CELT document T100011

Annála Connacht

Unknown author


The Annals of Connacht

  1. 1224 First of January on Monday and the seventh day of the moon; and this was the ninth year of the Cycle of Nineteen and the twelfth year of the Cycle of Indiction and of the Solar Cycle, and Leap-year. The twelve hundred and twenty-fourth year since the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ.

  2. A heavy and terrible shower fell in part of Connacht this year, that is, in Tir Maine and in Sodain and in Ui Diarmata and in Clann Taidc, which brought about disease and very great sickness among the cows and beasts of those regions after they had eaten grass and leaves; and when men drank of the milk of these cattle and ate of their flesh, they suffered internal pains and various diseases. Nor was it strange that these portentous things should happen in Connacht at that time, for a great affliction befell the country then, the loss of Cathal Crobderg son of Toirrdelbach O Conchobair, king of Connacht; the king most feared and dreaded on every hand in Ireland; the king who carried out most plunderings and burnings against Galls and Gaels who opposed him; the king who was the fiercest and harshest towards his enemies that ever lived; the king who most blinded, killed and mutilated rebellious and disaffected subjects; the king who best established peace and tranquility of all the kings of Ireland; the king who built most monasteries and houses for religious communities; the king who most comforted clerks and poor men with food and fire on the floor of his own habitation; the king whom of all the kings in Ireland God made most perfect in every good quality; the king on whom God most bestowed fruit and increase and crops; the king who was most chaste of all the kings of Ireland; the king who kept himself to one consort and practised continence before God from her death till his own; the king whose wealth was partaken by laymen and clerics, infirm men, women and helpless folk, as had been prophesied in the writings and the visions of saints and righteous men of  p.5 old; the king who suffered most mischances in his reign, but God raised him up from each in turn; the king who with manly valour and by the strength of his hand preserved his kingship and rule. And it is in the time of this king that tithes were first levied for God in Ireland. This righteous and upright king, this prudent, pious, just champion, died in the robe of a Grey Monk, after a victory over the world and the devil, in the monastery of Knockmoy, which with the land belonging to it he had himself offered to God and the monks, on the twenty-seventh day of May as regards the solar month and on a Monday as regards the week-day, and was nobly and honourably buried, having been for six and thirty years sole monarch of the province of Connacht. So says Donnchad Baccach O Maelchonaire in his poem on the Succession of the Kings: “The reign of Red-hand was a pleasant reign, after the fall of Cathal Carrach; he ruled for sixteen and twenty prosperous calm years.” And he was in the seventy-second year of his age, as the poet Nede O Maelchonaire says: “Three years and a half-year, I say, was the life of Red-hand in Cruachu till the time that his father died in wide-stretching Ireland.” He was born at Port Locha Mesca and fostered by Tadc O Con Chennainn in Ui Diarmata, and it was sixty-eight years from the death of Toirrdelbach to the death of Cathal Crobderg, as the chronicle shows.

  3. Aed O Conchobair his son reigned after him; for he had been king in effect by the side of his father and already held all the hostages of Connacht. And God granted him this kingdom, for no crime was committed in Connacht at the moment of his accession save one robbery on the road to Cruach, and the hands and feet of the robber were cut off, and the violation of one woman by O Mannachan's son, who was blinded forthwith for the offence.

  4. Donn Cathaig son of Airechtach O Raduib, chieftain of Clann Tomaltaig, died on pilgrimage at Tobar Patraic this year.

  5. Maelsechlainn son of Tadc O Cellaig, king of Ui Maine, [died.]

  6. Gilla na Naem Crom (the Stooped) O Sechnusaig, king of the western half of Cenel Aeda na hEchtge, died this year.

  7.  p.7
  8. The Canon Muirges O Conchobair, son of Ruaidri, the man of all the Gaels that ever were who was most skilled alike in literature and chanting and verse-making, died this year and was buried at Cong after a victory of Unction and Penance.

  9. Domnall O Cellaig king of Ui Maine died.

  10. Cu Chenann O Con Chenainn died this year.

  11. Mathgamain O Cerin king of Ciarraige Locha na nAirne died this year.

  12. Mael Isu son of the bishop O Mailfagmair, parson of Ui Fiachrach [Muaide] and Ui Amalgaid and bishop designate, was killed by the son of Donnchad O Dubda, after he had been sharing his food and fireside in his own house; and this, the slaying of a bishop of that race, is a deed which no other O Dubda had ever done before.

  13. Aed son of Conchobar Maenmaige [O Conchobair] died on his journey from the River and Jerusalem this year.

  14. The sons of Hugo [de Lacy] came to Ireland in spite of the King of England, and their coming produced assaults of war and dispersion among the Galls of Ireland, until these rose up against them and they were driven to seek the protection of Aed O Neill king of Ailech. Then the Galls and Gaels of Ireland raised an army to attack them: Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg king of Connacht, Donnchad Cairbrech O Briain king of Thomond, Diarmait Cluasach (Long-eared) Mac Carthaig king of Desmond and the leading men of Ireland generally, except the Cenel Eogain and Cenel Conaill. They advanced as far as Muirthemne and Dundalk and from that position demanded hostages and sureties from the sons of Hugo and Aed O Neill. But he moved out with his Galls and Gaels, and they posted themselves in parties on the passes of Sliab Fuaid and the doorways of Emain and Fid Conaille and challenged attack in these positions. But the Galls of Ireland, when they saw they were to have protection, determined to make peace and settlement with William [de Lacy] and the Earls and to accept the award of the King of England as to the conditions of peace: so they disbanded and left their positions without having extracted terms or tribute from Aed O Neill for the nonce.

  15. Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg marched with a great force to the castle of Ard Abla in Tethba. They prevailed against it, burning and slaying every Gall and Gael they found therein.

  16.  p.9
  17. Maelmuire O Connmaig, bishop of Ui Fiachrach and Cenel Aeda, rested in Christ.

  18. The bishop of Conmaicne, the Foreign Bishop, died.

  19. Maelchoimgin O Scingin, erenach and chaplain of Ardcarne, rested in Christ.

  1. 1225 First of January on Wednesday and the eighteenth day of the moon, MCCXXV. Tenth year of the Cycle of Nineteen; thirteenth year of the Indictional and Solar Cycles.

  2. Amlaib O Beollain, erenach of Drumcliff, a man eminent for generosity and for his guest-house, died this year.

  3. O Mailbrenainn, abbot of the monastery of Boyle, died of blood-letting.

  4. A great rebellion was raised by Toirrdelbach and Aed, sons of Ruaidri [O Conchobair], and Aed O Neill, to wrest the kingship of the province from Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg. This was done at the instance of Donn Oc MacAirechtaig, royal chieftain of Sil Murray, who wished to revenge himself for the confiscation of his land and patrimony; and when he revolted the whole of Connacht revolted—Sil Murray and West Connacht with Aed O Flaithbertaig its king—excepting only Mac Diarmata, Cormac son of Tomaltach.

  5. However, O Neill came with them to the middle of Sil Murray and thence to the Faes of Athlone, and they spent two nights at Mullach Uainide and sacked Loch Nen, carrying off the treasures of O Conchobair. Thence they proceeded to Carnfree and there instated Toirrdelbach son of Ruaidri. After this O Neill departed homewards; for the sons of Ruaidri felt confidence in their own lieges, having been asked to come into the country by each one separately, except Cormac son of Tomaltach Mac Diarmata with Dauid O Flainn and the rest of his officers.

  6. As for Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg, he sought the protection of the Galls, and it happened fortunately for him that the Galls of Ireland were holding a great Court at Athlone; and each one of them was a friend to him on his father's account as well as his own, since he, like his father before him, was liberal of wages and gifts to them.

  7.  p.11
  8. So he brought with him the Justiciar and as many of the Galls of Ireland as he thought enough; and Donnchad Cairbrech O Briain with his followers came out to support him, and O Mailsechlainn with his.

  9. Thereupon the people of Mag Ai and the Tuatha fled before them into Leyney and Tirawley with their cattle, and left Ruaidri's sons without any army or territorial levy, accompanied by no eligible princes or chieftains of these districts, but only grooms and servants. Ruaidri's sons advanced to Kilkelly with a small force and a few eligible princes, so as to cover the rear of their cows and herds.

  10. However, Cathal Crobderg's son and his Galls moved towards the position held by Toirrdelbach and his chieftains, who had only grooms and rabble with them; for Aed son of Ruaidri and the son of Muirchertach and Domnall O Flaithbertaig and Tigernan son of Cathal Micuran and the sons of Toirrdelbach son of Ruaidri had gone to guard the cattle and people of Fergal O Taidc, their sworn ally. Now his case was this, that he was the first Connachtman who broke his oath with the sons of Ruaidri, and he brought in [Aed] mac Cathail [Chrobdeirg] and his Galls to protect his cattle and people from them.

  11. It was at this time that the Galls approached Toirrdelbach son of Ruaidri. He rose up with his chieftains, and putting their rabble in front they escaped beautifully, not one of themselves being killed; for Donn Oc Mac Airechtaig, Flaithbertach O Flannacan and a small number of the forces of Cenel Eogain covered their rear.

  12. On that day a raiding-party came upon Echmarcach Mac Branain and a few of his followers, in the middle of an oak-wood, surrounded by his womenfolk and cattle. This man fought with uncommon valour until he was killed, but there were too many good men falling upon him. That night Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg with his Galls followed the sons of Ruaidri as far as Mellick, and stayed there for three nights plundering Leyney on every hand.

  13. Unfortunate was the plight of O hEgra then, making peace with the plunderers for the sake of what little was left to the people of Leyney. At that time Ruaidri's sons lay with their backs turned to Loch Mac Eredaig in Glenn na Mochart, and Cathal Crobderg's son determined to lead his Galls to  p.13 follow up the cattle of the Tuatha, of Sil Murray and Clann Tomaltaig by a way that none thought a Gall would ever take, namely through Fid Gatlaig; and they reached Attymas untouched by spear or dart. They plundered Coolcarney and wrought destruction on its cattle and folk on that day, for as many of them as reached the level plains without being drowned were plundered and slain. A pitiful thing: all who went to Ballycong were drowned, and the weirs (?) were found to have their wattles full of drowned children. Some of the refugees of Clann Tomaltaig who evaded the Galls and escaped drowning went into Tirawley, where O Dubda fell upon them and left them without a single cow.

  14. Now as to the sons of Ruaidri, they decided while at Loch Mac Feradaig to disband until the Galls of [Aed] mac Cathail Chrobdeirg should disband; they themselves, Toirrdelbach and Aed, with the son of Magnus, and Donn Oc to seek the protection of O Flaithbertaig, their sworn ally, while the son of Muirchertach [Muimnech] O Conchobair and Tigernach son of Cathal [Micuran O Conchobair] should go to protect their cows and folk and to make peace for the sake of these, until the Galls of the son of Cathal Crobderg should be disbanded.

  15. Now as for the southern part of Connacht, its people were no more peaceful or quiet. For the Galls of Leinster and Munster and Muirchertach O Briain came [against them] as did the Galls of Desmond and the Sheriff of Cork, plundering and killing everyone they came up with. And Cathal Crobderg's son took it ill of them that they invaded the country; for he had not sent for them, but when they heard of all the booty which the Justiciar and his Galls had got they were seized with jealousy and envy. It was in this attack that the four sons of Mac Murchada were killed on one spot. Pitiful indeed was the tempest which God permitted to descend upon the best province of Ireland, north, south, east or west. For the young warrior would not forbear, if only he were the stronger, to plunder his comrade, while women and children, feeble folk and lords' sons were brought to suffer cold and hunger through this war.

  16. But to return to Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg. He proceeded to Mayo, where the sons of Muirchertach Muimnech made submission to him under protection and guarantees, in order to preserve their cattle and people. Next day he went to Kilmaine  p.15 and here the three armies of Galls met, and between them and the Gaels the whole province was well-nigh filled with armies.

  17. Here Aed O Flaithbertaig came in and submitted to Cathal Crobderg's son and the Justiciar, subject to conditions and upon the guarantees of the chief Galls and of Donnchad Cairbrech O Briain, his gossip, and made peace with them, he being allowed to retain his cattle and people and undertaking to send away Ruaidri's sons. Cathal Crobderg's son with his Galls went to Tuaim, where he dismissed the Leinster and Desmond Galls, reserving to himself the task of escorting the Justiciar past Athlone. Then he took another decision, to turn back towards O Flaithbertaig; for he mistrusted the situation in which he had left him, having Ruaidri's sons with him to the west of the Lake and his own son-in-law, Donn Oc as well. At this juncture the son of Magnus parted from the sons of Ruaidri and went into Tirawley to look for his cattle and people. He found them in good case, not having suffered plunder or robbery, and carried them away and left them in the safekeeping of O Ruairc, while he himself made a most successful raid on Pilip Mac Gosdelb. Now as for Donnchad Cairbrech O Briain, he sent the chief men of his people and his officers before him with great and rich booty of food and clothing and spoil of cows and horses.

  18. At this moment Aed mac Ruaidri and Eogan O hEdin with a few good men crossed their path, and the Munstermen for fear of the High-king's son, did not stand their ground; but he prevailed against them and captured the officers of Donnchad Cairbrech [O Briain], and vast was the booty which fell into his hands. Donnchad Cairbrech then submitted to his term of peace and made oath, under pain of excommunication, undertaking not to march against Ruaidri's sons again. This undertaking he gave to obtain the liberty of his officers, and he did not fulfil it, for he joined the very next expedition against the sons of Ruaidri. By this time Cathal Crobderg's son and the Justiciar reached Iniscraff Strand, after the Galls of Leinster and Desmond and Munster had left them, and O Flaithbertaig was obliged to give Iniscraff and Castlekirk Island and all the vessels on the lake as further pledges in return for the recovery of his cows and people.

  19. Cathal Crobderg's son returned once more to Tuaim and proceeded again to escort the Justiciar, who left with him a few of the principal Galls and a large force of soldiers, for  p.17 he trusted but very few of the men of Connacht. He then delivered the chief men of the lordship—Flaithbertach O Flannacain, Fergal O Taidc and a number of others—into the hands of the Galls as security for the payment of their wages, and these prisoners had to provide their own ransom.

  20. After his Galls had left Aed mac Chthail Chrobdeirg, O Flaithbertaig and the sons of Muirchertach [Muimnech] with other eligible princes rose up again to join Ruaidri's sons, and Cathal's son sent messengers and writings to the Galls, telling them of this second revolt and asking for more troops. They responded with alacrity, for these expeditions were profitable to the Galls, who got much booty thereby, though not incurring the dangers of the confiict.

  21. Galls from Leinster were given to him this time, including William Cras and the Fitz Griffin, a great company; and when they had come he marched against Ruaidri's sons, going westwards over the Causeways and turning south into Ui Diarmata, where he heard Ruaidri's sons were, without followers and not yet rejoined by their allies. He now sent Fedlimid his brother and some of his principal men, with a large force of the soldiery of the Galls, to raid Eogan O hEdin in Ui Fiachrach Aidni. They encamped for a night at Ardrahan, so as to make the raid early in the morning.

  22. O Flaithbertaig and the sons of Muirchertach were on their way to join Ruaidri's sons when they heard that Galls were going to raid Eogan, their sworn ally, and were at present in Ardrahan. They decided to make for Ardrahan and to attack the Galls early in the morning and burn the place about their ears. They marched all night and were early on the green at Ardrahan.

  23. They then decided to send Tuathal son of Muirchertach Muimnech into the town at first with his Galls and whoever of the Gaels should volunteer to go with him, while O Flaithbertaig and the son of Muirchertach should encircle the town on the outside.

  24.  p.19
  25. Bravely then was the town entered, the Gael who answered the call to go with Tuathal being Taichlech son of Aed O Dubda. And when they entered the town, quickly and boldly, the Galls fled out of it both east and west, and those who went east were routed; but those who were defeated and fled westwards inflicted defeat on such Gaels as were without at the back of the town. Yet there were no more valiant Gaels than those who were defeated on the western side, only God did not grant them success.

  26. The party which fled east was pursued by Tuathal and Taichlech O Dubda, and the Constable of the Galls was first wounded by Tuathal and then slain by Taichlech. It was great good-fortune for Ruairdri's sons not to be in this defeat. In this western battle were killed Mathgamain son of Aed son of Conchobar Maenmuige [O Conchobair] and the son of Gilla Crist Mac Diarmata and the son of Amlaib Mac Airechtaig's son and Niall son of Fergal O Taidc; and the man who slew Niall was himself slain, namely the brother of Cuilen O Dimusaig.

  27. Next day Ruaidri's sons met with O Flaithbertaig and the sons of Muirchertach and Tigernan son of Cathal [Micuran O Conchobair] and Donn Oc, and they all proceeded northwards to Druim Cenannain. But then Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg with his Galls came after them, and they decided that each one should return to his cattle and people and leave the sons of Ruaidri. Ruaidri's sons departed out of the country, having no Galls or other following at hand, and together with Donn Oc they once more sought the protection of Aed O Neill, this expedition having resulted in nothing but the wasting and ruining of a countryside which before had been completely peaceful and prosperous.

  28. As for Cathal's son [Aed], he advanced upon O Flaithbertaig and exacted hostages and sureties from him for the nonce, and then went on northwards to Kilmaine and Mayo, where the sons of Muirchertach and Tigernan son of Cathal Micuran concluded a peace for the sake of their cattle and people, making submission to Cathal Crodberg's son under the guarantees of Donnchad Cairbrech and the chief Galls of Ireland. And this was a much-needed rest, for there was not a church or layproperty in Connacht which had escaped destruction.

  29. After the plunderings and the slaughter of men and beasts and the exposure of the inhabitants to cold and hunger, a severe attack of sickness came upon the countryside, a kind  p.21 of fever, which emptied towns of every living soul; and though some who took this sickness did recover, they were but a few.

  30. Flann son of Amlaib O Fallamain, chieftain of Clann Uatach, was killed in this war by Fedlim son of Cathal Crobderg.

  31. Amlaib son of Ferchar O Fallamain, the best chieftain of his hereditary estate that ever was, died in the same month in which Flann his son was killed.

  32. Tadc O Finnachta, an officer of Aed son of Ruaidri [O Conchobair] was killed by Mac Aedacan's men on a plundering raid in this same war.

  33. Muiredach O Finnachta, chieftain of Clann Murthaile, died in a boat on Loch Corrib, though in good health when he entered it.

  34. Conchobar the son of Tadc O Cellaig's son, king of Ui Maine, and Ardgal his brother were both burned in a house they were defending against the sons of Tadc O Cellaig. This Conchobar was the most generous man and the boldest, maintained the most retainers and won the most fame, of any of his stock.

  35. Gilla Corpti O Mugroin died this year and was buried at Cong.

  36. Moelbrigte O Maicin, abbot of Ballintober, a virgin and sage, rested in Christ. By him the church of Ballintober was begun, and its sanctuary and crosses(?) finished with great labour, in honour of Patrick, Mary our Lady, John and the Apostles.

  37. Duarcan O hEgra king of Leyney, Tadc O hEgra and Etain daughter of Diarmait son of Domnall O hEgra died.

  38. Galls and Munstermen attacked Termon Keelin and the Galls were slaughtered afterwards by the miraculous power of Coelainn.

  39. The corn was being reaped after St. Bridget's Day and plowing [was going on] at the same time.

  1. 1226 First of January on Thursday and the twenty-ninth day of the moon's age; and this was the eleventh year of the Cycle of Nineteen and the fourteenth of the Solar and Indictional Cycles. MCCXXVI. D.

  2.  p.23
  3. Tigernan son of Cathal Micuran son of Toirrdelbach Mor King of Ireland, was slain by Donnchad O Dubda and his sons. This was the most generous and valiant of the eligible princes of the O Connors and he that performed the most notable and successful exploits down to this time.

  4. Domnall son of Ruaidri O Flaithbertaig was killed by the sons of Muirchertach O Flaithbertaig after the house in which he was had been taken by them and by Fedlimid son of Cathal Crobderg. A pitiful deed was that, to kill a possible king of West Connacht and gain no land and no patrimony thereby.

  5. Fergal O Taidc of the Household, ruler of the household of Cathal Crobderg and his son after him, a man of great fortune and the slayer of many people, was killed by Donn Sleibe O Gadra king of Sliab Luga.

  6. Aed son of Donn O Sochlachain, erenagh of Cong, a man eminent for chanting and for the right tuning of harps and for having made an instrument for himself which none had made before, distinguished also in every art such as poetry, engraving and writing and in every skilled occupation, died this year.

  7. Nuala daughter of Ruaidri O Conchobair, queen of the Ulaid, died at Cong and was buried with great honour in the Canons' church there.

  8. Aed son of Domnall O Ruairc was killed by Cathal O Raigillig and by Conchobar son of Cormac O Mailruanaid on Loch Allen.

  9. Aed O Flaithbertaig was captured by Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg and handed over by him to the Galls.

  10. Condmach O Tarpa bishop of Leyney rested in Christ.

  11. Matha O Mailmocherge rested in Christ.

  12. Muirgius Mac Diarmata was killed this year.

  13. O Neill raised an army and marched to the borders of Connacht, but returned having accomplished nothing. He assembled another army and took the hostages of Cenel Conaill, including the son of O Domnaill.

  14. The castle of Kilmore was burned by Cathal O Raigillig this year.

  15. Toirrdelbach son of Maelsechlainn died.

  1. 1227 First of January on Friday and the tenth day of the moon. The twelfth year of the Cycle of Nineteen and the fifteenth year of the Indiction and of the Solar Cycle. A.D. MCCXXVII. Common year C.

  2. A great court was held by the Galls of Ireland at Dublin and Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg King of Connacht was summoned to attend it. Here deceit and treachery were practised against him; but William Marshall, his personal friend, with his followers came to him in the midst of the court and forcibly brought him out and escorted him in safety to his own country.

  3. After this Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg appointed to meet William de Mareys, the son of Geoffrey, at Lathach Caich Tuaithbil, and went himself past the Lathach accompanied only by a few good men: Cormac son of Tomaltach [Mac Diarmata], Diarmait son of Magnus, Magnus son of Muirchertach O Conchobair, Tadc son of Mathgamain O Cerin and Ruaidri O Mailbrenainn. William de Mareys came to that meeting place with a party of eight horsemen. Aed remembered the treachery and the deceit practised on him in Dublin. He advanced, before the Galls had dismounted, and lifted up his hand against William de Mareys, being supported boldly and bravely by his men, so that William de Mareys was taken there, as were Master Sleviny and Hugo Arden; and he killed the Constable of Athlone there and sent those Galls southwards across the Lathach. Then he, together with such Connactmen as were with him, advanced [to Athlone] where they plundered and burned down the market. Now these doings were of profit to the whole of Connacht, for he recovered his son and daughter and the hostages of Connacht and obtained peace for the whole province.

  4. Donn Sleibhe O Gadra king of Sliab Luga was killed by Gilla Ruad, his own brother's son, who captured the house in which he was at night. And O Conchobair at once procured the killing of Gilla Ruad therefor.

  5. [Cormac] son of Art [O Mailsechlainn] was captured, as well as his wife and foster-father and many of his people.

  6.  p.27
  7. Famine throughout Ireland this year, and much sickness and death among men from various causes: cold, famine and every kind of disease.

  8. Lewis King of the French died this year.

  9. Mac William [Burke] marched with a large force into Connacht, accompanied by Aed son of Ruaidri O Conchobair. They burned Inishmaine, plundered the whole country and took hostages.

  10. Geoffrey de Mareys and Toirrdelbach son of Ruaidri [O Conchobair] marched to Mag nAi; they made a castle at Randoon and took hostages of the Sil Murray.

  11. Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg went to O Domnaill in Tir Conaill. He returned south and brought away his wife. The sons of Toirrdelbach [O Conchobair] came upon him in the Curlew Hills and he left his wife and horses behind. The wife was afterwards delivered up to the Galls.

  12. Toirrdelbach son of Ruaidri led another expedition, with the Galls of Meath, into West Connacht, where they made a great raid on Aed son of Ruaidri O Flaithbertaig. From there they passed into Carra and took thence the hostages of the sons of Muirchertach [Muimnech] and Toirrdelbach took a number of beasts from each of the surrounding cantrads.

  13. Cu Mara O Domnallain was killed in captivity by Ruaidri Mac Duinn Sleibe to avenge his father, when he had taken the Cross.

  14. Brian son of Conchobar O Diarmata was killed this year.

  15. Dionysius O Morda took the cross from the Bishop of Elphin.

  16. The castle at Athleague was built by Geoffrey de Mareys.

  1. 1228 First of January on Saturday and the twenty-first day of the moon; the thirteenth year of the Cycle of Nineteen and the sixteenth year of the Solar Cycle; first year of, the Indiction; MCCXXVIII. Common year. BA.

  2. Aed son of Cathal Crobderg O Conchobair, King of Connacht  p.29 for the space of four years, as the poet, Donnchad Baccach son of Tanaide O Mailchonaire, says: “Rathcroghan of the battles, dwelling of Eochu's daughter, was for four years—here is no deceit—the dwelling of Aed son of Cathal Crobderg”, was killed with one blow of a carpenter's axe in the court of Geoffrey de Mareys while the carpenter's wife was bathing him; and the man who struck him down was hanged by Geoffrey the next day. This deed of treachery was done on this righteous, excellent prince at the instigation of Hugo de Lacy's sons and of William son of the Justiciar. And it was said that the carpenter struck him in jealousy, for there was not in Ireland a man of fairer mould or livelier courage than he.

  3. Vast war arose between Aed and Toirrdelbach, the two sons of Ruaidri O Conchobair, after the death of Aed mac Cathail Chrodbeirg, for the younger did not yield respect to the elder; so that all Connacht was ruined between them and turned into a continuous desert from Ballysadare southward to the River of the Ui Fiachrach, excepting only a small tract in Sliab Luga and Lucht Artig.

  4. Richard son of William Burke arrived from England, bringing with him his appointment as Justiciar by the King; and a great assembly was convened by the Galls of Ireland and the Gaels, including the kings and chieftains of Ireland, in Connacht about the two sons of Ruaidri, Toirrdelbach and Aed. Most unfortunate was the decision they came to there, to give the kingship to the younger and to expel the elder, Toirrdelbach son of Ruaidri, though he was irreproachable as regards valour, nobility and generosity. However, all the Connachtmen elected Aed son of Ruaidri in the presence of Galls and Gaels; and when they had reached the assembly he and the men of Connacht made for Carnfree, where he was installed, as was customary with every king who had ruled over Connacht before him.

  5. Now while this assembly was in session Toirrdelbach's two sons, Maelsechlainn and Brian, gathered much cattle and folk and carried them into the waste land of Kinel Dofa and over  p.31 its moors till they came to Snam Rathine, where they crossed over into Fid Conmaicne.

  6. But Aed son of Ruaidri, as he was situated, sent musters in pursuit of them and took the cattle from them and routed them, and Maelsechlainn son of Toirrdelbach was killed in that encounter.

  7. Dauid O Flainn chieftain of Sil Mailruain died after taking the Cross this year.

  8. Muirchertach son of Flaithbertach O Flannacain was killed by the sons of Tadc O Gadra.

  9. Gilla na Naem son of Ruaidri died.

  10. Henry of London, Archbishop of Dublin, rested in Christ.

  11. Ruaidri O Mailbrenainn died this year.

  12. Niall son of Congalach O Ruairc, king of Dartry and Clann Fermaige, was killed by the two sons of Art son of Domnall O Ruairc, Art and Amlaib; and Amlaib Gerr (the Short), son of Niall son of Congalach, was killed in his bath by the same Amlaib son of Art.

  13. Fergal son of Sitrec O Ruairc was killed by the sons of [Niall son of] Congalach O Ruairc.

  14. Mac Raith O Mallachta rested.

  15. Aed son of Donnchad O Fergail was killed by the son of Amlaib O Fergail.

  16. Famine in Connacht this year, and its churches and lay properties were plundered and its clerics and men of skill driven to far foreign regions, having been exposed to cold and hunger through the war of Ruaidri's sons at this time.

  1. 1229 First of January on Monday and the second day of the moon; fourteenth year of the Cycle of Nineteen: seventeenth year of the Solar Cycle and second of the Indiction.

  2. Gilla Isu O Clerig, bishop of Leyney, rested in Christ.

  3. Gilla an Choimded O Duillennain, coarb of St. Fechin, and Muiredach O Gormgaile, prior of Inis Mac nErin, died.

  4. Duibessa daughter of Ruaidri O Conchobair, wife of Cathal Mac Diarmata, died a nun.

  5.  p.33
  6. Dionysius O Morda, bishop of Sil Murray, resigned his bishopric this year.

  7. Diarmait Mac Carthaig, king of Desmond, died.

  8. Gerald O Cathain, the most learned man in the Order of Canons, rested in Christ.

  9. Diarmait O Fiaich, abbot of Recles Gilla Molaise Ui Gillaurain, from Tuaim, rested in Christ and was buried at Ardcarne.

  10. Diarmait Mac Gilla Carthaig, erenach of Tibohine, archipresbiter, and the person most conspicuous for charity and humanity in this part of Connacht, rested in Christ. And it was about the burial of this man's body that there arose the strife and contention between the monks of Boyle and the canons of the Trinity, so that it lay for two days and nights in the church of Drum, the monks preventing its burial, till at the end of the third day it was equitably taken from them.

  11. Lochlainn O Manachan was treacherously killed by his own father's brother.

  1. 1230 First of January on Tuesday and the thirteenth day of the moon. Fifteenth year of the Cycle of Nineteen; eighteenth year of the Solar Cycle; third year of the Indiction. MCCXXX. Common year. F.

  2. Aed son of Ruaidri [O Conchobair] and the men of Connacht turned against Mac William Burke and the Galls of Ireland, being persuaded thereto by Donn Oc son of Donnchatha Mac Airechtaig and Cormac Mac Diarmata and his officers, who all vowed they would never own a lord who should bring them to make submission to the Galls. They made then great raids on the Galls, Aed son of Ruaidri and the men of West Connacht plundering the young son of William and Adam Duff, while Donn Oc and the sons of Magnus with the new levies of Sil Murray plundered Mac Gosdelb and Tir Maine as far as Athlone.

  3. However, Mac William assembled the Galls of Ireland and  p.35 his Gaels and came into Connacht, bringing with him Fedlim son of Cathal Crodberg, to whom he intended to give the kingship and power and banish Aed son of Ruaidri and every other Connachtman who had rebelled against him. They first advanced to the castle of Bun Gaillme (Mouth of the Galway) against Aed O Flaithbertaig, when Aed mac Ruaidri came to his help with the Connachtmen, including the sons of Muirchertach O Conchobair. They were on the western bank of the Galway River and the Galls on the eastern, and much fighting was between them every day, and in this condition the Galls remained, obtaining neither pledge nor hostage nor submissions from the Connachtmen. So after this [failure] they determined to pursue the cattle and folk which had fled into the mountains and recesses of the countryside and the sea-islands. They came that night to Droichet Ingine Goilin (G's. Daughter's Bridge) and there daylight found them. Then Mac William asked: “Is there any path to the west, between us and the lake, by which any Connachtman might pass on their way northwards?” The guides answered: “Surely there is.” He put his horseman in order about Cong and Inishmaine, and at that moment there arrived a party of Connachtmen who had left Cong early, having been brought across the night before, three and five at a time, in imprudent and careless fashion. A few of [their] good men were [now] killed, including some officers of Magnus son of Muirchertach O Conchobair: Diarmait O hEidnechain, Lochlainn Mac Clesan and Tadc son of Gilla Crist O Mailbrenainn.

  4. After this success the Galls came to Mayo of the Saxons and the next day to Ballintober. Here the canons and religious rose up and approached Mac William, beseeching him of his charity not to stay the night near them. He complied, and the Galls went on northwards that night to Muine Maicin. They were loth to go thither from Mayo; but they had not received hostages or sureties from Magnus son of Muirchertach [Muimnech O Conchobair] and therefore proceeded on the following day to Aghagower and encamped there, west of the church, in Margenan on the shore of Loch Crichan. Here Magnus mac Muirchertaig came and made submission, giving  p.37 them pledges and hostages. They went on the morrow of the following day to Muine Macin and passed the night there. The next day they went to Mag Sine, and from there continued their journey through Leyney to Keschorran and so to the Curlew Hills, where their guides avoided the common highway, and they passed through the hills without mishap or casualty.

  5. Now Aed mac Ruaidri and Cormac mac Tomaltaig [Mac Diarmata] and Donn Oc [Mac Airechtaig] and the rest of the Sil Murray were in the wood, and since their cattle and folk had gone with them to Slieve Anierin and into inaccessible fastnesses, they determined to take no heed of the Galls and make no plans concerning them.

  6. But Donn Oc said he would not do so; and having determined to take up a position on the western flank of the Galls, he went to Fincharn, having with him his own kinsmen, the youth of Sil Murray, his own Galls, the son of Domnall Bregach O Mailsechlainn with his Galls, and Brian son of Toirrdelbach [O Conchobair], and there they watched the Galls passing by. Donn Oc sent a party to harass them, which maintained a good fight against them while he kept to his position on the Cairn, eagerly watching the fight. Then the Galls sent a large party of soldiery and horsemen to pass round the Cairn, and they noticed nothing until they had surrounded it on the western side and Donn was left alone with a few of his kinsmen and Brian mac Toirrdelbaig; and it was but a short time that they were left together in this wise. For Donn was proclaimed and recognised and set upon, single-handed as he was, by many of the soldiers, and he had five arrows in his body when a horseman attacked him, and he had nothing but an axe; yet he kept the horseman at a distance, parrying his spear with the axe. At last the soldiery all rushed at him and this brave warrior, surrounded on every side, fell before the overpowering number of champions who were smiting him.

  7. Now as for Aed mac Ruaidri, he was watching the Galls from the east. He neither harassed nor engaged them, nor was it with his consent that any other did so. He knew nothing of the slaying of Donn Oc when the rout came upon him from the west, but made his escape by the power of his hands, without dishonour or harm. He turned upon one that was pressing after him and cast a javelin at him so that the shaft passed right through his body, and [after this] he and his party were allowed to depart without being attacked. Echtigern  p.39 son of the brehon O Minachain and others not recorded here were slain by them that day.

  8. The Galls, after obtaining this success and after the slaying of Donn Oc, sent their Gaels and their soldiery to Slieve Anierin and brought away great preys. A multitude was there reduced to cold and hunger; women and children were killed, and those who escaped death were stripped bare; rich and great was the spoil which the raiders took to the camp of the Galls. The Galls then came to the shore opposite the Rock of Loch Key and stayed nine nights there. They gave the kingship to Fedlim mac Cathail Chrobdeirg and banished Aed mac Ruaidri, who sought asylum with Aed O Neill. Then they disbanded, full of gaiety and high spirits, and went each to his own house.

  9. Aed O Neill, king of Conchobar's Province, defender of Leth Cuind Chetchathaig against the Galls and against Leth Moga Nuadat, a prince eligible de jure for the kingship of Ireland, died this year; a king who never gave pledge or hostage or tribute to Gall or Gael; a king who wrought slaughterings and great routs on the Galls; a king who was the support of any Gaels who were in banishment or homeless; a king who was the most generous and excellent(?) of all the men of Ireland who ever lived.

  10. Gilla Isa O Clerig, Bishop of Leyney, rested in Christ.

  11. Joseph Mac Teithedan, Bishop of Conmaicne, rested in Christ.

  12. Gilla Carthaig O hEilgiusain, canon and hermit, rested.

  13. Donnsleibhe O hInmainein, a holy monk and chief master-carpenter of the monastery of Boyle, died.

  14. Maelmuire O Maileoin, coarb of St. Kieran of Clonmacnoise, rested.

  15. O Cerballain, Bishop of Clann Eogain, rested in Christ.

  16. Rolf Petit, Bishop of Meath, a pious, charitable man and a servant of God, rested in Christ.

  17. Maelsechlainn Mac Firedinn, archpresbiter and Master of Learning, rested in Christ during his novitiate in the monastery of Boyle.

  18. Art son of Art O Ruairc was treacherously killed by Ragnall O Finn.

  19. Mac Raith Mac Gerraig, Bishop of Conmaicne, rested in Christ.

  20.  p.41
  21. Maelsechlainn O Mannachain was killed by his own kinsmen.

  1. 1231 First of January on Wednesday, MCCXXXI and the twenty-fourth day of the moon. Sixteenth year [of the cycle of Nineteen; nineteenth year] of the Solar Cycle; fourth year of the Indiction. Common year. E.

  2. Feth fo lige, daughter of Conchobar Mac Diarmata and wife of Muirchertach Muimnech son of Toirrdelbach Mor O Conchobair, died this year. She was the greatest, most beautiful, most generous, purest woman and of the best repute that ever was in Leth Cuinn, and the mother of Magnus mac Muirchertaig Muimnig and Conchobar Ruad and Tuathal and Toirrdelbach the priest, prior of the church of Peter and Paul.

  3. Dub Chablaig daughter of Conchobar Mac Diarmata died in the monastery of Boyle this year.

  4. Duinnin O Mailchonaire, ollave of Sil Murray, died this year.

  5. Flann O Connachtaig, Bishop of Ui Briuin, rested.

  6. Fedlim mac Cathail Chrobdeirg was taken prisoner at Meelick by Mac William Burke, in violation of the guarantees of the leading Galls of Ireland.

  7. Flaithbertach O Flannacain, chieftain of Clann Chathail, died on pilgrimage in the monastery of Boyle, having taken the Cross.

  8. Domnall O Domnaill king of Tir Conaill and Aengus Mac Gilla Finnein raised an army against Cathal O Raigillig. They brought ships to Loch Oughter and plundered Eanish, where they slaughtered the best white steed in Ireland and carried off the precious objects and the wealth and treasure and good things there.

  9. Dionysius O Morda, Bishop of Elphin, having resigned his bishopric for the love of God and having ended his life on Trinity Island in Loch Key in devotion to God and to Clarus Mac Mailin Archdeacon of Elphin and to the Order of Canons in that place, rested in Christ on that same island on the fifteenth day of December.

  10. Dub Themrach daughter of O Cuind, wife of Flaithbertach O Flannacain, died.

  11. Conchobar Got (the Stammerer) O hEgra, king of Leyney, died.

  12. Cormac son of Tomaltach [Mac Diarmata] began to make a market-town at Rockingham.

  13.  p.43
  14. The son of Niall O Gormlegaig, chieftain of Cenel Moain, died.

  15. Donnchad O Conchobair became Bishop of Elphin in succession to Dionysius O Morda.

  16. Gilla Isa Mac Samradain, chieftain of Tullyhaw, rested.

  17. Ualgarc O Ruairc, king of Brefne, died on pilgrimage on the journey to the Jordan.

  1. 1232 First of January on Thursday and the fifth day of the moon; and this year was the seventeenth of the Cycle of, Nineteen, the twentieth of the Solar Cycle and the fifth of the Indiction. Anno Domini MCCXXXII. Embolismal year. DC.

  2. Aed son of Amlaib son of Domnall son of Murchad son of Gilla na Naem son of Brian son of Senlaech son of Eochaid son of Fergal, from whom the name O Fergal is derived, was burned on the island of Loch Cuile, after holding for nine years the chieftainship of Annaly in succession to Murchad Carrach (the Scabby) O Fergail, by the sons of Aed Ciabach (Long-haired) son of Murchad son of Gilla na Naem O Fergail.

  3. Gilla na Naem O Dalaig, eminent for poetry and for his guesthouse and for supporting all comers, both wealthy and wretched, died this year.

  4. The kingship was restored to Aed son of Ruaidri [O Conchobair] and he made peace with Mac William Burke, who had taken Fedlim mac Cathail Chrobdeirg captive.

  5. The castle of Bun Gaillme was built by Richard Burke and the castle of Dunamon was begun by Adam Staunton.

  6. Conchobar son of Aed mac Ruaidri escaped from the Galls and assembled the princes of Connacht about him. He invaded the Tuatha and was killed by the inhabitants, together with Gilla Cellaig O hEdin and Gilla Crist son of Donnchad Mac Diarmata and a great many others. It was on that day the people of the Tuatha whitened the handles of all their axes, when it was told that a man with a white axe-handle had killed the son of Aed.

  7. Donnchad son of Tomaltach Mac Diarmata died.

  8. Magnus son of Amlaib son of Tadc mac Mailruanaid, torch of generosity and valour and piety, rested in Christ.

  9.  p.45
  10. Fachtna O hAllgaith, coarb of Drumacoo and Official of the Ui Fiachrach, who kept a guest-house and a leper-house and was [a man] of learning and a benefactor of the countryside, rested this year.

  11. Maeleoin Bodar (the Deaf) O Mailchonaire took Cluain Bolcain this year.

  12. The three sons of Donn O Mannachain were killed by Donnchad son of Muirchertach Muimnech(?) in Termon Keelin this year.

  13. Fedlimid mac Cathail Chrobdeirg was released by the Galls this year.

  14. Fedlimid O Conchobair presented Kilmore in Tirarune to Cond Craidbech (the pious) O Flannacain and to the Lord, and the church there was consecrated by Donnchad O Conchobair, Bishop of Elphin; and Cond O Flannacain, who was Prior at that time, instituted canons in that same place.

  1. 1233 First of January on Sunday and the sixteenth day of the moon. Eighteenth year of the Cycle of Nineteen; twentyfirst year of the Solar Cycle; sixth year of the Indiction. MCCXXXIII. Common year. B.

  2. Fedlim son of Cathal Crobderg marched into Connacht and Cormac son of Tomaltach [Mac Diarmata], king of Moylurg, came to meet him and brought him into Moylurg and they encamped at Druim Grecraige—[Fedlim], Cormac and his son Conchobar, the three Tuatha and Donnchad and Muirchertach sons of Muirchertach Mac Diarmata. They all determined to go after Aed mac Ruaidri king of Connacht and the rest of Ruaidri's descendants; and they inflicted on them such a routing and scattering that the kingship and sovranty of the province of Connacht was taken from the seed of Ruaidri on that day. Aed mac Ruaidri king of Connacht, Aed Muimnech mac Ruaidri and his son, Donnchad Mor son of Diarmait mac Ruaidri and many others not here recorded were slain there. For Aed Muimnech had violated the sanctuary of Tibohine and plundered it, and many other churches and sacred buildings had been plundered by them, so that they fell [by the hand of their enemies] to avenge the honour of the saints and churches of Connacht.

  3.  p.47
  4. Ragallach O Flannacain was killed on that same day, and Thomas Biris Constable of Ireland and Owen his brother. Owen Guer and many other Galls were also killed there, all of whom had before been cursed and excommunicated by the churchmen of Connacht. However, Aed mac Ruaidri had been five years King of Connacht, as the poet said: “Aed mac Ruaidri of the swift onslaught, five years his rule over the province, till he fell— a loss on every frontier— by the hand of Fedlimid.” Here ends the rule of the children of Ruaidri O Conchobair, King of Ireland. For the Pope offered him the title to [the kingship of] Ireland for himself and his seed for ever, and likewise six wives, if he would renounce the sin of adultery henceforth; and since he would not accept these terms God took the rule and sovranty from his seed for ever, in punishment for his sin.

  5. After this Fedlim mac Cathail Chrobdeirg assumed the kingship and sovranty, and he broke down the castles that had been built by the power of the sons of Ruaidri and Mac William Burke, that is to say, that of Bun Gaillme, Hen's Castle, Hag's Castle and the castle of Dunamon.

  6. In this year peace and discipline were imposed forthwith upon the armed bands and malefactors of Connacht, in the time of this young king.

  7. A hosting was made by William, son of Hugo de Lacy and the daughter of Ruaidri O Conchobair, and the Galls of Meath in great force along with him, into Brefne against Cathal O Raigillig and Cu Chonnacht his brother from whom they took great preys. But a party of O Raigillig's men came upon de Lacy and the other chiefs of the army as they were carrying off the preys and they gave battle to each other. William Brit was killed then and many other principal Galls. William de Lacy himself was wounded, as well as Charles son of Cathal Gall O Conchobair, Piers the Fairhaired, son of the Foreign Queen, Diarmair Bernach (gap-toothed) O Mailsechlainn and many more, and they turned back after that, having exacted neither security or hostage. Moin Crandchain is the name of the place where that fight was. These leaders died at home of their wounds.

  8. Donn Cathaig, erenagh of Aghagower, rested in Christ on the 15th of December; a man reverenced by clergy and laity for his qualities of mind-and body; the most generous bestower of cattle and food in his age; the protector of the wretched  p.49 and the prosperous; an honour to his land and country; the reconciler of all disputes between his own household and the public in general.

  9. Mael Isa O Maenaig, a very reverend priest who used to recite his Psalter every day except Sunday, rested in Christ.

  10. Fergal Mac Cormac died.

  1. 1234 First of January on Sunday and the twenty-seventh day of the moon. Last year of the Cycle of Nineteen; twentysecond of the Solar Cycle; seventh of the Indiction. MCCXXXIV. Embolismal year. Last year of the Hendecad. A.

  2. Aed O hEgra king of Leyney was killed by Donnchad son of Duarcan O hEgra—a house was fired over his head and he was killed in the doorway—when he came out to avenge his brother and five sons of his father's brother, whom he had killed, and his other brother, whom he had blinded.

  3. Richard, son of William Marshall made war on the King of England in England. He crossed over here and landed in Leinster, and the Galls of Leinster and of all Ireland assembled to oppose him on behalf of the King of England, that is to say, Mac Muiris the Justiciar, Hugo de Lacy Earl of Ulster, and Walter de Lacy lord of Meath. They came to the Curragh and fought a fierce furious battle against the Marshall, who was killed there, and Geoffrey de Mareys was taken prisoner. He [i.e., Richard] had been deserted by his followers, so that he was left alone, the last man [of his side] to be fighting on that field. This was one of the worst deeds done in that age.

  4. Aengus O Mailfagmair, Bishop of the Ui Amalgada, rested in Christ.

  5. Heavy snow fell between the two Christmases, followed by such a frost that men and laden horses walked on the great lakes and rivers of Ireland.

  6. Aengus Mac Gilla Finnein, king of Loch Erne, went to plunder Domnall O Domnaill king of Tir Conaill. O Domnaill overtook him and killed him.

  7. Gilla na Naem son of Art O Brain, erenagh of Roscommon rested.

  8. Maelpetair O Carmacain, master of Roscommon, rested.

  9. Diarmait O Cuinn, chieftain of Muinter Gilligain, died.

  10.  p.51
  11. Mael Isa son of Daniel O Gormgaile, prior of Inis Mac nErin in Lock Key, died.

  12. Gilla Isa O Gibillain, a monk anchorite of Holy Trinity Island, rested in Christ.

  1. 1235 First of January on Monday and the eighth day of the moon. First year of the Decemnovennial Cycle; twenty-third of the Solar Cycle; eighth of the Indiction. Common year. G.

  2. Domnall son of Aed O Neill, king of Cenel Eogain, was killed by Domnall Mac Meic Lochlainn, who seized the kingship for himself this year.

  3. Matadan O Matadain, king of Sil nAnmchada, died.

  4. Isaac O Mailfagmair, erenagh of Killala, died this year.

  5. Lochlainn the son of Echtigern O Cellaig's son was killed by the sons of Gilla Riabach O Baigill this year.

  6. Taichlech son of Aed O Dubda, king of the Ui Amalgada and the Ui Fiachrach, was killed by an arrow-wound while interposing [in a dispute] in the camp of Fedlim mac Cathail Chrobdeirg King of Connacht.

  7. An Gilla Suasanach (the Mop-haired Lad) Mac Aedacain died this year.

  8. The Galls of Ireland, assembled by Richard Burke, made a hosting and came past Athlone to Roscommon, which they burnt, and thence to Elphin, where they burnt the great church, and so to Ath Da Larac on the Boyle. Now these were the most renowned and resolute of that army; Mac Muiris the Justiciar, Hugo de Lacy Earl of Ulster, Richard son of William Burke, Walter Riddesford chief baron of Leinster with the Leinster Galls, John Gogan with the Munster Galls, and the bands of all Ireland along with them. They came on the eve of Trinity Sunday to the monastery of Boyle and their soldiery overran the monastery, broke open the crypt(?) and took away its valuables, chalices and vestments. But the chiefs of the Galls abhorred this act, and everything they could recover was sent back and what they could not was paid for. Next day they sent their raiders and soldiery and mercenary bands to  p.53 Cret and Glencar and to the tower of Glenfarn and brought great preys to Ardcarne, where they were to meet the Justiciar.

  9. Then the Galls adopted a remarkable plan, which no man of Connacht or Munster suspected them of. At the instigation of Eogan O hEidin, who wished to be revenged for his wounds on the Munsterman and on Donnchad Cairbrech O Briain, they turned back the way they had come and passed into Tir Maine and Maenmag and so, without warning or notice, into Thomond. They took vast, innumerable spoils from the Munstermen, who had provided no retreat and made no preparations.

  10. But the Connachtmen and Fedlim mac Cathail Chrobdeirg pursued after the Galls, who had [thus] slipped away, to fulfill their promise to the Munstermen and to share their day of battle; and there were good, long affrays every day between the two sides. On the last day both Connachtmen and Munstermen moved into action and fought stoutly, with might and main, but armoured Galls and a heavy force of horsemen overpowered them, and many Munstermen were killed there through the unwisdom of a decision which Donnchad Cairbrech chanced to adopt. But the men of Connacht came out of the fray in valorous and honourable plight, without any of their eminent men being killed. Next day Donnchad Cairbrech determined to make peace with the Galls and to yield them hostages and tribute. He took this decision, though after long hesitation, because by that time a large part of his people had been plundered and killed. The Galls, however, proceeded to Connacht and advanced first upon Aed O Flaithbertaig, who made peace with them in order to preserve his cattle and folk, his lands and territory.

  11. As for Fedlim, he determined to repair, with what cows he could find in Connemara and Conmaicne Cuile and all those who adopted his advice, the son of Magnus and Conchobar Ruad son of Muirchertach Muimnech, to seek the protection of O Domnaill, leaving the land [i.e., Connacht] for the Galls to work their will therein. The Galls afterwards came to Doon Castle and sent emissaries to Magnus son of Muirchertach Muimnech demanding that he should accept their terms of peace and yield them hostages. Magnus refused both demands. They then sent out large raiding parties from Doon, consisting of the descendants of Ruaidri and innumerable soldiery, who  p.55 plundered Achill Island and carried off great spoils to rejoin the Galls at Druimne.

  12. Aed O Flaithbertaig and Eogan O hEidin came round with a large army and ships, which they had brought to Leenane. These ships arrived with their troops, and the Justiciar marched to meet them at Calad Insi Aenaig (the shore opposite Inisheany) in Druimne. Magnus with his ships was on the sound of this island, and great fights and skirmishes took place between them from time to time. Then the Galls grew weary and decided to pitch a camp and draw up their ships in a recess of the great strand at that place.

  13. When Magnus saw that, he sailed eastwards out of the sound and landed on Inishraher, and some of his men went [back] to Inisheany and brought away some sheep from it to eat. But when the Galls saw them landing on the one island and returning to the other and keeping no watch or ward against their enemies, from whom they were divided by one of the islands, they rose up quickly, sharply, actively, and their {} carried their ships along the strand and launched them, and being followed by a host [of their own men] and soldiery with arms and armour, they landed upon both the islands and killed all the people they found on them. Magnus and those of his followers who were on Inishraher then took to their ships, though if he had trusted the Ui Maille he would have sent his ships against the Galls and their vessels.

  14. However, though but little of the day was left by that time, there was not a cow on an island of Insi Mod that was not put ashore [on the mainland] before nightfall, and they would have gone before, driven by thirst and hunger, but that they were restrained; and many base people were killed that night. On the next day, a Friday, the Galls landed on the islands of North Umall, but the commanders of the soldiery would not suffer them to kill anyone, out of respect for the Passion.

  15. When the Galls had ended their sacking and plundering of Umall by land and sea they came, bringing their cows and spoil with them, to Luffertaun, and thence pursued their way to Ballysadare, from which place they made a raid on O  p.57 Domnaill, because he was harbouring Fedlim [O Conchobair] in his exile. After this they came to the Curlieu Hills and passed on to the Callow of Rockingham on Loch Key, to take it from a large force of the men of Fedlim O Conchobair and Cormac son of Tomaltach [Mac Diarmata], who were holding it.

  16. But the Galls of Ireland and the Justiciar granted a general protection and sure sanctuary to Clarus Mag Mailin Archdeacon of Elphin and the canons of Trinity Island. The Justiciar and the principal Galls went to visit this place and pray therein, doing reverence to it in honour of the Holy Trinity.

  17. Then a fleet of ships with galleries and perriers came to the lake, and they mounted a perrier on a small platform and many stones were hurled by it into the Rock. And since they could not take it by this means they made numerous vessels out of the houses of Ardcarne, collected all the fuel of the district and [putting it on board these vessels, or rafts] set it alight. They bound empty barrels about these rafts to keep them afloat, and sent one of their larger ships, protected by a roof of planking, to tow the rafts to the Rock and so set it afire.

  18. But the people in the fortress were seized with fear and came out, on stipulated terms, and the Justiciar put in a garrison of armed and armoured Galls, well furnished with food and drink. They left the people of Connacht without food or clothing or cattle; yet they bore away no pledge or hostage at that time, nor did they leave peace or settlement in the country, for the Gaels were killing and robbing each other to obtain what little the Galls had left behind them.

  19. Fedlim [O Conchobair], however, made peace with the Justiciar, agreeing to pay him rent and tribute for the five King's Cantreds. Cormac Mac Diarmata submitted at the same time.

  20. As for the garrison of the Rock, after they had occupied it for three full weeks, from Thursday to Thursday, the warden went outside its gate and O Hostin, who was one of themselves, shut it behind him. The Galls then fled for protection to Trinity Island, [whence] they were afterwards escorted. But  p.59 when Cormac had [re-taken] the Rock he determined to throw it down and scatter its stones, that the Galls might not have again.

  21. Domnall and Muirchertach, sons of Muiredach O Maille, were killed by Domnall son of Magnus son of Muirchertach [Muimnech] O Conchobair and by Niall Ruad son of Cathal O Conchobair on Clare Island, and there they were buried.

  22. Tuathal son of Muirchertach [Muimnech] O Conchobair was killed by Conchobar Buide son of Toirrdelbach O Conchobair and by Conchobar son of Aed Muimnech this year.

  23. Some soldiery and kerne who were marauding on Finloch of Cera [L. Carra] on behalf of the son of Ruaidri were killed by Magnus son of Muirchertach O Conchobair this year.

  24. Matthew, prior of Holy Trinity Island, rested in Christ.

  25. Gilla Coimded O Cuilin {}. . .

  26. The best men of Ui Briuin na Sinna were killed in a skirmish with Donnchad son of Muirchertach Muimnech.

  27. O hAnainn, the great priest, died at Kilmore.

  28. The castle at Meelick was broken down by Fedlim O Conchobair.

  29. The church of an Druimne at Athleague was burnt, with the charters(?) and all the books of the Canons.

  1. 1236 First of January on Tuesday and the nineteenth day of the moon, MCCXXXVI. Twenty-fourth year of the Solar Cycle; ninth year of the Indiction. Common year. FE.

  2. Maelsechlainn O Maille was killed on Oilen Dacruindi by Donnchad son of Magnus son of Muirchertach Muimnech O Conchobair this year.

  3. Fedlim mac Cathail Chrobdeirg was banished by the Justiciar Mac Muiris, his gossip, after Mac William had gone to England. He was warned beforehand and barely managed to escape with a few horsemen. They made great raids on his people and he took refuge with O Domnaill. The castle at Onagh was built at this time as a stronghold against the men of Connacht. The treachery was practised in this way: an  p.61 appointment having been made with intent to entrap him, the Justiciar brought the Galls of Ireland to Afeoran, the place of meeting, and they pursued him from there to Roscommon and from Roscommon to Sligo bridge. And since they could not catch him they raided Tadc O Conchobair captured many noble women and carried them off into captivity and bondage. They then came with their booty to Druim nGrecraige in Moylurg, where the Justiciar himself was waiting for them.

  4. The Justiciar and the Galls then departed, leaving Brian son of Toirrdelbach [son of Ruaidri O Conchobair] to guard and rule the land. Brian, with the Justiciar's soldiery, raided and harassed the sons of Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg and many others of Fedlim's people; and these in turn raided and harassed the Galls and their enemies among the Gaels; so that the whole countryside was ruined by them alternately.

  5. Conchobar son of Aed Muimnech was killed by Magnus son of Muirchertach Muimnech O Conchobair this year.

  6. Maelmuire O Lachtnan, Archbishop-elect of Tuaim, went to England and was consecrated by letters from the Successor of Peter and consent of the King of England.

  7. Mac William crossed over to Ireland from the King of England, and no man in Ireland knew whether he was bringing peace or strife to Ireland.

  8. Now Fedlim mac Cathail Chrobdeirg came back into Connacht at the invitation of some of the Connachtmen, O Cellaig, O Flainn, the sons of Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg and the son of Art O Mailsechlainn. The combined force, four large battalions, advanced against Randoon. Like fierce furious forceful foemen they crossed the bawn and the moat of the island, where were all the cows of the territory, and then each captain of a company and each leader of an army made for the cows, and they were driving them off wherever they came upon them. A pitiful act, their lord, their honour and their valour were abandoned for booty and cattle which profited them nought, and they deserted their lord until out of the four battalions which had been under him he had but four single horsemen left, and the High-king's voice was broken in trying to recall and rally them.

  9. But Eogain O hEdin, Brian son of Toirrdelbach [O Conchobair], Mac Goisdelb and Conchobair Buide son of  p.63 Toirrdelbach, on seeing them break up and scatter unwisely, inconstantly, incautiously, rose up quickly and lively with a few horsemen and a large body of soldiery and made for the spot where they saw O Conchobair with his few followers. Conchobair Buide son of Toirrdelbach came upon the sons of Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg and they approached him lightly and heedlessly, as if they had been a party of his own people, and he was killed thereupon by Ruaidri son of Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg.

  10. A great number of the army was then slain, both on the “island” and outside of it, in that defeat; and these were all accursed and excommunicate men, excepting only Tadc son of Cormac son of Tomaltach Mac Diarmata.

  11. Now when Mac William heard of this defeat inflicted upon all his revolted subjects, he rose up in support of O Conchobair to banish them or tame them. Then Diarmait son of Magnus O Conchobair sought refuge with the son of Muirchertach O Conchobair. Thereupon Mac William came, unforeseen and unperceived, to Tuaim and thence to Mayo, and there was not left a heap of seed-corn in the great church of Mayo nor in the church of the Archangel Michael, but all was removed at once. Three or four score baskets were taken out of those churches and {}. . . afterwards, though there was not much of that. They then came to Turlagh, which received the like treatment, and great raids were sent against the people of the son of Magnus. The people of Conchobar Ruad and of Turlagh fell in with these raiders and were plundered indiscriminately. Magnus was then obliged to send away such of the followers of the son of Magnus O Conchobair as had resorted to him, or he would have suffered the same visitation as had befallen his brother.

  12. Conchobar Ruad went on the morrow to find Mac William and submitted to him and made peace; and such of his cattle as had been reaved were paid for, while the folk of the church, got back such of their cattle as they found alive.

  13. The son of Magnus, moreover, submitted to the Galls for the sake of his cattle, or such as was left to him of it, and his folk.

  14. Then Mac William went to Balla, where he stayed two nights, and thence to Tuaim, leaving Connacht after this  p.65 [expedition] with no food in church or lay-property, with no peace or settlement, but with every man's hand against his neighbour, except for such rule as the sons of Muirchertach [Muimnech] afforded to the country. At this time the followers of Brian son of Toirrdelbach burned the church of Emlagh against the people of O Flainn, when it was full of women and children and nuns, among whom were three priests; and Termon Keelin was burned by the Justiciar at this time also.

  15. Aed O Flaithbertaig, king of West Connacht, died this year, the greatest and most excellent(?) man who ever lived of the men of West Connacht and one who was the greatest supporter of other men and himself depended least upon others.

  16. This was a year of wet and storm and war, of hunger and scarcity of food and clothing; armed bands and evil-doers without reverence for church or privilege, being excommunicated by the hands of bishops; the reverend clerics of the Catholic Church in fear and dread every day and night; frequent routs and escapings from Gael and Gall to the churches and churches used as dormitories, this year and for the space of twelve years ever since O Neill's war; Galls and Gaels plundering by turns; no lordship or government, but Connacht lying open for the Galls to ruin whenever they came into it, and its King and eligible princes plundering and violating church and countryside in their wake.

  17. Diarmait son of Niall O Ruairc was blinded by Cu Chonnacht O Raigillig.

  18. Cathal Riabach son of Gillabroide O Ruairc, king of the Ui Briuin, died.

  19. Mac Raith Mac Mailin, priest of Kilmactranny, died.

  20. Aed O Gibillain, priest of Kilroddan and eventually a Canon on Trinity Island, died.

  21. Fedlim O Conchobair defeated the descendants of Ruaidri and Conchobar son of Cormac Mac Diarmata at Cluain Catha.

  1. 1237 First of January on Thursday and the thirtieth day of the moon; twenty-fifth year of the Solar Cycle; third year of the Decemnovennial Cycle; tenth year of the Indiction. MCCXXXVII. Embolismal year. D.

  2. A hosting by Fedlim mac Cathail Chrobdeirg into Connacht, accompanied by Cu Chonnacht O Raigillig with all the Ui Briuin, Cathal Mag Ragnaill with all the Conmaicne, and the three sons of Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg, to attack the  p.67 descendants of Ruaidri, that is, Brian son of Toirrdelbach son of Ruaidri and Muirchertach and Domnall sons of Diarmait son of Ruaidri, with whom was Conchobar son of Cormac Mac Diarmata, in the place where they were. They went after them northward through the Curlieu Hills and came to Drumrat. The descendants of Ruaidri sent the soldiers of the Justiciar, which they had with them, to encounter them; and Fedlim ordered his men not to shoot at them, but with bowed heads to have at them in a furious charge. The soldiers did not withstand this onset but broke and fell back on their own side, many of them, including Mac Mibric, being killed in the rout. When the sons of Ruaidri saw that fortune was against them and that the soldiers were breaking up in panic, they abandoned their position [and got away] without a man of them being killed. After this defeat they were dispersed, so that they had no more habitation among the Sil Murray, and all their folk were plundered. They made great raids on Conchobar son of Cormac [Mac Diarmata] in Tirrerill, and after that they put a fleet on Loch Key, deposed Cormac Mac Diarmata king of Moylurg, plundered the whole of Moylurg and gave the lordship of the whole lake and territory to Donnchad son of Muirchertach Luathsuilech [Mac Diarmata].

  3. Donait O Fidabra, coarb of Patric, rested.

  4. The Justiciar made peace with Fedlim mac Cathail Chrobdeirg and the five King's Cantreds were given to him free of cattle-tribute or rent.

  5. The Irish Barons came into Connacht and began the building of castles therein.

  6. The first synod of Maelmure O Lachtnan, erenagh of Tuaim, was held at Athlone after his pallium had arrived from Rome.

  7. Magnus son of Diarmait son of Magnus [O Conchobair] was killed by Domnall son of Diarmait son of Ruaidri O Conchobair this year.

  8. Muirchertach son of Diarmait son of Ruaidri O Conchobair was killed by the sons of Magnus mac Muirchertaig Muimnig Ui Chonchobair this year.

  9. Clarus Mac Mailin began the building of a monastery for Canons on Trinity Island in Loch Oughter, the gift of Cathal O Raigillig.

  10. Thomas O Ruadain, Bishop of Leyney, rested in Christ.

  11. Gilla Isa son of In Scelaige (the Narrator) O Tormaig, Bishop of the Conmaicne, rested.

  12.  p.69
  13. Gilla na nEcc O Mannachain died in the monastery of Boyle this year.

  14. Conchobar son of Cormac [Mac Diarmata] raided Ruaidri O Gadra and killed his brother.

  15. The hostages of Conchobar son of Cormac were killed by Fedlim mac Cathail Chrobdeirg this year.

  16. Drommann Iarthair and the land between Lathach Cille Brain and the lake, with wood and plain and bog, was presented to the community of the Trinity on Loch Key and to Clarus Mac Mailin by Donnchad son of Muirchertach Luathsuilech [Mac Diarmata] during the time that he ruled as king; and this was not long, since he reigned only for a month and Cormac reigned again.

  1. 1238 First of January on Friday and the eleventh day of the moon, twenty-sixth year of the Solar Cycle; fourth year of the Decemnovennial Cycle; eleventh year of the Indiction; the twelve hundred and thirty-eighth year since the Incarnation of the Lord. Common year. C.

  2. Donnchad Uaithnech son of Aed son of Ruairdri O Conchobair was killed by Tadc son of Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg this year.

  3. Donnchad son of Duarcan O hEgra, king of Leyney, was captured by Tadc son of Aed mac Cathail Chrobdeirg; and when he was being taken to a place of custody his own kinsmen, the sons of Aed O hEgra, killed him by the way, in Tirarune.

  4. Donnchad son of Muirchertach [Luathsuilech Mac Diarmata] went into Brefne to join O Raigillig. They made a great raid into Connacht, plundering the community of Clooncorpey; and the nobles of Muinter Eolais and many of the Tuatha were killed in pursuing the raiders.

  5. Maelruanaid son of Donnchad O Dubda was killed by Maelsechlainn son of Conchobair Ruad son of Muirchertach Muimnech O Conchobair and the son of Tigernan son of Cathal Micuran O Conchobair.

  6. Castles were built in Muinter Murchada and Conmaicne Cuile and Carra by the aforesaid Barons.

  7. Ruaidri son of Aed O Flaithbertaig was captured by the Galls.

  8. The bell-tower of Annadown was built.

  9. Mac Muiris, Justiciar of Ireland, and Hugo de Lacy, Earl of Munster, marched with a large army into Cenel Eogain and Cenel Conaill, deposed Mac Lochlainn and banished him  p.71 from his own territory, gave the kingdom to the son of O Neill and took hostages of Cenel Conaill and Cenel Eogain.

  10. Felix O Ruanada, Archbishop of Tuaim, after resigning his archbishopric for the love of God and clothing himself in the robe of a monk at St. Mary's church in Dublin, [died.]

  11. Cathal Mac Riabaig, chieftain of the Fir Scedni, died.

  1. 1239 First of January on Saturday and the twenty-second day of the moon; twenty-seventh year of the Solar Cycle; fifth year of the Decemnovennial Cycle; twelfth year of the Indiction. MCCXXXIX. Common year. B.

  2. Muirchertach son of Domnall O Briain died this year.

  3. Toirrdelbach son of Ruaidri O Conchobair, King of Connacht, died this year.

  4. The battle of Carnteel was fought by Domnall Mac Lochlainn. Here were killed Domnall O Neill of Tamnach, Mac Mathgamna, Somairle O Gormlegaig, Caech O Gormlegaig of Barnasmore and the nobles of Cenel Muain, with a multitude of others. After this defeat of Cenel Muain and Oriel, Mac Lochlainn regained the kingship which had been take