Retracing Ireland's Lost Archaeology

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Retracing Ireland's Lost Archaeology

I. The Worsaae Drawings

1. Introduction

Worsaae, under the commission of Christian VIII of Denmark, spent nine months travelling around Britain and Ireland during 1846 and 1847. One of the most famous Scandinavian antiquarians of the nineteenth century, he had spent time visiting Sweden, Austria, Germany and Switzerland during the preceding years. The terms of his royal commission, as they related to his tour of Britain and Ireland, primarily focused on an investigation of the Viking-age antiquities and monuments of Scandinavian character. He published the results of his work as Minder om de Danske og Nordmændene i England, Skotland og Irland in 1851 with an English translation, entitled An Account of the Danes and Norwegians in England, Scotland, and Ireland, appearing in 1852. In this work Worsaae virtually created the concept of the "Viking Age".

Worsaae spent the period between early November 1846 and early February 1847 in Ireland. Most of his time was spent in Dublin, though he did go on excursions to Waterford, Trim, Tara, Newgrange and probably Monasterboice. He delivered two lectures to the Royal Irish Academy on the connections between Irish and Scandinavian antiquities and developed relations with leading Dublin antiquarians. These included George Petrie, William Wilde, James H. Todd and Sir William Betham. In addition, he corresponded with Cork-based numismatists such as John Lindsay and Richard Sainthill.

During his stay in Dublin, Worsaae appears to have visited the location in the Kilmainham-Islandbridge area where an important series of Viking graves had recently been discovered. He obtained a number of artefacts from this site, some through the offices of the Royal Irish Academy, and also amassed a collection of antiquities from elsewhere in Ireland through his connections with dealers such as James Henry Underwood, of Dublin, and Whyte Baker, of Callan, county Kilkenny. These artefacts were sent by Worsaae to the Museum of Northern Antiquities, Copenhagen (now the National Museum of Denmark), where they remain. In addition, he arranged for James Plunket to prepare a series of watercolours of artefacts in the collections of the Royal Irish Academy. It is these watercolours, which are also housed in the National Museum of Denmark, that form the basis of this research project.

2. The Plunket Watercolours

These consist of a collection of twelve large drawings, each measuring c.67cm by c.100 cm, and numbered I to XII. On the lower margin of each is written: Presented to the Royal Museum of Northern Antiquities of Copenhagen by the Royal Irish Academy. Dublin 11th January 1847. E. Clibborn, Curator of Museum. In general, the items depicted in the watercolours are arranged by type and period. For instance, no. 2 consists mainly of Bronze Age weapons, no. 9 consists exclusively of Bronze Age gold ornaments and no. 10 consists of a mixture of Early Medieval and Viking-age silver objects. The objects are drawn to full scale with great attention to detail and are beautifully coloured.

Aside from their artistic value, the Plunket watercolours are important because they evidence some of what the Royal Irish Academy's collection of Irish antiquities contained in the mid-nineteenth century. There are few registers in existence from this time and little is on record concerning these early finds in the known antiquarian sources. More importantly, there are annotations concerning the find-provenances of some of the artefacts added to some of the drawings. These will enable previously unprovenanced objects in the national collections to be identified and provenanced.

3. The Project

The aim of the project is to publish the Plunket watercolours and to identify as many as possible of the artefacts illustrated in them. The conventional publication, due to appear in 2004, will also contain a summary of Worsaae's life and career as well as a review of the importance of his visit to Ireland within the context of Irish antiquarianism. Many previously unpublished letters relating to his Irish sojourn will form an appendix to the project.

4. Examples

II. Drawings

There are twelve drawings each of which is available here to view. Accompanying each is a key to the drawing (except Drawing 5) and commentary.

1. Drawing 1

Image 1 Key to image 1
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-1 Left foreground Killarney Miner's maul, measuring 13.6 cm in length. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it is likely to be either NMI W35, W36, or W37 (Wilde 1861, 85). Wilde 1861, 85, fig. 68.35
Item Location Description Provenance Comment References
I-2 Left foreground, base of page Perforated disc, measuring 13.3cm in diameter. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be NMI W10. This measures 12.4cm in diameter and is illustrated in Wilde (1857, 95). Wilde identifies these types of objects as possibly having been used as net-sinkers. Wilde 1857, 95-6
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-3 Left foreground, immediately to right of I-2 None Oval macehead, with central perforation, measuring 11.9cm long x 7.7cm wide. Possibly Athlone. It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be either NMI W8, W9 or W10. It is made from very mottled stone, possibly granite. Its dimensions are broadly similar to those of W9, which was found in the bed of the River Shannon, in Athlone, and measures 11.2cm long x 6.4cm wide. Coghlan 1945, 239; Wilde 1857
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-4 Left foreground, immediately to right of I-3 None Stone object, probably a net sinker, measuring 8cm x 9cm. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of a number of Scandinavian flint artefacts known to have been donated to the RIA museum. See Wilde (1857, 153). Simpson 1988, 1990; Wilde 1857, 153
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-5 Left foreground, one row from base, immediately above I-4 Neppe Irisk (Dansk?) Foraeret fra Danmark af Giesecke J.J.A.Worsaae. Perforated battleaxe or axe-hammer, measuring 16.6cm long. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of a number of Scandinavian flint artefacts known to have been donated to the RIA museum. See Wilde (1857, 151-3). The caption may be translated as: Hardly Irish (Danish?). Presented from Denmark by Giesecke. J.J.A. Worsaae. Wilde 1857, 151-3
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-6 Left foreground, one row from base, immediately left of I-5 None Perforated oval disc, measuring 9.6cm long x 6.5cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the many such items described in Wilde's catalogue, in particular NMI W10, W11, W12, W13 and W14. (1957, 94-5). Wilde 1857, 94-5
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-7 Left foreground, immediately left of I-6 and right of I-8 None Worked object, possibly an unfinished macehead, measuring 7.8cm long x 5.6cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the many such items described by Wilde's catalogue, numbered NMI W98-127 (1857, 94). Wilde 1857, 94
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-8 Left foreground, immediately left of I-7 and right of I-9 None Macehead, with central perforation, measuring 9.4cm long x 5.5cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be either NMI W11 or W12. Wilde 1857, 80
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-9 Left foreground, second row from base, at the very edge. None Large smoothed hammerhead or axehead, with a circular perforation at its butt-end, measuring 30cm long x 15cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be NMI W4. This measures 30.4cm long x 14.6cm in maximum width. Wilde states that this object is the 'largest specimen' of its type in the collection. Wilde 1857, 82
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-10 Centre left, immediately right of I-9 third row up from base Co. Wicklow Battle-axe, measuring 14.8cm long x 9.1cm wide. Athlone / Co. Wicklow ? It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be NMI W21. This measures 13.9cm x 9cm and is illustrated in Wilde's catalogue (fig 66, no.21). W20 and W21 are described by Wilde as 'the most beautiful specimens, both in design and execution, of the stone battle-axe which has been found in the British Isles. It is composed of fine-grained hornblendic syenite and is highly polished all over, including even the sides of the aperture'. As W21 is said to have been found in the river at Athlone, it is possible that Worsaae was mistaken concerning the Wicklow provenance of this artefact. Simpson 1990, 5-40; Wilde 1857,80
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-11 Left background, between, but slightly above I-10 and I-11 None Perforated disc, apparently flat, measuring 4cm in diameter. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of four listed in Wilde's corpus (1857, 99). These are NMI W.124-127. Wilde 1957, 99
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-12 Centre left, immediately right of I-10 Found in the Netherlands. Not Irish Small battleaxe, with perforation for haft at butt-end, measuring 10.2cm long. Netherlands? It is not possible to identify this object. Wilde does not appear to mention artefacts from the Netherlands in the Academy's collection.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-13 Centre, immediately right of I-12 and left of I-14 third row from base None Large object, possibly an axehead or adze, measuring 20.1cm long x 6.3cm wide at its cutting edge. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of NMI W134-136, which Wilde describes as 'three very peculiar celts...and differing altogether in shape from any implements of this variety in the Collection. They are flatter and broader than any other specimens which have yet been discovered, in which respect they resemble the bronze or iron hatchet. They are formed out of highly siliceous greenish-gray felstone, the two latter porphyrtic, weathered on the surface to a drab colour, and highly polished'. Wilde 1857, 58-9
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-14 Centre, immediately right of I-13 None Axehead or chisel, measuring 11.4cm long x 4.4cm wide at the cutting edge. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of NMI W1-12, listed by Wilde (1857, 36-7). W5 corresponds to it most closely, measuring 11.6cm long. Wilde 1857, 28, 36-7.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-15 Centre, immediately below I-14 None Diminutive perforated object, apparently rounded at one end. Measures 2.4cm long x 1.6cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object without a more detailed image. No similar objects are illustrated in Wilde's catalogue.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-16 Centre, immediately below right of I-14 None Square object, apparently with a very small perforation, measuring 5.5cm long x .2cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object without a more detailed image.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-17 Centre background, immediately above I-14 None Lozenge-shaped arrowhead, possibly of flint, measuring 6cm long x 2.4cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the 110 such objects listed in Wilde (1857, 18-24). Wilde 1857, 18-24
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-18 Centre background, immediately left of I-17 None Concave-based arrowhead, possibly of flint, measuring 3.5cm long. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those described by Wilde (1857, 19-23). NMI W12, W13 and W14 correspond to it most closely. Wilde 1857, 19-23; Green 1980
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-19 Centre background immediately right of I-18 None Barbed and tanged arrowhead, possibly of flint, measuring 3.1cm long. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of eighty-three objects of this type included in Wilde's catalogue (NMI W 673- 756). Green 1980; Wilde 1857, 24
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-20 Centre? left background, immediately right of I-19 and left of I-21 None Concave-based arrowhead, possibly of flint, measuring 2.9cm long. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of eighty-nine artefacts of this type included in Wilde's catalogue (1857, 23). Wilde 1857, 23; Green 1980
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-21 Centre/left background to right of I-20 None Barbed and tanged arrowhead, possibly of flint, measuring 2.3cm long. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of eighty-one examples of this type listed by Wilde (NMI W591-672). Green 1980; Wilde 1857, 24
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-22 Left background, to the left of and slightly above I-13 None Perforated disc (spindle whorl), measuring 3.3cm in diameter. None It is not possible to identify this object. The objects of this type listed by Wilde (1857, 96), are larger than this example (NMI W124-127). Wilde 1857, 96
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-23 Left background, to left of I-22, uppermost of the beads on the right None Small dark-coloured bead with central perforation, possibly of jet or lignite. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the sixty beads (NMI W1-60) listed in Wilde's catalogue (1857, 241). Wilde 1857, 241
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-24 Left background, immediately left of I-23 None Small circular perforated bead, possibly of jet. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the five necklace beads (NMI W21-25) included in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1857, 241
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-25 Left background, immediately left of I-24 None Circular perforated bead, slightly larger that I-24, possibly of jet. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the five necklace beads (NMI W21-25) mentioned by Wilde (1857, 241 Wilde 1857, 241.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-26 Left background, immediately below I-25 None Round perforated bead, possibly jet. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the five beads listed by Wilde (NMI W21-25). Wilde 1857, 241
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-27 Left background, immediately right of I-26 None Round bead, centrally perforated, possibly of jet. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of five necklace beads listed by Wilde (NMI W21-25). Wilde 1857, 241
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-28 Left background, immediately below I-26 and I-27 None Small round perforated bead, possibly of jet None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the five necklace beads listed by Wilde (NMI W21-25). Wilde 1857, 241
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-29 Left background in group of three beads, all of which are larger than I-23-27. These are directly above I-10. This one is the farthest right of all. None Round bead, dark in colour, centrally perforated. Possibly of jet. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the five necklace beads listed by Wilde (NMI W21-25). Wilde 1857, 240-1
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-30 Left background, immediately left of I-28 None Ring, possibly of jet. It is the largest of the three beads in this group. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of four 'rings' listed by Wilde (NMI W40-43). The largest of these measures 11/2 inches (6.25cm) in diameter. Wilde 1857, 240-1
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-31 Below I-28 and I-29 None Round bead, dark in colour, perforated centrally. Possibly of jet. This is the smallest of the group of three and measures 1.2cm in diameter. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of four 'rings' listed by Wilde (NMI W40-43). Wilde 1857, 240-1
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-32 Left background, immediately left of I-25 None Large round jet bead, perhaps a view of a V-perforated button. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of ten jet 'studs' (NMI W28-37) listed by Wilde (1857, 241). Wilde 1857, 241.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-33 Left background, immediately above I-31 None Wrist-guard, rectangular in shape with round perforations at each end. Possibly of shale. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1857, 88-9). There are five in the RIA collection (NMI W68-73). Wilde 1857, 88-9
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-34 Left background, directly above I-33 None V-perforated button, lozenge-shaped. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of ten jet 'studs' (NMI W28-37) listed by Wilde (1857, 241). Wilde 1857, 241
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-35 Left background, immediately right of I-34 None Wrist-guard, probably of shale, measuring 5.3cm long. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1857, 88-9). There are five in the RIA collection (NMI W68-73). Wilde 1857, 88-9
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-36 Left background, immediately right of I-34, directly above the group of beads I-22 - I-27 None Wrist-guard, rectangular in shape, with a single perforation at each end. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1857, 88-9). There are five in the RIA collection (NMI W68-73). See Wilde 1857, 89
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-37 Left background, immediately above I-36 (also shown in section) None Round object, possibly another view of the V-perforated button to the left of it (I-38). None See I-38 Wilde 1857, 241
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-38 Left background, immediately above I-35 None Possibly a sectional view of a V-perforated button, immediately under handle of object I-39. This measures 3.7cm in diameter. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of ten jet studs (NMI W28-37) listed by Wilde (1857, 241). Wilde 1857, 241
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-39 Top left corner (background) of the illustration Col. Stewarts, Killymoon Polished stone axehead with a wooden handle. The handle, measuring 34.6cm in length, tapers in thickness from 2.5m x 2cm at the grip end to 4.2cm x 4.8cm at the haft end. The perforation designed to take the axehead is oval, measuring 5.8cm x 3.9cm. There are traces of a shallow groove, perhaps for a thong suspension, near the grip end of the handle. The axe head is 14.5cm long and 5.6cm wide at its mid-point. Its cutting edge measures 4.5cm wide. It is depicted as a green/grey stone with mottling. Co. Monaghan This may be identified as the axe illustrated in Wilde's catalogue (1857, 46, fig. 53) where it is described as being from Co. Monaghan. Wilde does not number this artefact, as presumably it did not form part of the RIA collection at this time. Coles et al. 1978; Green 1978; Wilde 1857, 46
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-40 Left background, to the left and below the grip end of the handle of I-38. None Circular ring, possibly of jet or lignite, with small portion missing and repaired. It measures 10.7cm in diameter. None This may be identified as NMI W60 (Wilde 1857, 241-2). There were nine examples of rings of this type in the RIA collection in 1857 (NMI W52-W60): 'W60 is the only one of the set now nearly perfect; it is 41/4 inches in diameter, and 3? in the clear, so that it may have been worn on the arm above the elbow. It had been fractured at one point, and was repaired by means of a silver plate or clasp.' Waddell 1998, 264, 273 ; Wilde 1857, 242
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-41 Centre background, beneath the haft end of I-38 None Stone object, possibly a flint scraper, measuring 7.2cm in diameter None It is not possible to identify this object, which is of the type illustrated in Wilde (1857, 18, fig. 9). There are 37 circular examples included in Wilde's catalogue (Wilde 1857, 17), and these vary from 1 to 3 inches (2.5 -7.6cm) in diameter. 'Each is about 1/2 an inch thick, with the exceptions of No's 460 and 469, which are probably cores, or worked-out spuds, similar to those with which the series of flint articles was commenced'. Wilde considers these to be sling stones. Wilde 1857, 18
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-42 Centre background immediately to the right of I-38 and I-40 Neppe Irisk (Dansk) , Foraeret fra Danmark af Gieseke. JJ Worsaae Tanged, pressure-flaked, dagger/knife, of flint. It measures 22.7cm long. Denmark It is not possible to identify this object, though it is most likely one of a number of Scandinavian flint tools donated to the Academy by Dr Charles Giesecke (Wilde 1857,151-3). The measurements of this are similar to that numbered NMI W26, which measures 9 inches (22.86cm) long, and was donated in 1816. The caption, in Danish, may be translated as: Hardly Irish (Danish), presented by Giesecke from Denmark. J.J. Worsaae. Wilde 1857, 151-3
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-43 Centre background, immediately to right of I-41 Neppe Irisk (Dansk?) Foraeret fra Danmark af Giesecke. JJ Worsaae Pressure-flaked flint knife, semi-circular in shape. It measures 16.7cm long x 3.6cm wide. Denmark It is not possible to identify this object, though it is most likely one of a number of Scandinavian flint tools donated to the Academy by Dr Charles Giesecke. Wilde lists four of these objects, numbered NMI W29-32, of which W29, W30 and W32 are most similar in size to I-43. The caption may be translated as: Hardly Irish (Danish), presented by Giesecke from Denmark. J.J. Worsaae. Wilde 1857, 151-3
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-44 Immediately right of I-42 and below drawing of haft of I-38 Co. Antrim Javelin head, possibly of flint, measuring 16cm long x 7cm wide. Co. Antrim It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 49 objects of this type (NMI W 915-964) listed in Wilde (1857, 26-7). Wilde 1857, 26-7; Woodman 1994, fig 1:1;
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-45 Right background and immediately right of I-43 Co. Antrim Javelin head, possibly of flint, measuring 16.5cm long x 5cm wide. Co. Antrim It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 49 objects of this type (NMI W 915-964) listed in Wilde (1857, 26-7). Wilde 1857, 26-7; Woodman 1994, 214; Collins 1981
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-46 Right background and immediately right of I-44 Co. Antrim Butt-trimmed flake, possibly of flint, measuring 10.2cm long x 5cm wide. Co. Antrim It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 65 objects of this type (NMI W277-342) listed by Wilde (1857,12). Wilde 1857, 12; Woodman 1994, 215, fig 1.10
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-47 Right background, immediately right of I-45 Co. Antrim Pressure-flaked knife, possibly of flint, measuring 10.2cm long x 3.2cm wide. Co. Antrim It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of W343-W418, listed in Wilde (1857, 14, 28). Wilde 1857, 14, 28; Woodman 1994, 214
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-48 Right background immediately right of I-46 Co. Antrim Leaf-shaped arrowhead, possibly of flint, measuring 6.2 cm wide x 8.2cm long. Co. Antrim It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 56 objects of this type (NMI W858-914) listed by Wilde (1857,24). Wilde 1857, 24
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-49 Right background, immediately right of I-47 Co Antrim Concave-based arrowhead, probably of flint, measuring 7.5cm long x 5.3cm wide. Co. Antrim It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 72 objects of this type (NMI W513-585) listed by Wilde (1857, 20). Wilde 1857, 20
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-50 Right background, immediately to right of I-48 and at the edge of the illustration Co. Antrim Flint flake, leaf-shaped and orange-brown in colour, measuring 16.5cm long Co. Antrim It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of many such items listed by Wilde (1857, 9-12) Wilde 1857, 9-12
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-51 Right background, below and left of I-49 Co. Antrim Leaf-shaped arrowhead (pressure-flaked), of flint. It measures 6.7cm long x 2.9cm wide. Co. Antrim It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 101 objects of this type (NMI W756-857) listed by Wilde (1857, 24 ). Wilde 1857, 24; Woodman 1994, 214
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-52 Right background, immediately left of I-50 Shannon Polished stone axehead of light-grey/brown colour. Tapers slightly towards the butt-end. It measures 15.6cm long and 7.3cm wide at the cutting edge. From the river Shannon This is one of a very large number of polished stone axes listed by Wilde (1857, 50-71) Wilde 1857, 50-71
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-53 Right background, immediately left of I-51 Co. Antrim Pressure-flaked blade, possibly of flint. It measures 8cm long x 2.2cm wide. Co. Antrim It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the following listed in Wilde (1857, 14, 28): W343-418 Wilde 1857, 14, 28; Woodman 1994, 214
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-54 Right background, immediately left of I-52 Shannon Polished stone axehead, purple in colour It measures 16.2cm long x 6cm wide at its cutting edge. From the river Shannon It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of over 500 stone axes recovered by the Shannon Commission. Wilde 1857, 48
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-55 Immediately left of I-53 None Concave-based arrowhead, long and narrow, possibly of flint. It measures 8cm long x 3.3cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of a large number of such objects listed by Wilde 1857, 23-4 Wilde 1857, 23-4
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-56 Centre background, to the left of I-54. None Blade/point, possibly of flint. It measures 9.4cm long x 2cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of a large number of this kind listed in Wilde (1857, 27-8) Wilde 1857, 27-8
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-57 Centre background slightly to left and above I-57 and directly below I-44 None Leaf-shaped arrowhead, possibly of flint. It measures 8.8cm long x 3.6cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 101 objects of this type (NMI W756-857) listed by Wilde (1857, 24 ). Wilde 1857, 18-24
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-58 Centre background, partially below and slightly to the left of I-55 None Small leaf-shaped arrowhead, possibly of flint, orange-brown in colour. It measures 5.2cm long x 2.5cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 101 objects of this type (NMI W756-857) listed by Wilde (1857, 24 ). Wilde1857, 18-24
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-59 Centre background, immediately left of I-58 None Barbed and tanged arrowhead, possibly of flint. Manufactured using pressure-flaking. It measures 9.4cm long. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it is quite similar in appearance to that illustrated in Wilde (1857, 21, fig. 17). Wilde 1857, 21
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-60 Centre background, between I-41and I-42 None Blade, possibly of flint. It measures 7.5cm long x 2.9cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the many examples (W1-286) listed by Wilde (1857, 9-12). Wilde 1857, 9-12
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-61 Centre, directly below backed knife I-42 Co. Antrim Polished stone axehead, probably of porcellanite, with an apparently broken cutting edge. It measures 13.6cm long x 4.8cm wide at the cutting edge. Co. Antrim It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1857, 48) Wilde 1857, 48
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-62 Centre, to right and slightly below I-60 Shanon (sic) Polished stone axehead, probably of porcellanite. It is almost square in form and measures 17.1cm long x 8.5cm wide at its cutting edge. From the river Shannon It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of over 500 stone axes recovered by the Shannon Commission. Wilde 1857, 48
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-63 Centre right, immediately right of I-61 Co. Antrim Polished stone axehead, slender in form and tapering to butt-end. Made of a mottled looking stone, it measures 22.9cm long x 5.5cm wide. Co. Antrim It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the many polished stone axes listed by Wilde (1857, 48) Wilde 1857, 48
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-64 Centre right of I-64. Immediately right of I-62 Co. Antrim Leaf-shaped arrowhead, probably of flint, manufactured using pressure-flaking. It measures 9.7cm long x 3cm wide. Co. Antrim It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of a large number of such arrowheads listed by Wilde (1857, 48) Wilde 1857, 48
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-65 Centre right, immediately right of I-63 Co. Antrim Polished stone axehead, probably of porcellanite. Somewhat bell-shaped, it looks like it is broken at the butt-end. It measures 18.6cm long x 7.9cm wide at the cutting edge. Co. Antrim It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of a very large number of polished stone axes listed by Wilde (1857, 48) Wilde 1857, 48)
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-66 Centre right, immediately right of I-64 at the edge of the page Co. Antrim Very large polished stone axe, probably of porcellanite. It measures 29.4cm long x 12cm wide at the cutting edge. Co. Antrim. It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the very large number of polished stone axes in the Academy's collection (Wilde 1857,48) Wilde 1857, 48
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-67 Bottom right hand corner of illustration None Leaf-shaped arrowhead, possibly of flint. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 101 objects of this type (NMI W756-857) listed by Wilde (1857, 24 ). Wilde 1857, 24.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-68 Right foreground, immediately left of I-66 None Possibly a stone chisel. It measures 6.1cm long x 5cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 24 such artefacts (NMI W1-24) listed by Wilde (1857, 36-7). Eighteen of these were presented to the RIA by the Shannon Commissioners. Wilde 1857, 36-7
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-69 Right foreground directly above I-67 None Small amber bead, perforated, perfectly circular, measuring 1.9cm in diameter. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of a very large number (480) of amber beads housed in the RIA collection at this time: 'the Academy possesses a very extensive collection of amber beads, amounting to 480, inclusive of the eleven alluded to in connexion with the crannoge (sic) beads described at pp.167 and 168' (Wilde 1857, 240). These vary in size from the smallest necklace bead to one example which is 7cm in diameter. Most of these came to the Academy's collection via the Dawson and Sirr collections, and most are without provenance. These beads are not individually described by Wilde. Wilde 1857, 240
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-70 Right foreground, left and above I-68 None Amber bead, perforated and slightly larger than I-68. It measures 3.1cm in diameter. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 480 such beads in the RIA collection. (See entry for 1-69). Wilde 1857, 240
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-71 Right foreground, left and below I-69 None Circular amber bead, perforated. It is smaller than I-68 and I-69, measuring 1.2cm in diameter. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 480 such beads in the RIA collection. (See entry for 1-69). Wilde 1857, 240
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-72 Right foreground, left of I-71 None Oval amber bead, perforated. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 480 such beads in the Academy's collection at the time. (See entry for 1-69). Wilde 1857, 240
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-73 Right foreground, immediately left of I-71 None Circular amber bead, perforated. This is the largest in this collection and measures 6.7cm in diameter and 3.5cm thick. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 480 such beads in the Academy's collection at the time. (See entry for 1-69). Wilde 1857, 240
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-74 Left foreground, left and below I-72 None Small oval/tubular amber bead, perforated. It measures 1.9cm long. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 480 such beads in the Academy's collection at the time. (See entry for 1-69). Wilde 1857, 240
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-75 Right foreground, immediately below I-73 None Small curvilinear perforated amber bead. It measures 1.3cm in diameter. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 480 such beads in the Academy's collection at the time. (See entry for 1-69). Wilde 1857, 240
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-76 Right foreground, below and left of I-74 None Circular amber bead, with central perforation. This is the third largest in the illustration and measures 4.6cm in diameter. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 480 such beads in the Academy's collection at the time. (See entry for 1-69). Wilde 1857, 240
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-77 Right foreground, slightly above and to the right of I-75 None Very small round amber bead, perforated. It measures 1.9cm x 1.6cm. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 480 such beads in the Academy's collection at the time. (See entry for 1-69). Wilde 1857, 240
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-78 Right foreground, immediately to left of I-68 None Oval amber bead. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 480 such beads in the Academy's collection at the time. (See entry for 1-69). Wilde 1857, 240
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-79 Right foreground, immediately to left of I-78 None Oblong amber bead. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of 480 such beads in the Academy's collection at the time. (See entry for 1-69). Wilde 1857, 240
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-80 Centre/right foreground None Round worked stone. It is similar in appearance to a water-rolled stone, and bears a hollow in the centre. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it is similar to that illustrated in Wilde (1857, 94, fig. 75). Wilde 1857, 94
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-81 Centre foreground, at base of page, immediately left of I-80 None Round stone, grey in colour, with groove in the centre. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it is quite similar to that illustrated in Wilde (1857, 95, fig. 77). Wilde 1857, 95
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-82 Centre foreground, at base of page, directly left of I-81 None Possibly a net-sinker. It measures 11cm long x 6.9cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it is similar to that illustrated in Wilde (1857, 95, fig. 78). Wilde 1857, 95
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-83 Centre foreground, directly above I-81 None Stone battle-axe or axe hammer, pointed at both ends, with central perforation. It measures 16.7cm in length. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it is very close in form to NMI W14 and W15 (Wilde 1857, 79) Wilde 1857, 79
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
I-84 Centre foreground, one row from bottom of page None Polished stone axehead. This tapers significantly towards its butt-end. It measures 11.6cm long x 6.3cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it is likely to be one of a very large number of polished stone axes in the RIA collection. Wilde 1857, 48-71

2. Drawing 2

Image 2 Key to image 2
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-1 Bottom left hand corner None Bronze rapier with rounded notched butt. It measures 48.3 cm long and 4.3cm wide. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W103, a Skirteen-type rapier with a central secondary rivet-hole; black and gold water patina. Burgess and Gerloff 1981,89 (no. 758); Wilde 1861, 477.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-2 Left foreground, immediately above II-1 None Bronze tanged dagger or rapier. It measures 44.4cm long and 6.2 cm wide. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W101. According to Harbison this is a bronze tanged dagger while Burgess and Gerloff classify it as a rapier. It has a low trapezoidal butt having a central rivet-notch and two torn rivet-holes; omega and gold brown water patina. It is broken and repaired (modern?) towards the point. Burgess and Gerloff 1981, 8, no. 11; Harbison 1969a, No. 78; Wilde 1861,477
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-3 Left foreground, directly above II-2 None Bronze sword, with leaf-shaped blade, measuring 43.9cm long. The tang is apparently broken and the butt is damaged, and two broken rivet holes are apparent. The tip of the blade is missing. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it is rather similar in size and appearance to NMI W25 and W53, both of which are unprovenanced examples of Late Bronze Age swords (both ex. Sirr collection). Eogan 1965, 105-06, fig.50.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-4 Left foreground, directly above II-3 None Bronze sword, with much of the hilt missing, measuring 46.5cm long. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be NMI W15. Eogan 1965,104, fig. 49; Wilde 1861, 468.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-5 Left centre, directly above II-4 None Bronze sword, with leaf-shaped blade. The thick tang, which is broken, has four rivet holes. It measures 44.8cm in length. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W 43. According to Eogan 'portion of the sides of the tang at the butt-end have been cut away, resulting in the butt having its present flat and straight top. There are slight flanges around the edge of some of the perforations. The blade has been well smoothed down.' Eogan 1965, 26-27, fig. 5; Wilde 1861, 472, fig. 317.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-6 Left centre, directly above II-5 None Bronze sword, measuring 45.5cm in maximum length. The top of blade is missing. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it is similar in some respects to NMI W48. Only one open rivet hole is shown, however, which distinguishes it from W48. Eogan 1965, 68, fig.29; Wilde 1861, 472.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-7 Left centre, immediately above II-6 None Bronze sword, measuring 49cm in maximum length. None It is not possible to identify this artefact. It is somewhat similar to NMI W70. This sword has a hilt guard and Wilde speculates that it may be a recent forgery. Eogan 1965, 156, fig.78; Wilde 1861, 474.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-8 Left background, above II-7 None Flange-hilted,leaf-shaped sword, measuring 59.6cm in maximum length. A small part of the hilt is broken off. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it is similar to NMI W5, one of the Late Bronze Age swords found at Kildrinagh ford, Co. Laois. Eogan 1965,67-68 , fig.29 ; Wilde 1861, 468, fig. 318
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-9 Left background, two rows from top None Flange-hilted, leaf-shaped sword, measuring 62.4cm in maximum length. The tang has three rivet-holes while the butt has six, three in each wing. None This may be identified as NMI W3, which measures 62.6cm in maximum length. Wilde notes that it was presented to the RIA museum by F.W. Barton, Esq. Eogan 1965, 103-04, fig. 49; Wilde 1861, 468.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-10 Left background, directly above II-9 Shannon 'Gündlingen-type' sword, measuring 62.6cm in maximum length. There are single rivet-holes depicted in each 'ear' of the hilt terminal, two in the tang and two or three on each side of the butt. River Shannon, Keeloge Ford, Co. Galway. This may be identified as NMI W31, which measures 63cm in maximum length. Wilde records that it was found at Keelogue ford and presented to the RIA museum by the Shannon Commissioners. Eogan 1965, 137, fig. 67; Wilde 1861, 470.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-11 Left background, at top of page I en privatmands samling, Co. Tyrone. Elastisk Bronze rapier. Lissane, Co. Derry This may be identified as NMI 1912: 15. It is illustrated in Wilde's catalogue 'by permission of Lady Staples' and was found in a bog in the townland and parish of Lissane, county of Derry, on the property of Sir Thomas Staples, Bart. This drawing was probably made from the copy of this rapier that formed part of the RIA collection. The caption may be translated as: In a private collection, Co.Tyrone. Pliable. Wilde 1861, 442-3, fig.314.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-12 Centre/right foreground, base of page None Bronze rapier, portion of. The end of the blade is broken and there are rivets present on the butt. The object measures 33.9cm long and 7.2cm wide. None This may be identified as NMI W66, a broken object some 34 cm in length. Burgess and Gerloff describe it as a rapier with a trapezoidal butt having two rivet-holes with massive plug-rivets. Wilde described it as 'the lower fragment of a very beautiful, long, narrow rapier, and, probably, one of the largest of its kind...' Wilde 1861, 473; Burgess and Gerloff 1981, 52 (no. 367).
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-13 Centre/right foreground, directly above II-12 None Bronze rapier with a trapezoidal butt. It measures 30.8cm long and 6.2m wide. River Barrow This may be identified as NMI W152, a rapier that measures 30.4 cm long and 6.3 cm wide at the base. It was found in the river Barrow. Wilde 1861, 447-8, 480, fig. 323; Burgess and Gerloff 1981,48, no. 338.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-14 Centre/right foreground, directly above II-13 None Halberd, dark in colour, measuring 35cm long. Co. Meath This is probably to be identified as NMI W238, a halberd that measures 34.6 cm in length. Wilde records that it was 'found in a bog in the county of Meath, in the year 1770'. Harbison 1969, no. 228, pl. 16; Wilde 1861, 485
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-15 Centre, immediately above II-14 None Halberd, measuring 28.7cm long. The blade is damaged on both sides and three large rivets remain. None This may be identified as NMI W248. Harbison's illustration of this artefact shows slightly more damage to the right hand side of the blade. Harbison 1969, 40, no.174, pl. 10; Wilde 1861, 485, fig. 328.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-16 Centre, immediately above II-15 Shannon, Athlone/Ashton Bronze dirk, measuring 27.3cm long and 7.0cm wide. River Shannon, Athlone This is probably to be identified as NMI W62, a dirk 27.2 cm in length. Wilde records that it was presented to the RIA museum by the Shannon Commissioners. Burgess and Gerloff 1981, 73; Harbison 1969, no. 71; Wilde 1861, 447, fig. 324.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-17 Right foreground, at right hand corner of page None Halberd, measuring 14.8cm long and 8cm wide. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W256, an example of Harbison's Clonard-type copper halberds. Harbison 1969, pl. 22, no. 287; Wilde 1861, 486, fig.356.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-18 Right foreground, just above II-17 None Bronze socketed knife, with very rounded point, measuring 12.8cm long. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it is somewhat similar to both NMI W200 and W203. Wilde 1861, 483.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-19 Centre right, above II-18 None Bronze halberd, measuring 15cm long x 5.3cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this artefact. It is somewhat similar to NMI W268 Harbison 1969, pl. 11, no. 177; Wilde 1861, 487.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-20 Centre right, immediately above II-19 None Bronze dirk or rapier, measuring 16.8cm long and 4.9cm wide. River Shannon, Keelogue Ford, Co. Galway. This is probably to be identified as NMI W197. This bears a trapezoidal butt with two rivet holes and one remaining plug-rivet. Wilde records that it was found at Keelogue ford, Co. Galway, and presented to the RIA museum by the Shannon Commissioners. Burgess and Gerloff 1981, 64, no. 470; Wilde 1861, 482.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-21 Centre right, immediately above II-20 None Bronze dirk, with two rivet holes at top, measuring 17.5cm long. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W140, a dirk measuring 17.6 cm in length Burgess and Gerloff 1981, 191, pl. 27; Wilde 1861, 480.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-22 Immediately above II-21 None Bronze (?) socketed knife, dark in colour, measuring 28.4cm long x 3.6cm wide. Three rivet-holes are apparent. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be either NMI W225 (provenanced by Wilde to Co. Offaly) or W226 (provenanced by Wilde to River Annalee, Butlersbridge, Co.Cavan), both of which are of the same length as the illustrated example. Wilde 1861,484.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-23 Immediately above II-23 None Socketed bronze knife, light in colour. Measures 26.6cm long x 3.5cm wide. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W 166, which measures 26.7cm long and 3.2cm wide at the junction of the handle-plate with the leaf-shaped blade. Wilde 1861, 467, fig. 355.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-24 Immediately above II-23 Co. Kildare Bronze socketed knife, measuring 29.8cm long. Co. Kildare This is probably to be identified as NMI W168. This is drawn and mentioned in Wilde's catalogue where it is described as a dagger, which 'has long been known to antiquaries'. Its total length is 29.8cm. Hencken states that the handle of this object is openwork, and that the rivets are fake, it having been cast in one piece. Hencken 1950, 59; Wilde 1861, 467, fig. 354.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
II-25 Immediately above II-24, at top of page None Socketed bronze knife, dark in colour, measures 22.5cm long None This is probably to be identified as NMI W170, which measures 22.5 cm long. Wilde 1861, 462, fig.339.

3. Drawing 3

Image 3 Key to image 3
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-1 Left foreground Near Belfast Kite-shaped (?) spearhead, measuring 42.5cm long and 6.2cm wide. near Belfast It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be NMI W25 which measures 42.2cm long. Wilde 1861, 507-8
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-2 Immediately right of III-1 None Leaf-shaped spearhead, measuring 28.5cm long. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a large number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 495-6; 505-510
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-3 Immediately right of III-2 None Leaf-shaped spearhead, with side loops, measuring 34.5cm long. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W79. The loops are not cast directly across from each other, that on the left hand side is near the base of the blade while the other is almost at the end of the socket. Wilde lists six such examples which have the same shape in the socket, but the position of the loops is unique to this example. W79 measures 35.2cm long. Coles 1964, 107; Waddell 1998,181; Wilde 1861, 496 Fig. 363, No. 79
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-4 Centre foreground, right of III-3 None Spearhead, with short socket and elongated leaf-shaped blade, measuring 29.5cm long. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a large number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 510
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-5 Centre foreground, right of III-5 None Spearhead, side-looped, with lozenge-shaped blade. It measures 30cm long. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a substantial number of this kind listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 505-511
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-6 Centre foreground, right of III-5 None Spearhead, protected-loops, measuring 27.1cm long and 6.4cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one W27-36. Wilde 1861, 508-9
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-7 Centre foreground, right of III-6 Shannon Large, leaf-shaped, socketed spearhead, measuring 32.2cm long and 7.1cm wide. It has a prominent mid-rib and a possible perforation on each side of the socket. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a number of this type listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 508-511
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-8 Centre foreground, right of III-7 None Spearhead, lozenge-shaped , with long socket and loops at the base of the blade. It measures 22.3cm long and 3.9cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a large number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 505-511
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-9 Centre/right foreground, right of III-8 None Spearhead, leaf-shaped blade, basal-looped, measuring 20.2cm long and 3.5cm wide. The tip of the blade is broken. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 505-511
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-10 Right foreground, right of III-9 None Spearhead, leaf-shaped blade, side-looped. It measures 18.9cm long and 4.7cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 508-511
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-11 Right foreground, right of III-10 None Spearhead, side-looped, measuring 20.7cm long and 2.8cm wide. It has a triangular-shaped blade with cast ridges. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 505-511
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-12 Right foreground, right of III-11 None Small socketed arrowhead, measuring 8.7cm long and 2.8cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be W298 - a Later Medieval arrowhead. Wilde 1861, 502.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-13 Right foreground, right of and partly above III-12. None Small spearhead, kite-shaped blade, side-looped. It measures 12.2cm long and 3cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 513-517
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-14 Right foreground, right of III-13 None Spearhead, leaf-shaped with lunate openings in the blade. It measures 26.6cm long and 6cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 505-511
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-15 Right foreground, right of III-14. None Spearhead, elongated leaf-shaped blade with lunulate openings. The top of the blade is cracked. It measures 25.8cm long and 4.3cm wide. Unknown It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one twenty-five incomplete or fragmentary narrow spearheads listed in Wilde's catalogue (no's NMI W92-W116). Wilde 1861, 511-2.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-16 Right foreground, right of III-14. near Belfast Large, kite-shaped spearhead with side-loops. It measures 47.5cm long and 6.8cm wide. It is very similar to III-1 Check Wilde 1861, 508 nos 23, 24, 25. near Belfast It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a number, registered as NMI W23-W25, listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 508
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-17 Right foreground , left of III-16. None Small leaf-shaped spearhead, with side-loops, measuring 14.5cm long and 3.1cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 513-517
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-18 Centre right, immediately left of III-17. None Bronze chisel measuring 14.5cm long and 4.3cm wide (at blade). None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of thirteen such noted examples in Wilde's catalogue, varying in length from 21/2 inches to 61/4 inches. Wilde 1861, 524-526
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-19 Centre right, left of III-18. None Socketed bronze axehead, measuring 8.5cm long and 5.7cm wide at the blade. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 418-429
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-20 Centre right, above III-19. None Bronze gouge, measuring 6.7cm long. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of twenty-one examples listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 524-526
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-21 Centre right, above III-20. None Bronze gouge, measuring 8.2cm long. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of twenty-one examples listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 524-526
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-22 Centre right, above III-21 None Bronze chisel, measuring 8cm long and 4cm wide at base. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of thirteen such examples in Wilde's catalogue, varying in length from 21/2 inches to 61/4 inches. Wilde 1861, 524-526
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-23 Left of III-22 None Socketed axehead, with side loop and splayed cutting edge. It measures 10.6cm long and 7.9cm wide at blade. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 418-429
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-24 Below and right of III-23 None Socketed axehead, with loop. It measures 10.6cm long and 5.3cm wide at the blade. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 418-429
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-25 Centre right, left of III-24 None Socketed axehead, with loop (barely visible). Ribbed near the socket. It measures 11.2cm long and 5cm wide at blade. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 418-429
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-26 Centre, right of III-25 None Socketed axehead, with loop and very splayed cutting edge. It measures 8.7cm long and 8cm wide at blade. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 418-429
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-27 Centre, above III-26 None Macehead, measuring 6.75cm long. It has three sets of spikes (six on each row). None This is probably to be identified as NMI W297. Three examples of Late Medieval maceheads are included in Wilde's catalogue (NMI W297-W299). W297 was was in the collection of Mr R. C. Walker and was presented to the RIA by the Duke of Northumberland. Wilde 1861, 488,492, fig. 361; Halpin 1988, 177, 186
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-28 Centre, left of III-27 Carrick-on-Shannon Bronze sickle. The blade is broken at the end. Carrick-on-Shannon . It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be either W10 or W11. Wilde 1861, 539-540
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-29 Immediately below III-28 None Bronze razor, measuring 9.2cm long None This is possibly to be identified as NMI W101 (which measures 9.2cm long x 4.4cm wide) Wilde 1861, 549.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-30 Below and left of III-29 None Bronze winged chape, measuring 19cm long None This is probably to be identified as NMI W288. Wilde 1861, 461; Waddell 1998, 28.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-31 Centre, above and left of III-30 None Leaf-shaped bronze object. It measures 6.5cm long and 3.2cm wide at base. None It is not possible to identify this artefact.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-32 Centre left, immediately left of III-31 None Bronze sickle, socketed, with blade at right angles to socket and two rivet holes. It measures 12cm long (maximum). None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of eleven sickles, NMI W1-W11, noted in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 539-540
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-33 Centre left, left of III-32 Limerick Bronze sickle, socketed, with blade at right angles to socket. It measures 11cm long (maximum). Limerick It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of eleven sickles, NMI W1-W11, noted in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 539-40.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-34 Centre left, left of III-33 Ind. 9-10 Socketed spearhead, kite-shaped, with side-loops. It measures 19.5cm long x 6.2cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 513-517.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-35 Top left corner. None Bronze socketed chisel or gouge, measuring 12.5cm long None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of a number - NMI W74, W76 and W78 - listed in Wilde. Wilde 1861, 521-525.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-36 Across top. Funden nær Belfast. I en privtmands samling Socketed spearhead, with triangular-shaped blade and basal-loops. It measures 83.7cm long near Belfast The caption may be translated as: Found near Belfast. In a private collection. This indicates that this object was in a private collection when drawn by Plunket.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-37 Left background, right of III-35 Castle Kelly, Co. Roscommon Socketed bronze knife. It measures 29cm long. Co. Roscommon. It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of two (W225 or W226) listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 465.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-38 Left background, above III-37 None Socketed bronze knife, with wooden handle. Possibly near Headford, Co.Galway. It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be NMI W229. This was found near Headford, Co.Galway, and presented to the RIA by J. M. St George, Esq. Wilde 1861, 465-66, fig.351.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-39 Centre background, right of III-38 and III-37 None Bronze tool, possibly a gouge. It measures 9.7cm long. None It is not possible to identify this artefact.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-40 Centre background, immediately below III-36 None Metal spear-butt, probably bronze. Measures 28.5cm long. Possibly River Shannon, near Jamestown, Co.Roscommon. It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be NMI W280 which measures 29.2cm long. Wilde 1861, 517
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-41 Right background, right of III-40 and below III-36 None Bronze dirk/rapier, with two rivet holes? It measures 21cm long None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of those listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 448
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-42 Right background, below III-41 None Bronze chisel, measuring 6.4cm long None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of those listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 521
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-43 Right background, below and to the right of III-42 None Bronze chisel, measuring 6.4cm long None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of those listed in Wilde's catalogue. See Wilde 1861, 521.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-44 Right background, below III-41. None Bronze tool, probably a chisel, measuring 10.7cm long. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of those listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 520-22.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-45 Centre background, above III-26. None Metal pendant or tool. It measures 12.5cm long. None It is not possible to identify this artefact.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
III-46 Centre background, right of III-45 None Bronze chisel, measuring 8.3cm long None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it could be one of those listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 520-22.

4. Drawing 4

Image 4 Key to image 4
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-1 Bottom left hand corner None Undecorated bronze flat axe, measuring 17.7cm long x 8.6cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be one of a number listed in Harbison's catalogue, namely NMI W150, W57, W63, W66, W80, W90, W612, W113, and W622. Harbison 1969
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-2 Left foreground, immediately right of IV-1 None Decorated bronze axe, with splayed cutting-edge, Ballyvalley type. It measures 17.7cm long x 8cm wide. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W135, which measures 17.5cm long. Harbison 1969, pl. 42, no. 940; Wilde 1861, 405, fig. 250.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-3 Left foreground, immediately right of IV-2 None Undecorated axe with a stop-ridge, a side loop and a narrow butt. It measures 15.3cm long x 6.8cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be one of a large number of axes listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 372-82.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-4 Centre/right foreground immediately right of IV-3 None Bronze palstave with narrow blade, measuring 14.4cm long x 7.7cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be one of a large number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 372-82.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-5 Centre foreground immediately right of IV-4 None Bronze flanged axe with narrow butt and splayed cutting edge. It measures 12.8cm long x 9cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be one of a number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 372-82.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-6 Centre, immediately right of IV-5 None Bronze palstave with a narrow blade and a vertical mid-rib below the stop-ridge. It measures 14.5cm long x 6.8cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be one of a number listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 372-82.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-7 Right foreground, immediately right of IV-6 None Bronze socketed axe with a side loop and a collared mouth. It measures 11cm long x 8.3cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be one of the 201 examples of bronze axeheads of this type noted in the RIA's collection by Wilde. Wilde 1861, 382-86.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-8 Right foreground, immediately right of IV-7 None Bronze socketed axe with a collared mouth and a side loop. The sides are faceted. It measures 11.5cm long x 5.8cm wide. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W466, which measures c. 10.9 cm in length. Wilde 1861, 384-85, fig. 277.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-9 Right hand corner Co. Limerick Very large, flat, bronze axe with a widely splayed cutting edge. It measures 30.8cm long and its cutting edge is 21.7cm wide. Co. Cork This is probably to be identified as NMI W27, which measures 30.6 cm long by 21.3 cm wide at the cutting edge. According to Wilde, this was found 'in the ruins of Kilcrea castle, county of Cork' and was presented to the RIA by Sir Matthew Barrington, Bart. It is unclear which provenance is correct. Wilde 1861, 364, 397-8; Harbison 1969, 29 (No. 580)
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-10 Right foreground, above IV-9 None Bronze palstave with extended flanges, measuring 9.5cm long and 5.3cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be NMI W195 which is of similar dimensions (9.5cm x 5.4 cm). Wilde 1861, 409; Harbison 1969, 73, no. 16.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-11 Spans centre of illustration Castle Kelly, Roscommon Large and elaborate drawing of a bronze ring-mail object. The large distributor rings are 8.5cm in diameter and the rectangular spacers at either side measure 8cm x 10cm. Near Roscommon town This unusual object may be identified as NMI W1. Its find circumstances are described in Wilde's catalogue: 'It was discovered about twenty years ago, three feet under the surface, in burning a reclaimed bog, adjoining the old castle of the O'Conors, near the town of Roscommon'. Wilde 1861, 576-77, fig's 487-89.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-12 Right background, above and right of IV-11 None Snaffle bit of La Téne type. The rings have rounded terminals. It measures 32.6cm in maximum length and the ring diameters are 10cm and 10.6cm. None This is possibly to be identified as NMI W69, an unprovenanced Iron Age bit. Raftery 1984, fig.23, no.88.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-13 Top right hand corner, directly above IV-12 None Snaffle bit of La Tène style. It measures 29.2cm in overall length and the ring diameters are 9cm and 9.4cm. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be either NMI W66 or W67. Wilde 1861, 605, 616, fig. 506; Raftery 1984, 50
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-14 Centre background, immediately left of IV-13 None Thick bronze ring, with perforations at the sides. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be one of 23 specimens listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 579.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-15 Centre/left background None Bronze Y-shaped pendant, with globular terminal. It measures 30.8cm long and 15cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object, but it is somewhat similar NMI W174. Wilde 1861,608-10; Raftery 1983, fig. 157
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-16 Left background, immediately left of IV-15 None Bronze 'pendant'' for horse harness, measuring 33.8cm long and 10.2cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-17 Left background, immediately below IV-15 None Bronze ring, with one side perforation. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be one of 23 specimens listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 579.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-18 Left centre, bronze ring, immediately below IV-11 None Thin bronze ring, measuring 5.7cm in diameter None It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be one of many such listed in Wilde. Wilde 1861, 578-80.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IV-19 Left background, left of IV-16 None Rowel spur, complete with metal strap and buckle. None This may be identified as NMI W9, a Late Medieval spur. Wilde describes it as 'one of the most perfect and beautiful articles of its kind which has been discovered in the British Isles'. Ex. Dawson collection. Wilde 1861, 601-02, fig. 500.

5. Drawing 5

Image 5 Key to image 5
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
V-1 Top left hand corner None 'Latchet' dress-fastener None It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be either NMI W492. Wilde refers to these types of objects as 'spectacle brooches', and lists four in the Academy's collection. They are 6th-7th century in date and functioned as dress-fasteners. Wilde 1861, 566-67, 590; Youngs 1989, 43, no.22.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
V-2 Bell of the instrument is in centre left, curves across the top of the picture in two sections Found in bed of river 'Ban' near Banbridge Large undecorated bronze horn. Ardbrin, parish of Anaghclone, Co. Down This may be identified as NMI W9. According to Wilde it measures 8 feet 5 inches (2.5m) long along the convex margin, and consists of two portions, 'each of very strong sheet bronze, of a yellowish-red colour, and joined along the seam by means of a riveted plate'. He described it as 'certainly the finest article of the kind which has yet been discovered in Europe'. The riveted plate is shown in a detailed sketch below the narrow end of the instrument. Wilde 1861, 625, 631-2, fig. 528.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
V-3 Bell of instrument is in right foreground Found near Armagh Long trumpet, dark in colour, with decorated bell-end. Loughnashade, Co. Armagh This is NMI W8, an Iron Age ceremonial trumpet. Wilde 1861, 630-31,figs 527, 531.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
V-4 Mouthpiece of the instrument is in the left foreground (centre left) None Short, side-blown horn Possibly Dowris, Co. Offaly It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be NMI W11. In Plunket's illustration it appears to be repaired towards the end of the bell, though this repair is not visible in Wilde's illustration. W11 formed part of the large Bronze Age hoard from Dowris, Co. Offaly. Wilde 1861, 628-29, fig. 525.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
V-5 Forms right-hand part of the arc with V-4, in centre and centre foreground Birr Small end-blown horn, portion of. Forms part of the same instrument as V-6. Carrigogunnel, Co. Limerick This may be identified as NMI W3, portion of an end blown horn. It was found in a bog, along with two other horns of Bronze Age type, at Carrigogunnel in 1787. The Birr provenance, as given here, appears to be incorrect. Eogan 1983, 103, no. 101.1b; Wilde 1861, 633.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
V-6 Centre foreground, along the bottom of the page Birr Small end-blown horn, portion of. It forms part of the same instrument as V- 5 Carrigogunnel, Co. Limerick This may be identified as NMI W286, which is described in Wilde's catalogue as a handle for a weapon - 'Among the bronze articles heretofore unexplained in our Collection is a hollow tube, 241/2 inches (62.2cm) long and 11/4 (3.2cm) in diameter...with a moveable ring in the middle, and furnished with four circles of spikes...Hitherto this article has been regarded as a portion of a trumpet...'. It was found in a bog, along with two other horns of Bronze Age type, at Carrigogunnel in 1787. The Birr provenance, as given here, appears to be incorrect. Eogan 1983, 103, no. 101.1a; Wilde 1861, 491.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
V-7 Centre, directly above V-6 I Trinity College Museum Large side-blown horn None This may be identified as NMI 1882:225, which was part of the Trinity College collection up to 1882. The caption may be translated as: In Trinity College Museum. MacWhite 1945, 104, pl.16.6
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
V-8 Top right corner of illustration None Decorated disc None This is probably to be identified as NMI W5. Wilde 1861, 639; Raftery 1983, fig 210 (no. 790); Armstrong 1923, 27, pl. V.

6. Drawing 6

Image 6 Key to image 6
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VI-1 Along the left hand side of the illustation Mr Petrie's Samling, fra Dunshaughlin Two views of (bronze?) sword, measuring 47.3cm long. The tip of the blade is missing and the hilt has rivet holes. Lagore, Co. Meath No sword of this Late Bronze Age type is on record from Lagore. None of the eight ex. Petrie Collection swords listed in Eogan's catalogue matches this drawing closely. The caption may be translated as: Mr Petrie's Collection, from Dunshaughlin. Eogan 1965
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VI-2 Left foreground None Vase None This is probably to be identified as NMI W22, an Early Bronze Age 'food vessel' decorated with incised diagonal lines. Ó Ríordáin and Waddell 1995, 150, No.586
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VI-3 Left foreground, immediately right of VI-2 None Bowl Chapelizod, Phoenix Park, Dublin. This is probably to be identified as NMI W27, an Early Bronze Age bowl decorated with incised lines and stamped decoration. It is one of three discovered in 1838 in a chambered tumulus in the Phoenix Park, Dublin. Wilde 1857, 183, 191, fig. 132; Ó Ríordáin and Waddell 1995, 106.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VI-4 Centre/right foreground, immediately right of VI-3 None Bowl Kilmurry, Co. Kilkenny It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be NMI W9 / Wk78, apparently found 'in an ancient grave'. W9 measures 15.2cm wide at mouth. Wilde 1857, 178 Fig. 128; Ó Ríordáin and Waddell 1995, 117 (No. 92)
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VI-5 Right foreground, immediately right of VI-4 None Ribbed bowl Coan, Co. Kilkenny Early Bronze Age ribbed bowl. This is probably to be identified as NMI W16/ Wk. 62. Ó Ríordáin and Waddell 1995, No. 308
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VI-6 Left foreground/ centre Co. Carlow Stone(?) mould for palstave, measuring 16.2cm long x 9.1cm wide. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W84 and 84a, both sides of a mould for an axehead. Wilde notes that this 'was procured from the county of Carlow, but its antiquity ... is very questionable'. Ex. Dawson collection. Wilde 1857, 91-2.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VI-6a Centre/centre right, to right of VI-6 Bly. Pröve I Formen. Ny. Palstave, of lead. None This is not an archaeological object but a lead palstave made from mould W84-W84a. The caption translates as: Lead. Sample from the mould. New.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VI-7 Centre right, immediately right of VI-8 Co. Waterford Stone mould for a socketed axehead, measuring 17.7cm long x 11.6cm wide. Co. Waterford. This is probably to be identified as NMI W85. According to Wilde it is of 'mica slate, much worn on the surface by age and exposure...and presents upon the surface-as shown in the cut- the apertures by which it was adjusted by pins to the other half.'. It measures 17.2cm long x 10.2cm wide. Wilde 1857, 91
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VI-8 Immediately right of VI-9 Dunshaughlin Tanged iron sword measuring 46cm in length. Lagore, Co. Meath This may be identified as that illustrated in Hencken (1950, 90, Fig 25I). Hencken 1950, 91, Fig. 25(I)
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VI-9 Immediately right of VI-10 Mr Petrie's Samling. Fra Dunshaughlin Double-edged iron sword , measuring 59cm long. The tang measures 10.7cm long. Lagore, Co. Meath It is not possible to identify this object, though it is similar to that illustrated by Hencken (92, Fig.25b) which measures 58.4cm long .The caption may be translated as: Mr Petrie's Collection. From Dunsaughlin. The Dunsaughlin provenance is taken to mean Lagore crannog. Hencken 1950, 92, fig.25(b).
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VI-10 Centre, above palstave axe-moulds I Trinity College Museum Stone mould for a rapier, measuring 50.5cm long and 6.7cm wide. None This is probably to be identified as NMI 1882: 88. The caption may be translated as: In Trinity College Museum. Burgess and Gerloff 1981, 116 and Pl.25
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VI-10 Centre right/ right background Formen seet fra Enden End-view of moulds None See above, NMI 1882:88. The caption may be translated as: The mould seen from the end.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VI-10 Immediately right of VI-15 (centre right) Svordformen seet fra enden End view of the sword mould None See above, NMI 1882: 88. The caption may be translated as: The sword mould seen from the end.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VI-10 Centre, directly above VI-12 En sverd af bly, stobh arm prøve I Steenformen (NY) Modern lead sword cast in the mould 1882:88 None Cast from mould 1882:88. The caption may be translated as: A lead sword, sample from stone mould. (New).
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VI-11 Left background, at top left corner of page Mr Petries Samling. Fra Dunshaughlin Long, single-edged, tanged iron knife/scramasax measuring 36.8cm long and 3cm wide. The tang measures 3cm long. Lagore, Co. Meath It is not possible to identify this object, though it is very similar to that illustrated in Hencken 91950, 91). The caption may be translated as: Mr Petrie's Collection. From Dunsaughlin. The Dunsaughlin provenance is taken to mean Lagore crannog. Hencken 1950, 91, fig.25h.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VI-12 Right background, top right corner of page Mr Petries Samling. Fra Dunshaughlin Long, leaf-shaped, socketed iron spearhead, measuring 33.5cm long and 6.1cm wide at blade Lagore, Co. Meath It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be one of a large number which came from Lagore. See Hencken 1950, 96, figures C and D (the measurements are more similar to 25D. The caption may be translated as: Mr Petrie's Collection. From Dunsaughlin. (Lagore)

7. Drawing 7

Image 7 Key to image 7
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-1 Left foreground. None Gold Lunula. 22.7cm across; 7.8 across widest portion of band. near Athlone, Co. Roscommon This may be identified as NMI W2. The damage on the right side of the object is not depicted in Plunket's drawing. It was presented to the RIA museum by Lord Kenmare in 1778. Armstrong 1933, 50, pl. I, fig. 6
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-2 Left/centre foreground, right of VII-2. Killarney, privatsamling Decorated gold Lunula measuring 22.7cm across x 7.4cm across widest portion of band. Killarney ? It is not possible to identify this artefact. It was clearly in a private collection when seen by Worsaae. It is not listed in Armstrong's catalogue, and consequently was not in the RIA collection at the time. The caption may be translated as: Killarney, private collection. It is not clear if 'Killarney' refers to the provenance of the object or of the collection.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-3 Centre, above VII-2. Co. Galway Gold lunula, decorated near terminals, measuring 17.3cm wide x 4.2cm across the widest portion of the band. Co. Galway It is not possible to identify this artefact. The form, decoration and measurements (W6 measures 17.4cm across, and 4.5cm across widest portion (measurements taken from Armstrong's plate II)) are similar to NMI W6 but the latter has one less panel of decoration than is on Plunket's drawing. This may be a mistake on Plunket's behalf, as there is no caption to indicate that this one was in a private collection. The base of the lunula is depicted as slightly damaged in Armstrong's illustration, and this is not present in Plunket's depiction of the artefact, however. Taylor (1970, 69) does not mention any other from Co. Galway but W. 10, which is quite different to this one. Armstrong 1933, 52; Taylor 1970, 69
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-4 Left/centre background, above VII-3. None Small plain lunula, with large gap between terminals. It measures 14.5cm across and 2.9cm across the widest part of band. None This may be identified as NMI W14. Ex. Dawson collection. Armstrong 1933, 53, pl.3, no. 15.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-5 Left background, top left corner. None Gold lunula with lozenge-shaped terminals. It measures 28.3cm across and 12.5cm across the widest part of the band. near Athlone, Co. Roscommon. This may be identified as NMI W5. It was presented to the RIA collection in 1842 by Earl de Grey, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Armstrong 1933, 52, pl. 2, fig.10.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-6 Centre/right background, right of VII-4. Castle Kebby Gold dress-fastener with very large hollow circular terminals and a short handle. 28cm long, cup diameter is 12.5cm. Castlekelly, Co. Roscommon. This may be identified as NMI122. Found in 1819, it was formerly in the Dawson collection and was originally acquired through D. H. Kelly Esq. The 'Castle Kebby' of the caption is probably Castle Kelly. Armstrong 1933, 68, no. 155, pl.15, 276.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-7 Top right. None Gold dress-fastener, measuring 12cm in overall width. The distance between the cups measures 2.5cm and the average diameter of the cups is 4.7cm None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it is similar to NMI W121, W145, W147, W148 or W149. The measurements are quite similar to those of W148. Armstrong 1933, pl. 15, 16
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-8 Right background, immediately below and left of VII-7. Gold pennanular bracelet or dress fastener. Overall width 9.5cm, space between cups 3.7cm, average diameter of the cups 2.9cm None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it is similar to NMI W156. Armstrong 1933, 69
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-9 Right background, right of VII-8. None Gold pennanular bracelet or dress fastener. Overall diameter 6.3cm, space between the cups 2cm, average diameter of cups 2.35cm. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W139, which has similarly in-turned terminals. W139 measures 7.3cm x 2.3cm. Armstrong 1933, 71.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-10 Right background, below VII-9. None Gold dress-fastener, with hollow terminals. It measures 5.3cm across and the average diameter of the cups is 1.3cm. It appears to be decorated with incised lines in the inner arc of the ring. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it is similar to both NMI W112 and W308. Armstrong 1933, pl. 16, no's 321 and 323
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-11 Right background, below VII-8 None Gold pennanular bracelet, with expanded terminals. It measures 7.8cm across, the space between the terminals is 2.4cm and the average diameter of the cups is 3cm. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W150. Ex. Dawson collection. Armstrong 1933, 66, pl. 15, no.295
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-12 Centre right, below VII-11 and VII-10, extreme right . None Gold pennanular bracelet with small round terminals. It measures 5.7cm across. None This may be identified as NMI W104. Armstrong 1933, 75, pl. 17, no. 223.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-13 Centre right, left of VII-12. None Simple pennanular gold bracelet, with slightly expanded terminals. It measures 6.0cm x 5.5cm across and the space between the terminals is 1.1cm. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be W105, W106 or W100 - all of which measure 6cm across. Armstrong 1933, 74-78. pl. 17.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-14 Centre right, left of VII-13. None Gold pennanular bracelet, narrows at terminals. It measures 6.4cm x 5.5cm across. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it is somewhat similar to the 'torcs' illustrated in Armstrong. Armstrong 1933, pl.12, 93 and 368
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-15 Centre, immediately below VII-6. None Gold pennanular ring. It measures 7.7cm across and its terminals are 2.2cm apart. There appears to be an incised line on the cup terminals. None It is not possible to identify this artefact.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-16 Centre, immediately right of VII-15 None Gold pennanular bracelet, measuring 8cm across. There are three incised lines on each terminal. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W145. Armstrong 1933, 71 pl. 15, 16, 319
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-17 Centre/ centre right, right of VII-16. None Gold pennanular bracelet, measuring 7.8cm x 6.5cm. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it is somewhat similar to NMI W116. Armstrong 1933, 73, pl. 18, 385
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-18 Centre right, right of VII-17. None Thin gold pennanular arm-ring, with the terminals very close together. It measures 6.5cm x 6.2cm across and the illustration depicts pocking on the surface of the object. Possibly Tremblestown, Co. Meath It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W191. Armstrong 1933, 94, pl.18, no. 392.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-19 Centre right, right of VII-18. None Gold pennanular bracelet, thin with slightly expanded terminals. It measures 6.2cm x 5cm. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it appears to be similar to NMI W101 and W102. Armstrong 1933, 93, pl. 18, no.411.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-20 Centre foreground below VII-15. None Thick gold armring, with circular terminals close together. It measures 8.8cm in overall diameter. None This may be identified as NMI W194. This is illustrated in Armstrong pl. 18 No. 373 Armstrong 1922, 93, pl.18, no.373.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-21 Centre foreground, left of VII-20. None Circular gold ball, measuring measures 7cm across. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W28 or W29. Armstrong 1933, 86.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-22 Centre/right foreground, right of VII-21. None Gold 'sleeve fastener', with elongated terminals None. This may be identified as NMI W123. Ex. Dawson collection. Armstrong 1933, 65 pl. 14, no. 151.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-23 Right foreground, right of VII-22 None Small gold ingot, measuring 3.1cm x .8cm wide. None This may be identified as NMI W283. Armstrong 1933, pl.14, no. 259
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-24 Right foreground, right of VII-23. None Pennanular gold bracelet, with in-turned terminals. Co. Wicklow This is probably to be identified as NMI W89. This was found in Co. Wicklow in the 'hollow'of a socketed axehead.. Eogan 1983, 311, Fig. 95c; Armstrong 1933 pl. 18.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-25 Centre foreground, base. Tumna Co. Roscommon Smooth gold ball, measuring 9cm x 10cm. Tumna, Co. Roscommon It is not possible to identify this artefact, Armstrong 1933, 86.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-26 Centre foreground, base, right of VII-25. Tumna, Co. Roscommon Smooth gold ball, perforated. It measures 7.3cm x 6.2cm Tumna, Co. Roscommon It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it is probably one of four found together at this location (NMI W28-32). Armstrong 1933, 86
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-27 Right foreground, between VII-26 and VII-22 None Gold 'ring money', with incised decoration. It measures 4.4cm across. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W259. Armstrong calls this a 'crescent-shaped bulla composed of a leaden core with a gold plate...ornamented with simple diaper and linear patterns. Said to have been found in a cinerary urn'. Armstrong 1933, 93, no. 405.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-28 Right foreground, below VII-27. None Finger-ring, spiral-coiled. It measures 2.6cm across None This is probably to be identified as NMI W184. Armstrong 1933 pl. 14, no. 233
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-29 Centre right below VII-22. None Gold 'sleeve-fastener', measuring 4.2cm across. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be either NMI W130 or W131, which measure 4.8cm and 4.1cm across, respectively. Armstrong 1933, 65-6.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-30 Centre right, below VII-29. None Gold 'sleeve-fastener', measuring 1.4cm wide. Cup diameter is .8cm. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W126, W127, W128, W129, W134 or W135. Armstrong 1933, pl. 14.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-31 Centre right, below VII-29. None Gold 'sleeve-fastener', measuring 1.4cm wide. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W126, W127, W128, W129, W134 or W135. Armstrong 1933 pl. 14.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-32 Right foreground, below VII-30. None Small pennanular gold ring (ear-ring or finger-ring ?), measuring 1.1cm x 1.2cm across. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W155 or W161. Armstrong 1933, pl. 14.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-33 Right foreground, immediately below VII-31. None Small pennanular gold ring, measuring 1cm x 1cm across. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be one of a number which are similar in size and appearance: NMI W155, W161, W162 or W163. Armstrong 1933, pl. 14.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-34 Right foreground, below VII-32. None Gold 'ring-money', in two pieces but taken as one object here. That on the left is .7cm thick while the other is .6cm thick. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W167 or W168. Armstrong 1933, pl. 14.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-35 Right foreground, below VII-34. None Gold 'ring-money', in two pieces but treated as one object here. That on the left is .7cm thick while the other is .6cm thick. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W167 or W168. Armstrong 1933, pl. 14.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-36 Right foreground, right of VII-29. None Small piece of gold 'ring-money'. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W159, W166 or W169. Armstrong 1933, pl. 14.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-37 Right foreground, right of VII-36. None Small piece of gold 'ring-money', measuring 1.8cm across. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W169, W159 or W166. Armstrong 1933, pl. 14.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-38 Right foreground, right of VII-36. None Small piece of gold 'ring-money' with incised decoration on the inside of the ring. It measures 1.7cm across. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W156 or W158. Armstrong 1933, pl. 14
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-39 Right foreground, below VII-37. None Small piece of gold 'ring-money', measuring 1.5cm across. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it is probably either NMI W155 or W161. Armstrong 1933, pl. 14
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-40 Right foreground, below VII-38. None Small piece of gold 'ring-money', measuring 1.2cm across. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W153, W155, W162, or W163. Armstrong 1933, pl. 14
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-41 Right foreground, immediately below VII-40 None Small piece of gold 'ring-money', measuring 1cm across. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it is similar to W165. Armstrong 1933, pl. 14, no. 223.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-42 Right foreground, right of VII-36. Afrika Castlerea Spiral twisted ring (ear-ring), measuring 3.3cm x 4.6cm. Castlereagh, Co. Roscommon It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it is either W62 an W63. These 'come from the same 19th century collection and are remarkably similar to gold ear rings from Senegal, West Africa, some of which date to a few centuries where bar-twisted forms also occur' (Waddell 1998). Armstrong 1933, pl. 18, 415-417; Waddell 1998, 196.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-43 Right foreground, below VII-42. None Spiral twisted ring, measuring 2.9cm x 3cm across. None This has not been identified.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-44 Right foreground, below VII-42. None Spiral-twisted gold ring, penannular,with plain terminals. It measures 2.5cm x 2.6cm across. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W62. Armstrong 1933, pl 18 no. 421
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-45 Right foreground, below and right of VII-44. None Rod of gold, spirally twisted and bent at one end. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be an illustration depicting the manufacture of twisted gold artefacts.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-46 Right foreground, along base. None Long gold pin, with globular terminal and pointed end. It measures 18.5cm long. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W284. Armstrong 1933, pl. 14, no. 249
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-47 Right foreground, below VII-24. None Pennanular gold band, measuring 2.3cm across. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W252. Wilde 1862, 81, fig. 609.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-48 Immediately below VII-47. Afrika ? Castlerea Small gold ring, the upper part of which is twisted spirally. Castlereagh (?) This is probably to be identified as NMI W66. It is recorded as having been found at Castlereagh along with two gold earrings which are also illustrated in this painting. Wilde 1862, 38; Armstrong 1933, 38,87
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-49 Right foreground ,below VII-47 (Afrika,), Co. Meath? U-shaped, spirally twisted, gold ring. It measures 1.2cm across. Co. Meath (?) It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W59, W60, W 61 or W62. However, all of the above appear to be more circular in cross-section than this. Armstrong 1933, 87, pl. 18, no's 418-422
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VII-50 Right foreground, below VII-48. Afrika, Meath U-shaped, spirally twisted, gold ring Similar to VII-48 but slightly smaller Co. Meath It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W59, W60, W 61 or W62. However, all of the above appear to be more circular in cross-section than this. Armstrong 1933, 87; pl. 18, no's 418-422

8. Drawing 8

Image 8 Key to image 8
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VIII-1 Largest (outer) torc, on left hand side of illustration Tara Torc, measuring 41.5cm across Tara, Co. Meath This may be identified as NMI W172, a bar torc. Eogan 1983,40-41, no. 21.1.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VIII-2 Left hand side, inside VIII-1 None Thin torc, measuring 33.4cm across None This is probably to be identified as NMI W179. Armstrong 1933, 22
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VIII-3 Left hand side, inside VIII-2 None Small spiral-twisted/flange-twisted ring, measuring 14cm across. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though it may be NMI W181. Armstrong 1933, 60.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VIII-4 Between two large torcs, centre. Carlow Annular gold armring, formed from three rods, twisted together. Rathedan, Co. Carlow. This may be identified as NMI W193, a Viking-age gold armring. Armstrong 1933, 95, pl.28, fig. 394; Bøe 1940, 101, fig. 68.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VIII-5 Right hand side, outer torc Tara Torc, measuring 36.4cm across. Tara, Co. Meath. This may be identified as NMI W173, a bar torc. In this illustration the terminal is drawn extended like that of W172 (VIII-1) and, not as it now appears, curled into a spiral. Armstrong 1933, 59; Eogan 1983, 40-41, fig. 13.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
VIII-6 Right hand side, within VIII-5 Ballinasloe Simple gold torc, with bent terminals, measuring 15.5cm across Ballinasloe, Co. Galway This is probably to be identified as NMI W174. Armstrong 1933, 61

9. Drawing 9

Image 9 Key to image 9
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IX-1 Left foreground, uppermost in group of beads. None Two gold beads, each 2.4cm long None These are probably to be identified as two of the seven beads registered as NMI W52-58. These beads were found together, and all are identical in size and appearance. Ex. Sirr collection. Armstrong 1933, 90, pl. 14, no. 246.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IX-2 Left foreground, above IX-1 None Two cylindrical-shaped beads, of gold, each measuring 1.5cm long. The example on the left is decorated with cross-hatched lines, while that on the right features horizontal lines. None These are probably to be identified as two of the group of seven beads registered as NMI W41-47. Three are decorated with incised lines, and four with cross-hatching. It is not possible to distinguish the individual beads. Armstrong 1933, 90, pl. 14, 244
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IX-3 Left foreground, above IX-2. None Two beads. from a group of six complete and six half beads None It is not possible to identify these beads, though they could be from the group registered as W34-40, which are of similar shape. Armstrong 1933, 90-91, pl. 14.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IX-4 Just right of IX-1. None Oval gold object, measuring 3.7cm high x 2cm across. None It is not possible to identify this artefact, though the drawing of it may be unfinished.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IX-5 Left foreground. None Gold gorget. Borrisnoe, Co. Tipperary This is probably to be identified as NMI W17. Ex. Dawson collection. Armstrong 1933, 58
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IX-6 Centre foreground, at base of page. Roscommon Gold earspool with its 'lid'. Inside is an armring with cupped terminals. The lid of the object is decorated with concentric circles and measures 6.6cm across. Roscommon These objects are probably to be identified as NMI W277 and W278. Armstrong describes it as a 'small circular box, made in three portions ... It is stated by Mr. Clibborn in the official Catalogue of the Dublin Exhibition of 1853, to have contained inside it when found, a pennanular ring'. Armstrong 1933, 88; Cahill 2001, 8-16
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IX-7 Right foreground Shannonbridge Portomna ? Gold gorget measuring 25.2cm across. The left disc is damaged and the right side has a pyramidical boss. Ardcroney, Co. Tipperary This is probably to be identified as NMI W16. The ascribed provenance appears to be an error. Armstrong 1933, 57; pl.8, fig. 41; Eogan 1981, 364.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IX-7a Right foreground, right of IX-7 Lock ring Probably an unfinished drawing.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IX-8 Centre right, at right side. None Part of a gold bobbin-shaped earspool near Enniscorthy, Co. Wexford This is probably to be identified as NMI W276. According to Wilde this was one of the four 'plates which were found by a peasant in 1795, when ploughing near Enniscorthy, Co. Wexford.' Armstrong 1933, 98, pl. 14, no.463; Cahill 2001, 8-16; Wilde 1862, 87
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IX-9 Centre right, below gorget IX-11 None Part of a collar terminal ? Unknown This is probably to be identified as NMI W19. Armstrong describes it as the base of a vessel, made of thin gold plate...ornamented with small points surrounded by concentric circles : incomplete'. Armstrong 1933, 98
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IX-10 Top right. Co. Clare Gold gorget Co. Clare This is probably to be identified as NMI W21. Plunket's drawing of it seems to show more damage than does Armstrong's. Ex. Sirr Collection Armstrong 1933, 58,
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IX-11 Centre background. None Heart-shaped gold bulla, measuring 6.5cm high and 5.5cm wide. Bog of Allen This is probably to be identified as NMI W265. Ex. Dawson collection. Armstrong 1933, 92, pl.19, 448.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IX-12 Centre, below IX-12 None Gold disc, with cross-motif contained in six circles. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W270. Ex. Dawson collection Armstrong 1933, pl.19, no.438.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IX-13 Left of IX-13. None Gold disc, two perforations in the centre, cross motif. Co. Roscommon This is probably to be identified as NMI W268, but it may be P.949. Two very similar discs were found in Co. Roscommon, possibly together. One went to the Sirr collection, and one to that of Petrie. Since Petrie's collection was acquired by the RIA later than Sirr's, it is conceivable that the one figured here is from the latter collection. While Worsaae had access to Petrie's collection, when artefacts are drawn from this collection they are usually labelled so. Armstrong 1933, 85, no's 332-33, pl.19, 439, 435.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
IX-14 Top left corner. None Gold gorget None This is probably to be identified as NMI W20. Ex. Dawson collection Armstrong 1933, 58 pl.8, fig. 40.

10. Drawing 10

Image 10 Key to image 10
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-1 Left background, top left of illustration Co. Kildare Penannular brooch. Its pin measures 27.5cm long and the diameter of its hoop is 11.5cm. Co. Kildare This may be identified as NMI W39, an example of the 'thistle-brooch' variant of the 'ball-type' brooches that were developed in Ireland during the later ninth century (Graham Campbell 1983). The pin of W39 measures 26. 9cm in length while its hoop has a diameter of 11.2 cm. Armstrong 1914, 297; Bøe 1940, 130, fig. 88.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-2 Left background, immediately right of X-1 Dalkey, Co. Dublin Penannular brooch. Its pin measures 19.3cm long and the diameters of its hoop are 10.8cm and 11.5cm. Dalkey, Co. Dublin. This may be identified as NMI W33, an example of a bossed pennannular brooch of the type manufactured in Ireland between c. 850 and c. 950 (Graham-Campbell 1975; Johansen 1973). W33 is otherwise provenanced to 'near Virginia, Co. Cavan', though it is difficult to ascertain where this provenance originates. The pin of W33 measures 19.7 cm in length while its hoop has diameters of 11.4 cm x 10.9 cm. Armstrong 1915, 296; Johansen 1973, 119 (A9).
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-3 Left background, to right of X-2 None Penannular brooch. Its pin measures 16.6 cm long and the diameters of its hoop are 8.5 cm and 8.8 cm. None This may be identified as NMI W32, an example of a bossed penannular brooch of the type manufactured in Ireland between c. 850 and c. 950 (Graham-Campbell 1975; Johansen 1973). The pin of W32 measures 16.7 cm in length while its hoop has diameters of 8.8 cm x 8.6 cm. Armstrong 1914, 296; Johansen 1973, 121 (C2).
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-4 Centre background, immediately right of X-3 None Penannular brooch with lobed terminals and a panelled ring. Kilmainham, Co. Dublin This may be identified as NMI W45, a brooch of later eighth/earlier ninth century date. It is known as the Kilmainham Brooch. Curiously, its pin was not drawn by Plunket. Armstrong 1914, 298-99; Youngs 1990, 95-96 (No.74).
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-5 Left centre, at extreme left side of illustration None A disc-headed pin, 24.7 cm in length. None This may be identified as NMI 6.W.26, an Irish or Pictish pin of probable sixth century date. Armstrong 1914, 295; Youngs 1989, 29 (No. 11).
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-6 Left background, immediately right of X-5 None Annular brooch with two circular panels of filigree on each terminal plate. The pin is missing or not shown. This is another view of the brooch numbered X-8 See X-8 See X-8 See X-8
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-7 Left background, immediately right of X-6 None Ringed pin. There appears to be some gold decoration on the ring. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be W28. Wilde 1861, 584
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-8 Left background, immediately right of X-7 None Penannular brooch, with amber and filigree insets on the terminal plates. The pin is either missing or not shown. None This may be identified as NMI 19.W. 44. CAAI, 1, pl. 62.2.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-9 Centre background, immediately right of X-8 None Large annular brooch, with filigree and amber ornamented terminals. Loughmoe, Co. Tipperary. This may be identified as NMI W42, an Irish, 9th century brooch. It was discovered in 1842. Armstrong 1914, 294; Youngs 1990, 98 (No. 78).
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-10 Left centre, immediately below X-6 None Penannular brooch, with some decoration evident on the terminals. The pin is missing or not shown. None It is not yet possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-11 Left centre, immediately right of X-10 None Ring brooch, the pin being a darker colour than the frame. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be NMI W.458 - a copper-alloy ring brooch of Late Medieval date. The pin of W.458 is missing. Deevy 1998, 108 (RB 74).
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-12 Left centre, immediately right of X-11 None Hinged shrine mount. None This may be identified as NMI R.2958, the upper part of a hinged strap-end of a house-shaped shrine. It is made of gilt copper alloy and features an amber stud. Of Irish manufacture, it dates to the late eighth or ninth century. Raftery 1941, 112; Youngs 1989,178 (No. 156).
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-13 Centre, slightly below and right of X-12 None Small brooch, with rounded terminals. The pin is missing. None It is not yet possible to identify this, though it may be one of a large number of brooches listed in Wilde's catalogue. Wilde 1861, 581-89
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-14 Centre, right and above X-13 None Brooch, with pin the length of the diameter of the hoop (perhaps broken?). The hoop has rounded terminals. None It is not yet possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-15 Centre, right and below X-14 None Hoop of brooch, with plate terminals. None It is not yet possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-16 Centre, right of X-15 and the pin of X-9 None Brooch with flat terminals, which are joined by one septum which appears like a clasp. The pin is missing. None It is not yet possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-17 Centre, directly below X-16 None Penannular (gold?) brooch, with flattened terminals and filigree decoration. None It is not yet possible to identify this object
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-18 Left of X-17 None Penannular gold brooch with expanded zoomorphic terminals. Pin-head decorated with coiled gold wire. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be NMI W368. It is broadly similar to a brooch illustrated in Kilbride Jones' catalogue (no. 73); could this be the other side of the brooch? Kilbride-Jones 1980, 112.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-19 Left of X-18 (on same row) None Large zoomorphic penannular brooch, complete with pin. The pin is slightly bent. near Athlone, Co. Westmeath. This is probably to be identified as NMI W.371, an example of a plain penannular brooch. Wilde records that it was presented to the RIA by the Shannon Commissioners, and Kilbride-Jones provenances it to 'near Athlone', in Co. Westmeath. Wilde 1861, 564; Kilbride Jones 1980, 108 (no. 68), fig.33.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-20 Immediately left of X-19 None Brooch, with rounded terminals, missing its pin. Heavily decorated in gold. None This is possibly to be identified as NMI W469
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-21 Immediately left of X-20 None Small penannular brooch, complete with pin. None It is not yet possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-22 Left foreground, below X-21 None Penannular brooch, complete with pin. Expanded decorated terminals and pin-head. None It is not yet possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-23 Left foreground, right of X-22 None Penannular brooch, complete with pin. Expanded terminals with decoration. None It is not yet possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-24 Left foreground, immediately right of X-23 None Penannular brooch, complete with pin. Expanded terminals with decoration. None It is not yet possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-25 Left foreground, right of X-24. Dunshaughlin jern Pennanular brooch, with unusual hoop terminals. It is not possible to gauge whether these are flat or globular. Lagore, Co. Meath. It is not possible to identify this object, though it is very similar to one illustrated in Hencken. The caption translates as: Dunsaughlin iron. Dunsaughlin is taken to refer to Lagore crannóg, Co. Meath. Hencken 1950, 100, fig. 34b.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-26 Left foreground, above and right of X-25. None Penannular brooch, with pin. None It is not yet possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-27 Centre foreground right of X-25 None Penannular brooch, complete with pin. Rounded hoop terminals, possibly with lateral cusps . None It is not yet possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-28 Centre foreground, immediately right of X-27 None Penannular brooch, complete with pin. None It is not yet possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-29 Centre, right and above X-28. None Pennanular brooch, complete with pin. Expanded flat terminals with decoration. None It is not yet possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-30 Centre, bottom row. None Pin, with globular (?) head. None It is not yet possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-31 Centre foreground, immediately left of X-30 None. Fibula None. This is probably to be identified as W. 472, a Roman period fibula. Armstrong 1923, 13, fig. 7; Wilde 1861, 567, fig. 472.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-32 Centre foreground, immediately below X-31 None Bronze stick pin with rounded head None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-33 Centre foreground, immediately right of X-31 and X-32 None Bronze pin with large head and a loop one third of the way down. None It is not possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-34 Immediately left of X-33 None Bronze fibula. None This may be identified as either W. 474 or W.477, bronze fibulae of the Roman period. Ex. RDS collection. Wilde 1861, 567, fig's 473-74.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-35 Centre foreground, immediately below and to the right of X-34 None Stick-pin, with flat head None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-36 Centre foreground, below and slightly left of X-34. None Bronze stick-pin, with rounded head None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-37 Centre foreground, immediately left of X-36 None Stick-pin, with square/triangular head. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-38 Centre foreground, immediately left of X-37 None Fibula. None This may be identified as W.475, a bronze fibulae of the Roman period. Ex. RDS collection. Wilde 1861, 568, fig. 475.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-39 Centre foreground, immediately left of X-37. None Stick-pin. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-40 Centre foreground, immediately left of X-39 None Stick-pin, with rounded head. Pin gets wider towards centre. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-41 Centre foreground, immediately left of X-40 None. Stick pin, very similar to X-40, but with a slightly flatter head. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-42 Centre foreground, just left of X-41 None Hand-pin, with decorated head. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the ten examples of hand-pins in the RIA collection noted by Wilde (1861, 559). Wilde 1861, 559.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-43 Centre foreground, immediately left of and below X-42 None Short stick-pin, with a rounded - almost conical - head. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-44 Centre foreground, immediately left of X-43 None Hand pin, with decorated head. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the ten examples of hand-pins in the RIA collection noted by Wilde (1861, 559). Wilde 1861, 559.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-45 Centre foreground, immediately left of X-44 None Stick pin, with large mushroom-shaped head. The pin thickens considerably towards the centre and tapers to a point. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-46 Centre foreground, just left of X-45 None Stick-pin, with round head. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-47 Centre foreground, immediately left of X-46 None Very short ringed or hand-pin None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of about forty examples of hand-pins and ringed pins in the RIA collection, as noted by Wilde (1861, 559, 561). Wilde 1861, 559, 561.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-48 Centre foreground, immediately left of X-47 None Ringed pin None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the many ringed pins in the RIA collection Wilde 1861, 561-62.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-49 Centre foreground, immediately left of X-48 None Ringed pin None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the many ringed pins in the RIA collection Wilde 1861, 561-62.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-50 Left foreground, directly left of X-49 None Stick-pin, with rounded head None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-51 Left foreground, immediately left of X-50 None Ringed pin, with very large ring. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the many ringed pins in the RIA collection. Wilde 1861, 561-62.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-52 Left foreground, immediately left of X-51 None Stick-pin, with semi-circular head. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-53 Left foreground, immediately left of X-52 None Ringed pin. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the many ringed pins in the RIA collection. Wilde 1861, 561-62.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-54 Left foreground, immediately left of X-53 None Stick pin. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-55 Left foreground, immediately left of X-54 None Stick-pin. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-56 Left foreground, immediately left of X-55 None Ringed pin. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the many ringed pins in the RIA collection. Wilde 1861, 561-62.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-57 Left foreground, immediately left of X-56 None Stick-pin. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-58 Left foreground, immediately left of X-57 None Stick-pin. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-59 Left foreground, immediately left of X-58 None Ringed pin. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the many ringed pins in the RIA collection. Wilde 1861, 561-62.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-60 Left foreground, immediately left of X-59 None Stick-pin. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-61 Left foreground, immediately left of X-60 None Stick-pin. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-62 Left foreground, immediately left of X-61 None Stick-pin. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-63 Left foreground, immediately left of X-62 None Stick pin. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-64 Left foreground, immediately left of X-63 None Ringed pin. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of the many ringed pins in the RIA collection. Wilde 1861, 561-62.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-65 Left foreground, immediately left of X-64 None Stick-pin. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-66 Left foreground, left of X-65 None Stick-pin None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-67 Left foreground, immediately left of X-66. None Stick pin. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-68 Centre background, top of page None Annular armring, formed from a rod that is coiled double. The maximum diameters are 5.7cm x 5.9cm None This may be identified as NMI W73. This is a Hiberno-Scandinavian 'coiled armring' of late ninth/early tenth century date. It has maximum diameters of 6.05 cm x 5.8 cm. Armstrong 1914, 292; Bøe 1940, 116; Sheehan 1992, No. 2.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-69 Centre background, directly below X-68 None Annular armring, formed from a rod that is coiled double, with a riffled effect in the terminal area. The maximum diameter is 7.3cm. None This may be identified as NMI W74 (515c). This is a Hiberno-Scandinavian 'coiled armring' of late ninth/early tenth century date. It has a maximum diameter of 7.3 cms. Armstrong 1914, 290, pl. 25, fig. 9; Bøe 1940, 116; Sheehan 1992, No. 3.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-70 Centre background, directly below X-69 Liffey flodden, mange af de andre solvringe fundene I flodengen. Annular armring, formed from a thin band that tapers markedly in width towards its ends which assume rod form and are wound around the opposite terminal. The maximum diameter is 6.8 cm. Liffeyside, Co. Dublin. This may be identified as NMI W76 (79,461). This is a Hiberno-Scandinavian 'ribbon bracelet' of late ninth/early tenth century date (Sheehan 1998, 180-81). W76 had a maximum diameter of 7cm. The caption on the drawing indicates that this formed part of an otherwise now lost hoard (Trans.: River Liffey, many of the other silver rings were found in the river meadow). Armstrong 1914, 290, 293, pl.25, fig. 13; Briggs and Sheehan 1987, 351-52; Bøe 1940, 117, fig. 79.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-71 Centre, directly below X-70 None Penannular armring, undecorated, with a diameter of 5.9 cm. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W33 (48,464c), an unornamented ring with a diameter of 6 cm. Probably derived from the Dawson Collection (possibly No. 12), this is an example of a broad-band armring of the type manufactured by the Hiberno-Scandinavians between c. 850 and c. 950 (Sheehan 1998,178-180). Armstrong 1914,291; Bøe 1940,109.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-72 Centre, directly below X-71 None Penannular armring, undecorated, with a diameter of 5 cm. Bent somewhat out of shape. near Virginia, Co. Cavan (?) It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be NMI W34 (49,468c), an example of a broad-band armring of the type manufactured by the Hiberno-Scandinavians between c. 850 and c. 950 (Sheehan 1998,178-180). W34 derives from the Dawson Collection (possibly No. 23). Armstrong states that it was 'found near Virginia, county of Cavan'. Armstrong 1914, 291; Bøe 1940,109; Graham-Campbell 1976,71.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-73 Centre background, to right of X-68, top of page None Penannular ring, probably of circular cross-section. Its maximum diameter is 8.3cm. None This is probably to be identified as W39, a circular-sectioned rod armring with a maximum diameter of 8.3 cm (according to Bøe). Armstrong 1914, 291; Bøe 1940,110.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-74 Centre background, directly below X-73 and to the right of X-69 None Penannular ring, probably of circular cross-section. Its maximum diameter is 6.8 cm. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be NMI W40, an example of 'ring-money' of the type known from Scandinavian Scotland (Graham-Campbell 1995, 38-40).
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-75 Centre, immediately below X-74 and to the right of X-70 Penannular ring, lozenge-shaped in cross-section. Its maximum diameters are 6.8cm x 5.3cm. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W45 (16/91), an example of 'ring-money' of the type known from Scandinavian Scotland (Graham-Campbell 1995, 38-40). W45 is 6.7 cm in maximum diameter. Armstrong 1914, 291; Bøe 1940,110.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-76 Centre, immediately below X-75 and to the right of X-71 and X-72 None Penannular ring, lozenge-shaped in cross-section, with pointed terminals. Its maximum diameters are 6.5 cm x 5.4 cm and the distance between its terminals is 3cm. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W42, an example of 'ring-money' of the type known from Scandinavian Scotland (Graham-Campbell 1995, 38-40). W42 measures 6 cm in maximum internal diameter and the gap between its terminals measures 3.5 cm (according to Bøe) . Armstrong 1914, 291; Bøe 1940, 110.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-77 Centre, immediately below X-76. None Hack-silver fragment of brooch with faceted end-knob and another faceted knob on the hoop. Stamped. Unknown This may be identified as NMI '7'. Bøe incorrectly terms this a 'fragment of a necklet or armlet'. It is, in fact, a fragment of a Baltic-type pennannular brooch - probably of tenth century date - of the type dealt with by Stenberger (1958, 65-730). Bøe 1940, 125, fig. 85.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-78 Centre, to the right of X-77 None Hack-silver fragment of ring, with faceted end-knob. The hoop is ornamented with riffling. None This may be identified as W59. It is portion of a 'Permian' spiral-ring, a type normally found in Russian, Danish and Gotlandic hoards of the ninth and tenth centuries. This example is probably of Russian manufacture (Sheehan 1998, 185). Armstrong 1914, 292; Bøe 1940, 113 (fig. 75).
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-79 Centre, directly below X-77 None Penannular ring, undecorated, with a diameter of 2.5 cm. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be NMI W22, an unornamented ring with a diameter of 2.9 cm. This is an example of a Viking-age 'penannular ingot' of the type manufactured in Ireland within the period from the late ninth to the mid-tenth century (Sheehan 1984,94-100; Graham-Campbell 1995, 30). Armstrong 1914, 291; Bøe 1940, 109.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-80 Centre, below X-78 and to the right of X-79 None Penannular ring, lozenge-shaped in cross-section, measuring 5cm x 4.4cm in diameter None This is probably to be identified as NMI W48 (94, 511c), an example of 'ring-money' of the type known from Scandinavian Scotland (Graham-Campbell 1995, 38-40). It has a maximum external diameter of 5 cm. Armstrong 1914, 291-92; Bøe 1940, 111.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-81 Centre, below X-80, X-79, and X-72 None A set of three silver filigree beads with two elongated spacers in between. Threadlike pieces come out of the end-beads, and on the one on the right is a smaller bead. The average diameters of the three larger beads is 1.7cm while the length of the elongated spacers is c. .5cm. Overall length is 16.7 cm. None These objects have not been identified.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-82 Centre/right background, to the right of X-73. Top of page. None Annular armring, with overlapping terminals. The object is bent slightly out of shape and has maximum diameters of 6.4cm x 6.8cm. None This may be identified as NMI 516c. It is a rod armring of pan-Scandinavian type, ninth or tenth century in date. It is 6.5 cm in maximum diameter. Bøe 1940, 128.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-83 Centre/right background, immediately below X-82 None Annular armring, with overlapping terminals. The object is bent slightly out of shape and has maximum diameters of 7.5cm x 6cm. None This may be identified as NMI W91. It is a rod armring of pan-Scandinavian type, and is ninth or tenth century in date. It is 7.5 cm in maximum diameter. Armstrong 1914, 290, pl. 25.10; Bøe 1940, 120.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-84 Centre, directly below X-83 None Penannular ring, formed with a rod of lozenge cross-section, with thinner rods wrapped around the terminals. It has maximum diameters of 8.2cm and 6.5cm. None This may be identified as NMI W90 (87, 463c). It is a lozenge-sectioned type of ring of Viking-age date (Sheehan 1984, 104-11). Originally, it was annular but the terminal area has been damaged. It has a maximum diameter of 8.15 cm. Derived from the Dawson Collection (No. 31), it was given to him (according to Armstrong) by W. Holmes, Esq. Armstrong 1914, 290, pl. 25.11; Bøe 1940, 119.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-85 Centre, directly below X-84 None Annular ring, formed with a rod of square or lozenge cross-section that tapers in thickness towards ends that are wrapped around the opposite terminal. The maximum diameters of the object are 7.5cm and 7cm. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be NMI 516c (85), an unornamented ring with a diameter of 6.8 cm. This is an example of a rod armring of pan-Scandinavian type, and is ninth or tenth century in date. Bøe 1940, 128.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-86 Right background, top of page, right of X-82 None Penannular armring, decorated with stamped grooves. The maximum diameters of the ring are 5.9cm x 5.4cm. Emy, Co. Monaghan. This is probably to be identified as NMI W80 (59,473c), an example of a broad-band armring of the type manufactured by the Hiberno-Scandinavians between c. 850 and c. 950 (Sheehan 1998,178-180). It measures 5.8 cm in maximum diameter. Armstrong records that it was 'found with several others in the scarp of a rath, townland of Emy, County of Monaghan', and indicates that it derived from the Dawson collection (No. 13 or 15). The Emy find comprises a hoard, from which at least two other broad-band armrings, W82(470c) and W96(74, 489c), also derive (Sheehan 1984,189-91). Armstrong 1914, 293; Bøe 1940, 117-18.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-87 Right background, directly below X-86 None Penannular armring, decorated with stamped grooves. The maximum diameter of the ring is 5.7 cm. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W86(61, 476c) / W97(60, Wk81?), two fragments that join to form an example of a broad-band armring of the type manufactured by the Hiberno-Scandinavians between c. 850 and c. 950 (Sheehan 1998,178-180). The complete ring measures 5.7cm in diameter. Armstrong 1915, 293; Bøe 1940,118,120.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-88 Right background, directly below X-87 and to the right of X-84 None Penannular armring, decorated with stamped grooves. The terminal areas seem to have been prised apart. The maximum diameter of the ring is 4.7cm. None This is probably to be identified as NMI W69 (57), an example of a broad-band armring of the type manufactured by the Hiberno-Scandinavians between c. 850 and c. 950 (Sheehan 1998,178-180). The scheme of ornamentation of W69 is very similar to that depicted on X-88. It measures 4.65 cm in maximum diameter. Armstrong 1914, 292; Bøe 1940, 115.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-89 Centre right, directly below X-88 None Penannular armring, small, decorated with stamped grooves and a diagonal cross. None It is not possible to identify this object, though its diminutive size suggests that it may be NMI W79(62, 479c) - an example of a broad-band armring of the type manufactured by the Hiberno-Scandinavians between c. 850 and c. 950 (Sheehan 1998,178-180). Armstrong 1914,293; Bøe 1940,117.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-90 Top of page to the right of X-86 None Penannular armring , with stamped (?) decoration. Its diameter is 6.1 cm. None Not identifiable. Probably of ethnographic origin.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-91 Right background, immediately below X-90 None Penannular armring, decorated with stamped grooves featuring triangles with raised pellets. The terminal areas seem to have been prised apart. The maximum diameter of the ring is 7cm. None This may be identified as NMI W81 (76,475c), an example of a broad-band armring of the type manufactured by the Hiberno-Scandinavians between c. 850 and c. 950 (Sheehan 1998,178-180). It measures 6 cm in diameter. Armstrong 1914,290,pl.25.3; Bøe 1940,118.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-92 Right background, immediately below X-91. None Penannular armring, decorated with stamped dumbell motifs, especially in the central area, and grooves. The maximum diameter of the object is 7.8cm. None This may be identified as NMI W78, an example of a broad-band armring of the type manufactured by the Hiberno-Scandinavians between c. 850 and c. 950 (Sheehan 1998,178-180). It measures 7.3 cm in maximum diameter. Armstrong 1914, 290, 293, pl. 25.4; Bøe 1940, 117.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-93 Centre right, directly below X-92 None Penannular armring, decorated with stamped dumbell motifs and grooves. The terminal areas seem to have been prised c. 6 cm apart. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it could be NMI W62 (51) - an example of a broad-band armring of the type manufactured by the Hiberno-Scandinavians between c. 850 and c. 950 (Sheehan 1998,178-180). The terminal areas of W62 (51) are not prised apart, though its scheme of ornamentation is very similar to that depicted on X-93. Armstrong 1914, 289, pl. 25.5; Bøe 1940, 113; Graham-Campbell 1980, 64, pl. 234.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-94 Centre right, below X-93, X-85 and X-89 None A neck-ring, in three pieces, formed from two tapered rods twisted together. One terminal is clear in the drawing and consists of a simple hook. It is c. 14.5cm in diameter. None This may be identified as W50, a neck-ring of Scandinavian character. Bøe erroneously described it twice, as separate objects, in his catalogue. Measuring 14 cm in diameter, this object is ex. Sirr Collection (No.19?). Bøe 1940, 111,122, fig.84.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-95 Centre right, in the centre of the drawing of X-94 None Portion of a plaited neck-ring, with a lozenge-shaped terminal plate. None This may be identified as W52, portion of a plaited neck-ring of Scandinavian character. Armstrong 1914, 292; Bøe 1940, 111.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-96 Centre right, immediately left of X-94 None Ingot, with a cross in relief on the upper face. It is 9cm long. Newry, Co. Down. This may be identified as NMI W3, a cross-marked ingot of Viking-age type measuring 8.9 cm in length. It is ex. Dawson Collection. In the NMI Silver Mss Register an ingot, noted as '152 Dawson Coll.?', is assigned the registration C710. It is described as being 3 1/2 inches (8.9 cm) in length and is provenanced to 'Newry'. Sheehan has suggested that this object formed part of a hoard along with W1 and W4, ingots that are provenanced to Co. Down and also derive from the Dawson Collection (1998,199). W1 also features in the Plunkett drawings (see below, X-97). Armstrong 1914, 289, pl. 25, fig.1; Bøe 1940, 107, fig. 73d.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-97 Centre right, immediately right of X-94 None Ingot, with rounded ends. It is 11.5cm in length. Co. Down This may be identified as NMI W1, an ingot of Viking-age type measuring 11.4 cm in length. It is described by Armstrong as being 'found in the county Down' (1914, 290). In the NMI Silver Mss Register an ingot, 4 1/2 inches (11.4 cm) in length, is assigned the registration C711 and is noted as being ex. Dawson Collection (No. 55). Sheehan has suggested that this object formed part of a hoard along with W3 and W4, ingots that are provenanced to 'Newry' and 'Co. Down' respectively and that also derive from the Dawson Collection (1998,199). W3 also features in the Plunkett drawings (see above, X-96). Armstrong 1914, 290,; Bøe 1940, 105-6, fig. 73c.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-98 Below and slightly to the right of X-94. None Penannular brooch. Its pin measures 18.4 cm long and the diameters of its hoop are 11.1 cm and 11.4 cm. There appears to be some engraving on the pinhead. None This is probably NMI P740, a bossed penannular brooch of the type manufactured in Ireland between c. 850 and c. 950 (Graham-Campbell 1975; Johansen 1973). There are some differences, however, in the dimensions of P740 (length of pin, 20.4 cm; diameters of hoop, 11.6 cm x 11.0 cm) and those of the drawn object. The object derives from the Petrie collection. Johansen 1973, 119 (A12).
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-99 Top right hand corner of page (right background) Co. Kildare Penannular armring, decorated with stamped grooves. The terminal areas seem to have been prised apart. Co. Kildare This may be identified. On the basis of the details of its ornamentation, as NMI W63 (52, 396c) - an example of a broad-band armring of the type manufactured by the Hiberno-Scandinavians between c. 850 and c. 950 (Sheehan 1998,178-180). Armstrong 1914, 292; Bøe 1940,114, fig. 76; Graham-Campbell 1980, 64, pl. 232.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-100 Directly below X-99, right background, at edge of page None Penannular armring, decorated with stamped grooves, with a maximum diameter of 6.7 cm. None This may be identified as NMI W65 (53, 470c), an example of a broad-band armring of the type manufactured by the Hiberno-Scandinavians between c. 850 and c. 950 (Sheehan 1998,178-180). Measuring 7 cm in maximum diameter, it derives from the Dawson Collection (No.20). Armstrong 1914, 292; Bøe 1940,115, fig. 77.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-101 Right background, directly below X-100. None Penannular armring, decorated with stamped grooves, with a maximum diameter of 7.4 cm. None This may be identified as NMI W77 (72, 471c), an example of a broad-band armring of the type manufactured by the Hiberno-Scandinavians between c. 850 and c. 950 (Sheehan 1998,178-180). Measuring 7.8 cm in maximum diameter, it derives from the Dawson Collection (No. 16). Armstrong 1914, 293; Bøe 1940,117, fig. 80.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-102 Centre, directly below X-81 None A lunulate-shaped object, perhaps lozenge-shaped in section, ending in small plates through which there are illustrations of threads. Its dimensions are 3cm x 3.3 cm. None This object has not been identified.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-103 Centre right, directly below X-101 None Armring formed of thin wire, of gold/silver (?). Its diameters are 8 cm x 9 cm. None This object has not been identified.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-104 Right foreground, immediately below X-103 None Ring, hoop formed of twisted bronze. None This may be identified as W.506. Wilde 1861, 570, fig. 477.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-105 Right foreground, immediately below X-104 None Bronze annular ring, perfectly circular, with a smaller ring loosely attached. None This object has not been identified.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-106 Right foreground, left of X-105. None Penannular bronze ring, possibly with raised ribs running the length of the band. None This object has not been identified.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-107 Right foreground, directly left of X-98 None Bronze ring. None This object has not been identified.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-108 Right foreground, immediately left of X-107 None Pin-like object, with a broad spatulate head, below which a coiled piece of wire fits through a perforation. None This may be identified as W. 308, an unusual pin c. 16.5 cm in length. Wilde 1861, 560, fig. 458.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-109 Right foreground, immediately right of X-108 None Stick-pin, with rounded head. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed by Wilde (1861, 555-56). Wilde 1861, 555-56.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-110 Centre/left foreground, immediately right of X-109 None Pin, the head of which takes the form of two thin rods that curl in the form of two hooks. None This is probably to be identified as W. 188, a pin of prehistoric type. Wilde 1861, 559.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-111 Centre foreground, immediately left of X-110 None Disc-headed pin. The disc is decorated and a ring passes through the base of the pin-head. The ring features an amber stud. None This may be identified as W. 305, a highly decorated pin. Wilde 1861, 561, fig. 549.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-112 Centre foreground, immediately left of X-111 None Bronze pin. The upper part of the shank is spiral-twisted, while the lower two-thirds are smooth. The head of the pin divides into two rods that protrude out and curl around its top at either side, to form a T-shape. The right section of this is damaged. None This object has not been identified.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-113 Centre foreground, immediately right of X-112 None Bronze 'sunflower pin', with lightly incised concentric circles on the disc. A profile of the pin is pencilled on the right of the watercolour. None This object has not been identified. It is of Late Bronze Age date (Eogan 1974).
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
X-114 Centre foreground, immediately right of X-113 None Bronze 'sunflower-pin'. None This object has not been identified. It is of Late Bronze Age date (Eogan 1974).

11. Drawing 11

Image 11 Key to image 11
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-1 Top left corner. Fig. 1, 'Funden i College Green, Dublin' Single-edged sword, with triangular pommel and straight hilt. Complete, except for a small nick in the blade just beneath the hilt. It measures 79cm long. College Green, Dublin. This is probably to be identified as NMI Wk28 (W83, 306). Ex. Sirr collection (no. 261). It is one of the finds from a small cemetery at College Green, discovered 1817-18. The caption may be translated as: Fig.1, Found in College Green, Dublin. Bøe 1940, 65.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-2 To right of XI-1. Fig. 2. College Green, Dublin Double-edged sword, with triangular pommel and straight hilt. The point of the blade is broken off. It measures 82.5cm long. College Green, Dublin. This is probably to be identified as NMI Wk 27 (W. 82, 301), the length of which was recordrd by Bøe as 2ft. 9 in. (84 cm). It is one of the finds from a small cemetery at College Green, discovered 1817-18. Ex. Sirr collection (no.260). Bøe 1940, 65.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-3 Between Figs XI-1 and XI-2, at base. Fig. 3, College Green, Dublin Socketed iron spearhead, measuring 40.5cm long. College Green Dublin This is probably to be identified as NMI Wk 10. (W56, D304). It is one of the finds from a small cemetery at College Green, discovered 1817-18. Ex.Sirr collection (no.263). Bøe 1940, 65
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-4 Left side of page, between XI-1 and XI-2 Fig. 4, College Green, Dublin Iron spearhead, in two pieces. One piece has tiny protruding pieces (rivets?). It measures 22.5cm. College Green, Dublin This is possibly to be identified as NMI Wk 26 (W. 59) a fragment of a spearhead that is listed in Bøe as 'unidentified' (and found outside Dublin). There it is described as 'a fragment of a spearhead, consisting of the greater part of the socket and a small piece of the blade. The socket keeps fragments of wood, and is adorned with at least 7 bronze rivets....' It is one of the finds from a small cemetery at College Green, discovered 1817-18. Ex. Sirr collection (no. 265). Bøe 1940, 65, 94
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-5 Bottom left corner. Fig. 5, College Green, Dublin Iron shield-boss. College Green Dublin This is probably to be identified as NMI Wk 25 (Sirr 266). It is one of the finds from a small cemetery at College Green, discovered 1817-18. Harrison, pers. comm.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-6 Left foreground, above XI-5. Fig. 6 College Green Apex button of boss. College Green, Dublin This is probably to be identified as the apex button of the shield boss NMI Wk 26 (see XI-5). It is one of the finds from a small cemetery at College Green, discovered 1817-18. Bøe 1940; Harrison, pers.comm.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-7 Between second and third sword from left. 'Dunshaughlin' Iron spearhead, socketed, with a rivet hole at the base (?). Apparently in poor condition. It measures 21.7cm long. Lagore, Co. Meath. It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of a number from Lagore crannóg, Co. Meath. It is difficult to ascertain whether it is a shouldered or a leaf-shaped spearhead (as they are divided in Hencken 1950, where seven leaf-shaped and several shouldered spearheads are classed as old finds). The 'Dunshaughlin' of the caption is taken to refer to Lagore, Co Meath. Hencken 1950, 94-98
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-8 Below XI-7 Fra Dunshaughlin Mosen, Co. Meath Iron tanged sword . It measures 35.5cm long. Lagore, Co. Meath . It is not possible to identify this object, though it does bear some resemblance one described in Hencken as an 'old find'. The caption translates as: From Dunshaughlin Bog, Co. Meath. Dunshaughlin is taken to refer to Lagore, Co Meath. Hencken 1950, 90, Fig. 25g.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-9 Third sword from base None Viking-type sword. It measures 62.8 cm in length and its point is missing. None It is not possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-10 Centre of picture, below XI-9. Dunshaughlin Socketed knife or gouge. Lagore, Co. Meath. It is not possible to identify this object, though it is similar to an object , described as a socketed iron knife, illustrated in Hencken . The 'Dunshaughlin' of the caption is taken to refer to Lagore, Co Meath. Hencken 1950, 111, fig. 44c.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-11 Below XI-10 Funden Co. Meath Iron cleaver, measuring 21.5cm long. Co. Meath This is probably to be identified as NMI Wk.5. Ex.Dawson collection (no. 285). The caption translates as: Found in Co. Meath. Stephen Harrison, pers.comm.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-12 Between XI-9 and XI-14. Dunshaughlin Iron shears or tongs, measuring 22.4cm long Lagore, Co. Meath It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be that illustrated in Hencken where it is described as an old find. The 'Dunshaughlin' of the caption is taken to refer to Lagore, Co Meath. Hencken 1950, 112, Fig. 45c.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-13 Below X-12 Floden Shannon Sword, of La Téne type. It has no pommel but the tang is intact. It measures 53.4cm long (hilt is 10.7cm long). The tip of the blade is missing. River Shannon It is not possible to identify this object Armstrong 1923, 19.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-14 Fourth sword from left, base. Cork St. Dublin Viking-type sword with flat pommel and straight hilt. The top of the blade is broken off. It measures 54.4cm long. Cork Street, Dublin. It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be NMI Wk26 (W8), which, according to Bøe, is from this location. It measures 56 cm in length. If this identification is correct, then the pommel of this sword was broken since this drawing was made. Bøe 1940, 68.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-15 Below XI-14 Dunshaughlin Bone button, circular, with central perforation. Diameter 1.65cm Lagore, Co. Meath It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of a number from this site. The 'Dunshaughlin' of the caption is taken to refer to Lagore, Co Meath. Hencken 1950.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-16 Below X-14, right of X-15 Dunshaughlin Bone button, circular, with central perforation. Diameter 1.65cm Lagore, Co. Meath It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of a number from this site. The 'Dunshaughlin' of the caption is taken to refer to Lagore, Co Meath. Hencken 1950
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-17 Below X-14, right of X-16 Dunshaughlin Bone button, circular, with central perforation. Diameter 1.65cm Lagore, Co. Meath It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of a number from this site. The 'Dunshaughlin' of the caption is taken to refer to Lagore, Co Meath. Hencken 1950.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-18 Below XI-15/17. Dunshaughlin Bone point, measuring 13.7cm long. Lagore, Co. Meath It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of a number from the site. The 'Dunshaughlin' of the caption is taken to refer to Lagore, Co Meath. Hencken 1950
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-19 Below and right of X-18. Shannon Spearhead, shouldered, lozenge-shaped blade. Blade slightly damaged. River Shannon It is not possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-20 Right of XI-15 - XI-17 Dunshaughlin Spearhead, socketed, leaf-shaped blade. Blade slightly damaged. It measures 28.8cm long. Lagore, Co. Meath This is possibly to be identified as NMI Wk42 (W44), which measures 28.5 cm in length. The 'Dunshaughlin' of the caption is taken to refer to Lagore, Co Meath. Hencken 1950, 96
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-21 Bottom, right of XI-19 Dunshaughlin Iron knife with wooden handle, measuring 22.5cm long. The handle is decorated with criss-cross pattern. Lagore, Co. Meath This is probably to be identified as NMI W15. The 'Dunshaughlin' of the caption is taken to refer to Lagore, Co Meath. Hencken 1950, 111, Fig. 44b.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-22 Top, fifth sword from left Dunshaughlin Short, two-edged, tanged sword. It measures 43cm long Lagore, Co. Meath It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be that illustrated in Hencken. The 'Dunshaughlin' of the caption is taken to refer to Lagore, Co Meath. Hencken 1950, 90 Fig. 25d.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-23 Centre right, below XI-22. Dunshaughlin Tanged object, possibly part of sword. It measures 19cm long. Lagore, Co. Meath It is not possible to identify this object. The 'Dunshaughlin' of the caption is taken to refer to Lagore, Co Meath.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-24 Immediately right of XI-22. Floden Shannon Tanged sword, La Téne in style. It measures 49.5cm long. River Shannon. It is not possible to identify this object though it is similar in appearance to NMI Wk 24. The caption may be translated as: River Shannon. Armstrong 1923, 19.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-25 Below XI-24 Shannon Iron axehead or hammerhead, with part of the wooden handle still preserved. It measures 12.5cm long while the haft is 16.4cm long. River Shannon It is not possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-26 Below XI-25 Dunshaughlin Bone disc, decorated with dot and circle motif. Gaming piece or spindle whorl? Lagore, Co. Meath It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of a number discussed in Hencken who states that there were five old finds of spindle whorls from Lagore (NMI W274-280). The 'Dunshaughlin' of the caption is taken to refer to Lagore, Co Meath. Hencken 1950, 194; Wilde 1861, 274.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-27 Below XI-26 Dunshaughlin Gaming piece. Lagore, Co. Meath It is not possible to identify this object. The 'Dunshaughlin' of the caption is taken to refer to Lagore, Co Meath.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-28 Right of XI-27. None Medieval (?) axehead, measuring 14.3cm long. None It is not possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-29 Below XI-28 . Dunshaughlin Antler tine, measuring 7.5cm long. Lagore, Co. Meath It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of those listed in Wilde, particularly one from Dunshaughlin which measures 3.125 inches (7.9cm) long and is polished at the top. The 'Dunshaughlin' of the caption is taken to refer to Lagore, Co Meath. Wilde 1861, 364.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-30 Below and slightly left of XI-29 Shannon Viking-type axehead with portion of the handle still intact. The lower end of the cutting edge is damaged. It measures 18.7cm long and the handle is 15.3cm long River Shannon This is possibly to be identified as NMI Wk 14, mentioned in Bøe 1940, 90, which is described as 'badly rusted and damaged about the eye, and at the inner-edge corner. In the eye there is a piece, about 15cm long, of the wooden handle showing the impress of the spur projections at the socket, as they once were..... provenanced to the River Shannon. Bøe 1940, 90.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-31 Left of XI-30 Shannon Iron axehead, with part of handle still attached. The cutting edge splays downwards. It measures 19cm long. River Shannon It is not possible to identify this object. A number of axeheads, however, are mentioned by Bøe as being found in the Shannon: Wk.2, Wk.58, Wk. 59 and Wk.57. Bøe 1940, 89-91.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-32 Right of XI-24 Fl. Shannon Iron sword, very short, with tang and part of the handle still attached. It measures 28.2cm long. River Shannon, near Banagher, Co. Offaly ?. It is not possible to identify this object, though it is similar to one illustrated in Armstrong (NMI Wk 18), which he provenances to 'near Banagher, Kings county'. The caption may be translated as: R. Shannon. Armstrong 1923, pl. 1, fig.5.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-33 Right of XI-32 Shannon Socketed object, chisel?. River Shannon It is not possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-34 Below XI-33 Ballinderry, Co. Westmeath Iron axehead of unusual shape, measuring 9cm long. The blade is 11.5cm wide. Ballinderry, Co. Westmeath. This is probably to be identified as that illustrated by Wakeman in Wood-Martin. The latter describes it as a 'well-preserved and interesting axe-head of iron, its cutting edge well steeled. It measures 41/2 in. at the edge, and 33/4 in. from edge to back'. Wood-Martin does not give a find-place for the object. Wood-Martin 1886, 62, pl. IX (no. 10).
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-35 Below and left of XI-34 Shannon Similar object to XI-33, probably a large socketed object. It measures 11cm long. River Shannon It is not possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-36 Below XI-34, right of XI-35 Castle St Dublin Medieval axehead . It measures 18cm long and the blade is 11.2cm wide. Castle Street, Dublin. It is not possible to identify this object.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-37 Top left bead in group to right of XI-3 None Round bead, blue. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it probably belongs to the RIA collection of glass and enamel beads. Wilde 1857, 162-169
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-38 Top right bead, in group to right of XI-3 None Oblong bead, dark in colour None It is not possible to identify this object, though it probably belongs to the RIA collection of glass and enamel beads. Wilde 1857, 162-169.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-39 Below XI-38 None Bead, dark blue with white decoration. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it probably belongs to the RIA collection of glass and enamel beads. Wilde 1857, 162-169
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-40 Left of XI-39 None Oval bead, blue with lines of white decoration None It is not possible to identify this object, though it probably belongs to the RIA collection of glass and enamel beads. Wilde 1857, 162-169
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-41 Below XI-40. None Oblong bead, blue and white in colour None It is not possible to identify this object, though it probably belongs to the RIA collection of glass and enamel beads. Wilde 1857, 162-169.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-42 Right of XI-41. None Oval bead, blue with strands of white decoration. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it probably belongs to the RIA collection of glass and enamel beads. Wilde 1857, 162-169.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-43 Right of XI-42 None Round blue bead None It is not possible to identify this object, though it probably belongs to the RIA collection of glass and enamel beads. Wilde 1857, 162-169
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-44 Below XI-43 None Small blue bead None It is not possible to identify this object, though it probably belongs to the RIA collection of glass and enamel beads. Wilde 1857, 162-169
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-45 Left of XI-44 None Very small oblong bead, blue in colour None It is not possible to identify this object, though it probably belongs to the RIA collection of glass and enamel beads. Wilde 1857, 162-169
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-46 Right of XI-45 None Large bead, hourglass shape, blue with strands of white. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it probably belongs to the RIA collection of glass and enamel beads Wilde 1857, 162-169
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-47 Below XI-46 None Dark blue bead, hourglass shape.. None It is not possible to identify this object, though it probably belongs to the RIA collection of glass and enamel beads. Wilde 1857, 162-169.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-48 Right of XI-47 None Large blue glass bead None It is not possible to identify this object, though it probably belongs to the RIA collection of glass and enamel beads. Wilde 1857, 162-169.
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-49 Right of XI-48 None Small light-blue bead, oblong None It is not possible to identify this object, though it probably belongs to the RIA collection of glass and enamel beads. Wilde 1857, 162-169
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-50 Right of the tip of XI-24 Dunshaughlin Bone pin (?),with large head, measuring 9.5cm long Lagore, Co. Meath It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of a large number in the collection. The 'Dunshaughlin' of the caption is taken to refer to Lagore, Co Meath. Wilde 1861, 333, 334, fig. 213
Item Location Annotation Description Provenance Comment References
XI-51 Right of the tip of XI-24. Dunshaughlin Bone pin, measuring 9.5cm long. Lagore, Co. Meath It is not possible to identify this object, though it may be one of a large number in the collection. The 'Dunshaughlin' of the caption is taken to refer to Lagore, Co Meath. Wilde 1861, 333, 334, fig 213

12. Drawing 12

General Caption: Alle disse Stykker fundne ved at grave Jernbanen ved Kilmainham, for ved Dublin. Der synes at have været en almindelig Begravelsesplads den for Nordboerne: Dublin.

This may be translated as: All of these pieces were found in while digging for the railway at Kilmainham, in Dublin. There seems to have been a common burial-ground for the Norsemen here.

III. Bibliography

This bibliography is organized in groups of books, chapters, journal articles, and theses. Within each section, items are sorted alphabetically by author.

Books
  1. Armstrong, E. C. R., Guide to the Collection of Irish Antiquities: Catalogue of Irish gold ornaments in the collection of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, Stationery Office (1933) .
  2. Burgess, C. S., Gerloff, S., The Dirks and Rapiers of Great Britain and Ireland, Munich, Beck (1981) .
  3. Dawson Catalogue, , Catalogue of Irish, Roman and British Antiquities in the museum of the late Dean of St. Patrick's, [Dublin], unpublished (1841) .
  4. Deevy, M. B., Medieval Ring Brooches in Ireland: A Study of Jewellery, Dress and Society, Bray, Wordwell (1998) .
  5. Eogan, E., The Hoards of the Irish Later Bronze Age, Dublin, University College (1983) .
  6. Graham-Campbell, J. A., Viking artefacts: a select catalogue, London, British Museum Publications (1980) .
  7. Graham-Campbell, J. A., The Viking-Age gold and silver of Scotland, A.D. 850-1100, Edinburgh, National Museums of Scotland (1998) .
  8. Harbison, P., The Axes of Early Bronze Age in Ireland, Munich, Beck (1969) .
  9. Kilbride-Jones, H., Zoomorphic Penannular Brooches, London, Society of Antiquaries London (1980) .
  10. Mahr, A., Christian Art in Ancient Ireland 1, Dublin, Stationery Office of Saorstát Éireann (1932) .
  11. Ó Riordáin, B. Waddell, J., The Funerary Bowls and Vases of the Irish Bronze Age, Galway, Galway University Press for the National Museum of Ireland (1993) .
  12. Ó Raifeartaigh, T., The Royal Irish Academy - A Bicentennial History 1785-1985, Dublin, The Academy (1985) .
  13. Raftery, B., A Catalogue of Irish Iron Age Antiquities, Marburg, [Philipps-Universität Marburg, Vergeschichtliche Seminar] (1983) .
  14. Raftery, B., Christian Art in Ancient Ireland 2, Dublin, Stationery Office of Ireland (1941) .
  15. Stenberger, M., Die Schatzfunde Gotlands der Wikingerzeit, Lund, Hakan Ohlssons boktryckeri (1947) .
  16. Youngs, S., 'The Work of Angels': masterpieces of Celtic metalwork, 6th-9th centuries A.D., London, British Museum Publications (1989) .
  17. Wilde, W. R., A descriptive catalogue of the antiquities of stone, earthen, vegetable, and animal materials in the museum of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, M. H. Gill (1857) .
  18. Wilde, W. R., A descriptive catalogue of the antiquities of animal material and bronze in the museum of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, Hodges & Smith (1861) .
Chapters
  1. Bøe, J., , ‘Norse antiquities in Ireland’. In Shetelig, H., Viking Antiquities in Great Britain and Ireland, part 3, Oslo, H. Aschehoug & Co. (1940) .
  2. Graham-Campbell, J. A., , ‘The Viking-age silver hoards of Ireland’. In Almqvist, B. Greene, D., Proceedings of the Seventh Viking Congress, Dublin 1973, [London], distributed by the Viking Society for Northern Research 39-74 (1976) .
  3. Graham-Campbell, J. A., , ‘Some Viking-age penannular brooches from Scotland and the origins of the 'thistle-brooch'’. In O'Connor, A. Clarke, D. V., From the Stone Age to the 'Forty-Five: studies presented to R. B. K. Stephenson, Edinburgh, J. Donald 310-23 (1983) .
  4. Halpin, A., , ‘Irish medieval bronze maceheads’. In Wallace, P. F. Mac Niocaill, G., Keimelia: studies in medieval history and archaeology in memory of Tom Delaney, [Galway], Galway University Press 168-92 (1988) .
  5. Raftery, B., , ‘Knobbed spearheads of the Irish iron age’. In Scott, B. G., Studies on early Ireland: essays in honour of M. V. Duignan, [Dublin], [s.n.] , Papers presented at the Association of Young Irish Archaeologists 11th Annual Seminar at Queen's University Belfast, November 28-30 1980 (1982) .
  6. Ramsey, G., , ‘Middle Bronze Age metalwork: are artefact studies dead and buried?’. In Waddell, J. Twohig, E. S., Ireland in the Bronze Age: Proceedings of the Dublin Conference April 1995, Dublin, The Stationery Office 49-62 (1995) .
  7. Sheehan, J., , ‘Early Viking age silver hoards from Ireland and their Scandinavian elements’. In Clarke, H. B. Ní Mhaonaigh, Máire Ó Floinn, Raghnall, Ireland and Scandinavia in the early Viking Age, Blackrock, Four Courts Press 166-202 (1998) .
  8. Woodman, Peter, , ‘Towards a definition of the Irish early Neolithic assemblages’. In Ashton, N. David, A., Stories in Stone, London, Lithic Studies Society 213-18, Lithic Studies Occasional Paper 4 (1994) .
Journal articles
  1. Armstrong, E. C. R., , ‘Catalogue of the silver and ecclesiastical antiquities in the collection of the Royal Irish Academy by the late Sir William Wilde, MRIA’. In Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (1914) 32 C, 287-312.
  2. Armstrong, E. C. R., , ‘The La Tène Period in Ireland’. In Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries (1923) 53, 1-33.
  3. Briggs, C., , ‘Dealing with Antiquities in Nineteenth-Century Dublin’. In Dublin Historical Record (1978) 31, 146-8.
  4. Briggs, C., , ‘James Underwood: First Dealer in Irish Antiquities’. In Dublin Historical Record (1979) 33, 25-36.
  5. Briggs, C. S. Sheehan, J., , ‘A hoard of dispersed Viking-age armrings from the Liffeyside, Co. Dublin’. In The Antiquaries Journal (1987) 67, 351-52.
  6. Cahill, M., , ‘Unspooling the Mystery’. In Archaeology Ireland (2001) 15, 3, 8-16.
  7. Coffey, P., , ‘George Victor Du Noyer’. In Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries (1993) 123, 102-20.
  8. Coghlan, H. H., , ‘Some Perforated Stone Hammers in the Collections of the National Museum, Dublin’. In Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries (1945) 75, 224-47.
  9. Coles, J., , ‘Scottish Middle Bronze Age Metalwork’. In Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (1964) 97, 82-156.
  10. Coles, J., , ‘Irish Bronze Age Horns’. In Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society (1963) 29, 82-156.
  11. Coles, J. S. Heal, S. V. E. Orme, B. J., , ‘The use and character of wood in prehistoric Britain and Ireland’. In Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society (1978) 44, 1-47.
  12. Eogan, G., , ‘The later Bronze Age in Ireland in the light of recent research’. In Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society (1964) 30, 268-351.
  13. Eogan, G., , ‘Pins of the Late Bronze Age’. In Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries (1974) 104, 74-119.
  14. Eogan, G., , ‘Irish Antiquities of the Bronze Age, Iron Age and Early Christian period in the National Museum of Denmark’. In Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (1991) 91 C, 133-76.
  15. Graham-Campbell, J. A., , ‘Bossed penannular brooches: a review of recent research’. In Medieval Archaeology (1975) 19, 33-47.
  16. Johansen, O., , ‘Bossed penannular brooches: a systematisation and study of their cultural affinities’. In Acta Archaeologia (1973) 44, 63-124.
  17. Hencken, H., , ‘Lagore Crannog: an Irish royal residence of the 7th to 10th centuries’. In Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (1950) 53 C, 1-248.
  18. Herity, M., , ‘Irish Antiquarian Finds of the Nineteenth Century’. In Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland (1969) 99, 21-37.
  19. Hodges, H. W. M., , ‘Studies in the Late Bronze Age in Ireland, 2: the typology and distribution of bronze implements’. In Ulster Journal of Archaeology (1956) 19, 29-56.
  20. MacWhite, E., , ‘Irish Bronze Age Trumpets’. In Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland (1945) 75, 101-106.
  21. O'Brien, E., , ‘A reassessment of the 'Great Sepulchral Mound' containing a Viking burial at Donnybrook, Dublin’. In Medieval Archaeology (1992) 36, 170-3.
  22. Sheehan, J., , ‘Coiled armrings - an Hiberno-Viking silver armring type’. In Journal of Irish Archaeology (1992) 6, 41-53.
  23. Simpson, D. D. A., , ‘The Stone Maceheads of Ireland’. In Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland (1988) 118, 27-52.
  24. Simpson, D. D. A., , ‘The Stone Maceheads of Ireland, II’. In Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland (1988) 119, 113-26.
  25. Simpson, D. D. A., , ‘The Stone Battle Axes of Ireland’. In Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland (1990) 120, 5-40.
  26. Simpson, D. D. A., , ‘Irish Axe Hammers’. In Ulster Journal of Archaeology (1990a) 53, 50-6.
  27. Smith, , , ‘Irish Serpentine Latchets’. In Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (1895-96) 30, 120-3.
Theses
  1. Harrison, S. H., Viking Age Shield Bosses in Dublin and the Irish Sea Area MA, University College Cork (1995) Unpublished thesis, Department of Archaeology, UCC.
  2. Sheehan, J., Viking Age Silver Armrings from Ireland MA, University College Galway (1984) MA thesis, National University of Ireland Galway.