, it so to speak “comes with you” i.e. yields to the touch, and there is an intermediate softness 566 between the variety caused by fleshiness, and that caused by wateriness.

Prognosis of this sickness: when the rupture is old, and the mouth of the wound blistered and hard inside, by  p.243 the end of a year, or half a year, it cannot be cured. Every form of rupture is easily cured at the beginning, especially in children, but it cannot be cured in old people, and moderately (?) in young people. 567 When it comes from the intestines, and is old, it cannot be cured,  568 except by chirurgerie, i.e by cauterising, together with a truss, or cutting, but that incision cannot be performed on old folk, and it is seldom resorted to without causing death. And if the stretched form of rupture continue beyond six months, 569 it must be left to chirurgerie.

Many things are required for the cure of this sickness; first of these, diet: the second, to put the viscera in their proper place: the third, to keep them there; the fourth, to heal the wound; the fifth, cicatrizing and firing, or cutting. 570 The first of these is carried out by keeping the sufferer for six months without repletion of food and drink, or allowing him too much exercise; and let him not eat fresh fruit or things that cause flatulence, such as peas, and beans, and new ale; and let him not eat his fill at one time, nor rise from the place he is in after food, except he have very great need of performing the works of nature: let him not go a journey, nor go up and down stairs, nor jump, nor shout. And if he ride, let him not mount by the stirrup but571 be in a high place sloping down, so that it (the horse) be below him, and he  p.245 come down on to it. If he must walk or do work, let it be finished before food, and keep the bowels relaxed with a clyster or a laxative pottage; avoid coition, and bathing, except there be so much swelling in the entrails that they cannot be put back, for then a bath may be taken to prepare him for that.

The second thing mentioned for the cure is carried out in this manner; the patient lies supine with his hips high and his head low, and he, the doctor puts the guts up very gently with his finger, until they go in by degrees to their own place. The third stage before mentioned, i.e. the retaining of the entrails in their own place, is carried out by means of a special truss made for this case, the width of four fingers; let it be made of linen cloth (and) with many folds in it, and with cotton inserted between, sew it well, and make a tie 572 by which it can be closed and opened, and let there be a hard wedge (?) of linen cloth attached to it, and put it between his thighs. 573


10. H. Paralysis est et cetera.

This is paralysis according to the author: — a disease of the nerves that comes, sometimes, after the falling sickness, or similar diseases. And “paralysis” is the same as to say the “wounding of a member”. 574 Sometimes the entire half of the body is afflicted, from the head to the foot, and 575 it affects a part of the tongue or the whole and prevents speech, and that is called general paralysis. Sometimes it affects but the tongue only, or one foot only, or the finger only, and that is called partial paralysis.

Therefore there are two kinds of paralysis, general paralysis, and partial. According to that, paralysis consists in the softening of the nerves (sinews?) by taking from them their movement and perception, the which is true paralysis; in false paralysis only the sensation is taken away, or the perception, or the movement, as though a limb were asleep, or were frozen, or suffer from excess of cold; so that the sick man cannot stretch his finger, nor close it, nor clench it.

And Avicenna says the term paralysis is used in general, 576 whereby it means the softening of any member it seizes, and therein both sides agree, with the exception  p.249 of parts of the head. For if the parts of the head agree, it is not paralysis, but apoplexy, which hinders movement and perception. Paralysis is used specially to mean softening of either side throughout the body, and so when half the body is affected with the exception of half the head, it is general paralysis. And there is a more general species than that, when it affects the whole half of the body, and half the head; for the parts of the body and the head are divided, so that one part may be affected without the other part, and for that reason nature has arranged two eyes, and two hands. There is also a most general paralysis when it affects the whole body, with the exception of the head, as we said before.

The external causes are: falling, percussion of the nerves, attrition, and cutting across of the nerves; also anger, fear and excess of cold that compresses, excess of heat that scatters; also taking hold of the fish called “tarcon”. 577 And Avicenna, with profitable briefness, calls everything paralysis which binds and compresses the end and origin of the nerves, so that the spirit cannot pass through them. It comes oftenest from the following; phlegm, and less often from melancholy, still less often from sanguine humour, and least of all from choler, except it be mixed with another humour. Also it is caused by an imposthume, or by the crisis of the four sicknesses, namely, the falling sickness, colic, suffocatio matricis, and apoplexy.

And I say briefly, there are eight general causes that hinder the passage of the spirit to the nerves. The first cause is poverty and scantiness of spirit and heat, so that they cannot increase and spread themselves to the nerves. 578 The second cause is excess of cold, which retains 579 and binds together the nerves.


The third is excess of heat, which dissipates the spirit, such as burning fevers, 580 and remaining too long in an overhot bath. The fourth cause is dryness, 581 that twists the nerves, the which cause is bad. The fifth cause is moisture, without 582 matter having come to block it up. The sixth cause is excessive tightening and binding of the member. The seventh cause, a stoppage from whatever cause it come; whether from red blood, because of its quantity, or phlegm because of its sluggishness, or melancholy because of its toughness and denseness, or from choler on account of its thinness, which causes the other humours, with which it is mixed, to proceed so that they penetrate throughout. 583 Therefore since melancholy causes stoppage, there is no clear passage through the nerves, except those of the eye 584 and the virga, as Galen says. The eighth cause is hardening and thickening of the nerves.

Note however that there is a difference between paralysis, and cramp; for movement and perception are prevented in paralysis, but in cramp only movement is prevented. Item in paralysis there is pain in the sick side, and in cramp in the healthy side. Item in cramp the sick side draws the healthy side towards it but not so in paralysis. Item in paralysis the oppilation is in the origin of the nerve, and in cramp it is in the whole nerve.

Signs as to which humour the paralysis is caused by. If from sanguine humour, the pulse is full, and the colour of the body ruddy; the veins full, and it will have been preceded by causes of increase of sanguine humour. If from phlegm the body will be white, and phlegmatic signs are manifest before that in the whole body, for cold afflicts it; and it is relieved by heat;  p.253 it is also a sign if the sick man use those things that increase phlegm, such as white meat, fish and fruits, and excessive drinking (crapula). If from melancholy, the body is leaden-hued, black and scabby and (he) the sick man is lean and the season favourable thereto, and if he use things that increase melancholy, 585 such as excessive meditation, and depression; beef and hare, and duck, and gander, and peas, and kail, or other things prepared with salt. If it come from choler, though that occurs 586 but seldom and then only from a mixture of other humours, its symptoms are compound, i.e. heat, and yellowness in the body, and a kind of bitterness in the mouth and spittle; and if he be wont to take roasted things prior thereto, and garlic, pepper with fish, or (with) moist things, for that produces a compound humour from choler and phlegm.

If the paralysis come from an imposthume, it is accompanied by fever, with hardness in the member, and the pulse is obscure, weak and disorderly, the urine is white, thin, and sometimes like the urine of a brutish beast; 587 another time it is high-coloured on account of disease of the reins, or fever, or other illness that accomplishes 588 it. The sick side is cold and freezing, as though it were in ice, and the other healthy side, hot as though it were on fire; sometimes the eye gets smaller, and the mouth becomes crooked; at another time the hand shakes on account of the conflict there is between nature and the disease, as Galen says; for the heaviness and matter of the disease press down and the weakened force cannot resist it altogether, but it does what it can and gives a heave upwards, but since it cannot keep the weak member  p.255 in its own proper place, forthwith it i.e. the member trembles.

Prognosis of paralysis here. If trembling come to the paralytic, it is a good sign. Item if he become feverish, is a good sign. Item if he on whom is the sickness be old, the cure is difficult, or impossible. Item if the paralysis come from the crushing of the nerves, or their cutting across, it cannot be cured.

Item if young people have fever, and have green urine, it shows that paralysis, or cramp, is coming. Item if one have a fever, with great pain in the head, and when the fever ceases the pain remain, 589 with plethora and heaviness; then paralysis often follows; for nature expels 590 the matter from the brain to the nerves, with evacuation of heaviness, but not with complete purging. Item the cold in the first stage tends to confusion 591 of mind and spirit; and moisture in the second stage, after the cold, and therefore paralysis is seldom produced by heat.

Item the man who has frequent nightmares perceives 592 it by apoplexy, or paralysis, or epilepsy. Item he who suffers from jumping 593 in the body (throbbing?) usually accompanied by weakness, and confusion of perception, and stupor of the members, is ripe for paralysis, unless the phlegmatic humours be purged.

The cure of paralysis is accomplished generally and specifically. The general regimen 594 is sometimes completed by  p.257 a part of the disease according to its property; and at other times by diet. The first of these 595 is carried out by putting things on the back of the head; for this disease comes mostly from the origin of the nerves which is the back of the head; and this cure is possible for other diseases of the nerves, such as tortura, cramp, and tremor.

The second thing is accomplished by medicaments possessing virtue and specific properties that comfort the nerves; as wolf's lard which comforts the cold nerves, and the dregs of oil made from flax, and agaric; and other moderate operations, such as laurel oil, and oil of costus. 596 And he says, treacle 597 is good in every disease of the nerves that comes from cold, if it be boiled in water of anise, and leaves of rue, and sage, the which avails in every season against these diseases. Mesue says, it is good at the beginning of these sicknesses, as it digests and thins the matter, and corrects the malice of the cold complexion; 598 they avail after the digestion, as they purge, and disperse the remainder of the matter, and have specific properties for comforting the nerves: the proper amount to give thereof is drachm 1½.

The third of the above-mentioned thing is carried out by a paucity of food and drink, and a diet that makes for dryness, and contains some comforting specific for the nerves, such as the brain of a hare, and thyme, hyssop, pepper, pelletory, or the broth of an old cock which shall be driven about 599 till it is buried.


The following are the things to be avoided in this case: coitus frequens, sleeping after much food, drunkenness, and drinking cold water, a drink immediately after food, and much wine when fasting, because it causes the matter to penetrate to the nerves. 600 Every sour thing should be avoided, or the letting of a vein, or remaining long in a bath; the fumes of quick-silver; vinegar, apples, or heavy work after food. Avoid cold air, and every very cold thing especially to the feet, hands, and head, and drink but little, and suffer hunger. 601

The proper regimen is carried out by four things. 602 The first of them, is the digesting of the matter; the second, its expelling; the third, the converting of the remains of the matter to its contrary; 603 the fourth, the correcting of the accidents. The first of these is accomplished by things that transform the matter; 604 and let this digestive syrup be made to that end. ℞ Fennel seed, parsley, wild carrot, anise, sage, mountain sage (lavendula), calament, primrose, betony, southernwood and avens: a fistful of each; ginger, pellitory, burdock, long and black pepper, dried rue, aristolochia, laurel berries, mustard, gentian; drachm i of each. Stamp, and boil, and strain them, and make thereof a syrup as is meet with honey.

Item another syrup that is good against every cold disease of the nerves, according to Johannes Mesue. ℞ 605 Foxglove drachm4&12frac;; thyme and calamint ounce i of each; anise, and pellitory, scruple6 of each; long pepper drachmiii; ginger, cinnamon, calamus aromaticus and saffron drachm1&12frac; of each. Tie up the latter 606 things in a linen cloth, and make a syrup of them, along with honey  p.261 and sugar, and the amount that is meet for him thereof is drachmii with water wherein is boiled spikenard and sage.

Item a piment, 607 which is made thus avails. Take a galon of good old wine, and 2 lbs of honey, removing its froth, sprinkle on this drachmiii. of cinnamon; spincanard drachmi; ginger drachmiv, drachmi of mace; and drachmiv (quart. i.?) lign aloes]; drachmii of dried sage; and drachm1 of saffron. Give them a little pounding; 608 and put them in a close linen cloth to strain, the which is good for cold of the stomach and liver, against their softening, and windiness, and it sweetens the breath.

If it be produced by melancholy, let it be digested in the following manner: — ℞ Take roots of radishes and water plantain, 609 lily, peony, equal quantities of each; bruise, and soak in vinegar and wine for a day and a night. Then take sage, and mountain sage, and great germander, thyme, calamint, cinquefoil, hyssop, a fistful of each; drachmi of anise and seed {} fennel seed, yellow flag; ouncei of nutmeg ouncei½ of cinnamon; ounce1 of borage flowers, and ounce1½ of ashen wood bark and ounce1½ of bark of aspen; and 1½ lbs of honey; and boil in water wherein is quenched red-hot iron. If the weather be hot, and the person young, hart's-tongue may be mixed with it; and that is syrup of radishes. If it proceed from sanguine humour, let it be digested with oxymel diuretica, or pliris dianthos; diacastoreum in cold age and cold weather, after purging.

The second partial thing mentioned, is accomplished by appropriate evacuations; but administer not strong purging at the beginning of the matter, lest the force turn to weakness; nor draw off the thin things and leave the gross undrawn. Give the sick man a laxative clyster at first, if he have constipation.


℞ centaury, and the two kinds of mallows, mercurial, southernwood, rue, an equal quantity. of each: boil, and add drachmiii of common oil; drachm (?) ix, salt 610 and bran; and drachm1 ½ of hiera pikra Galeni. Make of these up to a pound and a half, and the matter may be digested again separately by degrees. 611

Item let the matter be evacuated without injury with agaric, and turpeth, and hiera pikra Galeni, and after the purging make the following clyster for him: — ℞ primrose, and watermint (?), 612 calamint, wormwood, mustard, avens, 613 polypody, mallows, mercurial; and make of them a clyster, together with a little salt, and butter and oil.

The third method mentioned, is carried out by a gargarism, and things that purge the head. 614 A head-purging gargarism is made, by boiling mustard, and pellitory, flag flower, staphisagria, hyssop, and calamint, along with a little vinegar.

The fourth intention is accomplished by rubbing the limbs; and by ointments, emplaisters, and bathing. Rub the back of the head often, and extreme parts frequently, 615 and dry 616 the head with lily roots and a clean cloth.

Item when a remedy is applied to the sick limb, it is proper to observe and change it frequently; for it sometimes ulcerates and heats overmuch, but with the cold of the limb it is not noticed. If the member be red and swollen, and when lain on become white, that is a good sign, but if it do not that, and its own redness remain therein, it shows the limb has been too much617 heated, and if there be sores on it, so much  p.265 the more certain that the cure should be changed. If he can endure it, rub the limb with fenugreek, and ground ivy, together with urine, as the unnatural things should be drawn to dryness. So things roasted with spices are good for them, 618 and moist meat powdered, and let them consume but little food and drink, for the space of six days. Then take calamint, and camphor, 619 sage, onions, wild sage, avens, primrose, ground ivy, plenty of them, bruise them, and add gander's lard, that of a dog and a black cat; pepper, drachm1½. 620 Then place them in the belly of a black cat, having removed the inwards and its skin from it. Roast the whole, and collect the juice that comes out of it in this way, and rub it on the sick limb. The comfort derived therefrom is marvellous, and the ointment is named after the cat. 621 Ointment of gander is good in a cold disease, as in cold gout. 622

Item there are members in paralysis that ointment cannot be rubbed on, such as the tongue, the womb, and the nerves 623 of the bladder; in this case they say to rub the remedy on the back of the head, and to rub 624 the tongue and wash frequently with usquebaugh and a gargarism. Let the usque baugh be rubbed often on the back of the head, the tongue, and the paralysed limb, and it restores the speech, as has been proved on many people. A little of this water 625 is meet with honey, or wine, at times to reduce the disease and at times in the middle of a meal, mixed with soup or syrop, or an electuary.


Then make an emplaister round the member, with mustard, and honey, and rue, and coarse salt; 626 or let it be compounded of hot gums gathered in one place; such as galbanum, opopanacum, serapinum, bdelium, myrrh, masdix, laudanum, euphorbium, castoreum, and other gums, and the like. Make a bath 627 for the sick man then with the following herbs: sage, and wood sage (lavendula), primrose, penny royal, yellow flag, hoarhound, fennel, nettle, camomile, and ground ivy.

And make this wet bath for him after the emplaister; and scour the body with water wherein an entire fox is boiled until its flesh separate from the bones; and with rue and flagflower, and caroway, and peony, herb of paralysis and vervain. Then let the horn 628 be still frequently applied to the roots of the nerves, and finally a little wine, hot, may be given, and let the member be raised and rubbed often with the hand, and hap it up well in the skin of a fox or with other skins(?). 629


11. I. Idropis est et cetera.

Hydrops is an error of the unifying force in the entire body, following the change of the digestive force 630 in the liver {} of the nutritive force631 this attractive force is, and the nutritive force completes its work because of these four forces; and when one of them is wanting, then all are astray, as such is the liver on account of the gall bladder; and Averroes says if one force be strong and uncorrupted, the body is in its proper state, without a doubt.

Indication of the approach of dropsy, and more especially tympanitis. Galen says on the 4th section he wrote: 632 Whosoever says he, has a griping 633 pain, below the navel, and below the reins, which does not cease on going out, 634 or with other remedies, he passes into a dry swelling called tympanitis. Another indication that it has begun, is swelling in the stomach after food, which remains long there; and if the belly resound on being struck like a tympanon, or drum, and flux does not ease  p.271 the sick man, nor reduce the belly, according to its weakness (?), that is a sign that it (dropsy) is consolidated therein. 635

Item the urine in this species, is thin and sometimes high-coloured, but less often high here, than in the species called ascites; for Galen says this form is produced by heat, not by great heat, nor great cold, but by medium heat. Usually there is more heat in the liver, and the urine is thicker in ascites, because of the humours present therein. Item the pulse is rapid and hard, on account of flatulence.

Signs of the approach of that form of dropsy called ascites: an evil hue on the face, turning to yellowness; the urine frequently high-coloured, nor does he notice much inconvenience 636 thereby; yellowness in the eyes often, and oppression in the right side below the ribs after walking, or riding, or after food, or travelling on foot, 637 or any other labour.

Item a sign that the swelling called ascites has set in, is swelling in the feet, and lower limbs; the rising up of the navel; the upper members alter 638 i.e. the face, neck, breast and hands. Item the urine is high-coloured, thick, and scant, frequently with saffron-coloured froth on it, and is of two colours: sometimes the eyes swell through the fumes rising towards them from the liver. 639 The sick man has difficulty in drawing breath, a dry cough, unquenchable thirst, lack of appetite 640 for food on account of the excess of drink, and the appetite therefor. If the abdomen be struck, it resounds like a tympan, or two vessels half full.

Indications of the approach of the swelling called hyposarca: stoppage of the excess matter that is wont to flow, such  p.273 as haemorrhage, haemorrhoidal and catamenial, sweat, and urine; the face becoming paler than usual; excessive appetite for food, or lack of the same; a kind of swelling in the testicles; and plethora of humours in the whole body.

Indications that the disease known as hyposarca has set in: soft swelling thoughout the whole body, and if you take hold of it hard with your finger, it forms a furrow. 641 The abdomen is not so swollen as in the other forms; the pulse undulating and broad; the first digestion 642 whitish and excessive, whereas in the other two forms it is of the colour of blood; the urine is high-coloured at times, not from heat, but from weakness of the digestive force in the liver, which cannot separate the blood from the wateriness of the urine.

Therefore the symptoms of dropsy show but two varieties; special symptoms and general symptoms. We have spoken already of the special symptoms. 643 There are but three general symptoms i.e. swelling of the feet and soles, an evil colour on the whole body, swelling in the eyes from the weakness of the natural heat; and because the vapour is not expelled to the pores of the body by reason of the weakness of the evacuatory force, it is banished to the upper 644 limbs, the force being tired. 645 And because the digestion and the natural heat are weak there, it returns to the feet, and causes windiness and swelling.

If it be asked, whence it comes that the feet swell more in hydrops, than the hands, I say as does Serapion, that the hands are near the heart, and therefore the pulse is taken at  p.275 the wrist (hand); the heart is the source of the natural heat, and the feet are far off therefrom, and so they are far from the source of heat and therefore death starts from the feet, as Galen says. For this reason surplus matter is better digested and consumed in the hands than in the feet. Another cause: as it is proper and natural for gross matter to fall down, therefore swelling is more proper to the feet than to the hands.

Signs of the proper causes of dropsy, the which are not signs of the species. Dropsy produced by the stomach, the intestines, and the veins known as meseraic, is recognised by continued diarrhoea beforehand, having no colour of blood. When it comes from the liver, it is recognised by a hard cough and by the excess of the first digestion being hard. 646 The dropsy that comes from an imposthume is known by the bloody colour of the flux: that from the spleen by the colour turning livid, or ashen, and preceded by pain in the spleen. When it proceeds from the reins, the appetite is strong, 647 and there is pain and oppression round the kidneys, behind them, and just a very little above the belt of the trousers, or a little below it.

Note, Galen says tympanites commences in the stomach, with which the liver suffers jointly. Ascites is formed in the liver, and the other members are in sympathy. Hyposarca is caused by the faultiness of the third digestion, with which the liver is in sympathy, but I maintain neither of them is produced without default on the part of the liver.

Prognosis of dropsy. Averroes says tympany is the worst form, but Avicenna648 maintains that ascites is the most  p.277 malicious, hyposarca the slightest, and tympany medium. And to this I say, tympanites is the most malicious form, and the hardest to cure of them all; for it is produced by (weak) cold that weakens the heat, and by restless 649 heat. Therefore many a time, nor leech, nor physician knows what he should do, for if he apply hot things thereunto it increases the matter in the liver and stomach, and causes extreme thirst: if cold things be applied the windiness is retained, and the limbs fatten, and if he put cold things on the liver it increases flatulence for the liver helps the stomach to digest, and if the liver be weakened, the digestion is weakened, and from this is produced flatulence. But ascites is worse than tympanites, as regards accidents, 650 or it may be said, ascites is worse as regards internal cure, and tympanites, as regards external, 651 for the swelling is in the stomach, and if it be cut in the thin part, it is death without a doubt.

Item the swelling accompanied by fever 652 is worst. Item every sickness is bad that occurs in ague or the swelling, or follows thereafter. Item Avicenna says if flux come with the swelling along with blood, it is death. Item should it come in the swelling, without relieving the sick man, it is death. 653 Item a bloody flux, 654 or one as it were congealed blood, is a sign of death, and more especially if the swelling be of long duration. Item if a watery bloodless flux come, it is an indication of health, but if it be immoderate it signifies death.

If a cough seize him who has the swelling, it is a hopeless sign. 655 And Serapion says, it is a bad sign, should  p.279 ill-coloured, evil-smelling sputum come with the cough. And to this I say, there are two varieties of cough, a dry cough, and a moist, according to whichever it is produced by, rheum, or the matter of the disease. If it come from rheum, it is not deadly, 656 but it is, if produced by the matter of the disorder; therefore Hippocrates says, if the cough follow the swelling it is injurious, but not if it precede it. Serapion657 says when the matter of the disease (i.e. the swelling) has the dominance, so much that it causes constriction of the chest and breathing, it is a sign of death, before the end of the third day.

Item the dropsy that comes after a hardness in the spleen, is more a sign of health, than that which comes after a hardness in the liver; 658 for the cure is possible in the first case, but not so in the latter, unless he who performs it, be skilful and attentive, and the patient submissive to him.

Note that there is no doubt that every dropsy produced by cold can be cured, whereas Serapion659 says no man may be cured of a hot dropsy. I say, this is true as regards its own nature, but it may be cured by skill; or else I say thus: that hot dropsy is not cured but with difficulty and great labour, the force of the patient being strong, and he having a good strong complexion. Or else I put it this way: dropsy can be cured at its inception, and when on the increase, but this is not possible 660 later than the static period. This doctor 661 says, he has  p.281 seen people in every kind of dropsy who had a waist measurement of 25" more than their wont, whom God willing, he cured; but he took no one of them to cure him for certain, as it is not proper in this case to promise, except on condition. Should a man suffer from madness and dropsy befall him, it cures the causes of the madness, for the dropsy 662 moistens it (?) according to Averroes.

Item it is better at the inception of the swelling for the belly to be dry, than moist and lax, for it shows that the force is active, unless there be a hot imposthume 663 in it, which dries the refuse. Item should a sore appear on the body through the evil complexion of the blood, or in the mouth, through the malice of the vapours and flatulence, that is a sign of death. Item in dropsy, should an evil odour come from the whole body, the breath, the spittle, the sweat and other things that proceed from the body, it is a sign of death; for the fetid smell signifies corruption therein.

Item Hippocrates says, if ulcers break out on the body 664 in dropsy it is not easy to cure them, for ulcers do not heal till they are dried, and it is not easy to heal these wounds, nor to dry them, as they themselves (the sufferers) are full of evil “accidental” liquid. Avicenna says if there be ulcers in a member of evil complexion, or sores, they are not curable, or if they are cured, it is long in doing, for instance, in the case of the sufferer from dropsy or lepra. 665

Item should there be two colours on the urine of him who has the swelling, it is a sign of death; that is, were  p.283 it red below 666 and leaden-coloured on top, or ruddy on top and black below. Item Hippocrates says, if in dropsy there be a pain round the liver caused by flatulence, and there come fever thereafter, it cures it. 667 So it may be said, tympanites may be cured, if fever come in its wake, 668 for there is pain under the liver, and round it, proceeding from windiness.  669It is false to say that tympanites is cured through fever, for it increases the flatulence by weakening the digestion, and that is a dry dropsy, and the fever likewise is dry; therefore what Hippocrates said is untrue. 670

I say with regard to this, that pain is produced in the liver from a hot imposthume or by reason of oppilation or of flatulence. There 671 is fever with the pain that comes from an imposthume, and little pain is caused by oppilation, as there is more heaviness therein than pain. As to 672 the pain that comes from gross flatulence without fever, if fever supervene, without a doubt it cures it. Now as to the reason. I say there is no pain in the liver in tympanites, but only in the stomach, and in the guts, and the fever does not benefit the flatulence 673 in the stomach.

Item dropsy attacks the child in its mothers womb, through her eating much cold fruit, and whitemeat, the which is recognised by the size of the abdomen, and the excessive motion of the pregnancy; and when the time of birth comes  p.285 unless she be relieved, they will both die. 674 Therefore it is a great error for a pregnant woman to eat much fruit, and whitemeat. Item if the swelling seize a woman, and she get over it and later become pregnant675 the pregnancy is wont to fall into dropsy, for the blood whereof it is formed is entirely watery, wherefore it is easy for it to fall into dropsy.

Of the cure of dropsy here, the which is twofold: proper and common. The proper consists in varying many species (spices?) 676 and herbs proper to it, and arranging meetly for the cure. The common remedy consists in drawing off the watery fluid, and drying it up. Constantine says this drawing off is done in four ways. The first, by giving things that excite the urine, such as spikenard, and cassia linea; the second by drawing off the wateriness by sweats, by vomiting, and by clysters, which are made of agaric and juice of iris. 677 The bath for drawing the sweat 678 is made with sulphurous 679 or sea water, or by the fumes of water wherein are boiled pellitory, lovage and bran, or by hot ointments, as arraton abatis and agripa. 680

The third way whereby it is purged, is for him on whom is the swelling, 681 to drink his own urine, which heals it forthwith, and also jaundice when it comes from the spleen; and whey of goat's, or cow's milk clears off this same water likewise. The fourth way of drawing off the water is by making an incision of the breadth of three fingers, below the navel; or  p.287 by scarifying between the joints of the back, 682 or on it itself, or on the soles. Nevertheless this cutting is dangerous, and does not avail but in the swelling called hyposarca; as Avicenna saith, when the belly is full of water, and the force strong, let the incision be made and let the matter be emptied by degrees, so that it be not all evacuated at the same time.

Concerning the things we said a while ago, may ye know (that) the following are the hot things which induce urine: anise, fennel seed, cumin, peony, spikenard, cassia linea, asarabacca, 683 balsam, squinancy, and spica Celtica. These are the hot diuretic herbs: watercress, 684 walwort, hyssop, smallage, yellow flag, lovage, mountain sage (?), 685 parsley, fennel, juniper(?), the two ragweeds, wild carrot, orchis, dittany, wormwood, and the 1ike.

Item cold things having the same effect: — sanders, endive, and its seed, dandelion (endive?), 686 scariole, liverwort, maidenhair, lettuce, coltsfoot; the four greater cold seeds, melon, citrul, cucumber and gourd; gromwell along with ivory turnings. Item things that avail in either case, the cold or the hot; spikenard, wood sage, maidenhair, endive, hart's tongue, 687 liverwort, sanders, cinnamon, mastyche, nutmeg (nux muscata), whey of goat's milk, rhubarb, agaric, and cassia linea. 688

Let the special cure be made as follows for the dropsy called ascites, which is caused by heat, for it is more dangerous than hyposarca: if he have constipation, make him laxative clysters, wherein these things shall be added to the ordinary ones: wormwood, centaury, cumin, parietary, salt, bran and common  p.289 oil. 689 Then make him this alterative digestive drink, 690 for it helps dropsical persons, while excess of thirst, and astringents kill them: ℞ take roots of fennel, smallage, and parsley, an equal portion of each: endive, scariole, lettuce, liverwort, maidenhair, a fistful of each; red and white sanders, and the four greater cold seeds, and the four lesser cold seeds, as are, the seeds of lettuce, coltsfoot, endive and scariole, ounce ½ of each; ivory turnings, roses ounce 1 of each; nutmeg, drachm 2; cinnamon drachm 3; ½ quart. of liquorice, or 4 pounds of the juice of plantago, or else mix it entire therein; ounce ½(?) of sugar, and make three or four ounces thereof, unless he have a cough; add a little vinegar thereto; and should he have diarrhoea, make it with milk, wherein a red-hot iron is quenched. If the sick man be old, add anise, and hyssop, and watercress, and let it be used every day. If a specific purgative be needed, give triphera saracenica with rhubarb in clarified whey of goat's milk, with water of endivia; or some of the syrup before mentioned; 691 nevertheless I think little of every laxative medicine in this case, except clysters and rhubarb 692 in purified whey of goat's milk, because all these things do harm, unless there be present very excessive wateriness, and constipation.

693 If the sick man be weak give him any remedy, except that boiled in whey of goat's milk. Nevertheless I maintain, rhubarb does not avail much in this case, for, if taken, it purges choler especially; therefore, only a little is meet to give thereof, unless he be jaundiced in the dropsy, or have a fever from choleric humours, or a hot imposthume, when the greatest amount may be given, and it is proper to give it, as it is said  p.291 to be life to the liver. 694 It is a clear error for cold people, unless it happen to suit them as regards complexion, and then only a little thereof. And I have often seen it, taken with whey, relax them who suffer from jaundice, because of the amount of choler in them; yet Avicenna says in the chapter on the flux called dysentery, that rhubarb is binding to the bowels. This is true when a little is roasted with fire, 695 or else it has that effect per accidens, by comforting 696 the liver, or by drawing the choler which causes the flux.

Item this electuary 697 is frequently given: ℞ sanders drachm 2 of each; ivory and charred ivory turnings, drachm 1½ of each; cubebs ounce ½: if there be great heat present, drachm 2 of each seed of the four great cold seeds, and drachm 2 of endive seed; portulaca, lignum aloes, nutmeg, drachm 1½ of each; and 1 lb. of sugar, the which to be made with water wherein is boiled andivia. Let him use a good measure of it at dawn, but not at bedward, save when he have not supped; for it is not meet to give medicine to the liver, except when the stomach is empty, as is best possible. 698 Sometimes I put in spikenard, in place of lignum aloes, the which electuary I have proved in the case of many people, 699 and it is a special secret of my own which should be neither prepared for or taught to any one but on first receiving the price of treatment, for it cures within a short space.

Then be this emplaister made for him: ℞ roses, sanders, endives, plantain, barley meal, and vinegar; and let the sick man not lie down; 700 or he may be purged with juice of plantain, solatrum or sorrel, the which warm, and add a  p.293 little vinegar; soak a linen cloth therein, and apply to the liver, but not to any other part; give him a drachm or two of spikenard every day, along with purified whey of goat's or cow's milk.

Should there be fever combined with the hydrops or an imposthume, or if it be caused by stoppage of the menses or of haemorrhoidal flux, a little blood may be let occasionally, for the wasting of blood cools the liver, and carries off the nourishment from the members. Avicenna says when there is much evil in the body, and little good, the letting of a vein steals the good with it, and leaves the evil in its own dominion, where it was at first; or understand what he says thus; when the good blood is thin, and the humours dense and viscous, and far off from the place where the vein is let, then the vein steals the good blood, and leaves the bad within.

And know ye, for all that, that it is good to let much blood often, in these sicknesses caused by plethora, in the fever caused by red blood, called synocha, and others of that ilk. It is good at times to let a vein often without drawing much blood from it, so as to maintain health; 701 for Avicenna says it is better to increase the number of times rather than the quantity of blood; and at times it is good to let much seldom; as in the case of sicknesses accompanied by violent pain, such as quinsy and its like; it is good not to let much blood, neither to let it often, but in dropsy only a little and seldom.

Then make an emplaister for the stomach of these herbs: ℞ mint, wormwood, mastich, camomile flowers, cumin soaked in vinegar, betony, roots of lily, roses and sour bread. Do not apply another to him the following day, but let him do this exercise early on rising (?); 702 — let him  p.295 lie prostrate, and turn often from one side to the other, and, let him rub himself often with his hands, 703 or let him mount a while on a horse that carries him gently, and when he comes down let him walk in a sandy level place. If he sweat, dry him, and put him in a place where the sun is hot, and let his head be well covered; or he may be put in hot sand, not in a hot oven, as do the people, for there were against that, that he would suffocate, unless his head were outside of it.

Then apply a poultice of these to the belly: ℞ rue, parietary, walwort, cumin, cowdung, and oyster shells; seethe them well together (?) 704 and put hot, on a thin piece of woollen cloth (?), and apply round the navel, as far as the share. When it cools, heat it and put it about him again: this is more efficacious fasting than after food.

Then of the following, make a bath 705 for the sick man, 706 but let his head be outside: ℞ rue, parietary, walwort, calament, camomile, pennyroyal, wormwood, horehound, fennel, ground ivy and tree ivy; equal parts of each. Boil in a well-closed cauldron, 707 from which is a pipe, so that it burn him not, being shut, for want of a place where the head shall go out. The sick man sits on a cushion well filled with bran, or cotton, or unwashed wool, till he sweat, and let him be rubbed with a linen cloth; nor let him consume food nor drink thereon. When the pulse shall be felt to weaken, put him in his own bed, and when cold begins to be noticed give him some of the afore-mentioned electuary.


Should any of the swelling remain till the morrow, give him a clyster, and the following day apply a partial dry bath (stupe) to his feet and testicles and if there be swelling therein, make a fomentation for him of these herbs: parietary, lovage, parsley, yellow flag, watercress, walwort and meadowsweet. Dry him lest708 the water that rises like vapour from the stupe adhere to him, for it is not meet for those who suffer from dropsy to be washed with water. Avicenna says they should not see water, and if so still less should they drink it.

If necessary apply an emplaister to the afore-mentioned members, of cowdung, saffron and cumin seed, the which cures them: it is not proper to give them any kind of medicine 709 in this case, and many people I have cured here with drinks and digestive clysters in turn, and with partial stupes to the feet and calves, and by rubbing water of roses or andivia to these members and the liver, 710 without anything further. But I was long in doing it, for the disease cannot be cured in a little time.

Item a remedy approved in a hot case. Take the juice of plantain, and liverwort, and fill it almost full in an earthen pot, the which is closed with a thin hide, and tied up tight. Put ashes on the hide, and put it in an oven, having taken the bread from out of it; make a low fire beneath the sides of the pot to keep the heat in the oven, 711 and open it thereafter, when it is boiled, and filter, to extract its juice from it; add sugar, and give to drink early and at bedward, which cures, as I have proved on a man whom no other remedy helped; and on giving a little spikenard with it, he passed a gallon of urine on the first day, on the second day another, and another gallon on the third day. I permitted him, not to drink during  p.299 that time, but to have a piece of candy in his mouth. 712

Note it is not meet to drink these cold things in every case of the dropsy called ascites, 713 nor to give hot things in all cases of the dropsy called hyposarca, without cold things mixed therewith; as Avicenna says when he speaks of dropsy, that there are varieties of hyposarca and likewise of tympanites and ascites; for he says hyposarca comes both from a hot cause and a cold, and in like wise, ascites and tympanites.

This is ascites: — when the lower limbs are swollen, and not the upper, accompanied by a watery sound in the belly. 714 This is hyposarca: — when there is general swelling. This is tympanites: — when the belly and the navel rise up, and the stomach resounds like a tympanum, from whatsoever cause it come. Therefore it is necessary to look for some indication other than the swelling, 715 such as the pulse, the urine, and pricking (?) 716, pain, and oppression, and see if cold things harm, and hot things comfort; then the cause is cold: this the authors prescribe when they know not the cause of the disease. 717 Therefore, give them weak things at first, that can do no great harm, if the cause be not recognised; when it is not known in the beginning, give common things that avail in every dropsy, as beforesaid.

The following medicine can be made up in every case of dropsy, whether it be hot, or whether it be cold, provided it be watery dropsy: ℞ Take roots of fennel and iris, a little of each, endive, maidenhair, liverwort, wood sage, a fistful of each; red and white sanders; drachm 2 of each of these: —  p.301 cinnamon and spikenard, a little wormwood leaf, as it is bitter, anise and andivia seed, drachm 3 of each; drachm 1½ of sugar, and make a pound of them. Should it be desired to make it stronger, add {} 718 of the limbs because of its penetration. 719


12. K. Varioli sunt parva opostema.

Herein is smallpox little imposthumes or pustules, seen in the skin, the which are oft times of a red colour, and dig themselves into the flesh; they are produced from corruption of the catamenia, 720 and are often preceded by. continuous sanguine fever.

The cause of this sickness, as Hali says, is when nature expels towards the surface of the body, the excess of sanguine humour 721 or continuous fever arising from a peccant humour, in one in whom something of the menstrual flow or corrupt boiling blood remains; therefrom results the sickness called variolae i.e. smallpox, and from the menstrual blood it is formed: and Averroes says there is no man who does not contract smallpox, and these are his words: — as an evacuatory force is in every member which sends its surplus from it to another member thence is formed smallpox, and measles, and therefore no man escapes them, and if any one be conceived 722 at the time of the catamenial flow, he seldom escapes without lepra or other hateful disease.

723Avoiding customary exercise sometimes causes smallpox, to seize a man twice, 724 when the matter is not expelled  p.305 entirely the first time. Thereafter let him eat figs frequently, for they expel the matter. Smallpox occurs oftener in a hot moist complexion than in a hot dry one, and in little children and youths, rather than in maturity, or old age; for it is not produced in old age but through strength, 725 and in a hot moist land. Isaac says, it never seizes old folk: it comes oftener in spring than in winter, and in a south wind rather than a north wind; and staying long in the sun 726 disposes a man to smallpox.

And note, it does not seize the child in its mother's womb, for heat is not intense therein, and so it does not cause the blood to boil. Yet another reason; the menstrual blood is retained by the heat of the womb, therefore it is neither corrupted nor does it boil. Another reason; that nature gives her attention to the thing she is doing, that is, to creating the limbs. 727

So we understand there are two kinds of smallpox, proper and improper. 728 Smallpox proper is produced by the blood that boils, and this form occurs principally in children, and youths. Improper smallpox is caused by corrupted foods  p.307 which strong heat 729 draws outward from the inner members to the extremities, and this can occur at any age; and therefore Avicenna says smallpox seizes men twice, i.e. proper smallpox and improper smallpox.

If the smalipox be caused by sanguine humour, the pustules are pointed on top and broad below, ripen at once, and escape through running; 730 the which is a sign of health; for sanguine humour is the cause thereof, and it is subject to the digestion and is a friend of nature. 731 If the complexion be hot and moist and the wind south in spring, it is certain that it comes from red blood.

If from choler 732 the pustules are red in hue, turning to yellow; they are small and round with sharp heads, and prick as though it were a needle, because of the sharpness of the matter. Should there be signs of digestion 733 in the urine, on the day of the crisis, accompanied by a lessening of the pain, fever and the violent thirst; and the pustules define themselves (open?), and liquid come therefrom, that is a good sign, and if the contrary be the case it is bad.

If it be from phlegm the pustules are white and broad and hard to digest, the matter corrupting under the skin, causing great itching, 734 more especially if it be from salt phlegm. If a running begin of the colour of copper rust, 735 accompanied by itching, and the urine be raw, that signifies death.

If it be caused by melancholy, the pustules are leaden-hued at first becoming blackish 736 thereafter, and then black;  p.309 and moisture gathers not in them; they are large and hard like large warts, the which is bad, for there is no quality in them by which they could mature; 737 therefore they dry and split, causing heart weakness, delirium, 738 and lack of energy, and when this happens, the leech can say, death is at hand. And sometimes two large pustules appear so that one of them is in the middle of the other, the which is bad, for it shows the amount and toughness of the matter; so if the force be weak, it is a sign of death.

Prognosis of him on whom is smallpox. It may be said that the white pustules are best when they are few and large; for they come out easily739 the fever accompanying them is low, and lessens on their being opened. If they be white, large, and dense in number and do not come one after the other, then it is less serious, than if they come by degrees. 740 If they be white, small and hard, close together, and come out with difficulty, it is bad, for they are produced by thick matter, which kills often quicker than they can be ripened. Should the pustules appear now, and go in again, and be purplish 741 accompanied by weakness of the force, it typifies death; if the force be strong, there is hope of escape, 742 and it is better that the fever 743 precede the pustules than that they come first and the fever after.

Item if the breathing be good, and the fever lightening, it is a good sign, but should the fever and thirst be acute, with constriction of the chest, it is a sign of death. Item if weakness of the heart supervene, it is a sign of death, for it  p.311 shows that the matter has gone to the heart. Item if the matter go to the lungs, it is an indication that death or phthisis is approaching; and if it go to the eyes, it takes away the sight, or leaves a web on them; and if they (the patients) be cured badly, it leaves ugly pits on the body.

Item smallpox pustules come out gradually, while those of measles come suddenly; if they be green or purplish, heart weakness follows. Item when the breath is evil in this case, an imposthume 744 of the chest is frequent thereafter. Item cold air 745 and cold things applied externally cause the matter to return to the guts, and so produce the flux called dysentery.

Many things are sought for the cure hereof, but first the matter must be purged by letting a vein, and with a little laxative that softens, but not one that draws or dissipates. Second: the matter must be surrounded (?) and changed internally, 746 with acids, unless tightness of the chest prevent it. Third: it is meet to give comfortatives that relieve the sick man, so that they 747 be evacuated, i.e. the peccant matter. Fourth: things should be applied to them to dry them, before they are entirely ripened. 748

If it be from the first thing mentioned, may ye know, should the body be full of humours, or excessive blood, or the force puissant, and the age and other local matters agreeing, then it is meet to let a vein at the inception of the matter, that is, the medial vein, and that at the top of the nose thereafter, (especially in the case of youths) for they preserve the upper members from the malice of the pustules. There is no danger in letting them (i.e. the veins) in children. If it  p.313 come from plethora of blood, a vein may be let, from the fourth day till the seventh; then let the bowels be moved with cassia fistula and violets along with sugar of roses and their juice, and do not give a laxative there, the which is puissant, as in this case it easily turns to flux.

As regards the second thing we mentioned, know ye that cold things and styptics are good in this case, and bitters at the outset; therefore sorrel juice is good, and juice of garlic, and of apples, and juice of bitter sloes; but do not give very cold things internally, for they do not avail given later than the second day after the appearance of the pustules.

The diet of smallpox patients should be increasingly cold, 749 composed of barley and oats; and let the sick man take milk of almonds. If the fever be strong, make this pottage, wherein is put liverwort, lactuca, and scariole; and if the bowels be relaxed, mix with a little plantain. Then a pottage of bugloss may be made, which cleans the blood well, and he may eat figs and almonds, on removing their skins.

If it be caused by sanguine humour, violet syrup may be taken, 750 and still more syrup of fumitory. If it be produced by choler, increase the violet syrup, and lessen that of fumitory, as that syrup (of fumitory) is common to them both. Sometimes these syrups are thick and hard to drink; if that be so, make this drink to digest them. ℞ take sorrel juice, liverwort and sampsuchine, a fistful of each; a quarter pound of fumitory juice; borage flowers, violets, roses ounce 1 of each; a quarter and a half of sugar, and a quarter of dried figs; 751 make therefrom a syrup and use, the which digests the matter, whether it be from sanguine humour or choler.  p.315

It if be caused by phlegm, 752 the matter may be digested with syrup of fumitory and oxysacchara, 753 and thus it is prepared. ℞ take ounce 1 (?) of sugar, 8 lbs of sour apple juice, drachm 3(?) of vinegar, and put in a tin vessel on a fire. Mix well till they come to the quantity of the sugar; then put them in a pipkin: this decoction to be used as an electuary; and is good in quotidian fever, quartan, tertian, and ague. It purges the choler in the stomach; and give it early with wine in hot water.

As to the third thing mentioned, know ye, that the following drink serves to expel them. ℞ ounce 1½ of dried figs, 2 of fennel seed, and saffron, if you fear syncope; boil in 2 lb. of water until it reach the half, 754 sweeten with honey and use: Avicenna says it expels the unnatural heat from the heart.

Item the following expel the matter to the surface of the body, fennel, smallage with sugar, and their juice, roots and seed, together with scented saffron, 755 and elm (?) wherein are boiled dried figs. Then take a scarlet or other red cloth, and put it about the pox; as I did to the King of England's 756 son when this disease seized him, and I permitted only red things to be about his bed, by the which I cured him, without leaving a trace of the smallpox pustules on him.

It is necessary to take care not to apply ointments to them, as these would clog the pores; nor to let cold air get at them, unless the weather be warm. If it be,  p.317 then let the  757 air be moderated within by sally leaves, and by sprinkling water throughout the house. Tie the sick mans hands or let him have g1oves 758 on regularly, nor let him scratch them (i.e. the pox,) nor touch them with his nails, for that makes the skin ugly. Then take smallage and fennel, warm them by the fire, dip a linen cloth therein, and wrap it round the whole body, for that draws all the matter out and consumes it(?); 759 or else boil fennel and smallage in water with dried figs.

If the matter come from melancholy, let it be digested with oxymel diureticum, syrup of fumitory, and borage. 760


13. L. Arthritica Passio 761

Arthritica is a grief of the binding of the limbs, the which sickness the country folk call “the pangs”, 762 because it drips to the joints of the members, in the same way that rheum falls, for the passage is narrow through which the matter passes to the members, although there is a kind of rarity therein.

There are three varieties of this sickness called arthritica: — sciatica, podagra, and, cheiragra. Sciatica is a grief in the haunch, 763 and therefore it is called sciatica, because scia in Latin is the name of that sinew, and that is the same 764 as the sinew of the hip; this sickness keeps this sinew taut or painful. Therefore is it called sciatica (i.e. hip cramp) and the upper end of the thigh-bone moves in the hollow of the upper bone. 765 The name of this bone in Latin is ancha, and vertebrum is the other name of the bone, from the turning it does in the upper bone, and the sinew mentioned binds these two bones together: though the doctors say that this sinew (?) 766 is insensible to pain, yet it spreads to the empty (?) places nearest it, and causes pain therein, and the disease  p.321 called sciatica is said of this pain. If this sinew were not insensible to pain, there would be pain therein constantiy, from the continuous rubbing together of these parts, and therefore the healthiest man in the world when he moved, would have pain in that member, the which is a lie, for where pain is, there it indicates disease, according to the author. 767

Podagra is a pain in the joints of the feet, and in the soles, 768 and from the foot it takes its name, for it is to the foot it goes. 769 And there is swelling in the member in which it is, but not so in the one wherein is sciatica, for it becomes emaciated.

Cheiragra is a pain in the joints of the hands, and the fingers, along with swelling, from the mobility of the matter, and its rarity, and the movement of the hands. And therefore it is called cheiragra, as cheiros in Greek is the same as “hand”, 770 and it is in the hands it occurs. If there be pain in another member of the body, or in a joint apart from these, such as the back, or the neck, it has no special name, but pang of that member.

This is the definition by the author of the disease called sciatica: a pain commencing at the two bone-binds (joints) mentioned and descending behind to the buttocks, 771 preventing due movement, and it comes from matter falling in drops. When it is of long standing, it falls (extends) to the knees, to the feet, and to the joints thereof, emaciating the member more than is wont, and causing greater pain therein than the pain of any other joint.

The description of that disease which is called podagra  p.323 here: i.e. pain in the lower joints, the feet and the toes, the which spreads to the soles, and increases upward to the hips. It causes swelling in the feet, impeding walking and standing, and softens the soles overmuch; and disposes a man to dropsy.

Cheiragra is thus described: — pain in the joints of the hands from the fingers to the wrists, spreading till it reach the elbow, accompanied by swelling, the which causes difficulty in bending the fingers. And in my opinion, cheiragra and podagra are of that species of lepra which is called elephantia; and it is the more fitting that their healing should be difficult 772 seeing that they are all caused for the most part by rheum.

There are two causes of this sickness, one external and one internal. 773 The passive cause of the disease is: the member takes the sickness to itself by reason of its own weakness, or through the malice of a cold, evil complexion, or through excessive heat, caused by movement 774 or by some external cause that heats the member. As Galen says in the second book of Prognostica, it is easy (easier) for the humours to move and flow to members that are moved and heated (?). 775

Another cause is for the member that contracts the disease to be situate below the others, 776 whereby the matter increases in the hips and the feet. Another cause is the weakness of the member whence it arises, not on the part of the complexion, but on the part of its weak, rare composition. Another cause is the width and laxity of the passages. The cause whereby the matter runs to the joints, is by reason of their wideness and emptiness, whereby they take the matter to themselves. 777


This sickness is also 778 caused by sanguine humour or choler, or melancholy; but most often by phlegm, mixed with choler, 779 for otherwise it would not penetrate well. Then, it is also caused by crude humours, and then by choler, rarely by melancholy, the which by reason of its paucity, compared with the other humours, cannot penetrate to the joints because of its hardness, nor to the passages approaching them because of its grossness.

The general causes thereof 780 are {} the consuming of viscous foods, such as eels, for these when they are handled cause the fingers to stick together; and windy things, such as peas and beans, for the windiness draws the matter to the veins. Another cause, figs and fried foods, such as rice 781 and boiled wheat; things that give rise to vapours, 782 such as leeks, and onions, and garlic; and every fat indigestible food, such as beef, hard-boiled eggs, and inwards of animals, and every water-fowl possessing web-feet 783: and things that cause eructations, such as new ale, fruits and watery things; lack of evacuation, repletion of food, especially at supper, and a late drink with food. 784 A great cause of this sickness is bad order of meals, that is to eat gross food first, then subtle food, and finally gross food again; 785 for the alternation is harmful to them, as also eating to excess.

Another cause is much resting, and avoiding customary exercise, coition on the top of much food: hence Galen says  p.327 eunuchs 786 do not suffer from podagra, neither do they become bald. And it is proved that doing this is a great cause of this disease, for podagra does not seize youths, until they reach the age of manhood. Another cause thereof is the retention of those superfluities that are wont to be expelled, such as, the catamenia in the case of women, and flux, and avoiding wonted bloodletting. Amongst its causes are running or jumping, excessive horse-riding, or violent walking after repletion, and much wine on an empty stomach, for Avicenna says that that injures the nerves.

Another cause is when there are crude humours in the body, and they are not expelled by the urine, the faeces, or other arts 787 whereby a man evacuates his excess matter from the body; and if they be expelled to the joints and remain therein, they putrefy. 788 If they be evacuated in the urine, it will have a crude gross deposit; 789 and the man who has this, will not contract the disease, for Avicenna and Galen say, those who fear an imposthume of the joints, if they give copious crude, raw urine, it saves them therefrom.

These are the external causes: violent walking, falling, beating (percussion), sitting long in an over-cold spot, compression of long standing, and custom of overheavy loads 790 and other similar things, the which turn the force to weakness, such as anger and want of sleep. It is a cause thereof when the excess of the second digestion or the third remains in the  p.329 body, until expelled. Age (too) helps in generating this sickness, for old folk are more susceptible to it, than the young. Another cause is weakness of the digestion, for when folk arise from a long sickness (are convalescing), they make the error in regimen, also when the disease is checked before enough has been evacuated; for people whose forces are weak on account of long sickness are wont to fall into this disease. 791

Item the seasons of the year aid in the generating of this sickness, for it 792 often comes in the autumn through malice of digestion, and the humours, on account of dilation of the pores in the summer preceding it; and through the violence of the heat in mid-summer at mid-day, 793 and the excessive cold at the beginning and end thereof. It comes in the summer through the dissolution of the humours, and in the winter through the strength of the cold humours shutting in the matter, and by reason of the paucity of evacuation of excess then from the body. So it is clear that these sicknesses come from changes in the weather, 794 and the people of the pangs (gouty subjects) can tell then, that rain and foul weather will come before it does. The cause thereof is frequently sought of leeches, and this is the answer, as Philaretus says: wherever there is anything, 795 that that is there, changes to the complexion of the place wherein it is, and therefore when wet turbid weather is at hand, the air becomes moist, gross, cold and turbid, by reason of the higher cause. 796 The sign that  p.331 the which is true, is that walls and stones drip, as they were sweating, not from themselves, but from the air becoming gross; and this air goes into the mouth and the nose and through the pores of the body, and, as Galen says, it changes the body to its own disposition. For the active thing equates 797 the passive to itself; 798 and this is clear in the joints, as it is easier for the air to go into them on account of their emptiness, dilatation, and looseness than into any other part; this 799 is the reason they ache soonest.

Item amongst the causes of this sickness is pain800 in another part of the body, such as the griefs of childbed, and menstrual pains; stone in the kidneys, torsio (hacking), rugitus (wounding) and tenesmus (piles), 801 for when the matter disperses, and resolvent medicaments are applied thereto, they consume part of the matter, and the other part becomes attenuated and mobile, and when the pain is not permitted to remain in that spot, it passes to the empty place nearest to itself, that is it penetrates the joint. 802 Item rheum dripping is a cause thereof, and a wrong habit of lying, 803 that is one part up and the other part down, or lying on an over-hard place.

Let us speak now of the signs of this sickness. Avicenna says it is necessary where there is this disease, to find out whether it arise from an evil complexion along with matter, or without it; though it is rarely caused without matter, and without evil humours. If it be produced without matter, it  p.333 will be accompanied by pain, but no heaviness or swelling, nor discoloration of the skin; and if caused by matter it is meet to look whether it be simple or composite. If it come from simple matter, then see whether it be caused by phlegm, or choler, or melancholy, or sanguine humour, or by flatulence.

If it be caused by sanguine humour, there is great pain in the head, and heaviness according to the amount of the matter; the skin ruddy, except the pain be deep-seated, and therefore [Galen] says, the pain 804 of the body signifies excess of humours, unless it be too deep-seated; the urine is red and thick; the pulse rapid and full; and the pain is greater at the time of red blood, than at any other season. If it be spring time, the same is the more certain; 805 and if the sick man favour foods that increase sanguine humour, and be wont to be jolly 806 with a cheery laugh (?), have a plump body without being fat, and see red objects in dreams, and the age agree with red blood, then it is evident that the matter is caused by sanguine humour. The hip cramp (sciatica) produced by sanguine humour, causes pain as far as the knee, and some times to the soles of the feet, the which the letting of a vein helps, provided it be done straightway.

If the matter be caused by choler, there is great heat (?) 807 present, and acute tingling pain, though not of long duration, neither is there great heaviness, as the humour whence it arises is light. The colour of the skin tends to yellowness or a clear red; for in the grief caused by red blood, the colour of the skin is darker red than the hue of the body prior thereto, and is relieved by applying cold things, and aggravated by hot.  p.335 If the urine be high-coloured and thin, the pulse swift, the faeces yellow, and the season summer, the patient young with a choleric complexion, i.e. lean, brown (?) 808 and light, and make use of foods that increase red bile (i.e. eat choleric foods)  809 and be more afflicted at the hour of choler than at any other [then it is evident that choleric matter is at fault].

Document details

The TEI Header

File description

Title statement

Title (uniform): Rosa Anglica

Title (supplementary): English translation

Editor: Winifred Wulff

Responsibility statement

Electronic edition compiled by: Beatrix Färber and Pádraig Bambury

Funded by: University College, Cork and Professor Marianne McDonald via the CELT Project, formerly CURIA

Edition statement

3. Third draft.

Extent: 65418 words

Publication statement

Publisher: CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts: a project of University College, Cork

Address: College Road, Cork, Ireland — http://www.ucc.ie/celt

Date: 2005

Date: 2010

Date: 2017

Date: 2018

Distributor: CELT online at University College, Cork, Ireland.

CELT document ID: T600008

Availability: Available with prior consent of the CELT project for purposes of academic research and teaching only.

Notes statement

You can purchase the book(s) containing this text via the ITS website (http://www.irishtextssociety.org/). Click on the link to the RIA shop. More information about Winifred Wulff's Life and Work is available on the CELT website at https://celt.ucc.ie//wulff.html.

Source description

MS sources for Irish translations of Rosa Anglica

  1. Royal Irish Academy (RIA) MS 457=23 P 20, the basis of the present text. For details, see Kathleen Mulchrone, T. F. O'Rahilly et al. (eds.), Catalogue of Irish manuscripts in the Royal Irish Academy (Dublin 1926-70) vol. 2, p. 1209.
  2. RIA MS 456=23 P 10 (iii). See ISOS website (http://www.isos.dias.ie/) for catalogue description and manuscript images). Also see Kathleen Mulchrone, T. F. O'Rahilly et al. (eds.), Catalogue of Irish manuscripts in the Royal Irish Academy (Dublin 1926-70) vol. 2, p. 1207-09.
  3. Trinity College Dublin (TCD) MS 1321=H 3 2. See ISOS website (http://www.isos.dias.ie/) for catalogue description and manuscript images). Also see T. K. Abbott and E. J. Gwynn (eds.), Catalogue of the Irish manuscripts in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin (Dublin 1921) p. 112.
  4. TCD MS 1318=H 2 16 (Yellow Book of Lecan). See T. K. Abbott and E. J. Gwynn (eds.), Catalogue of the Irish manuscripts in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin (Dublin 1921) pp 94-110: 101-2 (Col. 437a-99).
  5. TCD MS 1432=E 3 3 (fragment). For details see T. K. Abbott and E. J. Gwynn (eds.), Catalogue of the Irish manuscripts in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin (Dublin 1921) p. 307.
  6. TCD MS 1433=E 3 30 (fragment). For details see T. K. Abbott and E. J. Gwynn (eds.), Catalogue of the Irish manuscripts in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin (Dublin 1921) p. 309.
  7. Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, MS 20 (formerly Advocates' Library). For details see John Mackechnie (ed.), Catalogue of Gaelic Manuscripts in selected Libraries in Great Britain and Ireland (Boston 1973) vol. 1, p. 231, MS 6; vol. 2, p. 591.

MS sources for Latin Rosa Anglica

  1. Edinburgh University, 168 (Laing 180); ff. 1-305, c 14.
  2. Oxford, Merton College, 262, ff. 1-237, c 14.
  3. Oxford, Corpus Christi College 69, ff. 1-191, c 14. late.
  4. Exeter Cathedral, 35.O.6, c 14., probably spurious.
  5. British Library, Sloane, 1612, ff. 125 r-430v, c 14 to 15.
  6. British Library, Sloane, 134, ff. 48r-169r, c 15, abbrev.
  7. British Library, Sloane, 280, ff. 9r-262r, c 15.
  8. British Library, Sloane, 1067, ff. 1-280v, c 15.
  9. British Library, Sloane, (Additional) 33996, ff. 148-210v, c 14, imperfect.
  10. Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 261 ff. 1-232r, c 15.
  11. Bodleian, E Musaeo 146 (3619), ff. 19-348v, c 15.
  12. Bodleian, Bodl. 608 (2059), c 15 early, probably spurious.

Printed sources for Latin text

  1. John of Gaddesden (Johannes de Gaddesden) (1280?-1361), Rosa anglica practica medicinae. Pavia: Franciscus Girardengus and Joannes Antonius Birreta, 1492. Reprinted 1517.
  2. Idem, Rosa anglica practica medicinae. Venice: [Bonetus Locatellus for Heirs of Octavianus Scotus], 1502. Electronic edition of 2011 at Universitäts- u. Landesbibliothek Düsseldorf (urn:nbn:de:hbz:061:1-18491) available online at http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:hbz:061:1-18491.
  3. Idem, Joannis Anglici Praxis medica, Rosa Anglica dicta, quatuor libris distincta: de morbis particularibus, de febribus, de chirurgia, et pharmacopoeia, emendatior & in meliorem redacta ordinem / recens edita opera ac studio ... Philippi Schopffii; Augustae Vindelicorum: Typis Michaëlis Mangeri, 1595.

Select bibliography

  1. Oswald Cockayne (ed. & trans.), Leechdoms, wortcunning and starcraft of early England; being a collection of documents, for the most part never before printed, illustrating the history of science in this country before the Norman Conquest. 3 vols. (Rerum Britannicarum Medii Aevi Scriptores, 35). 1864–1866.
  2. George Dock, 'Printed editions of the Rosa Anglica of John of Gaddesden', in: Janus 12 (1907) 425–435.
  3. Henry Patrick Cholmeley, John of Gaddesden and the Rosa Medicinae. Oxford 1912.
  4. James J. Walsh, Medieval medicine. London: Black 1920.
  5. Charles Singer, 'The Herbal in Antiquity and its Transmission to Later Ages', Journal of Hellenic Studies 47 (1927) 1–52.
  6. Winifred Wulff, An liaigh i n-Eirinn a n-allod. Uimh. III, Lia Fáil 3 (1930) 115–125; An liaigh i n-Eirinn a n-allod. Uimh. IV, Lia Fáil 4 (1932) 235–268. ('A translation of the portion on the concomitant symptoms of fever (De Febrium Symptomatiubus) in the Rosa Anglica of John of Gaddesden'). Available online at CELT.
  7. John D. Comrie, History of Scottish medicine (London, published for the Wellcome historical medical museum by Baillière, Tindall & Cox 1932). Available at: https://archive.org/details/b20457273M002.
  8. W. G. Lennox, 'John Gaddesden on epilepsy'. Annals of Medical History, 3rd ser., 1:3 (1939) 283–307.
  9. H. E. Sigerist, A History of Medicine, 2 vols. (London 1951–1961).
  10. Wilfrid Bonser, The Medical Background of Anglo-Saxon England: A Study in History, Psychology and Folklore. 1963.
  11. Charles Hugh Talbot, Medicine in Medieval England. London: Oldbourne 1967.
  12. Huling E. Ussery, 'Chaucer's physician: medicine and literature in fourteenth-century England'. Tulane Studies in English 19. New Orleans: Tulane University Press 1971.
  13. Francis Shaw, S. J., 'Irish medical men and philosophers', in: Seven Centuries of Irish Learning, 1000–1700, ed. by Brian Ó Cuív, Cork: Mercier Press 1971, 94.
  14. Norman Capener, 'Chaucer and Doctor John of Gaddesden'. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 50 (1972) 283–300.
  15. Stanley Rubin, Medieval English medicine. Newton Abbot: David and Charles 1974.
  16. Edward Grant (ed.), A source book in medieval science. Cambridge, Massachussetts, Harvard University Press 1974.
  17. J. Fleetwood, The History of Medicine in Ireland (Dublin: Skellig Press 1983).
  18. Nessa Ní Shéaghda, 'Translations and Adaptations in Irish' (Statutory Lecture 1984, School of Celtic Studies), Dublin, Institute for Advanced Studies 1984.
  19. Marilyn Deegan and D. G. Scragg (eds.), Medicine in early medieval England. Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies, University of Manchester 1989.
  20. Nancy G. Siraisi, Medieval and Early Renaissance Medicine. London: University of Chicago Press 1990.
  21. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha, 'Irish medical manuscripts', Irish Pharmacy Journal 69/5 (May 1991) 201–2.
  22. Sheila Campbell, Bert Hall, David Klausner (eds.), Health, disease and healing in medieval culture. London: Macmillan 1992.
  23. M. L. Cameron, Anglo-Saxon Medicine. Cambridge 1993.
  24. Joan Cadden, Meanings of Sex Difference in the Middle Ages: Medicine, Science, and Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1993).
  25. Margaret R. Schleissner (ed.), Manuscript sources of medieval medicine: a book of essays. New York: Garland 1995.
  26. Carol Rawcliffe, Medicine & society in later medieval England. [1066–1485] Stroud: Alan Sutton Pub. 1995.
  27. Lawrence I. Conrad, Michael Neve, Vivian Nutton, Roy Porter, Andrew Wear (eds), The Western medical tradition: 800 BC to AD 1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1995.
  28. Faye Getz, Medicine in the English Middle Ages. Princeton 1998.
  29. Mirko D. Grmek (ed.), Western Medical Thought from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1999.
  30. Jerry Stannard, Herbs and Herbalism in the Middle Ages and Renaissance; edited by Katherine E. Stannard and Richard Kay. Aldershot 1999.
  31. Jerry Stannard, Pristina medicamenta: ancient and medieval botany; edited by Katherine E. Stannard and Richard Kay. Aldershot 1999
  32. Fergus Kelly, 'Medicine and Early Irish Law', in: J. B. Lyons (ed.), Two thousand years of Irish medicine (Dublin 1999) 15–19. Reprinted in Irish Journal of Medical Science vol. 170 no. 1 (January–March 2001) 73–6.
  33. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha, 'Medical writing in Irish', in: J. B. Lyons (ed.), Two thousand years of Irish medicine (Dublin 1999) 21–26. Published also in Irish Journal of Medical Science 169/3 (July–September 2000) 217–20 (available online at http://www.celt.dias.ie/gaeilge/staff/rcsi1.html).
  34. Helen M. Dingwall: A History of Scottish Medicine: Themes and Influences. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press 2003.
  35. Lea T. Olsan, 'Charms and prayers in medieval medical theory and practice', Social History of Medicine, 16/3 (2003). Oxford: Oxford University Press 2003. [A link to this article is available online on http://www3.oup.co.uk/sochis/hdb/Volume_16/Issue_03/].
  36. C. Roberts and M. Cox, Health and Disease in Britain from Prehistory to the Present Day (Stroud 2003).
  37. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha, 'Eagarthóir, téacs agus lámhscríbhinní: Winifred Wulff agus an Rosa Anglica', in: Ruairí Ó hUiginn (ed.), Oidhreacht na lámhscríbhinní. Léachtaí Cholm Cille 34 (Maigh Nuad [Maynooth]: An Sagart 2004) 105–47.
  38. Aoibheann Nic Dhonnchadha, 'Winifred Wulff (1895–1946): beatha agus saothar', in: Léachtaí Cholm Cille 35 (Maigh Nuad [Maynooth]: An Sagart 2005) 191–250.
  39. R. J. Hankinson (ed), The Cambridge Companion to Galen (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2008).
  40. C. P. Meehan, The Rise and Fall of the Irish Franciscan Monasteries, 4th. ed., Dublin 1872.
  41. Tomás Ó Con Cheanainn, 'Scríobhaí 'Leabhar Mhuintir Laidhe' agus 'Rosa Anglica', Éigse 37 (2010) 112–118.
  42. Tony Hunt, Teaching and learning Latin in thirteenth-century England. First published 1991. Reprinted Woodbridge 2010.
  43. Luke Demaitre, Medieval Medicine: the art of healing, from head to toe. Praeger Series on the Middle Ages (Santa Barbara, California 2013).
  44. Wolfram Schmitt, Medizinische Lebenskunst: Gesundheitslehre und Gesundheitsregimen im Mittelalter (Berlin 2013).
  45. Peter Wyse Jackson, Ireland's generous nature: the past and present uses of wild plants in Ireland (St. Louis, Missouri 2013).
  46. Lia Fáil: Irisleabhar Gaedhilge Ollsgoile na hÉireann, ar n-a chur i n-eagar leis an gCraoibhín (Dubhglas de hÍde). Facsimile reproduction of volumes 1–4, with a Foreword by Liam Mac Mathúna and a Réamhrá by Seán Ó Coileáin. (Dublin: National University of Ireland 2013).
  47. Liam P. Ó Murchú (ed) Rosa Anglica: Reassessments, Irish Texts Society. Subsidiary Series, 28 (London: Irish Texts Society, 2016).

The edition used in the digital edition

Wulff, Winifred, ed. (1929). Rosa Anglica seu Rosa Medicinae Johannes Anglici. An early modern Irish translation of a section of the mediaeval medical text-book of John of Gaddesden. Edited with introduction, glossary and English version.‍ 1st ed. lviii + 434 pp. London: Published for the Irish Texts Society by Simpkin, Marshall, Ltd.

You can add this reference to your bibliographic database by copying or downloading the following:

  title 	 = {Rosa Anglica seu Rosa Medicinae Johannes Anglici. An early modern Irish translation of a section of the mediaeval medical text-book of John of Gaddesden. Edited with introduction, glossary and English version.},
  editor 	 = {Winifred Wulff},
  edition 	 = {1},
  note 	 = {lviii + 434 pp.},
  publisher 	 = {Published for the Irish Texts Society by Simpkin, Marshall, Ltd.},
  address 	 = {London},
  date 	 = { 1929},
  UNKNOWN 	 = {seriesStmt}


Encoding description

Project description: CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts

Sampling declarations

The present text represents even pages 2–334 of the volume. (The Introduction on pp. xiii–l and lvii–lviii are available in the Irish text. Pages l–lvi of the introduction dealing with Irish medical manuscripts is available separately as html file.) The complete hardcopy consists of Contents vii, Abbreviations ix–xii, Introduction xiii–lviii; facsimile photograph of RIA MS 23 P 20, p. 41; Text with facing translation 3–335; Vocabulary 336–415; Doctors mentioned in the text 416–419; Medical works quoted in the text 420; Works quoted in the text omitted from footnotes 420–429; Bibliography 430–434; Addenda to Vocabulary/Errata 435. The apothecary symbols used are ounce (ounce), dram/drachm, (drachm), scruple (scruple), recipe (℞). .

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Interpretation: Ligatures for 'ae' and accents present in the Latin footnotes are not retained; 'etc.' and other editiorial additions in author's notes are in square brackets. Names of persons are tagged and capitalized.

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Profile description

Creation: Translation by Winifred Wulff (for details of source see CELT file G600008). 1923–1929

Language usage

  • The introduction, translation and some footnotes are in English. (en)
  • Some words are in Early Modern Irish. (ga)
  • Many footnotes, words and phrases are in Latin, and Graeco-Latin. (la)
  • A few words are in Greek (in Roman letters). (gr)
  • A few words are in Arab, such as mirach, siphac(h) and subeth. (ar)

Keywords: medical; prose; medieval; didactic; scholarship; adaptation; translation

Revision description

(Most recent first)

  1. 2018-04-05: Encoding enlarged and header updated. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  2. 2018-03-26: Added to bibliographic details and content encoding. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  3. 2017-02-16: Content encoding of Latin medical, pharmaceutical, botanical, and anatomical terms improved. Header updated; new SGML and HTML files created. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  4. 2012-06-24: Added to bibliographic details. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  5. 2010-11-25: Added to bibliographic details. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  6. 2010-04-21: Conversion script run; personal names encoding improved; header updated; new wordcount made; file parsed. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  7. 2008-09-22: Keywords added; file validated. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  8. 2008-07-28: Value of div0 "type" attribute modified, title elements streamlined, creation date inserted, content of 'langUsage' checked; minor modifications made to header. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  9. 2007-12-14: Note inserted in header. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  10. 2005-08-25: Normalised language codes and edited langUsage for XML conversion (ed. Julianne Nyhan)
  11. 2005-08-04T16:43:45+0100: Converted to XML (ed. Peter Flynn)
  12. 2005-03-31: Minor additions to bibliography; file re-parsed; html file created. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  13. 2004-08-10: More details of manuscripts and catalogues supplied. (ed. Benjamin Hazard)
  14. 2004-08-03: Header modified; file segmentation modified; file parsed. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  15. 2004-07-29: Bibliography compiled. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  16. 2004-07-02: Second proofing of main text; insertion of footnotes continued; more content markup applied. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  17. 2002-09-18: Header constructed; second proofing of main text and insertion of footnotes begun. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  18. 2002-06-20: First proofing of main text; structural markup applied. (ed. Pádraig Bambury)
  19. 2002-06-10: Data capture by scanning. (ed. Pádraig Bambury)

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G600008: Rosa Anglica (in Irish)

Source document


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  1. Not in R. A. from this point to end of paragraph 1. 🢀

  2. Lit. or 🢀

  3. Cf. R. A. 813 Species synochi sunt tres, & similiter synochae. Una est homótonos .i. unius tenoris; quae semper se habet uniformiter, a principio usque ad finem; quia tantum resolvitur, quantum consumitur. Secunda, est epakmastinè h. e. a principio usque ad finem augmentatur; propterea quod illud quod dissolvitur est plus eo quod resolvitur: & haec febris est peior aliis. Tertia est, parakmastikè, hoc est quae a principio usque ad finem decrescit; propterea, quod illud quod dissolvitur, est minus eo quod consumitur. Et illae caussae sunt in synocha. Sed in synocho dicitur caussa quare illud quod resolvitur minus est, vel maius, vel aequale ei quod putrefit. 🢀

  4. Cum multa comestione ciborum bonorum. R. A. 810. 🢀

  5. Sorbilia R. A. 810. 🢀

  6. Similiter multitudo comestionum generantium sanguinem aquosum, sicut fructus ... quia talis humor aquosus ... facile putrefit, ... & fit synocha. R. A. 811. 🢀

  7. [Lit.] repletion. 🢀

  8. [Lit.] synochus.&fit synocha R. A. 811. 🢀

  9. Unde Gal. R. A. 811. 🢀

  10. Sed si sit qualitas simul accidentalis laedens, non putredinalis, facit synocham; utroque modo laedit sanies in apostemate. [R. A. 811]. 🢀

  11. The text from here until the end of this paragraph is not in R. A. 🢀

  12. Temporum inflatio [R. A. 815]. 🢀

  13. Signa concomitantia [R. A. 815]. 🢀

  14. Apparitio lampadum ardentium, ... turbatio mentis, tenebrositas oculorum. [R. A. 815]. 🢀

  15. Urina rubea, spissa, livens, & foetida. [R. A. 815]. 🢀

  16. [Lit.] the blood; [recte] the fever. Sanguis illam (i.e. hanc febrem efficiens. [R. A. 815]. 🢀

  17. Quod est abscessus ex sanguine, in aliquo viscere seu membrum generatum, sicut in Hepate, aut Diaphragmate ... [R. A. 815] 🢀

  18. Quia tunc essent in ea febre paroxysmi tertianarii, similes paroxysmis cholerae; quia sanguis supercalefit ad naturam cholerae. [R. A. 815] 🢀

  19. Capitis est gravitas, rubor in temporibus, atque sunt alices (per alices intellege lassitudines. [R. A. 816 note.]), somnus, oscitatio, nausea, sensus, turbatio, tardus incessus absque labore. [R. A. 816.] 🢀

  20. Tempore si longo fuerit sine minutione .i. phlebotomia. [R. A. 816.] 🢀

  21. Pruritus ... in loco colli in quo ponuntur ventosae. [R. A. 815.] 🢀

  22. Carbunculorum [R. A. 816.] 🢀

  23. Epacmastica, aut Anabatica. [R. A. 817.] 🢀

  24. Eius consumptio aliquando est cum evacuatione, licet raro. [R. A. 817.] 🢀

  25. Subeth .i. profunditatem somni similem lethargo. [R. A. 817.] 🢀

  26. Non corrigit ... eam ventris solutio. [R. A. 817.] 🢀

  27. Paracmastica [R. A. 817.] 🢀

  28. Lachrymae involuntariae sunt lethales ... quando sc: oculi non patiuntur ophthalmiam .i. apostemata, nec palpebrarum asperitatem. [R. A. 817.] 🢀

  29. Cicer nigrum. [R. A. 817.] 🢀

  30. Aliquod nigrum simile uvae nigrae. [R. A. 817.] 🢀

  31. In emunctoriis membrorum principalium. [R. A. 81.] 🢀

  32. Cuius oppositum in aliis febribus faciendum est ... Et non expectetur digestio nisi in humoribus & aliis a sanguine, si sanguis sit purus. [R. A. 818.] 🢀

  33. [Lit.] the blood of the small of the foot. Per scarificationem, per apertionem venarum in naribus. [R. A. 818.] 🢀

  34. Super calcaneos. [R. A. 818.] 🢀

  35. Galenus [R. A. 818.] 🢀

  36. Peccante in quantitate superflua [R. A. 818.] 🢀

  37. In repletione superflua debet aequalis esse evacuatio. [R. A. 819.] 🢀

  38. [Lit.] weak. Ergo nec fortibus. [R. A. 819.] 🢀

  39. “Tu quis sapiens vis videri, cave ne patiens in manibus tuis syncopiset” potest quidem phlebotomari synochicus usque ad lipothymiam .i. defectionem animi, in ramo, non in radice; sicut exponit Constantinus. [R. A. 819.] 🢀

  40. Loquendo de syncope & debilitate virtutis in ramis, quae est fluens, non de radicali syncope. [R. A. 819.] 🢀

  41. In synocho [R. A. 819.] 🢀

  42. Quia natura est mirabilis, et propinquioribus adiuta; quod deest supplet; quod exsuperat atque abunmdat resecat. [R. A. 820.] 🢀

  43. Non ergo valet consequentia, totus sanguis peccat {etc.} [R. A. 820.] 🢀

  44. Galenus [R. A. 820.] 🢀

  45. Sed in qualibet qua vocatus fueris ad aegrum. [R. A. 820.] 🢀

  46. Non est intentio in phlebotomia. {Marginal note: Nulla habetur ratio phlebotomiae.} [R. A. 820.] 🢀

  47. Quoniam plus competit pharmacia; si quidem tunc materia erit digesta, non ante; quia nulla fit digestio in principio: & forte in putrida sanguinea eodem modo ... (821) Fiat ergo phlebotomia, si virtus, aetas, & tempus hoc tolerat, primo de brachio dextro; postea de mediana sinistri brachii, & per vices si necessitas hoc requirat, de Basilica sinistri brachii: si non toleret, fiat ventosatio inter spatulas cum scarificatione, super spatulas, in natibus, in tibiis: & ex utraque parte ancharum cum ventosatione, aperiatur & saphena partis utriusque, & salvatella in utraque manu, & plus de dextra propter hepar, quod est principium sanguinis. [R. A. 820, 821.] 🢀

  48. From here to end of this sentence om. H. 🢀

  49. Provocentur cum phlebotomia saphenarum interiorum. Et si haemorrhoides fluere consuetae retineantur, provocentur cum phlebotomia exteriorum, & cum caepa decocta ... [R. A. 821.] 🢀

  50. Succus rosarum. [R. A. 821.] 🢀

  51. Si praecesserit crapula, vel repletio nauseativa. [R. A. 821.] 🢀

  52. Aqua frigida ... suppositis certis conditionibus, eam admittentes; ut, quod materia sit digesta, & ... [R. A. 822.] 🢀

  53. Quantum vult una vice, sine mutatione anhelitus [R. A. 822.] 🢀

  54. [Lit.] a vein.Frictio extremorum. [R. A. 822.] 🢀

  55. Tragacanthum. [R. A. 821.] 🢀

  56. Sed cum in pulsu & urina coctionis signum apparuit, non sanguinis, sed cibi praecedentis ... [R. A. 822.] Quia aqua frigida auget oppilationem: & quando illa bibitur usque ad satietatem, aliquando curat, aliquando illam convertit in phlegmaticam. Et hoc melius est quam mors, ut dicit Avicenna. Estque melius, & securius, capere camphorum in Electuariis, vel cibo, aut potu: sicut in siti optimus fit potus ex camphora cum aqua hordei, aut nenupharis, vel aqua endiviae cum vino mali granati, & erit quasi vinum subtile ... & summe infrigidans ... Et scias quod evacuantia medicinalia plus valeant in synocho, quam hic: et si neutri videatur convenira, eo quod Galenus ... scribat, plenitudinem in venis impossibible est laxativo curari. Sed in synocho est plenitudo venarum. Ergo, {etc.} Respondeo quod absolute plenitudo vocetur ... [R. A. 822.] 🢀

  57. Avicenna [R. A. 823.] 🢀

  58. in synocho [R. A. 823.] 🢀

  59. Plenitudo mali humoris [R. A. 823.] 🢀

  60. Tamen secundum istud sequeretur quod erit medicina evacuativa sanguinis, & concedo; sed non debemus ea uti sola, absque praeparatione eius. [R. A. 823.] 🢀

  61. Sed non sic in plenitudine universali totius corporis, maxime in venis magnis. [R. A. 823.] 🢀

  62. [Lit.] herbs — perhaps a line omitted. De diaeta sciendum est, quod infirmi cibus debeat esse gruellum de avenato ... [R. A. 823.] 🢀

  63. Mica panis ter lota in aqua. [R. A. 823.] 🢀

  64. Potus sit, ptisana, syrupus acetosus, [etc.] [R. A. 823.] 🢀

  65. Item, in tempore frigido & humido plus competit, quam in aliis. Breviter, carnosis, fusco colore praeditis, multas carnes comedentibus. [R. A. 823.] 🢀

  66. [Lit.] they are 🢀

  67. De Ephemera [R. A. 824.] 🢀

  68. Ephemera, & Hectica, sunt morbi immateriales: & sunt febres ... [R. A. 824.] 🢀

  69. Quia ephemera est caussa speciei HEcticae.[R. A. 824.] 🢀

  70. Dicitur autem Ephemera, a praepositione epì & heméra, quod sonat dies hinc ephémeros diurnus sive diarius, quasi dicas febris diei videlicet naturalis continentis horas 24. [R. A. 824.] Fish episode not in R. A. 🢀

  71. Ex intemperie spirituum procedens [R. A. 825.] 🢀

  72. The following sentence is not in R. A. 🢀

  73. cf. Lil. Med. cap. II. 🢀

  74. Licet enim secundum Auicen. causae ephimerae sint multae, sicut est fluxus superfluus ... omnes tamen ad quatuor causas reduci possunt. Prima igitur causa ephimerae sumitur a causis extrinsecis actu, vel potentia. calefacientibus, vel poros claudentibus, sicut est caliditas solis, aut ignis, aut balneum, aut stupha cum rebus calidis, aut balneum suphureum, aut aqua frigi. & breviter omne illud quod claudit poros & retinet vapores. Nunc autem intelligendum est, quod secundum diversitatem vaporum & corporum, diversae febres generantur: quoniam si corpus est plethoricum, calidum & siccum & vapores cali. & sic. retinentur propter pororum clausionem & similium tunc de facili ephemera generantur. Si autem corpus sit cal. & humi. & vapores cal. & humi. retinentur, tunc de facili febris putrida generantur. Lil. Med. 6. 🢀

  75. Secunda causa ephimerae sunt cibi, potus & medicina cal. sicut est vinum purum, forte, antiquum, allia ..., potissime in non consuetis. Lil. Med. 6. 🢀

  76. Tertia causa, refertur ad corpus: ut est immoderatum exercitium [etc ...] vel ad animum: ut est ira [etc ...] In horum quoque numero est coitus, qui est compositus ex motu corporeo, et accidentibus animae. [R. A. 825] Tertia causa est motus animalis & corporalis, sicut est {etc.} Lil. Med. 6. 🢀

  77. Quarta causa est apostema inguinum, assellarum & similium, & si sint aliae causa, ad istas possunt reduci. Lil. Med. Cap. II ... sicut apostemata emunctiororum in membris nobilioribus; veluti {etc.} [R. A. 826.] 🢀

  78. Cum in omni morbo sit humor peccans; & quod Dyscrasia illa, si sit laesiva, laedat membrum. [R. A. 826.] 🢀

  79. Ergo cum in morbo sit sanguis, non potest fieri laesio sensibilis membri, nisi materia humoralis membri laedatur, vel inficiatur. [R. A. 826.] 🢀

  80. Quod secundum exquisitam veritatem, non sit morbus sine materia, nec simplex, nec compositus: non simplex, quia, {etc.}, nec compositus quia, in corpore humano sunt morbi compositi [etc.] [R. A. 826.] 🢀

  81. Quae materia est subjectum evacuationis per medicinam. [R. A. 826.] 🢀

  82. Est enim vitium, vitium humoris, vel propter sui abundantiam, & tunc competit phlebotomia; vel est vitium humoris, propter sui substantiam putridam, vel qualitatem putredinalem, & tunc competit pharmacia: & est vitium humorum, propter sui caliditatem & acuitatem: & tunc competit alteratio. In omni ergo morbo est vitium humoris, & tamen immaterialis .i. non habens materiam subiectam [R. A. 827] evacuationi; & est quilibet humoralis: vel primario, ut in synocha, vel secundario, sicut in Ephemera, & Hectica; & modus inanitionis; sicut fluxus, abstinentia, quae totum corpus purgat; Gal: 4 Aphoris: comm. 2. 🢀

  83. [Lit.] its 🢀

  84. Intret (inquit) aeger balneum, cumque moram in illo fecerit, & supervenerit horripilatio non consueta, sciendum, quod sit putrida: & si non inveniat alterationem a dispositione sua ad horripilationem suam, tunc est Ephemera. [R. A. 827.] 🢀

  85. Si fiat adustione solis, caput ad tactum est calidum. [R. A. 827.] 🢀

  86. Si ex frigiditate, color cutis mutantur in obscuritatem & livorem. Si ex stipticitate cutis ... [R. A. 827.] 🢀

  87. Caliditas in regione hepatis, in spiritu naturali. [R. A. 827.] 🢀

  88. Eminentes [R. A. 827.] 🢀

  89. Ut possit vindictam exequi. [R. A. 827.] 🢀

  90. Maxime si exeuntia sint foetida [R. A. 828.] 🢀

  91. From here to “complexion of putrid fever”, the Latin equivalent is as follows: Homines facile incidentes in Ephemeram, & ex illa in Hecticam, aut tercianam, sunt homines complexionis calidae & siccae: sed illi qui sunt complexionis calidae & humidae, velocius incidunt in febrem putridam, ex ephemera in spiritu naturali. [R. A. 828.] 🢀

  92. Velociter [R. A. 828.] 🢀

  93. Conveniens diaeta praescribenda est. [R. A. 828.] 🢀

  94. Mensurae refrigerationis & humectationis secundum mensuram rerum particularium; quae sunt ... [R. A. 828.] 🢀

  95. Ideo balneum in omnibus sufficiens curatio communis est, in declinatione maxime; exceptis hominibus iis, qui ad putridas sunt parati, repletis, crapulae deditis, patientibus catarrhos, nisi hi sint adustivi, vel de caussa calida; quia in talibus potest fieri balneum in declinatione. Cura specialis est, resistere caussis extrinsecis, febrem efficientibus; & hoc secundo est faciendum [R. A. 829] in hac febre, ut si sol, vel ignis, sint causae, collocentur infirmi in locum frigidum, & fiat ventilatio cum panno lineo, aërem refrigerante. Si sit calor in capite, superfunde aquam calidam, quia cito refrigerat & ponantur in balneum aquae calidae, sine calefactione aëris, ibique diu morentur, & tunc possunt inungi cum oleo rosato, nenupharino, violato. Si caussa sit stiptica, tunc competit balneum in aqua tepida, calida, & frictio cum oleis non stipticis, sed aperientibus & resolventibus; ut est oleum de anetho, de camomilla etc: fiatque hoc super caput, & corpus: sed tardetur inunctio usque quo balneentur febricitantes, & oleum sit tepidum: nec iteretur balneum ultra unicam administrationem, nisi febris redeat ... Si videas haec non proficere, argue intrinsecus esse oppilationem & repletionem. [R. A. 828, 829.] 🢀

  96. [An leg.] heat? Cf. R. A. [R. A. 828.] 🢀

  97. Stupha plus prodest, quam aqua in balneo. [R. A. 829.] 🢀

  98. Cum actu calidis. [R. A. 829.] 🢀

  99. Ad preservandum a labore itineris portetur artemisia a laborante, & non sentiet laborem intrinsecus. [R. A. 829.] 🢀

  100. “As Alibertus says” is not in R. A. 🢀

  101. Item, si viator portet baculum (stipitem) de agno casto, non offendet pedes suos ad lapidem. [R. A. 830.] 🢀

  102. Nec patietur excoriationem, quae fit per frictionem membrorum in itinere, veluti inter nates & genitalia. [R. A. 830.] 🢀

  103. Si propter satietatem nauseativam, & venter fuerit constipatus. [R. A. 830.] 🢀

  104. Vel suppositorio. [R. A. 830.] 🢀

  105. Fiat vomitus & abstinentia, quousque digerantur, & non curetur febris. [R. A. 830.] 🢀

  106. & maxima cholerici, quia non possunt ieiunare. [R. A. 830.] 🢀

  107. Ut in tractato chirurgico docebitur. [R. A. 830.] 🢀

  108. Not in R. A. to end of section B. 🢀

  109. i. e. lye. 🢀

  110. De Hectica Febre [R. A. 833.] 🢀

  111. Est febris consuetudinaria: & dicitur hectica, febris in habitu, stabilis, fixa. [R. A. 833.] 🢀

  112. Cuius subiectum est corpus, & membrum solidum. [R. A. 833.] 🢀

  113. & est quae accenditur a calore extraneo, in humiditatibus radicalibus & naturalibus, quae existunt in substantia parvarum venarum, quando accenditur ros. [R. A. 833.] 🢀

  114. Quando cambium accenditur, quae est secunda humiditas. [R. A. 834.] 🢀

  115. Tertia reliquis deterior, est illa, cuius calor extraneus situs est in profundo, in membris solidis spermaticis ... & in ista specie febris accenditur (consumitur Lil. Med. 38) gluten, quod continuat partes ad invicem. [R. A. 834.] 🢀

  116. Propter nimiam abstinentiam, & propter sitim superfluam, ubi non datur aqua frigida. [R. A. 836.] Abstinentia in non suo loco. Lil. Med. 38. 🢀

  117. Item accidentia animi fortia & diuturna exsiccant corpus ... & maxime dolor, tristitia, angustia, ira ex labore defatigante corpus & animam, ut ex carcere. [R. A. 836.] 🢀

  118. Dimittens, vel relinquens exercitium. [R. A. 837.] 🢀

  119. Talis incurrit morbos repletionis, non gratia inanitionis. [R. A. 837.] 🢀

  120. i. e. dropsy; cf. [R. A. 837.] Et hoc fit in Hydrope & Hectica. 🢀

  121. Deinde antiquior consumitur, sicut mixta cum carne, & ista vocatur aruina; unde versus; “intus adeps, pinguedo foris, aruinaque mixtum”. [R. A. 837.] 🢀

  122. Vel definitur species hecticae non per consumptionem diversarum humiditatum, sed diversorum membrorum. [R. A. 837.] 🢀

  123. [Lit.] the consumption of the change of the liquids ... of the change of the members. [R. A. 837.] 🢀

  124. Cartilaginum, secundum partem, non secundum totum. [R. A. 837.] 🢀

  125. Et sic patet, quod per accidens incipit Hectica, per morbos repletionis, & propter humiditatem accidentalem, sicut in Hydrope. [R. A. 837.] 🢀

  126. & caloris quantitatem [add.] [R. A. 839.] 🢀

  127. Ut an maiorem caliditatem invenias in arteria, quam in locis vicinis, & an febris sit aequalis, atque uniformis, & non cadat in eam diversitas quantum est de ratione sui, nec in prima die, nec in secunda. [R. A. 839.] 🢀

  128. Quia est ibi magna siccitas. [R. A. 839.] 🢀

  129. Quando cibus digeritur. [R. A. 839y.] 🢀

  130. Respondeo, quod quando [R. A. 840] sumit cibum futurum .i. cibum extra, corpus refrigeratur: sed quando sumit cibum in via digestum in stomacho, & aliquo modo non opt. coctum, isque per membra spargatur, tunc calefacit illa, sicut panni calefiunt a corpore, & postea illa ipsa corpora calefaciunt ... [R. A. 843] Signa secundae speciei hecticae: siccitas apparet notabilis, & quacunque hora cibatur, magis inflammatur, spiritusque velox est: unde cibatio est signum certum cum calore sequente. In tertia specie, oculi sunt concavi, tempora plana, cutis tensa, venter adhaeret dorso. [R. A. 839 et seqq.] 🢀

  131. Rauce sonat. [R. A. 843.] 🢀

  132. Subeth [R. A. 843.] 🢀

  133. Hîc notandum de urinis quod ... crinoides apparet in adustione carnis, & sanguinis in prima specie .i. in coniunctione cum secunda specie: des petalodea, ... vel squamosa urina est de superficie membrorum solidorum: at purpurea, de centro eorum; & sunt peiora, & significantia tertiam speciem hecticae. [R. A. 844.] 🢀

  134. Aliquando veniunt e vesica; & tunc urina est naturalis. At quando a toto corpore fit hectica, tunc est coloris maligni. [R. A. 844.] 🢀

  135. Sedimenta. [R. A. 844.] 🢀

  136. [Lit.] fat. Pinguedo [R. A. 844.] 🢀

  137. Cognoscantur per mutationem Ephemerae in Hecticam. [R. A. 844.] 🢀

  138. Usque ad septimam diem. [R. A. 845.] 🢀

  139. Et paroxysmi communicantes, cum arefactione cutis, & remanentia caliditatis sicca, post declinationem febris, & paroxysmorum; unde in hectica vera non sunt paroxysmi, sed tantum unus ... [R. A. 845.] 🢀

  140. From beginning of sentence to this point, the translation is from P1. 🢀

  141. Ab hepate calido, tunc pulsus est frequens valde. [R. A. 845. Line omitted in P.] 🢀

  142. Signa status huius febris sunt, quando ungues incurvantur, & in cute apparet veluti pulvis ex adustione solis, & lippa sicca: & oculi non bene aperiuntur propter gravitatem aperiendi palpebras, & supercilia ... [R. A. 845.] [Lit.] The brows are not raised because of ... the eyes are, and the heaviness of the eyelids. 🢀

  143. Nares subtiliantur, pili elongantur in superciliis, ... spatulae elevantur. [R. A. 845.] 🢀

  144. Quando liquefiunt cartilagines. [R. A. 845.] 🢀

  145. Nisi Deus voluerit. [R. A. 846. add.] 🢀

  146. Hectica frigida stomachi curabilis est. [R. A. 847.] 🢀

  147. Ideo sciendum, quod spasmus de siccitate, & singultus, sint de eadem fere caussa, & consimili: & singultus est quidam spasmus non verus; & ideo singultus de siccitate humiditatis nutribilis, curabilis est: & ista est cum hectica stomachi, & in prima specie: ... Sed singultus, vel spasmus de inanitione, vel siccitate humidi radicalis, vel spermatici est incurabilis; & talis non est in stomacho, nisi sit consumptio unversalis, sicut in Phthisicis, & Hecticis. [R. A. 847.] 🢀

  148. 7. per ea quae aërem rectificant. *. per curationem symptomatum supervenientium. [R. A. 847.] 🢀

  149. Et si coniungitur putridae ... [R. A. 847.] 🢀

  150. Oxysacchara [R. A. 847.] 🢀

  151. In appetitus casu. [R. A. 848.] 🢀

  152. quia somnus summe humectat eos, semm: Lactucae, papaveris albi, etc. [R. A. 848.] 🢀

  153. Si fuerit constipatus, florum violarum quart. S. prunorum Damascen: nu. 20. cassie fistulae unc. S. prima vice. [R. A. 848.] 🢀

  154. Zuccari albisimi, penidiorum ana lib. 1. vel 2. secundum divitias patientis. [R. A. 848.] 🢀

  155. Etiam pro iis qui nimium se studiis atque vigiliis macerarunt, pro iis etiam qui nimium Venerem exercuerunt, ex eaque sunt facti debiles. [R. A. 848.] 🢀

  156. Cibi inaequaliter liquidi sunt ... [R. A. 849.] 🢀

  157. Colatura aquae carnis. [R. A. 849.] 🢀

  158. Quia facilius est repleri potu quam cibo, crasso nimirum, quia in istis digestiva est debilis. [R. A. 849.] 🢀

  159. [R. A. 849 continues:]attamen illae superfluitates remanentes sunt aliquando caussa febris putridae coniunctae cum Hectica. 🢀

  160. Hordeum ponatur in vase vitreo, vel alio exiguo, pleno aqua; & vas illud ponatur in cacabo aquae pleno, decoquaturque sine fumo. [R. A. 849.] 🢀

  161. lib. i. [R. A. 849.] 🢀

  162. x. lib. & deinde decoquunt ad consumptionem fere duarum librarum. [R. A. 849.] 🢀

  163. Quam aqua: nam vinum natationem aquae in stomacho vetat. [R. A. 850.] 🢀

  164. Ideo est siccum virtualiter: vel dominio materiali est humidum, & dominio formali est siccum; ... Vel est humidum in substantia .i. liquidum; vel quia humectat substantialiter, quoniam facile convertitur in sanguinem; attamen complexionaliter est siccum. [R. A. 850.] 🢀

  165. Not in R. A. from this point to paragraph 22. 🢀

  166. [Lit.] Old wine is not good ... as a remedy only. 🢀

  167. Cibus liquidus, medicinalis. [R. A. 850.] 🢀

  168. Quia lac, sperma, & sanguis facilime corrumpuntur: nam sperma non manet una hora extra vasa, quin corrumpatur: vel uno momento scribit Galenus ... Idem de lacte dici potest. [R. A. 850.] 🢀

  169. Vel si patiens forte hoc abhorreat, ... capiatur ergo vas plenum aqua calida, & aliud vacuum, ablutum cum aqua calida, quod superponatur, ibidemque colligatur, & velociter hauriatur: ... ea quantitate, qua digeri potest. [R. A. 851.] 🢀

  170. Tunc tardius corrumpetur; & ideo coagulabitur, citiusque descendet e stomacho. [R. A. 851.] 🢀

  171. Hecticis, & febricantibus conveniunt, sed in acutis minus valent. [R. A. 851.] 🢀

  172. Quoniam quidam credunt quod aqua carnis, & brodium decoctionis eius, sint idem. Sciendum quod differant, ut scribit Avicenna ... plures vero sunt Medicorum, existimantes, quod aqua carnis sit brodium decoctionis eius, non tamen ita se res habet; sed potius aqua carnis est succus per decoctionem extractus, a carnibus minutis, donec coniunctum desudando fluat ab eis, & in aquam vertatur caro, & eius colatura est aqua carnis. Et hoc est tantum dicere, quod carnes arietinae ... scindendae sint in partes minutas, & decoquendae, fortiterque exprimendae: postea succus exiens est aqua carnis. [R. A. 852.] 🢀

  173. Caro vaccina. [R. A. 852.] 🢀

  174. Si volueris ibi decoquere carnes, melius erit. Ita quoque conficitur avenatum. Gruellum Anglicorum proprie fit e farina avenae crassa, excorticata, ex qua cum carnibus, & lacte amygdal: vel cerevisia, fit optima potio sorbilis, liquida, conveniens hecticis, & consumptuis, & fere omni homini ... [R. A. 852.] 🢀

  175. Electuaria quae in hac febre valent mane, sunt; zuccarum violatum ... Deinde post prandium utatur zuccaro rosato. [R. A. 852.] 🢀

  176. drachm ii [R. A. 853.] 🢀

  177. Sero utatur electuario. [R. A. 853.] 🢀

  178. [Lit.] matter. Si putrida sit conjuncta hecticae, tunc valent rosata novella ... & tunc in prima specie cum putrida possunt decem guttae sanguinis extrahi. [R. A. 853.] 🢀

  179. Medicus [R. A. 853.] 🢀

  180. Nisi ad balneum sit assuefactus. [R. A. 853.] 🢀

  181. Ergo talis non competit in morbo materiali. [R. A. 853.] 🢀

  182. Sed aqua tepida infundi debet super eum, donec corpus eius incrassetur, & parum incipiat rubere, & postea statim aqua frigida debet superaspergi ... [R. A. 853.] 🢀

  183. Aquam frigidam [R. A. 853.] 🢀

  184. Aliqua ex parte frigida. [R. A. 854.] 🢀

  185. Patiens pannis involutus. [R. A. 854.] 🢀

  186. In domum humidam, tranquillam, bene redolentem, in qua sit modicus aër. [R. A. 854.] 🢀

  187. Quia stupha in aëre calido nocet eis: & aër debet esse temperatus, ubi deponunt vestes, & nudi balneantur. [R. A. 854.] 🢀

  188. Aqua rosarum camphorata [R. A. 854.] 🢀

  189. Tempore calido aër refrigeretur cum aqua ab alto cadente, & tempore frigido trahatur aër, sicuti si a stomacho [etc.] ... Si a corde, dentur cordialia frigida. [R. A. 854.] 🢀

  190. Ut prius dictum est. [R. A. 854.] 🢀

  191. Quod balneum in lacte dulci tepido sit optimum. [R. A. 854.] [Lit.] a warm nutritive bath. 🢀

  192. Antequam lac infrigidatur, debet aliquo modo calidum superinfundi, ut actualis caliditas, vel frigiditas, non laedat [R. A. 855.] 🢀

  193. Si non adsit febris putrida. [R. A. 855.] 🢀

  194. Sed nihil est iuvativum sine nocumento. [R. A. 855.] 🢀

  195. Electuaria [R. A.] [An leg. electuaries or cerates?] 🢀

  196. Item cerotum Galeni quod propositum est in cura quartanae hic quoque valet. [R. A. 855. add] 🢀

  197. Similiter succus sempervivi ... farinae hordei subtilis, cum substantia istorum ponantur in panno. [R. A. 855.] 🢀

  198. Frequenter renoventur & cerotis apponendis modicum addatur aceti. [R. A. 855.] 🢀

  199. Carnes digestibiles in parva quantitate, & in liquida substantia ut plurimum, vel in pane: & facta digestione, iterum balneari debet [etc.] [R. A. 855.] 🢀

  200. Pulli galinarum [R. A. 855.] 🢀

  201. Candellum [R. A. 856.] 🢀

  202. Phasiani [R. A. 856.] 🢀

  203. Quod caro porcina caeteris sit nutribilior, sed durae digestionis; ideo in minori quantitate dari debet, & bene trita vel masticata ... [R. A. 856.] 🢀

  204. Decoquatur in aqua cum limacibus. [R. A. 856.] 🢀

  205. De floribus arborum fructiferarum in Maio. [R. A. 856.] 🢀

  206. si ficus scindantur in duas partes, & cum pane offerantur, impinguant gallinas valde. [R. A. 856.] 🢀

  207. Carnes, hoedina, porcina assata. [R. A. 856.] 🢀

  208. Similiter agnina, caprina, iuvenes, in brodio. [R. A. 856.] 🢀

  209. De hordeo mixto cum frumento. [R. A. 857.] 🢀

  210. Sed non sit recens, seu calidus. [R. A. 857.] 🢀

  211. De cerebellis & medullis non comedat, nisi de medulla cervi vel vituli, & brodio sine sale. Ungatur cum dialthaea, & cum unguento phthisicorum, cum oleo amygdal: dul: addita pauca cera; supra pectus ... [R. A. 857.] 🢀

  212. Istud etiam optimum est, si Hectica veniat a diaphragmate inflammato, cuius signa sunt ... [R. A. 857.] 🢀

  213. alienatio mentis, anhelitus frequens & parvus. [R. A. 857.] 🢀

  214. Anhelitus inordinate se habet: nunc minimus existens, nunc spississimus, nunc magnus & rarus, nunc tardus, orthosmosus [R. A. 857z.] 🢀

  215. Aliquando una attractione bis attrahunt aërem; aliquando bis eundem emittunt. [R. A. 858.] 🢀

  216. Quia virtus attractiva attrahit ab umbilico, ut patet in embryone in utero materno: ergo ab intestino ieiuno, quia usque ad hoc intestinum ascendit clyster & non ultra, nisi cum magna violentia. [R. A. 858.] 🢀

  217. Circa symptomata supervenientia. [R. A. 858.] 🢀

  218. Item: ex plantagine, hepatica, caulibus decoctis in tribus aquis, & [R. A. 859] expressis cum lacte amygdal: & carne arietina, fiat pro eis potio talis. Item, cape plantaginis lanceolate, sanguinariae, ana M. 2. rosarum unc. 1. lactucae M. 3. cum hordeo assato fiat potus, additis aqua extinctionis ferri & zuccaro ... Vel; capiantur pullae parvae iuvenes, albae, quae sunt frigidiores, nutriantur farina hordei mixta, & decocta cum Sumach & limacibus; & aquam decoctionis eorum bibat, & substantiam comedat, & limaces. [R. A. 858, 859.] 🢀

  219. Item: si patiens patiatur calorem & ardorem cum fluxu; accipiat in aurora trochiscum camphoratum [R. A. 859.] 🢀

  220. Si accipiantur extremitates catulorum iuvenum, abiectis visceribus, & postea herbae frigidae ... & decoquantur in aqua [R. A. 860.] [an leg. whelps? cf. infra H. paragraph 24.] 🢀

  221. Ungula caballina aquatica? [R. A. 860.] 🢀

  222. Inveniatur in senibus, consumptis, refrigeratis & dessicatis, in melancholicis iuvenibus. [R. A. 861.] 🢀

  223. Quod cognoverit quendam agricolam senem, qui vixerit in agro plus quam centum annis. [R. A. 861.] 🢀

  224. Not in R. A. as far as paragraph 47. 🢀

  225. i.e. in potentia. 🢀

  226. Nullum symptoma circa dextrum Hypochondrium ex eius usu sentiunt: qui habent venas latas. [R. A. 861.] 🢀

  227. De animali iuvene, fruente bona pascua. [R. A. 861.] 🢀

  228. Non caules [R. A. 861.] 🢀

  229. Cassia fistula [R. A. 861.] 🢀

  230. Panis debet esse bene subactus. [R. A. 861.] 🢀

  231. Dare vinum pueris, est ignem addere igni in lignis: sed iuvenibus debilibus, da moderate: seni, quantum petit. [R. A. 862.] 🢀

  232. Claretum bonum de vino, & speciebus aromaticis. [R. A. 862.] 🢀

  233. Caveant a ... coitu, sollicitudine, cogitatione [R. A. 862.] 🢀

  234. At ex iratis nemo mortuus est, etc. Invidia nullo modo, nec tristitia, nec angustia. [R. A. 862.] 🢀

  235. Si dicatur vinum competit eis, ergo non lac; quia praeservatio debet fieri per similia, non per contraria. Respondeo, quod sani debeant regi per similia. Sed senes non sunt sani, nisi cum querela. [R. A. 862.] 🢀

  236. Si eos velis impinguare, propter balneum. [R. A. 863.] 🢀

  237. Corpus potestverberari cum virgulis leviter, ... & tunc emplastrum ex pice summe proderit. [R. A. 863.] 🢀

  238. Senes a senectute facile possunt ferre ieiunium: sed non similiter senes a senio: illi igitur cibum debent accipere frequenter ... quia sunt veluti lucerna parata ad extinctionem. [R. A. 863.] [Lit. They have no lights ready for extinguishing.] 🢀

  239. Capae albae [R. A. 863.] 🢀

  240. Veluti catulus niger, & manus calida; & emplastra calida antea memorata. Finis secundi libri de febribus. [R. A. 864.] 🢀

  241. De Cardiaca Passione et tremore cordis. [R. A. 244.] 🢀

  242. Propter timorem, angustiam, & tristitiam. [R. A. 244.] 🢀

  243. ... est ablatio sensus & motus in toto corpore, ex maiori parte, propter debilitatem cordis. [R. A. 244.] 🢀

  244. Balnea ex lignis putridis facta. [R. A. 244.] 🢀

  245. [Cf. infra paragraph 37.] 244.] 🢀

  246. Aër pestilentialis, coitus cum tineosa vel leprosa, studium vehemens, atque vigiliae. [R. A. 244.] 🢀

  247. Caussae internae sunt morbi magni membrorum vicinorum atque consortium habentium cum corde: & ideo propter affectionem cerebri accidit cardiaca: ut propter Epilepsiam vel Apoplexiam: sicut in aegritudine stomachi propter nimiam inanitionem: in appetito canino, bulimia, fame syncopali, in mordicatione & dolore stomachi: quia orificium stomachi est sensibilius omnibus aliis membris, ut scribit Gal. [R. A. 244.] 🢀

  248. [Lit. pestilence.]Sicut vermes; ut matrix, [etc.] ... in humoribus corruptis existentibus in hepate & splene. [R. A. 245.] 🢀

  249. From this point to end of sentence: Et dolores fortissimos ex punctura nervorum [R. A. 245.] 🢀

  250. Et debilis sub onere aliquo cito tremit: & caussa maxima ibi est, quia spiritus est radix, & cor est ramus ... & laeso fundamento laeduntur omnia instrumenta. [R. A. 246.] 🢀

  251. Calidius quod est in corpore nostro, est cor & spiritus, a quo procedit. Ergo cor est fundamentum, & radix ipsius spiritus. [R. A. 246.] 🢀

  252. Cor stat ablato spiritu, & ante ipsum: quia est illud quod primo vivit, & ultimo moritur ... Ego ipsum est radix spiritus. [R. A. 246.] 🢀

  253. Quod corpus componatur ex deferente, & delato. Deferens est spiritus, vel virtus: delatum est corpus. Ergo spiritus est radix. [R. A. 246.] 🢀

  254. [Lit. on account of.]Crassior est calor naturalis: calidior subtilior est spiritus vel virtus. [R. A. 247.] 🢀

  255. Et ideo illo modo accipiendo spiritum. [R. A. 247.] 🢀

  256. Sed cor accipitur uno modo, proprie, pro illa massa sanguinea, ex qua generatur cor proprie dictum, quae habet figuram pineatam, sicut & cor, saltem modicum ante animae inductionem, accipitur pro viscere sic formato, in quod inducitur anima. [R. A. 247.] 🢀

  257. Et primo modo praecedit cor alias partes corporis, tempore, quo [R. A. 248] ad generari: sed quo ad generatum esse, non praecedit essentiales partes tempore, sed natura tantum: verum tamen partes particulares, ad bene esse, praecedit tempore. [R. A. 248.] Ten lines of R. A. not translated. 🢀

  258. Virtus est in spiritu, ut in radice; in corpore cordis, ut in ramo. [R. A. 248.] 🢀

  259. Sed spiritus est spiritus, quamdiu durat vapor iste, qui ... dicitur vapor temperatus: & hoc non est inconveniens. [R. A. 248.] 🢀

  260. Inconveniens=scholastic polite term for “untrue”. [R. A. 248.] 🢀

  261. Primo dicitur quod spiritus fluens generatur in corde: & tamen est radix confortativa, vel instrumentum radicale, cum quo operatur: unde omnis spiritus generatur a corde substantialiter, generatione propria, & essentiali; sed generatione secunda, & accidentali, generantur alibi. [R. A. 248.] 🢀

  262. Mistake of translator? confortativa [R. A. 248.] 🢀

  263. Secundo dico quod cor inter membra nobilia primo vivit: cuiusmodi non sunt spiritus & humores. [R. A. 249.] 🢀

  264. Radix instrumentorum cordis. [R. A. 249.] 🢀

  265. Et si obiiciatur operatio facultatis naturalis, prior est vitali. Ergo hepar est membrum primum, eique debetur principatus. Respondeo, quod hepatis operatio prima sit prioritate officii: non respectu dominii universalis, & dignitatis, quia sic cor est primum. [R. A. 249.] 🢀

  266. [Lit. inception.] [R. A. 249.] 🢀

  267. [Lit. inception.] [R. A. 249.] 🢀

  268. Si oriatur cardiaca ex affectu aliorum membrorum, tunc discernitur per affectiones [etc.] [R. A. 249.] 🢀

  269. Si a sanguine, hoc scitur ex rebus naturalibus, non naturalibus, & illis quae sunt contra naturam. [R. A. 249.] 🢀

  270. Valor in praecordiis [R. A. 249.] 🢀

  271. Liberalis [R. A. 249], i.e. free-and-easy by temper. 🢀

  272. Urina est spissa, remissa in colore: pulsus inordinatus [R. A. 250.] 🢀

  273. Patiens pusillanimus. [R. A. 250.] 🢀

  274. Quia cor indignantis est naturae, & non sustinet istos fumos horribiles. [R. A. 250.] 🢀

  275. Tremor accidit in capite, manibus. [R. A. 250.] 🢀

  276. Et virtus membrum regere non potest: quum tremor sit morbus compositus. [R. A. 250.] 🢀

  277. Si ex frigiditate, pulsus & anhelitus sunt tardi & inordinati [R. A. 250.] 🢀

  278. Illa est pessima atque mortalis [R. A. 251.] 🢀

  279. Ab his discernitur venenum assumptum; quia vapor, vel sapor, horribilis percipitur in ore, & signa alia, de quibus suo loco. [R. A. 251.] 🢀

  280. Et si longo tempore aliquis patiatur tremorem cordis, & subito adveniat syncope, in totum lethale est. [R. A. 251.] 🢀

  281. Si apostemate affectum cor fuerit, id aut parvum erit, aut magnum. Si magnum, aut calidum, aut frigidum. [R. A. 252.] 🢀

  282. Tunc interficiet eum quarto: & tunc emittet sanguinem per nares instar atramenti. [R. A. 252.] 🢀

  283. Dolor animi accidit cordi; sicut tristitia, animi angustia, furor. [R. A. 252.] 🢀

  284. Cordis incisio mortalis est: sed aliorum membrorum non necessario, nisi magna sit, & penetrans: & ibidem scribit, quod cordis & diaphragmatis incisiones non consolidentur, quia semper moventur. [R. A. 252.] 🢀

  285. Aristotle. Et Aristoteles in lib: De Animalibus: cor non tolerat graves infirmitates. Contra cor tolerat syncopen. [R. A. 252.] 🢀

  286. Omne membrum quod extenditur naturaliter in adventu nutrimenti, extenditur innaturaliter in superfluo nutrimenti. [R. A. 252.] 🢀

  287. Sic. Quia non patitur nisi a causa fortissima gravem morbum. [R. A. 252.] 🢀

  288. Eodem modo de dolore momentaneo dicendum; verum est quod dolet, sed dolor non durat: vel dici potest quod cor doleat propter sympathiam h.e. condolentiam aliorum membrorum, & propter consensum orificii ventriculi, quod praecordium vocatur; sed non per propriam passionem. Vel potest dici quod cor apostemetur in capsula, & in medio illius: sed non apostematur in substantia ipsius; imo si incipiat apostemari, impeditur ab operatione sua. [R. A. 253.] 🢀

  289. Est enim cor membrum seu viscus omnibus vim suam tribuens, a nullo vero recipiens. [R. A. 253.] 🢀

  290. Nisi dyscrasia esset nimis intensa. [R. A. 253.] 🢀

  291. Simplicia sunt triplicis generis: quia quaedam cordialia sunt calida, quaedam frigida, quaedam temperata. [R. A. 253.] 🢀

  292. Poma [R. A. 254.] 🢀

  293. Endivia sylvestris. [R. A. 254.] 🢀

  294. Licet declinent ad caliditatem. [R. A. 254.] 🢀

  295. Vergentia ad frigiditatem [R. A. 254.] 🢀

  296. Sericum combustum & crudum: quod tamen magis inclinat ad caliditatem & siccitatem; sed non sicut crudum & tunc coctum potest sumi, vel crudum: & clarificat visum oculis cum eo illitis, reparatque materiam; atque ideo comfortat spiritum animalem, ac vitalem a tota substantia seu specifica virtute quia laetificat, nec non naturalem quia purgat corpus. “Sericum combustum” is explained in a footnote by: “Serici crudi & combusti qualitas, vis, et efficacia.” [R. A. 254.] 🢀

  297. Argentum purum [R. A. 254.] [Lit. green silver.] 🢀

  298. Quia dicit borago gaudia semper ago. [R. A. 255.] 🢀

  299. & pluris est faciendum quam quodvis electuarium confortativum positum in Antidotario Nicolai, ut multoties sum expertus. [R. A. 255.] 🢀

  300. De succo boraginis. [R. A. 255.] 🢀

  301. Ista optima est medicina pro affectionibus cordis & vix parem habet. [R. A. 256.] 🢀

  302. Cum succo boraginis. [R. A. 256.] 🢀

  303. Sex modis ... 1. reparando spiritus ... 2. restaurando humores ... 3. nutriendo, caloremque naturalem augendo ... 4. constingendo & adunando partes cordis ... 5. educendo superflua ... 6. dilatando cor moderate ... [R. A. 256.] 🢀

  304. Offa cum vino. [R. A. 256.] 🢀

  305. Quia evacuant fumos crassos, & materiam Melancholicam corruptam nigram [R. A. 256.] 🢀

  306. [Lit.] animal. Morsus reptilium. [R. A. 257.] 🢀

  307. Quia interficeret ridendo. [R. A. 257.] 🢀

  308. Prodest Hecticis, consumptis, melancholocis, & trisitibus. [R. A. 257.] 🢀

  309. Patiens uratur syrupo rosato, & acetoso, in quo sint santala & camphora. Odoretur santala odorifera, rosas, aquas rosarum, poma citri. [R. A. 257.] 🢀

  310. & fiat odoramentum de istis positis in sacculo. [R. A. 257.] 🢀

  311. Educunt vermes eosque interficiunt [R. A. 258.] 🢀

  312. Odoretur pomum [etc.] [R. A. 258.] 🢀

  313. Complent laxativa, & materiam cardiacae evacuantia, & cor confortantia a proprietate; cuius modi in caussa sanguinea sunt pruna [etc.] [R. A. 258.] 🢀

  314. Quae licet evacuet calorem & spiritum. [R. A. 258.] 🢀

  315. Some confusion here. [Lit.] humoour. Et quum dicitur, quod evacuatio per phlebotomiam facta, plus debilitet, quam evacuatio per pharmacum purgans; sic intellegi debet, quod venae sectio superflua, modumque excedens, plus debilitet hominem, quam quaecunque alia per medicinam, seu pharmacum purgans facta evacuatio. [R. A. 258.] 🢀

  316. Nisi sit medicina venenosa, vel ducens ad syncopen. Sed ego loquor de evacuatione cum qua salva est virtus, vel natura. Evacuatio enim aliter facta, facit syncopisare; sicut phlebotomia [etc.] [R. A. 259.] 🢀

  317. [Lit.] weakness. [R. A. 259.] 🢀

  318. nisi retentiva sit languida [R. A. 259.] 🢀

  319. Quia est vita hepatis ut dicitur in Secretis Secretorum [R. A. 259.] [Cf. I paragraph 27.] 🢀

  320. Diapapaver [R. A. 259.] 🢀

  321. Evacuando melancholiam a cerebro, corde & a toto corpore. [R. A. 259.] 🢀

  322. Diasenae, pulvis Gualtheri, Hiera Ruphi, Hiera Logadii. [R. A. 260.] 🢀

  323. Qui facile convertuntur in naturam spirituum. [R. A. 260.] 🢀

  324. Et scias (inquit Avicenna) ... quod virtus augetur cibo, & vino, subtilibus & odoriferis, bonis, tranquilitate & gaudio, & dimissione eorum quae contristant, & tristari ac rixari faciunt, & renovatione rerum amabilium, & conversatione cum amicis. Et ideo primo viatici cap: de amore ereos inordinato, sive praeternaturali; scribit Constantinus auctoritate Galeni: colloqui cum amantibus, & sapientibus, laborem atque dolorem eiicit e membris interioribus: quod si fiat in locis amoenis, odoriferis ac frugiferis, optimum & iucundissimum est.[R. A. 260.] 🢀

  325. Pullus calidus comedatur. [R. A. 260.] 🢀

  326. Si caussa sit calida, comedat carnes cum fuerit refrigeratus: alioqui dentur ei pisces squamosi de aquis dulcibus, & cancri fluviales. Cibi eius parentur cum croco, si non patiatur fastidium stomachi ... dentur ei cydonia assata, & carnes cydoneorum [etc.] [R. A. 260.] 🢀

  327. In caussa frigida dentur vitelli ovorum calidi, & ova trita cum carnibus, lacte & croco factum cum brodio caponis vel vituli, deinde exprimatur brodium, & affundatur vinum, ext optimus cibus. [R. A. 261.] 🢀

  328. Cf. ova (candellum) de ovis prosunt iis, qui sectione venae usi sunt. [R. A. 356.] 🢀

  329. ... & mulieri syncopen patienti ex suffocatione matricis, debent admoveri partibus inferioribus, ad os matricis: viris superne per nares & os; & mulieribus etiam, quae eo morbo non laborant. [R. A. 261.] 🢀

  330. Deficientibus ex inanitione, non ex repletione. [R. A. 261.] 🢀

  331. Cum frictionibus & ligaturis extremitatum. [R. A. 262.] 🢀

  332. Frictiones, ac ligationes in extremitatibus. [R. A. 262.] 🢀

  333. Fiat item aspersio cum aqua rosacea, vel cum aqua simplici frigida, subito, quae in hoc casu valet: etsi aliquando noceat, si diu corpori adhaerat; ut in syncope ex humoribus crudis, spiritus includendo: at in timore & tristitia diu manere debet. In syncope ex gaudio, & in fluxu ventris, paulatim facienda estaspersio, & diu permanenda. [R. A. 262.] 🢀

  334. Nares teneri. [R. A. 262.] 🢀

  335. Venter suffiri. [R. A. 262.] 🢀

  336. Constantinus [R. A. 262.] 🢀

  337. [Lit. “and”]Sed tamen melius esset ... [R. A. 262.] 🢀

  338. Non valet prima intentio, sed secunda: non rationae suae complexionis, sed ratione iactus. [R. A. 262.] 🢀

  339. Deinde admoveantur odoramenta ut in caussa calida; ... sed in caussa frigida adhibeantur pomum factum ex ambra, ligno aloes, moscho, ladano, cortice citri. [R. A. 262.] 🢀

  340. Cf. F. paragraph 4. 🢀

  341. Patiens odoretur moschum [etc.] [R. A. 263.] 🢀

  342. Linteolum intinctum in aqua rosarum moschata naribus admoveantur. Regio cordis fricetur, & dentur aromatica: ... ad confortationem cordis. [R. A. 263.] 🢀

  343. Torrefacta [R. A. 263.] 🢀

  344. Panis calidus in vinum intinctus optimus est. [R. A. 263.] 🢀

  345. De apostematibus [R. A. 943.] 🢀

  346. Apostema & tumor sunt idem secundum quosdam, ut dicitur, [etc.] [R. A. 943.] 🢀

  347. Apostema est tumor praeter naturam. [R. A. 943.] 🢀

  348. [Lit. position.] figurae [R. A. 944.] 🢀

  349. [lit. hinders.] peccant [R. A. 944.] 🢀

  350. Et est ibi solutio continuitatis propter repletionem descendentem a parte una ad aliam. [R. A. 944.] 🢀

  351. phlegmone [R. A. 944.] 🢀

  352. ...grossitiem extra naturam eminentem. [R. A. 944.] 🢀

  353. Quod potest extendi naturaliter per adventum nutrimenti, potest distendi innaturaliter per superfluum nutrimenti. [R. A. 944.] 🢀

  354. Ex hoc concluditur, quod cerebrum possit apostemari. [R. A. 945.] 🢀

  355. Ergo non retinet materias. [R. A. 945.] 🢀

  356. Tumor vel inflatio. [R. A. 945.] 🢀

  357. Viscosum, terrenum. [R. A. 945.] 🢀

  358. .i. Statum eius, quia ante illud moritur, & iccirco vocatur confirmatio morbi status eius, vel finis augmenti. [R. A. 945.] 🢀

  359. Apostema generatur per viam derivationis, aut per viam congestionis. Primum est [etc.] [R. A. 945.] 🢀

  360. Defectus nutritivae, & conversivae. [R. A. 946.] 🢀

  361. Subdita membro mandanti. [R. A. 946.] 🢀

  362. From this point to “to them” E is translated. 🢀

  363. From this point to the end of this paragraph the Latin text is: Quod effusio materiae vel humoris ad membra, quae moventur & calefiunt, est facilior. Et ideo scribit ibi, quod exiturae fiunt prius in iuncturis, propter earum motum; & propter amplitudinem locorum vacuorum in eis. Hic est notandum, quod exitura est Apostema, generatum per viam derivationis: & est idem, quod Apostema critice a natura ad aliquam corporis partem expulsum. [R. A. 946.] 🢀

  364. i.e. per viam congestionis. 🢀

  365. Si trahatur sanguis vel aliud humidum ad membrum, in tanta quantitate, ut venae magnae eo impleantur, similiter parvae venae, donec perveniatur ad mimimas per meatus eos, qui sunt in eo: tunc quando sunt plenae, resudat ut videtur ex poris earum, ex locis vacuis, quod implet ista loca vacua, quae sunt inter partes membri, ideo est ibi solutio continuatis, ...& tunc isto facto, tumor apparet. [R. A. 946.] 🢀

  366. In genere [R. A. 947.] 🢀

  367. Secundum materias ex quibus fiunt. [R. A. 947.] 🢀

  368. Inflation tumida. [R. A. 947.] 🢀

  369. distinguitur ab apostemate colico, quod est ibi inflatio, sed modicum tumida, non acuta, sed lata. [R. A. 947.] 🢀

  370. Undemia vel zimia. [R. A. 947.] 🢀

  371. From this point to “sclerosis”, the Latin equivalent is:si cholera seu bilis flava vincit, generatur ... erysipelas: si vincit atra bilis, adusta, tunc ... cancer ulceratus. Si melancholia naturalis tunc ... Sclirosis, .i. Apostema durum .i. cancer non exulcaeratus. [R. A. 947.] 🢀

  372. Si sanguis sit malus & grossus, fiunt exiturae malae, carbunculi, & similia. Si subtilis malus [R. A. 948] tunc declinat ad Erysipelas; Si non multum subtilis, efficit phlegmomen erusipelatode; ad huc valde subtilis, facit erusipelas phlegmonwdes [R. A. 947.] 🢀

  373. de cholera, seu bile similiter scribit Avicenna, quod ex illa fiant Apostemata calida [R. A. 948.] 🢀

  374. [Lit. thinner.] de subtili [R. A. 948.] 🢀

  375. Sicut pustulae, quae fiunt noctu, & sunt quasi filiae noctis. [R. A. 949.] 🢀

  376. Quaedam fiunt a phlegmate crasso sicut scrophulae; & istae nascuntur in carne glandulosa; sicuti collo, axillis, &: inguinibus: ... de quorum genere sunt verrucae dependents, clavi molles & glandulae de phlegmate molles. [R. A. 949.] 🢀

  377. De phlegmate mediocri, ut est apostema, doloris expers, non durum. [R. A. 949.] 🢀

  378. [Lit. Amongst the skin are scrophulae and adhere ...] 🢀

  379. De genere Glandularum sunt scrophulae ... Sed ista differunt, quia glandulae sunt separatae a membro, in quo sita sunt, & involutae in coopertorio: similiter scrophulae, adhaerentque [R. A. 950] cuti, non substantiae membri. [R. A. 949.] 🢀

  380. [Hiatus in P.] Sed cancer est mobilis, laedens, habens radices innexas membro, & non destruitur ibi sensus. [R. A. 950.] 🢀

  381. Hernia aquosa in testiculis: apostema aquosum in craneo. [R. A. 950.] 🢀

  382. [Lit. the impostumes] 🢀

  383. Habeant principium, augmentum, statum & declinationem. [R. A. 950.] 🢀

  384. triplici modo. [R. A. 951.] 🢀

  385. Ex tactu eius & compressione cum digitis. [R. A. 951.] 🢀

  386. rubor, tumor venarum. [R. A. 951.] 🢀

  387. per viam derivationis. [R. A. 952.] 🢀

  388. per viam congestionis. [R. A. 952.] 🢀

  389. From here to “prurulent” the Latin equivalent is: verget color ad rubedinem non claram. Si cholera corrupta, verget ad rubedinem claram, dummodo ultimo non putrifiat. [R. A. 952.] 🢀

  390. quia eadem est materia febris & Apostematis. [R. A. 952.] 🢀

  391. Propter nobilitatem membrorum, & vehementiam febris atque doloris. [R. A. 953.] 🢀

  392. [Lit. “rib” in Irish.] 🢀

  393. Tumor, dolor, laesio operationum & exeuntia. [R. A. 953.] 🢀

  394. [Lit. hag.] Pulsus serinus (serratilis, serrae aemulus. Ed. R. A.). [R. A. 953.] 🢀

  395. From here to “new moon”, the Latin equivalent is: Mollior est pulsus, dolor est in pondere, tussis / sicca, calor varius, egestio sanguinolenta; / hic cubat in dextra patiens, aqua turbita iuncta; / extenuans facies lunati forma tumoris [R. A. 954.] 🢀

  396. Sed in oppilatione & duritie sine apostemate [R. A. 954.] 🢀

  397. Hoc tamen est de raro contingentibus, & monstruosum. [R. A. 954.] 🢀

  398. Si in vescia, tunc dolor est in pectine & peritonaeo, & ascendit usque ad renes, & urina mingitur cum difficultate [etc.] [R. A. 954.] 🢀

  399. Signa exiturarum, i.e. Apostematum criticorum, ubi colligitur materia saniosa, sunt [etc.] [R. A. 954.] 🢀

  400. [Lit. pain round the matter.] For “sickness is not acute”, the Latin text has: Quando morbus non est acutus. [R. A. 955.] 🢀

  401. [Lit. the intermediate members.] Ideo exiturae sunt in morbis mediis inter aegritudines pernitiosas, & non malas vel salvas. [R. A. 955.] 🢀

  402. quod morbus sit chronicus. [R. A. 955.] 🢀

  403. tunc enim terminantur per exituram, vel paulatim, per insensibilem dissolutionem. [R. A. 955.] 🢀

  404. [From “if” to “and” omitted in R. A.] 🢀

  405. quia si esset fortis terminaretur per fluxum ventris. [R. A. 955.] 🢀

  406. e contra sunt humores frigidi. [R. A. 955.] 🢀

  407. [Lit. and.] 🢀

  408. Tunc fiet terminatio, & pars, inqua plus est sudor, apostemabitur. [R. A. 955.] 🢀

  409. si arteriae in temporibus vehementer pulsent, ac dilatentur ... tunc est expectandum Apostema in superiori corporis parte. [R. A. 955] 🢀

  410. in anchis sit tensio fortis. [R. A. 956.] 🢀

  411. From this point to “weak members”, the Latin equivalent is: in febre (arteriosa) in articulis, & circa maxillas fiunt Apostemata; sive sit labor absolutus, qui est motus nimius ... ex humorum interiorum repletione, propter locorum illorum raritatem atque mollitiem: quia motus trahit, & febris mittit e supernis excrementa ad loca debilia, quia fit fluxus ad partem debiliorem. [R. A. 956.] 🢀

  412. “Ad loca debilia superflua cuncta feruntur.” [R. A. 956.] 🢀

  413. livens superius, vel Karopos; inferius inopos. [R. A. 958.] 🢀

  414. tunc significat apostema capitis: cum circulo ignito significat apostema in prora, hoc est, phrenesin: cum spissitudine & aquositate significat lethargum, .i. apostema in puppi capitis. [R. A. 958.] 🢀

  415. Urina rubicunda, vergens in colore ad inopum ... livens superius, cum spuma crocea. [R. A. 958.] 🢀

  416. Incolore tincta, colore non livido, sicut in quotidiana [R. A. 959] febre, cum contentis in medio urinae granulosis, scintillantibus vel translucentibus. [R. A. 958.] 🢀

  417. Urina remissa in colore, subtilis in substantia, radiosa, cum contentis adustivis. [R. A. 959.] 🢀

  418. Mortalis est. [R. A. 959.] 🢀

  419. cyaneus ... cum contentis trumbosis. [R. A. 959.] 🢀

  420. significat nocumentum renum. [R. A. 959.] 🢀

  421. & cum hoc de sanguine; sunt molles de lapide, non sicut est communiter de renibus materia lapidum. [R. A. 959.] 🢀

  422. Maxime si cum hoc sanies exeat. [R. A. 959.] 🢀

  423. Rigor, gravitatis, febris. [R. A. 960.] 🢀

  424. Apostemata exteriora si subito delitescant & occultentur. [R. A. 960.] 🢀

  425. ad collectionem faciendam in visceribus. [R. A. 960.] 🢀

  426. Accidentia alia mala in anhelitu, & similia manent, non sedata ab illa occultatione. [R. A. 960.] 🢀

  427. de apostematibus criticis. [R. A. 960.] 🢀

  428. Regimen [R. A. 960.] 🢀

  429. Quod apostema durum cum dolore, videl: acuto, horrendum sit, ad differentiam melancholici, quod est durum sine dolore acuto, sed solum cum gravativo. [R. A. 961.] 🢀

  430. The text from this point to the end of the paragraph is not in R. A. 🢀

  431. [E1 is trans.] 🢀

  432. [Lit. or.] 🢀

  433. Cuius caput est sicut figura pinae. [R. A. 961.] 🢀

  434. Cum mutatur apostema lateris in apostema pulmonis, ... malum est, & e converso minus est malum. [R. A. 961.] 🢀

  435. propter exituram materiae rumpentis & medicantis cutem. [R. A. 961.] 🢀

  436. [Om. R. A.] 🢀

  437. in gibba parte hepatis ... Sed in sima vel concava hepatis parte existens, ut plurimum terminatur ... [R. A. 962.] 🢀

  438. [Lit. sometimes.] 🢀

  439. in carnosis locis. [R. A. 962.] [Lit. intestines.] 🢀

  440. humiditati vicina. [R. A. 962.] 🢀

  441. in nervis & chordis. [R. A. 962.] 🢀

  442. Gal. 6 part: Aphoris. Hipp. 49. Sed Isidorus scribit 2 part. Aphoris. Comment. 15 [R. A. 962.] 🢀

  443. [Lit. Hippocrates.] 🢀

  444. Non comparando ad morbum, factum e materia consimili parti frigidae; sicut quotidiana simplex longior est tertiana notha. [R. A. 962.] 🢀

  445. Omne apostema de materia adusta, sicut Anthrax, formica, carbunculus, & similia, sunt pessima & lethalia: & si cum febre iuncta fuerint, raro quis evadit. [R. A. 962.] 🢀

  446. quia natura non potest ita cito materiam Apostematis digerere, digestione rei extra naturam, quia nulla est digestio quam natura facit in principio: si tamen multa bona appareant, vitam pollicentur. [R. A. 963.] 🢀

  447. seu robur & constantia aegri. [R. A. 963.] 🢀

  448. Vis, levitas, sana mens, ac somnus, spiritus, ictus: / Praestant infirmis verissima signa salutis. [R. A. 963.] 🢀

  449. [sic E, “etrum” misplaced in P.] Vis .i. virtus fortis. Levitas .i. allevatio ... & species caliditas & frigiditatis aequaliter in corpore ... Mens sana .i. non alienata. ...In omni morbo mentem firmam esse & bene se habere ad ea quae offeruntur, bonum. Somnus [etc.] [R. A. 963.] 🢀

  450. The following four words are omitted in R. A. 🢀

  451. From this point to “crisis”, the Latin equivalent is Licet Avicenna scribat ... o quanta timorosa signa vidimus de profunditate somni, & casu pulsus, & abcissione sudoris, perducentia post horas ad Crisim completam. [R. A. 963.] 🢀

  452. ictus .i. masticatio cibi in ore, bene masticare cibum, dentibus terere, bene & ordinate eundem transglutire, & bene se habere ad oblata. [R. A. 964.] 🢀

  453. [Lit. variation of the times.] Apostematum variat secundum variationem temporum eorum. [R. A. 964.] 🢀

  454. Tertio, quando est venenosa materia Apostematis, ut in Anthrace, & carbunculo & tunc magis debet trahi ad exteriora. Quarto, si sit Apostema vicinum ad membrum principale [R. A. 964]. Quinto, si virtus sit debilis, non est repercutiendum; sicut in convalescentibus, senibus, pueris, mulieribus, & praegnantibus. [R. A. 965.] 🢀

  455. Tunc est repletio quo ad virtutem. [R. A. 965.] 🢀

  456. & replet quo ad vasa. [R. A. 965.] 🢀

  457. Si velis reducere, aut cogere quod est in fluxu, non recipiet plenum existens corpus. Aut ex parte virtutis, si ipsa sit debilis ... Aut ex parte membri in quo natum est Apostema; ut si sit iuxta membrum principale, vel in ipso, vel in suo purgatorio. [R. A. 965.] 🢀

  458. nisi fluat ad membrum sensibile atque notabile, ut ad oculum: tunc enim materia in crisi debet duci per convenientes regiones. [R. A. 965.] 🢀

  459. ... apostema habeat & causas antecedentes, sicut repletionem ... [R. A. 966.] 🢀

  460. ad hoc iuvat colligantia membrorum ad invicem, vel amplitudo viarum. [R. A. 966.] 🢀

  461. aliquando caussa est dolor fortissimus illius membri, & dolor facit hoc: doloris autem caussa est aut mala complexio, quae generat dolorem: aut mala complexio quae fit propter superfluitates motus virtutis expulsivae, quum superfluitates expellit. [R. A. 966.] 🢀

  462. From this point to “injurious products”, the Latin equivalent is: quia est caussa cur natura mittat illuc materiam ad expellendum nocumentum. [R. A. 966.] 🢀

  463. Ophthalmia [R. A. 967.] 🢀

  464. Haly 3. part. Technes co. 168. [R. A. 967.] 🢀

  465. From this point to end of sentence, the equivalent Latin text is not in R. A. 🢀

  466. Lacuna in P, several folios missing. Missing portion (E 27b to 29, E1 143 to 146, H 36-40) deals with cold imposthumes and their cure. The headings of R. A. of the missing portions are: R. A. 981: Curatio. Scrophularum, Glandularum, Nodorum & Verrucarum. Scrophulae si sint [etc.]; R. A. 982: Si haec non sufficiant, vadat ad Regem, ut eum tangat atque benedicat; quia iste morbus vocatur regius; & hunc valet contactus Serenissimi Regis Anglorum ... ; R. A. 982: Glandulae dicuntur a fructibus quercus, qui vocantur glandes, quia figura earum assimilantur illis ... ; R. A. 983: Nodi sunt durities in iuncturis manuum & pedum ... ; R. A. 984: Verrucae sunt de genere Apostematum durorum parvorum; suntque multiplices, dependentes, acrochordones vocatae, ad modum capitis uberis, dicit Gal. ... quod acrochordones sunt morbi ... quos vulgus vocat verucas & porros. 🢀

  467. Deinde patiens abstineat ab omnibus melancholicis; ut sunt carnes bovinae, anseris, anatis: caro salsa, sale indurata, caules, pisa, frixa, caseus, & interiora animalium. [R. A. 985.] 🢀

  468. deinde cum ungue sanguis educatur. [R. A. 985.] 🢀

  469. super verrucam. [R. A. 985.] 🢀

  470. anacardi ... aufert verrucas, glandulas & scrophulas ... Stercus caprinum, cum aceto superpositum. [R. A. 985.] 🢀

  471. Daguinus [R. A. 986.] 🢀

  472. Nigella [R. A. 986.] 🢀

  473. Si sint glandulosae, & nodosae, tunc cinis limacum cum adipe antiqua, non salita, est propria. [R. A. 986.] 🢀

  474. Idem expertum est, si laventur cum aqua, cum qua lotus est, vel lavatur mortuus. [R. A. 986.] 🢀

  475. cum lamina plumbi fortitier exprimatur. [R. A. 986.] 🢀

  476. In R. A. this follows vel lavatur mortuus. [R. A. 986.] 🢀

  477. A. docet, quod carbunculus plurimum fiat in aëre pestilentiali; ideo sanguinem ibi ebullire, & putrefieri, & sequi febres malignas. [R. A. 987.] 🢀

  478. in cute ambulativum. [R. A. 987.] 🢀

  479. pustulae multae. [R. A. 987.] 🢀

  480. Anthrax. Infra plura de Anthrace. [R. A. 987 in marg.] 🢀

  481. Habet colores varios, citrinum, rubeum, lividum, nigrum, ad modum circuli. [R. A. 987.] 🢀

  482. Sanguinem adustum, transmutatum in choleram nigram. [R. A. 987.] 🢀

  483. [i.e. pit or furrow.] 🢀

  484. quia interficeret, ratione doloris ex materia venenosa: quae non habens exitum convenientem, propter materiae abundantiam, ad cor redundat, & interficit. [R. A. 988.] 🢀

  485. Appone exsiccantia, sine mordicatione, infrigidantia parum cum pauca resolutione. [R. A. 988.] 🢀

  486. De Anthrace. [R. A. heading 1032.] 🢀

  487. attamen in loco magis remoto a corde, quam sit Anthrax. [R. A. 1033.] 🢀

  488. ut fiat phlebotomia ex eadem parte, non ex opposita. [R. A. 1033.] 🢀

  489. aut fermentum cum oleo & sale. [R. A. 1033.] 🢀

  490. cum succo Apii & melle rosarum. [R. A. 989.] 🢀

  491. cum succo Tanaceti [R. A. 1033.] 🢀

  492. contra ignem sacrum. [R. A. 1034.] 🢀

  493. fortiter cum melle concute eum atque tempera. [R. A. 1034.] 🢀

  494. De Testiculorum Induratione. [heading R. A. 929.] 🢀

  495. Testiculi non solum abscessum patiuntur; sed aliquando etiam indurantur; ... aliquando in sua substantia. [R. A. 929.] 🢀

  496. inflatio propter vehementiam, quae assimilatur Apostimati. [R. A. 930.] 🢀

  497. ex cortice mediano sambuci [R. A. 930.] 🢀

  498. ... de vena brachii sinistri si malum sit in testiculo sinistro; si in dertra, vena illius lateris. [R. A. 930.] 🢀

  499. Bismalvae. [R. A. 930.] 🢀

  500. Deinde inungantur ex oleo rosarum ... in frigida ex oleo liliorum. [R. A. 930.] 🢀

  501. Pannus ruber. [R. A. 930.] 🢀

  502. fiat phlebotomia de Basilica, vel mediana; & post purgationem universalem de Saphena interiori. [R. A. 988.] 🢀

  503. Iusquiamus ... omnia apostemata calida testiculorum curat. [R. A. 931.] 🢀

  504. Sic emplastrum ex malvis, caulis maturat inflationes & durities, & sem: lini. [R. A. 931.] 🢀

  505. ... est enim testiculorum bursa nervosa. [R. A. 932.] 🢀

  506. Ex meis secretis est, muscilago sem: Lini, [etc.] [R. A. 931.] 🢀

  507. Sive dura, sive molli. [R. A. 932.] 🢀

  508. [Recte] continue “if you wish” [etc.] Cf. infra.  🢀

  509. Foenograecum frixum cum oleo communi, vel butyro. [R. A. 931.] 🢀

  510. De Apostemate Matricis. [Heading R. A. 932.] 🢀

  511. From this point to the end of sentence, the Latin equivalent is: sitis, dysuria, & ut plurimum febris. [R. A. 932.] 🢀

  512. a cibis frigidis; sicut a lacte; a viscosis, ut caseo. [R. A. 932.] 🢀

  513. Durities est in pectine ... & proprie in Saphena [R. A. 932.] 🢀

  514. [An leg. i.e.?] 🢀

  515. Curatio Apostematis Matricis. [Heading R. A. 933.] 🢀

  516. Ut secetur bacilica; sed quia retinet menstrua, sequitur phlebotomia Saphenae. [R. A. 933.] 🢀

  517. cum aliquo iulepo, in principio. Fiat embrocatio ... papaver dissolutum cum oleo pontico [stiptico add. marg.] est bonum. [R. A. 933 add.] 🢀

  518. Arnoglossa [R. A. 933.] 🢀

  519. ℞ Camomillae, sem: brusci, asparagi, flor: violarum ana drach 1. [R. A. 933.] 🢀

  520. From this point to “in mind”, the Latin equivalent of the text is Tempore calido valet etiam cum succo morellae & rosis, ideo semper in apostematibus ipsum in mente habeo. [R. A. 934.] 🢀

  521. cerae rubrae. [R. A. 934.] 🢀

  522. [Lit. as.] Decoquantur in aqua & vino etiam supra dicta, ad lentum ignem, per pessarium immittantur, & exterius fiat illinitio. [R. A. 934.] 🢀

  523. [Lit. or.] 🢀

  524. ℞ adipis porcini veteris lib. i. Mellis drach. iii. Cerae lib. i. adipis Anseris, vel pulli, lib. i. Butyri [Forte unciam. iii. add marg.] unciam .S. Galbani drach. ii. [R. A. 934.] 🢀

  525. Medulla cervina, quia subtilior. [R. A. 934.] 🢀

  526. Ex adipibus, adeps anatis. [R. A. 934.] 🢀

  527. adeps leonis ... dein ursi. [R. A. 934.] 🢀

  528. provocetur sternutatio. [R. A. 934.] 🢀

  529. Et haec de passionibus mulierum dicta sufficiant. [R. A. 935.] 🢀

  530. & hoc de lethargo vero: & de fumis sive exhalationibus inibi existentibus, memoriamque impedientibus, vel de cholera mixta cum phlegmate putrefacto in puppi cerebri, ad quae sequitur febris. [R. A. 142.] 🢀

  531. Ut quotidiana continua excipit minorem Hemitritaeum ... [R. A. 143.] 🢀

  532. In viis & foraminibus sub craneo, & raro in substantia medullari, & panniculis. [R. A. 143.] 🢀

  533. Aliquando obliviscuntur excrementorum communium deponendorum, alvi sc: & urinae. [R. A. 143.] 🢀

  534. Multiplicatur somnus gravis, taciturnitas, motus, pigritia [R. A. 143.] 🢀

  535. Vigiliae, motus ... intuitum fixum [R. A. 143.] 🢀

  536. Spiratio & pulsus sunt stricti, parvi, occulti, & inaequales. [R. A. 143.] 🢀

  537. Respondent [R. A. 143.] [Lit. do not reply.]  🢀

  538. Livor faciei, tumor, motus inordinatus. [R. A. 144.] 🢀

  539. Sunt signa mortalia in lethargo. [R. A. 144.] 🢀

  540. Solitarius [R. A. 144.] 🢀

  541. & licet intelligant, tamen respondere non possunt. [R. A. 144.] 🢀

  542. [Lit. them.] 🢀

  543. Postea fiat sternutatio levis cum penna, aut festuca positis in naso: & detur opera, ut patiens excitetur a gravi somno tympani sonitu, vellicatione capillorum & clamore intra aures factis. [R. A. 144.] [Scribe evidently confused “sraogach”, Latin “sternutatio” with following “sgreitheach” (E.), Lat. “clamore”. E and E1 make no mention of sneezing. Squealing of pigs translator's idea of great noise? But cf. R. A. and infra. Cf. Cicero, Tusc. Disp. V. 116.] 🢀

  544. Aperiantur venae in naso cum setis porcinis [R. A. 144.] 🢀

  545. Castoreum bulliat cum succo apii & pauco aceto, vel oleo rosato, & eo tepido fricetur occipium fortiter, & diu, ut materia ibi contenta digeratur atqie evaporet. [R. A. 145.] 🢀

  546. Si patiens sit compos mentis, ut talia admittat. [R. A. 145.] 🢀

  547. Si materia sit melancholica, occuli sunt aperti, & coniuncta sunt rixa, intuitus fixus, motus. [R. A. 145.] 🢀

  548. [Cf. par. 4,5.] 🢀

  549. E succo rosarum. [R. A. 146.] 🢀

  550. From this point to the end of this sentence, the equivalent Latin text is not in R. A. 🢀

  551. Cor philomelae vel upupae. [R. A. 146.] 🢀

  552. Cor hirundinis cum melle coctum, & acceptum, facit ut reminiscamur praeteritorum, & futura praedicamus. [R. A. 146.] 🢀

  553. [add.] vel tumor est circa umbilicum cum dolore [etc.] [R. A. 935.] 🢀

  554. Mirach, dein Siphac. [R. A. 935.] 🢀

  555. manet in inguine tumor & dolor. [R. A. 935.] 🢀

  556. Quando autem tumor & inflatio in bursa testiculorum est, sine Apostemate, febre, & dolore magno; tunc passio est Herniosa. [R. A. 935 add.] 🢀

  557. ... fiunt ibi varices grossi ad digiti grossitiem. Aliquando Zirbus & Didymus, qui est nervus, per quem natura materiam spermaticam mitit ad testiculos descendunt, quando scilicet nimium relaxantur. [R. A. 935.] 🢀

  558. i. e. Zirbus & Didymus. 🢀

  559. From this point to “the same disease”, the equivalent Latin text is Similiter quando semen exire paratum, retinetur propter aliquam occasionem, extendit didymum, eumque inflat, dein testiculum, & facit istum morbum. [R. A. 936.] 🢀

  560. Si ruptio aut relaxatio sit facta. [R. A. 936.] 🢀

  561. [Contortions?] Patiens habebit torsiones intolerables, rugitum in ventre & intestinis, cum sono, qui extrinsecus ab omnibus audietur & hoc faciunt Ribaldi in Italia, quando volunt nocere herniosis, vel ruptis. [R. A. 936.] 🢀

  562. non sentitur inundatio. [R. A. 936.] 🢀

  563. cystis testiculorum magnificatur cum pondere & splendore. [R. A. 937.] 🢀

  564. From this point to “burdens”, the equivalent Latin text is Signa Varicosae: quod Hernia seu ruptura dura, oblonga, ad modum virgarum tortuosarum est: sicut apparet in varicibus in tibiis porcorum. [R. A. 937.] 🢀

  565. Signa Zirbalis; quod non revertitur, dato, quod patiens iceat supinus: quando didymus est relaxatus, & foramen est rarum, magnum, tunc intestina facile in Oscheum cadunt. [R. A. 937.] 🢀

  566. Mollities media inter aquosam & carnosam. [R. A. 937.] 🢀

  567. Omnes rupturae in principio facile curantur, in puero maxime, sed non in sene, in iuvene medio modo se habet. [R. A. 937.] 🢀

  568. From this point to “cutting”, the equivalent Latin text is Nisi per manum chirurgi per administrationem cauteriorum & brachalis [add. marg. subligaris.] [R. A. 938.] 🢀

  569. Si tres menses transierit ramex, Chirurgia indiget. [R. A. 938.] 🢀

  570. Quartum caput completur per ea, quae intra os exhibentur, & sunt consolidantia. [R. A. 940.] Quintum caput cpmpletur per cauterium & incisionem. [R. A. 941.] 🢀

  571. Non ascendant equum cum stapede, sed ab alto conscedant equum, suaviter ephippio insidentes. [R. A. 938.] 🢀

  572. & sit ibi ligula conveniens, ut possit vinciri, ac constringi, ac pendeat ibidem pila rotunda de panno lineo, quae ponatur super brachale. [R. A. 939.] 🢀

  573. R. A. continues to p. 943 with cures for different forms.] 🢀

  574. Et dicitur paralysis (ápo tou paraluésthai) quod significat resolvi [R. A. 76.] 🢀

  575. From this point to “speech”, the equivalent Latin text is & perditur loquela, & resolvitur lingua, vel secundum totum, vel secundum partem. [R. A. 76.] 🢀

  576. Unde Avicenna ... dicit, quod paralysis aliquando dicitur sermone absoluto, aliquando proprio. Primo modo significat idem quod mollificatio in quolibet membro. Secundo modo significat idem quod mollificatio in una duarum medietatum vel partium corporis in longitudine. Primo modo communicat utrisque lateribus simul, exceptis partibus capitis, quibus si communicaret, esset Apoplexia. Est igitur paralysis universalis, quando una medietas corporis absque partibus capitis resolvitur aut mollificatur. Unde mollities proprie est impedimentum motus: & tamen accipitur pro impedimento sensus & motus simul: sicut dictum est in capite de Epilepsia. [R. A. 77.] 🢀

  577. Tactus cuiusdam piscis qui vocatur tarcon, & dicitur piscis iste Merguri. [R. A. 78.] 🢀

  578. Prima, est inopia spirituum, & caloris, non valentis se multiplicare [spargere marg.] ad nervos. [R. A. 78.] 🢀

  579. Condensans spiritus. [R. A. 78.] 🢀

  580. Febres ardentes. [R. A. 78.] 🢀

  581. Siccitas corrugans nervos. [R. A. 79.] 🢀

  582. Sine materia disponenes ad oppilationem. [R. A. 79.] 🢀

  583. ... chloera ratione subtilitatis, causante aliorum humorum, cum quibus miscetur, penetrationem. [R. A. 79.] 🢀

  584. Quia nervi non sunt concavi concavitate notabili, praeter nervos oculorum [etc. R. A. 79.] 🢀

  585. Sicut solicitudo, tristitia, cibaria Melancholica; ut carnes bovinae, leporinae, anatis, anseris, pisa, & assata, caules, & similia: salsa & sale indurata. [R. A. 83.] 🢀

  586. Id raro accidit; vel nunquam: nisi misceatur cum alio humore. [R. A. 83.] 🢀

  587. Sicut subiugalium colore charopi. [R. A. 83.] 🢀

  588. aut alicuius morbi concomitantis latus infirmi; & est ita frigidum ac si esset in glacie: & sanum sentitur ita calidum, ac si esset in igne. [R. A. 83. ] [An. leg. “accompanies”? 🢀

  589. Febre cessante, remanet dolor fortis. [R. A. 84.] 🢀

  590. quia natura expellit materiam a capite ad nervos expulsione gravitatis, non expulsine evacuationis integrae. [R. A. 84.] 🢀

  591. Frigiditas est in primo gradu confusionis animae virtutis animalis, & spiritus animalis: humiditas est in secundo gradu sc: post frigidum in secundo; secundum ordinem, scil: non secundum malitiam & intensionem malitiae. Et ideo a calido raro fit paralysis. [R. A. 84.] 🢀

  592. Ille, cui accidit frequenter incubus, vel Ephialtes; est aptus ut incidat in epilepsiam [etc.] [R. A. 85.] 🢀

  593. Cui accidit frequenter saltus in corpore, & durat cum sensuum debilitate, conturbatione, & stupore membrorum ... [R. A. 85.] 🢀

  594. Regimen commune est tangens partem morbi secundum proprietatem, & aliquando diaetam. [R. A. 85.] Did translator take “secundum” as “uair ele”? 🢀

  595. Primum quidem completur cum administratione omnis studii, ad partem capitis posteriorem [etc.] [R. A. 85.] 🢀

  596. & “alia olea calida, ut laurinum, costinum”. [R. A. 85.] 🢀

  597. Theriaca, mithridatium, administrantur [etc.] [R. A. 85.] 🢀

  598. [Lit matter.] Quia digerunt & subtiliant materiam, & corrigunt malitiam complexionis frigidae. [R. A. 85 z.] 🢀

  599. [Lit. tormented with moving.] Ius serpentis decocti a proprietate; & species salis conditi positi in Antidotario Nicolai: sicut sal Marcelli, sal sacerdotale, ius gallorum antiquorum virgis caesorum ad defatigationem [!] usque. [R. A. 86.] 🢀

  600. [Lit. Because it penetrates the nerves before the matter.] Quia facit materiam penetrare ad nervos, quae forte non penetraret. [R. A. 87.] 🢀

  601. Abstinere sitientem & fame laborantem cura est prima. [R. A. 88.] 🢀

  602. intentiones curativae sunt quattuor. [R. A. 88.] 🢀

  603. Tertia conversio residui ad oppositum seu diversum. [R. A. 88.] 🢀

  604. cum rebus materiam morbi digerentibus & maturantibus. [R. A. 88.] 🢀

  605. From this point to the end of the sentence, the equivalent Latin text is Florum staechados quart. 1. thymi ..., Calamenthi, Origani ana unc. 1. Zingiberis drach. 2. piperis drach. 3. passularum enucleat: quart. 1 Calami aromat: Croci, piperis nigri ana drach. 1. S. [R. A. 89.] 🢀

  606. Simplicia medicamenta. [R. A. 89.] 🢀

  607. Fiat bonum Melicratum. [R. A. 89.] 🢀

  608. Tere contritione grossa, coletur in colatorio denso de panno. [R. A. 89.] 🢀

  609. lapatii cauti. Lapathum? [R. A. 89.] 🢀

  610. Salis, furfuris ana unc. 1. [R. A. 90.] 🢀

  611. Misceantur facta colatura, & injiciatur clyster. Deinde digeratur materia reiterando & sensim. [R. A. 90.] 🢀

  612. Mentastri [R. A. 90.] 🢀

  613. Sana mundae [R. A. 90.] 🢀

  614. cum Gargarismis masticationibus caputpurgiis, & sternutatoriis. [R. A. 91.] 🢀

  615. Frictiones fiant in postrema parte capitis leviet, & in extremitatibus capitis fortiter. [R. A. 92.] 🢀

  616. Fricetur [R. A. 92.] [An leg. “rub”?] 🢀

  617. Nimis calefit. [R. A. 92.] 🢀

  618. Ideo assata & condita cum speciebus prosunt Paralysi affectis: carnes quoque humidae & salitae. [R. A. 92.] 🢀

  619. calamenthi, consolidae maioris, salviae. [R. A. 93.] 🢀

  620. & addatur pulveris piperis nigri, euphorbii una unc. S. [R. A. 93.] 🢀

  621. Et vocatur unguentum de cato [an leg. “whelp”?]: & est speciale in hoc morbo, sicut anserinum in gutta frigida. [R. A. 93.] 🢀

  622. [Cf. ‘The grees of ganders is good in medycyne with sondry gommes tempred for the goute.’ (Lydgate, The Horse, the sheep & the ghoos.)] 🢀

  623. [Om. R. A. 93.] 🢀

  624. Lingua lavetur frequenter post gargarismos cum aqua vitae [R. A. 93.] 🢀

  625. Modicum de illa aqua [R. A. 93.] 🢀

  626. Cum nitro i. sale grosso. [R. A. 97.] 🢀

  627. balneum siccum seu stupha. [R. A. 97.] 🢀

  628. Ventosae ... cum stricto orificio sine scarificatione. [R. A. 97.] 🢀

  629. Circumponantur coria in principio, & pelles, ex quibus fiant suffulturae, & tradantur illae pellionibus. [R. A. 98.] 🢀

  630. Hiatus in Text. Error virtutis (unitivae) in toto corpore; sequens mutationem virtutis digestivae in hepate ... [R. A. 379.] 🢀

  631. Et quum attractiva sit propter nutritivam: & nutritiva compleat operationem suam per quatuor facultas notas; tunc si una energia sua privetur, privabuntur simul omnes; & sic accidit oppilatio propter fel. Haec Averroës ... Dum una virtutum permanet fixa, corpus remanet secundum suam dispositionem procul dubio. [R. A. 379.] 🢀

  632. Hipp: 4. sect. Aphoris: 11. [R. A. 390.] 🢀

  633. Quibuscunque torsiones. [R. A. 390.] 🢀

  634. Qui non solvitur, aut purgatione, aut aliter. [R. A. 391.] 🢀

  635. & eius fluxus non alleviat patientem, nec detumescit; tunc est confirmata: [R. A. 391.] 🢀

  636. Neque tamen patientes de morbo conquerentur. [R. A. 391z.] 🢀

  637. Post ...tussim. [R. A. 392.] [An leg. coughing?🢀

  638. & superiora fiunt gracilia. [R. A. 392.] 🢀

  639. Aliquando oculi inflantur propter fumos ascendentes ab hepate. [R. A. 392.] 🢀

  640. Appetitus cibi diminutio, propter intensum appetitum potus. [R. A. 392.] 🢀

  641. Ut si tangatur vel comprimatur pollice, vel digito, cedat tactui, & faciat foveam. [R. A. 392.] 🢀

  642. Egestio alba. [R. A. 392.] 🢀

  643. [Lit. “the special symptoms are usually present” (?). De propriis dictum est quantum ad species [R. A. 393] Communia sunt tria, aut quatuor. [R. A. 392z.] 🢀

  644. [recte “lower.”] 🢀

  645. Inflatio oculorum propter debilitatem caloris innati, & quod non expelluntur ad poros cutis, ratione debilitatis virtutis expulsivae; sicut a virtute defatigata, ad partes inferiores. Et quia digestiva, & calor, illic sunt debiles: ideo nutrimentum pedum convertitur in ventositates inflantes. [R. A. 393.] 🢀

  646. Quae vero est ab hepate per tussim siccam, & duritiem digestionis. [R. A. 395.] 🢀

  647. Appetitus non perit, & dolor ... modicum supra perinaeum h. e., eam corporis partem, cui femorale alligatur, vel sub eo, percipitur. [R. A. 395.] 🢀

  648. Averroes P.  🢀

  649. a frigiditate debilitante calorem, & a calore exhalente. [R. A. 396.] 🢀

  650. Quo ad symptomata. [R. A. 396.] 🢀

  651. videlicet incisionem; quae ibi nullum habet usum, quoniam maior inflatio est in Stomacho. [R. A. 396.] 🢀

  652. Cum febre acuta. [R. A. 397.] 🢀

  653. Respondeo: fluxus in Hydrope sine alleviatione patientis, est mortalis, alias non. [R. A. 397.] 🢀

  654. Fluxus hepaticus sanguinolentus. [R. A. 397.] 🢀

  655. Hydropicus si tussiat, desperatus est. [R. A. 398.] 🢀

  656. Primo modo non est naturalis; at secundo. [R. A. 398.] 🢀

  657. Avicenna [R. A. 398.] 🢀

  658. Hydrops adveniens propter duritiem splenis, minus est periculosa, quam ea quae accidit propter duritiem hepatis. [R. A. 398.] [Lit. “thereafter”.] 🢀

  659. #4 [R. A. 398.] 🢀

  660. [Lit. “it is not done”] 🢀

  661. & hoc ego expertus sum per gratiam Dei, eiusque auxilium, in monachis, & monialibus, & in omni genere Hominum, qui habuerunt, ventres inflatos plus quam 15. pollices ... & persanavi eos, ita ut omnes mirarentur: nullum tamen suscepi curandum nisi ea conditione, quod periculum facere velim an patientem possim a morbo liberare: & quod certam pecuniae summam mihi deberet numerare si ex voto curatio succederet: id quod aliis quoque Medicis observandum est. [R. A. 399.] 🢀

  662. Item: si cui laboranti mania, aut melancholia, accidat Hydrops, resolvitur materia morbi, propterea quod Hydrops a contraria caussa, videl: humiditate oritur, ut testator Avicenna. Sed Gal. scribit, hoc fieri ratione translationis materiae, quoniam a capite noxii humores transferuntur ad inferiora. [R. A. 399.] 🢀

  663. Nisi sit Apostema calidum, desiccans faeces. [R. A. 399.] 🢀

  664. [Lit. If there be ulcerating on the body.] Quando hydropicis in corpore ulcera nascuntur. 🢀

  665. Quod si in membro habente malam complexionem, accidunt ulcera, non curantur, nisi desiccentur: quia patientes sunt nimis humidi, vel pigri, sicut apparet in hydropico & leproso. [R. A. 400.] 🢀

  666. [Lit. above.] Urina bicolor ... ut sit ruffa inferius, & livens superius: aut quum est rubra superius, & nigra inferius. [R. A. 400.] 🢀

  667. i.e. the pain. Quibuscunque hepar dolet ratione debilitatis, febris superveniens solvit dolorem. [R. A. 400.] 🢀

  668. Ex his sequitur quod Tympanitis sit curabilis febre superveniente: quia ibi est color in hepate etc. [R. A. 400.] 🢀

  669. From this point to “likewise is dry”, the equivalent Latin text is Consequens tamen est falsam, quia auget ventum, debilitando digestionem, ad hoc quod Hydrops est siccus, & febris similiter. [R. A. 400.] 🢀

  670. [Not in R. A.] 🢀

  671. From this point to the end of the sentence, the equivalent Latin text is Primus est cum febre; secundus est parvus, & magis dicenda est gravitas, quam dolor magnus. [R. A. 400.] 🢀

  672. From this point to the end of the sentence, the equivalent Latin text is Ergo dolor sine febre erit ex ventositate crassa: cui si febris superveniat, sine dubio cura erit. [R. A. 400.] 🢀

  673. Febris non consumit ventositatem in Stomacho. [R. A. 400.] 🢀

  674. Et cum ad partum venerit, moritur mater: vel oportet ut scindatur foetus vel mater: & ita periculum est unius, aut amborum. [R. A. 402.] 🢀

  675. Quando mulier fuit Hydropica, & evasit: & post impraegnatur. [R. A. 402.] 🢀

  676. Propria perficitur cum medicinis appropriatis, diversae speciei, & cum localibus. [R. A. 403.] 🢀

  677. Succus Ireos. [R. A. 403.] 🢀

  678. Sudor fit cum aquis sulphureis, aut marinis: cum balneis siccis, aut stuphis paratis ex parietaria [etc ...] [R. A. 403.] 🢀

  679. [Lit. Salt.] 🢀

  680. Ut cum Arregon, Martiato, Agrippae. [R. A. 403.] 🢀

  681. medicina purgans aquam, ut urina propria aegrorum bibita ... in hac affectione valet, sicuti in ictero & aegritudine splenetica. [R. A. 403.] 🢀

  682. Vel scarificatione intercutanea inter articulos pedis, vel supra pedes, vel in cavilis. [R. A. 403.] 🢀

  683. Asara, Baccara, Cassia lignea, spicaque nardi, Hydropsin curant de causa frigidiori [R. A. 403.] 🢀

  684. Nasturtium [R. A. 403.] 🢀

  685. Eupatorium [R. A. 404.] 🢀

  686. Rostrum porcinum [R. A. 403.] 🢀

  687. Scolopendria [R. A. 404.] 🢀

  688. cassia fistula [R. A. 404.] 🢀

  689. Cum ... oleo camomillae. [R. A. 404.] 🢀

  690. Deinde paretur talis potus diureticus, & alterativus, quia diuretica curant Hydropem, & multus usus interficit aegros. [R. A. 404.] [E is trans.] 🢀

  691. Vel cum parte sequentis digestivi. [R. A. 405.] 🢀

  692. Ego tamen abhorreo ab hoc laxativo, excepto clystere, sero caprino, rhabarbaro. [R. A. 405.] 🢀

  693. The text from this point to the end of the sentence is not in R. A. 🢀

  694. Licet sit vita hepatis ut scribit Aristotles in lib. de secretis suis. [R. A. 406.] 🢀

  695. Etsi A. cap: de dysenteria scribat ... si uratur vel assetur. [R. A. 406.] 🢀

  696. Confortando hepar. [R. A. 406.] 🢀

  697. Electuarium diacubebarum. [R. A. 406.] 🢀

  698. Si omnino fieri potest. [R. A. 407.] 🢀

  699. Plus quam in viginti hominibus. [R. A. 407.] 🢀

  700. Sed non diu teneatur super iecore. Vel si vis oteris extrahere succum plantaginis [etc.] [R. A. 407.] 🢀

  701. Aliquando frequens & non copiosa; ut in conservayione sanitatis. [R. A. 408.] 🢀

  702. Die crastino quiescat ab emplastris, & instituat tale exercitium. [R. A. 408.] 🢀

  703. & cum manibus se fricet modicum. [R. A. 408.] 🢀

  704. Conterantur omnia simul, & calefacta extendatur super pannum lineum, aut super corium tenue ... super umbilicum ponatur usque ad pecten. [R. A. 408. An leg. “hide”?] 🢀

  705. Stupha [R. A. 408.] 🢀

  706. [Lit “them”. R. A. 408.] 🢀

  707. Decoquantur in aqua olla cooperta, & sit inaequalis imposita usque ad summitatem coopertam extrinseca de parte, per qaum exibit caput: & ibi sedens (aeger) super pulvinari, ex furfurib. cotto, aut lana succida (non lota) apparato, sudet ... & cum incipit infrigidari, detur aegro de meo electuario, cuius descriptionem supra posui. [R. A. 409.] 🢀

  708. The text from this point to “adhere to him” is Neque aqua ... diu super cute remaneat. [R. A. 409. Lit. “and if”.] 🢀

  709. Multos curavi cum clysteribus & Diureticis ... neque uno remedii genere, sed pluribus: ut sunt clysteres, potiones diureticae [etc.] [R. A. 409.] 🢀

  710. Hepatis fomentationes cum aquis rosarum [etc.] [R. A. 409.] 🢀

  711. & fiat ignis in lateribus ollae debilis ad caliditatem furni recipiendam: & post decoctionem extrahatur olla. [R. A. 410a.] 🢀

  712. Sed saccharum candi teneret in ore. [R. A. 410.] 🢀

  713. Nota quod haec frigida non debent dari in Ascite. [R. A. 410.] 🢀

  714. quia inflantur inferiora, non superiora, cum sonitu aquae in ventre [R. A. 410.] 🢀

  715. ad alia signa, quam ad inflationem. [R. A. 410.] 🢀

  716. punctura [R. A. 410.] 🢀

  717. & videre si frigida nocent, & calida iuvant; tunc est de caussa frigida: e contra si de caussa calida: & hoc docent auctores quando haesitant de caussis morbi. [R. A. 410.] 🢀

  718. Santal: utriusque ana drach. 2. spicae nardi drach. 1 ... zuccari quart. 1. S. Si velis laxare, adde fumum terrae ... [R. A. 411.] 🢀

  719. [Hiatus between pp. 40-41. R. A. 411-424 finishing:] Quidam exhibent aquam ardentem, sed errant: quia exsiccat membra radicalia ratione penetrationis. Ubi tamen valeat, videre potes in cap: de Paralysi. [Cf. H. Paragraph 25. R. A. 424.] 🢀

  720. Ex corruptione sanguinis menstrui provenientes. [R. A. 1041.] 🢀

  721. Quia natura expellit totam superfluitatem febris sanguineae, vel continuae cholericae in homine, in quo sanguis menstruus manet, vel corruptus sanguis ebulliens, ad superficiem corporis: & generantur ex ea variolae ... qui fiunt de sanguine menstruo. [R. A. 1042.] 🢀

  722. Quia proveniunt a mala materia fixa in embryone h. e. sanguine menstruo ... & accidentaliter generantur, quando fit conceptio tempore menstruorum, & tunc raro talis evadit lepram, vel morbum terribilem. [R. A. 1042.] 🢀

  723. The next three words are [not in R. A.] 🢀

  724. Similiter generantur ex cibis & humoribus facile ebullientibus ... & dimissio phlebotomiae. [R. A. 1042] Aliquando variolae bis hominem invadunt; quando prima vice non totaliter expellitur materia & cum homo frequenter comedit ficcus. [R. A. 1043.] 🢀

  725. nisi a causa forti [R. A. 1043.] 🢀

  726. Facit ... ebuliire sanguinem, iuvatque ad generationem variolarum. [R. A. 1043.] 🢀

  727. Adhaec non est tripliciter necesse hominem incurrere variolas, licet Isaac ... sed sic accipi illius dictum debet, quod quilibet eas incurrat aptitudinaliter, propter sanguinem menstruum, remanentem in foetu post partum, qui nisi expellatur per urinam [etc. R. A. 1043] homo actualiter illas incurrit, vel suspectus erit plus quam alii de lepra; nisi forte conceptus sit a munda muliere ... item a patre sano, & temperanter vivente: & nisi foetus sit bonae complexionis, temperatus, non gulosus, aut inordinate vivens, quod rarum est: quia pueri ut scriptum est. ... nihil aliud faciunt, quam continue comedere. [R. A. 1044.] [Cf. Sed pueris maioris aetatis, venientibus ad 10. vel 12. annos, detur Rhabarbarum cum aqua aliqua refrigerante, ... addito syrupo acetoso, non violarum: quia pueris non debet dari, quoniam habent stomachum laxum aut lubricum a magna eorum humiditate, & gulositate: nihil enim faciunt aliud pueri nisi comedere, ut scribit Gal: (De Tertiana). R. A. 682.] 🢀

  728. Suntque duplices variolae; proprie sic dictae, & improprie. Variolae proprie dictae, fiunt ex sanguine menstruo, interius ebulliente. [R. A. 1044.] 🢀

  729. Improprie variolae appellatae fiunt ex cibo corrupto, attracto ab interioribus ad exteriora, a calore extremo forti. [R. A. 1044.] 🢀

  730. Atque in saniem convertuntur. [R. A. 1044.] 🢀

  731. & is est amicus naturae, atque obediens digestioni. [R. A. 1044.] 🢀

  732. The text from this point to the end of the sentence is Si sint cholericae, tunc sunt roseae ... & capita eorum acuta, ac pungitiva instar acuum, propter acumen materiae eorum. [R. A. 1044.] 🢀

  733. Si cottum in urina ... appareat ... & variolae aperiantur [R. A. 1044.] 🢀

  734. excitat pruritum, maxime si sit phlegma salsum. [R. A. 1044.] 🢀

  735. putredinem aeruginosam. [R. A. 1044.] 🢀

  736. lividae, post fiunt virides .i. subnigrae [R. A. 1045.] 🢀

  737. in quibus non coadunatur humiditas ... & pessimae quando nullam habent qualitem ut maturari valeant [R. A. 1045.] 🢀

  738. alienatio mentis. [R. A. 1045.] 🢀

  739. facilis exitus. [R. A. 1045.] 🢀

  740. plures numero, propinquae, absque continutione. [R. A. 1046.] 🢀

  741. violaceae [R. A. 1046.] 🢀

  742. tunc bona erit spes evasionis. [R. A. 1046.] 🢀

  743. Sciendum & hoc est, si febris eas praecedat melius est, quam si ipsae prius erumpant, & deinde sequitur febris. [R. A. 1046.] 🢀

  744. Frequenter sequitur mors. [R. A. 1046.] 🢀

  745. The text from this point to the end of the sentence is aër frigidus ... faciunt materiam fortiter redire ad intestina, & fit rasura intestinorum cum dysenteria. [R. A. 1046.] 🢀

  746. Fieri debet alteratio intrinsecus. [R. A. 1047.] 🢀

  747. [The pustules?] Tertio debent illa dari, quae conducunt ad facilem earum expulsionem. [R. A. 1047.] 🢀

  748. Quod tamen ante completam maturationem fieri non potest. [R. A. 1047.] 🢀

  749. Diaeta eorum declinet ad frigiditatem; sicut hordeatum, avenatum, lac amygdal: [R. A. 1048.] 🢀

  750. digeri potest cum syrupo de fumo terrae & violaceo ad minus. [R. A. 1049.] 🢀

  751. ℞ Acedulae, hepticae albae ana M. 1. flor; boraginis, violarum, rosarum ana unc: 1. Hordei lib. 1. succi fumiterrae quart. 1 ... ficuum siccarum ana quart. S. Zuccari quart. 2. [etc.] [R. A. 1049.] 🢀

  752. quod tamen est rarum, digerantur cum oxysacchara. [R. A. 1049.] 🢀

  753. The text from this point to the end of this paragraph is not in R. A. 🢀

  754. Decoquantur in lib. 2. aquae usque ad consumptionem medietatis. [R. A. 1049.] 🢀

  755. Foeniculum & Apium cum zuccaro, & succo eorum, nec non radices cum croco odorato, & decoctione ficuum citrinarum, ... Postea ad alia est pergendum. [R. A. 1050.] 🢀

  756. Capiatur ergo scarletum rubrum, & qui patitur variolas, involvatur in illo totaliter, vel in alio panno rubro; sicut ego feci, quando Inclyti Rergis Angliae filius variolas patiebatur, curavi ut omnia circa lectum essent rubra, & curatio illa mihi optime successit; nam citra vestigia variolarum, sanitati restitutus est. [R. A. 1050.] 🢀

  757. tunc aër habitaculi alteretur cum foliis salicis, & aspersione aquae rosarum & camphorae. [R. A. 1050.] 🢀

  758. chyrothecas [R. A. 1050.] 🢀

  759. Deinde cape succum Apii & foeniculi, & ipsis tepefactis, pannum lineum intinge, & involve totum corpus: illud enim trahit materiam ad exteriora, & ex parte consumit. [R. A. 1050.] 🢀

  760. [This should precede “As the third thing mentioned” etc.] 🢀

  761. De Dolore Iuncturarum. [R. A. 616.] 🢀

  762. Dicitur, graece, Arthritis, quasi dicas morbus articularis, a graeca voce “arthron”, quod significat articulum, sive juncturam, alio nomine Gutta, quia per modum Rheumatis guttatim descendit materia ad iuncturas: locus enim per quem materia transit ad eas, est strictus, licet in eo sit quaedam raritas. [R. A. 616.] 🢀

  763. Sciatica est dolor in ancha, seu coxa, ... & est notandum quod in ancha sive coxa sunt tria: nimirum, superior pars ossis coxae. & vocatur vertebrum, a vertendo in pixide: & est in extremitate coxae, Concavitas .i. pixis, ab aliquibus Scia vocata; & ligamentum, ligans os cum osse, & eo in loco est dolor. [R. A. 616.] 🢀

  764. [Lit. “as hip cramp from”.] 🢀

  765. [Lit. “in the hollow of the hip and the upper bone”.] 🢀

  766. Etsi secundum quosdam os sit insensibile: ideo dolor extenditur ad lacertos circumdantes. [R. A. 616.] 🢀

  767. Avicenna [R. A. 616.] 🢀

  768. in calcaneis [R. A. 617.] 🢀

  769. & est communiter coniuncta cum tumore & abscessu ... propter descensum viae. [R. A. 617.] 🢀

  770. Sicut chiromantia dicitur ars manualis, ars docens cognoscere dispositiones hominum, per venas, lineas, & figuras manuum: & de hoc agam inferius: Deo mihi concedente vitam. [R. A. 617 add.] 🢀

  771. Descendens recta ad coxam. [R. A. 617.] 🢀

  772. ideo cum maiori cautela diligentia curandae sunt [R. A. 618a.] 🢀

  773. [R. A. 618.] 🢀

  774. aut propter vehementiam caliditatis, quando sc: accidit propter motum. [R. A. 618.] 🢀

  775. Quod effusio humorum adf membra quae moventur, quaeque calefaciunt, sit facilior. [R. A. 618]. [Lit. “moved by heat”.] 🢀

  776. & ubi ad ipsum currunt materiae per naturam. [R. A. 618 add.] 🢀

  777. Caussa cursus materiae ad iuncturas, est amplitudo locorum vacuorum, suscipiens materias effusas ad eas. [R. A. 618.] 🢀

  778. [Lit. “then”.] 🢀

  779. Aut materia composita ex phlegmate & bile flava, & hoc ut plurimum accidit; quia aliter non bene penetrant in iuncturas. [R. A. 619.] 🢀

  780. Caussae generales horum humorum, quaedam sunt praeteritae, sicut curatio colicae ... Quaedam sunt presentes; ut cibi pituitosi (aut guttosi, qui guttam generent) & viscosi. [R. A. 619.] 🢀

  781. Frixa, oppilativa, ut oryza, frumentum. [R. A. 619.] ['raisine' in Irish text=lit. “raisins.”] 🢀

  782. Fumosa [R. A. 619.] 🢀

  783. Aves cum pedibus integris. [R. A. 619.] 🢀

  784. & ideo scribitur: “Rotus tarde datus, multos parit is cruciatus.” [R. A. 619z.] 🢀

  785. In eadem mensa. [R. A. 620 add.] 🢀

  786. Ideo Hipp: 6. part: Aphoris: 28. Eunuchi nec podagra laborant, nec calvi fiunt. Et quod coitus sit maxima caussa podagrae, hinc patet: quia pueri non laborant podagra ante aphrodisia .i. ante tempus quo possunt sperma emittere, aut coire. [R. A. 620.] [Lit. “those from whom it has been removed”.] 🢀

  787. Nec per artem. [R. A. 620] 🢀

  788. tunc cient dolores iuncturarum si expellantur ad illas partes, ibique constiterint, maxime si ibi putrefiant. [R. A. 620.] 🢀

  789. Quod si per urinam expellerentur; tunc urina fieret crassa, non subtilis, cruda. [R. A. 620.] 🢀

  790. Contusio & fortis expressio, & maxime quando est antiqua, onerum elevatio. [R. A. 620.] 🢀

  791. Ideo convalescentes ex morbis chronicis, & difficilibus, cum error committitur in Diaeta, seu regimine vitae, & quando eorum morbus absque evacuatione sufficienti finitur, incipiunt istum morbum pati. Similiter habentes aegritudines chronicas ex debilitate virtutis, istum morbum perpetiuntur. [R. A. 621.] 🢀

  792. [Lit. “they”.] 🢀

  793. & propter agitationem ratione caloris fortis diurni. [R. A. 621.] 🢀

  794. Quod aëris inaequalitas sit caussa morbi, satis patet: quia arthritici sunt pluviarum vates, aëris., tempestatis: & ideo ante pluvias & tempora turbida nequeunt quiescere. H. e. habent Almanach in pedibus. [R. A. 621.] 🢀

  795. sicut censet Philaretus; Continens mutat contentum ad suam crisin. [R. A. 621.] 🢀

  796. a caussa superiori. [R. A. 621.] 🢀

  797. [Sic E1. “compels” P.] 🢀

  798. Quia agens agit, ut assimilet sibi passum. [R. A. 622.] 🢀

  799. ideo tunc plus dolent. [R. A. 622.] 🢀

  800. Item dolores membrorum vicinorum sunt caussa doloris iuncturarum. [R. A. 622.] 🢀

  801. Cf. ... tenesmus aliquando est caussa Haemorrhoidum, ob conatum nimium. [R. A. 462.] 🢀

  802. Quando ventositas transfertur ad illa loca propter appositionem medicinarum resolventium, quae partem consumunt, & aliam partem attenuant, & commovent; & deinde permeant loca vacua. [R. A. 622.] 🢀

  803. Malus decumbendi in lecto modus. [R. A. 622.] 🢀

  804. [An leg. “colour”? Did the translator read “dolor”?] Color corporis humorum abundantiam significat, nisi in profundo demersi fuerint. [R. A. 623.] 🢀

  805. Magis est circum circa & regimen [etc.] [R. A. 623.] 🢀

  806. & accidentia animi fuerunt laetificantia, risumque moventia: & corpus forte patientis est carnosum, magnum, pingue, pinguedine aërea, cum soliditate carnis: & somniat de rebus rubris: aetas est iuvenilis. [R. A. 623.] 🢀

  807. Tunc est ibi dolor vehemens, qui laedit tactum, & dolor est non durans diu, quia est acutus. [R. A. 623.] 🢀

  808. Macilentus, fuscus, mobilis, & levis [R. A. 624.] 🢀

  809. Sicuti sunt; assata, frixa, salsa, acuta, piperata, alliata, comedit crustacea, & potavit mellita, vel vinum antiquum: & aeger affligitur hora cholerae, a tertia usque ad nonam diei; tunc verisimile est quod materia cholerica peccet. [R. A. 624.] 🢀


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