CELT document T102900

Lebor na Cert

unknown

English translation

Edited by Myles Dillon

 p.3

The Book of Rights

Here begins the Book of Rights.…

Here begins the Book of Rights. It tells of the rents and stipends of Ireland which Benén son of Sescnén, Patrick's cantor, ordained, as related in the Book of Glendalough.

Here are the just dues of Cashel and its rents and taxes paid in and paid out, and the stipends of the kings of Munster, and the other kings of Ireland from the king of Cashel, when sovereignty reigns there.

Cashel is from cais (“hatred”) -ail (“rock”), i.e. a stone on which hostages used to be placed, or cis (“rent”) -ail (“law”) from the legal rent which used to be brought to him from the men of Ireland. Síd-Druim was the name of the place formerly.

In the time of Corc son of Lugaid two swineherds happened to frequent that hill for a period of three months, masting their swine, for it was a ridge of forest. The names of the swineherds were Durdru, swineherd of the king of Éle, and Cularán, swineherd of the king of Múscraige. And they beheld a form as bright as the sun with a voice as sweet as the lute, blessing the hill and the place, and prophesying Patrick. And it said:

  1. A good man shall reign
    over lofty and venerable Cashel
    in the name of the Father and of the Son of the Virgin
    with the grace of the Holy Ghost.
  2. A bishop stately and benign,
    sage of all the world in judgement,
    will fill Ireland of the angels with people of every rank
    with many canonical orders in the service of gentle Christ.

 p.5

That form was Patrick's angel Victor prophesying Patrick, and proclaiming that the dignity and primacy of Ireland would be always in that place. Accordingly that is Patrick's sanctuary and the principal stronghold of the king of Ireland. And the rent and service of the men of Ireland is due to the king of that place always, namely to the king of Cashel through the blessing of Patrick son of Calpurnius.

 1

Here are the stipends of the kings from the king of Cashel, if he be king of Ireland, and his visitation and his refection by them in return: A hundred horns, a hundred swords, a hundred horses, and a hundred tunics from him to the king of Cruachain and six months' refection from the king of Cruachain to him, and he escorts him into Tír Conaill. Twenty rings, twenty sets of chess, and twenty horses to the king of Cenél Conaill and one month's refection from the king of Cenél Conaill to him, and he escorts him into Tír nEógain. Fifty horns, fifty swords, and fifty horses to the king of Ailech, and one month's refection from the king of Ailech to him, and he escorts him into Tulach Óc. Thirty horns, thirty swords, and thirty horses to the chief of Tulach Óc and twelve days' refection with him, and he escorts him into Airgialla. Eight coats of mail, sixty tunics, and sixty horses to the king of Airgialla and his refection for a month in Emain, and the king of Airgialla escorts him into Ulaid. A hundred horns, a hundred mantles, a hundred swords, a hundred horses, and a hundred ships to the king of Ulaid, a month's refection from the Ulaid to him, and the Ulaid escort him to Tara. Thirty coats of mail, thirty rings, a hundred horses, and thirty sets of chess to the king of Tara, and a month's refection in Tara for him, and the four kindreds of Tara escort him to Áth Cliath. Ten women, ten horses, and ten ships to the king of Áth Cliath, and a month's refection from the king of Áth Cliath to him, and he escorts him into Lagin. Thirty ships, thirty horses, thirty cumals, and thirty cows to the king of Lagin and two months' refection from the Lagin to him, a month from Lagin Tuathgabair and a month from Lagin Deasgabair. Thirty horses, thirty coats of mail, and forty swords  p.7 [to the king of Lagin Deasgabair]. Those are their stipends and their escorts, and it is of them that the virtuous author Benén son of Sescnén tells:

  1. The due of each king from the king of Cashel
    will be a question for poets for ever.
    The answer will always be found at the assemblies,
    preserved by the sage of the Irish.
  2. A hundred horns, a hundred swords from Cashel,
    a hundred horses, a hundred tunics besides,
    from his country to Tuathal's Fort
    to the king who holds pleasant Cruachain.
  3. Six months' refection in honey
    from that king to the hero of Munster;
    to go with him upon occasion
    into Tír Conaill to the king of swift Eas Modoirn.
  4. The king of Connacht with the hero of Cashel
    to the battalions of Bearnas—it is no lie:
    the king of Tír Conaill escorts
    the trusting stranger to Tír nEógain.
  5. Twenty bracelets, twenty sets of chess,
    twenty horses to Assaroe, to the king for whom
    I have made a goodly verse,
    the strong king of Bearnas Conaill.
  6. A month's refection, to their sorrow,
    from the nobles of Tír Conaill to the province of Munster
    and to its king, no mean claim,
    before going into lofty Tír nEogain.
  7.  p.9
  8. Fifty horns and fifty swords,
    fifty properly harnessed horses
    to the prosperous man from the oak-groves of goodly mast,
    to the prince of Ailech who protects all.
  9. A month's refection to the prince of Munster
    from Munster's plain, it is no false account,
    to the man of Brandub's province without injury,
    from the people of Eógan of the steeds.
  10. Thirty horns and thirty swords,
    thirty roan steeds for the road,
    to the man for whom only the finest poem is meet,
    to the prince of green Tulach Óc.
  11. Twelve days' rich refection to the king of Munster
    whom bards proclaim, from the king of Tulach Óc
    without separating until he escort him
    to lofty Emain.
  12. Eight coats of mail to the prince of Airgialla
    from the assembly of Cashel of many forays,
    to the man upon whom rest the burdens of crime,
    sixty tunics and sixty horses.
  13. A month's refection from the kitchen,
    on the hill of Emain, from the Airgialla
    of Áth Mór to the king of pleasant Cashel;
    and to escort him to the Ulaid of the gold.
  14. A hundred horns, a hundred swords,
    a hundred cloaks to the soldier of Boirche,
    it is no folly; a hundred horses, brown horses,
    and ten ships to the warrior.
  15. Two months' refection is due from the Ulaid
    to the noble king from the church of Cashel
    at the pleasant triumphant hill;
    the Ulaid escort him to stalwart Tara.
  16.  p.11
  17. Thirty coats of mail to the warrior of Tara,
    thirty bracelets, it is true,
    a hundred horses who grow not weary ...
    and thirty sets of chess at the feast.
  18. A month's refection from the hill of Tara
    to the champions of the round hill of Cashel;
    the tribe whom I appoint to come with him
    to the brown Duiblind are the men of Meath.
  19. Ten women, ten ships with beds,
    from the warrior of Cashel and Cliu,
    ten horses in their prime and fame
    to the king of Áth Cliath of the ramparts.
  20. A month's refection from the nobles of Tomar
    to the lord of pleasant Cashel:
    the king of the prosperous ...
    Ford must come with him into Leinster.
  21. Thirty ships for the warriors of Liamain,
    let thirty good horses be added to it:
    he is entitled to thirty female slaves
    and thirty cows in the territories about Carman.
  22. Two full months' refection
    from the Laigin to the warrior of Munster from Mag Ráth:
    one month's share in the plain of mighty
    Brandub from Clanna Connla apart.
  23. Thirty horses, thirty coats of mail
    to the warrior of Gabrán of fair colour—
    not servants those who used to care for them—
    forty swords for battle.
  24.  p.13
  25. Those are the stipends of the kings of Ireland
    from the king of Munster whom men praise;
    and it is certain to every one that he is entitled
    to his refection from all of them.

 2

These are the rights of Cashel and of the king of Cashel from the tribes within.

From the Múscraige first this tribute begins: a thousand cows and a thousand boars then from the Múscraige. Then a hundred cows, a hundred pigs, a hundred oxen from the Uaithne. Then two hundred wethers, a hundred boars, a hundred cows, and a hundred green mantles from the Arae. Then a hundred cows, a hundred oxen, and a hundred boars from Corcu Laígde. A thousand oxen and a thousand cows from Corcu Duibne. A thousand cows and a thousand boars from Ciarraige Luachra. Two hundred cows and a thousand oxen from Corcu Baiscinn. A thousand cows, a thousand oxen, a thousand rams, and a thousand cloaks from Boirenn. A hundred cows, a hundred oxen, and a hundred sows from the Seventh. Two thousand boars and a thousand cows from the Déisi. It is not on account of their subject status that they pay those tributes, but for their territories and on account of the superiority of the right of Cashel, and because it was blessed by Patrick, as Benignus relates:

  1. The right of Cashel without grief to its hero,
    lawyers have preserved it:
    the king of fair Gabrán of the steeds
    is pleased to learn it of his poet.
  2. From the Múscraige without difficulty of falsehood
    to high Cashel from them,
    a thousand cows into the stronghold was his promise,
    a thousand boars from the tribes.
  3.  p.15
  4. A hundred cows on the hill for a time of travel,
    a hundred pigs yonder to be stored,
    a hundred oxen to come to the stronghold
    as a gift from the Uaithne.
  5. Two hundred wethers from the host, they say,
    a hundred boars is the tribute they declare,
    a hundred cows which crowded a farmer's paddock,
    a hundred green mantles from the Arae.
  6. From Corco Laígde with warriors a hundred cows ...
    it is prudent, sixty brown oxen,
    they are not destructive,
    a hundred heavy boars from the tribes.
  7. A thousand oxen, it is the judgement that we give,
    they were never the reward of raiders in my memory,
    a thousand cows, not like the cows of Badb (?),
    from the middle of Dairbre from Duibne.
  8. From Ciarraige of the plain of swords a thousand cows,
    it is a pleasant memory,
    a thousand boars from them without delay,
    from Luachair of the herbs.
  9. From the Baiscinn two hundred wanton (?) cows
    from the livestock of the fold beyond the boundaries,
    to the king who loved his own clan;
    a thousand oxen, they are not destructive.
  10. A thousand oxen, a thousand cows
    I exact for the fort in which I lie at night;
    a thousand rams swollen with wool,
    a thousand cloaks from Boirenn.
  11. Name the tribute of the Seventh of the Foxes,
    it is not a disputed right, a hundred sows,
    wealth not without purchase, a hundred oxen,
    a hundred horned cows.
  12.  p.17
  13. Two thousand choice boars to the hill ...
    a thousand cows in flocks
    of wealth from the Déisi,
    though he say it (?).
  14. That is a tribute on behalf of the territory at first,
    a sage in reckoning has preserved it—
    not because of the lowly rank of those for whom it has been settled,
    but because of the noble rank of the plain of Cashel.
  15. That tribute of Munster rich in cattle,
    until ...
    Patrick of the site noblest among sites
    appointed it in the time of Corc.

 3

These are the teachings of Benén son of Sescnén, Patrick's cantor, and he was of the Cianachta of Glenn Gemin of the line of Tadg son of Cian from great Munster: that the heir to Cashel is the common head of all, as is the heir of Patrick; and when the king of Cashel is not king of Ireland, he is entitled to the overlordship of half of Ireland, namely from Tech Duinn west of Ireland to Áth Cliath in Leinster. Exempt from receiving stipend and escorting the king of Cashel are always the Síl mBresail Bric, i.e. the Osraige. The Laigin are obliged upon one day's summons to go at the summons of the king of Cashel against Leth Cuinn or against the foreigners. It is due from the Norse of Dublin and from the unfranchised of all Ireland that they go with him into battle, after their lands have been established (?), and he is entitled to a gift on the frontier from the Connachta. That was caused by the fasting of many saints at Tara, which was the hill of lordship for the Laigin up to the battle of Druim Dergaide; for it was at that battle that their part of Mag mBreg was taken from them, so that it is the property of Clann Néill since then.

 p.19

The princedom of Tara was extinguished by the fasting of Patrick with his people against Laegaire son of Niall, and the fasting of Ruadán of Lothra, son of Aengus, with the saints of Ireland against Diarmait son of Cerball and the four kindreds of Tara. And those saints promised that there would not be a house in Tara from Laegaire nor from the line of Niall until there should be one from the line of Oilill Olom.

Three kings in Leth Moga, moreover, do not pay tribute to the king of Cashel, namely, the king of Osraige and the king of Raithlenn and the king of Loch Léin.

Of which matters Benén the cantor said:

  1. Benignus—blessed be he!—
    put into the Psalter of Cashel,
    the history and the revenue of every king
    who travels proudly the land of Munster.
  2. It is prescribed here that the King of Cashel
    shall be head over all for ever,
    by sentence of the blessing of God Almighty,
    the altar of Patrick son of Calprann.
  3. Cashel to be head over all except
    Patrick and the King of the Stars,
    the Emperor of the world and the Son of God—
    save for them he is entitled to supremacy.
  4. When the high-king of Cashel
    with his law is not king over noble Ireland,
    the territory of mighty Éber
    is his from Áth Cliath to Tech nDuinn.
  5. The fair kindred of the Osraige
    is free of his claim,
    because they were given as a good ransom
    to the king of Cashel with his law.
  6. It is the duty of the king of the fierce Laigin
    to send horses and horns to lofty Cashel:
    gold and wealth from beyond the sea
    are due from the Laigin.
  7.  p.21
  8. The Laigin are bound to go with them
    against the Foreigners in every fight;
    if the invasion should come to the Laigin,
    the king of Cashel must drive it off.
  9. The king of fair Cashel is entitled
    to three hundred suits of cloth at Samain,
    and to fifty roan steeds
    for each battalion.
  10. So that children and women may know,
    since it concerns them (?),
    there is due from the king of the Foreigners
    that much for admitting (?) them to their land.
  11. When the (other) half of the great island
    of the Sons of Míl is at peace with him,
    he is entitled to the rent of Connacht without concealment,
    for admitting (?) them into their strong half.
  12. The tribute due, no falsehood,
    is fifty oxen, a hundred and fifty cows,
    fifty horses—wonderful bounty,
    a hundred cloaks from Umall.
  13. When the saints fasted
    against famous noble Tara,
    there came to the king of comely Cashel
    the blessing of Patrick, Calprann's son.
  14. Though it be a great reproach
    to fair Ireland, neither the Laigin
    nor Síl Cuind will have a house in Temair Fáil
    until one is built by Síl nÓluim.
  15. Though the history which I recount
    is good it is not cherished by the Laigin:
    the history of Oilill Ólom
    is not preserved by Leth Cuinn.
  16.  p.23
  17. I shall keep in venerable Cashel
    —choice musters in a conflict—
    the two provinces that are here apart,
    and their provision in one house.
  18. That house is spacious Munster,
    the two provinces are the people.
    It is right that the high kingship of Ireland
    should be in level Munster of many pledges.
  19. May there be corn and mast and wealth
    in level Munster with prosperity:
    mead and cups and ale and music are well known
    to the men of Munster.
  20. There are three kings in spacious Munster
    who pay no tribute to Cashel,
    the king of Gabrán whose hostages are not taken,
    the king of Raithlenn and the king of Loch Léin.
  21. There was found in the psalter of the God of power
    —I will not make it more nor less—
    that from Shrove to Easter—I will not conceal it—
    Benén was in Cashel.
  22. May Dál Cais not have cause to grieve,
    may they hold out against a host of...
    The Lord whom Benén served
    has made them numerous and noble.
  23. Let Selbach the wise and Aengus
    together enforce the profits of Munster
    as I shall declare them,
    and as Benén bestowed them.

 p.25
 4

Now these are the local (internal) tributes of Munster to Cashel, and they are paid every year, i.e. fine and refection and provision and protection. First, three hundred beeves from Múscraige and three hundred boars and three hundred cows. Then three hundred boars and three hundred mantles and a hundred milch cows from the Uaithne. Then a hundred cows, thirty boars, thirty beeves, and thirty cloaks from the Ara. Then sixty oxen, sixty wethers, and sixty cows from the Seventh. Then fifty cows and fifty oxen and fifty beeves from the Orbraige. Three hundred oxen and a hundred and fifty milch cows from Dáirfhine also. Thirty cows and thirty oxen and thirty cloaks from Corco Duibne. A thousand cows, a thousand oxen, and a thousand sows from Ciarraige. Seven hundred cloaks, seven hundred wethers, seven hundred cows, and seven hundred sows from Corco Baiscind. A hundred sheep, a hundred sows, a thousand oxen, and a thousand cloaks from Corcamruad. A thousand oxen, a thousand sheep, a thousand cloaks, and a thousand milch cows from the Déisi. A hundred cows from Orbraige, a hundred white cloaks and a hundred sows. Eóganacht pays no rent, for the lands which maintain Cashel belong to them. Clanna Cais do not pay, nor Raithlenn nor Glennamain nor Lén nor Uí Fidgente nor Áine Cliach. And about this the virtuous sage Benén made a poem:

  1. Have you heard the rent of Cashel
    to its champion from all,
    which its peoples pay
    each year for ever?
  2. Three hundred beeves from Múscraige
    on the land in truth, three hundred boars
    whose tusks are not yet yellow,
    a hundred cloaks and a hundred cows.
  3. Three hundred boars from the Uaithne
    to Cashel without default,
    three hundred mantles, it is well known,
    and a hundred strong milch cows.
  4.  p.27
  5. Thirty boars, make no mistake,
    thirty beeves, it is much,
    thirty cloaks from the fierce Ara,
    a hundred young cows for milk.
  6. Sixty oxen for a good week's feasting,
    sixty sleek black wethers,
    sixty clean cows from the fair
    Seventh to Cashel of the clerics.
  7. Fifty good cows from Orbraige,
    fifty beeves to be appraised,
    fifty oxen without...
    to Cashel without grudge.
  8. Three hundred oxen from Dáirfhine,
    from this community to their chief,
    six hundred milch cows all tawny,
    from the children of Mac Con.
  9. Thirty curly cloaks...
    —purple has dyed them—
    thirty good cows from Corco Duibne,
    thirty oxen from Drung.
  10. Seven hundred sows from Ciarraige,
    seven hundred cows in sooth,
    seven hundred oxen openly
    for Cashel of the hosts.
  11. Seven hundred cloaks from Corco Baiscinn,
    seven hundred wethers in fleece,
    seven hundred cows from ...
    seven hundred fat sows.
  12. The territory of Corcamruad
    owes a hundred sheep, a hundred sows,
    a thousand oxen from the brown Burren,
    a thousand coloured cloaks.
  13.  p.29
  14. A thousand oxen from the Déisi,
    a thousand good sheep,
    a thousand white-fringed cloaks,
    a thousand cows after calving.
  15. A hundred cows from the men of Orbraige
    are given to him,
    a hundred white cloaks to bright Cashel,
    a hundred sows for the sty.
  16. There is owed by the Eóganacht
    neither rent nor food-
    render with zeal, for the lands which maintain
    pleasant Cashel belong to them.
  17. They are not entitled to the rent
    of Cashel of the wolf-packs from Clann Chais;
    they are not entitled to it
    from Glennamain nor from mighty Raithlenn.
  18. They are not entitled to it from the warriors
    of Lén nor from fierce Gabair;
    they are not entitled to it
    from Uí Fidginte nor from lofty Áine.
  19. Remember every month
    the handsome revenue of great Cashel;
    no-one is prince of Munster
    who does not demand the rent.
  20. I am Benén of the sweet tongue,
    excellent sage of tradition (?)
    I have received a wonderful dwe1ling.
    Give to Cashel its rent.

 5

The stipends given by the king of Cashel to the kings of his tribes: First, a place at his side, and ten horses, ten suits, two bracelets, and two sets of chess to the king of Dál Cais; and to lead with him an expedition into another territory and to return at the rear.

 p.31

Then ten horses, ten horns, ten swords, ten shields, ten hides, two bracelets, and two sets of chess to the king of Gabrán. Ten horses, ten slaves, ten women, and ten horns to the king of the Eóganachta when he is not king of Cashel. Eight slaves, eight women, eight swords, eight horses, eight shields, and ten ships to the king of the Déisi. Five horses, five cloaks, five horns, and five swords to the king of Uí Liatháin. Ten horses, ten horns, ten shields, ten swords, and ten coats of mail to the king of Raithlenn. Seven horses, seven tunics, seven hounds, and seven coats of mail to the king of Múscraige. Seven swords, seven horns, seven coats of mail, seven ships, and seven horses to the king of Dáirfhine. Seven hounds, seven horses, and seven horns to the king of Dairbre of the mountain. Seven horses, seven horns, seven swords, seven shields, and seven hounds to the king of Loch Léin. Seven women, seven cloaks trimmed with gold, seven cups, and seven horses to the king of Ciarraige Luachra. Seven horses, seven shields, seven swords, seven ships, and seven coats of mail to the king of Léim in Chon. Ten horses to the king of Uí Chonaill Gabra, and ten shields, ten swords, and ten horns; and no hostages from him, but an oath under the hand of the king of Cashel. Seven horses to the king of Uí Chairpri, and seven horns, seven swords, seven lads, and seven slaves. Eight horns to the hero of Cliu, and eight swords, eight horses, two bracelets, and two sets of chess. Seven horses, seven horns, seven shields, and seven swords to the king of Glennamain. Eight horses, eight swords, and eight horns, with the grades of prince and high king to the king of the Uaithne. Eight horses to the king of Éile, eight shields, eight swords, eight horns, and eight coats of mail.

Those are the stipends of the kings as the poet Benén tells:

  1. Scholar of great Munster,
    if you are mindful of the Canon,
    arise and maintain in his house the right
    of the king of Cashel from his territories.
  2. In the van with him into another country
    is the king of Dál Cais—do not conceal it;
    at the rear of the kings are the musical Dál Cais
    when coming out of a strange country.
  3.  p.33
  4. Ten horses to the king of famous Gabrán
    from the king of Dala and ten horns,
    ten swords, ten shields, ten hides,
    two bracelets, and two sets of chess.
  5. Ten slaves, ten strong women,
    and ten drinking horns and ten horses
    to the king of Eóganacht unless Cashel
    of the captives be his.
  6. Eight slaves, eight swarthy women
    and ten ships to the king of the Déisi,
    eight shields, eight swords for smiting,
    and eight horses from over the sea.
  7. Five horses, five mantles trimmed with gold,
    and five drinking horns,
    five swords for slaying,
    to the warrior king of Uí Liatháin.
  8. Ten horses to the king of mighty Raithlenn,
    ten horns from the king of stalwart Cashel,
    ten shields, ten valiant swords,
    ten martial coats of mail.
  9. Seven horses, seven red tunics,
    seven hounds for hunting, seven coats of mail
    for the day of battle,
    to the man whom the Múscraige obey.
  10. Seven swords, seven curved horns,
    seven coats of mail, seven ships,
    seven horses to the mound of the kin of seers,
    to the king of Dáirfhine in the south.
  11. Seven hounds for... of deer,
    seven horses is the next reckoning,
    seven horns for holding a refection
    to the king of Dairbre of the goodly mountain.
  12.  p.35
  13. even horses to the king of Loch Léin,
    seven horns, seven swords from afar,
    seven shields, their modest reckoning,
    seven handsome hounds to Irluachair.
  14. Seven mantles with fringes of gold
    and seven horns for drinking,
    seven horses...
    to the king of Ciarraige of the conflict.
  15. Seven horses to the warrior of Léim in Chon,
    seven shields with the brilliance of the sun,
    seven curved swords of battle,
    seven ships, seven coats of mail.
  16. Six horses to the king of Corcamruad,
    six swords for smiting hosts, six horns,
    six shields shall he receive,
    six handsome white hounds.
  17. Ten horses to the king of Uí Chonaill Gabra,
    ten shields, ten valiant swords,
    ten horns in his gloomy(?) fort
    without hostages from him or pledges.
  18. Seven horses to the king of Bruig Ríg,
    seven horns out of which he may drink wine,
    seven swords, it is a welcome provision,
    seven lads, seven female slaves.
  19. Seven horns to the hero of Áine,
    seven swords, no furtive contract,
    seven horses to that warrior in his time,
    two rings and two sets of chess.
  20. Seven horses, seven horns to the swift warrior,
    to the high king of the Forthuatha,
    seven shields, seven swords for battle
    are given to the king of Glennamain.
  21.  p.37
  22. Seven horses to the king of the Uaithne,
    seven swords, it is a clever contract,
    seven horns for their companies,
    who are entitled to be in the noble ranks of the high king.
  23. Eight horses to the king of Éle of the gold,
    eight shields, eight swords, it is just,
    eight horns, he holds them ready at a feast,
    eight coats of mail for the day of valour.
  24. That is the stipend of each king
    from the king of Cashel with a hundred cares;
    the hand of Benén has preserved it.
    Cherish it, thou scholar!

 6

This is the just duty and division of those stipends from the king of Cashel to the kings of tribes and territories according to the revenue of their land and kindred, by virtue of claim and heritage and according to the benefit of rank and nobility, according to the amount of their strength and suzerainty, the numbers of their foray and hosting, and according to convenience, moderation, seniority, and reckoning of estates and dignity. It is according to these that their stipends are awarded to them, following the doctrine of learned men and historians, as Benén said here:

  1. Here is a tradition, pleasant series,
    which will be unknown unless it be learned,
    the stipend of the king of righteous Cashel
    to his gentle kings first.
  2. When Dál Cais has not the kingship
    over the children of fierce Eógan,
    he shall be at the side of the king
    of fair Cashel though his guests be many.
  3. Ten gilded horns each Samain,
    thirty swords, a wonderful covenant,
    thirty fine horses hither
    to the fair-haired king of Dál Cais.
  4.  p.3
  5. The active king of Osraige is entitled
    to his claim from two kings,
    two choice stipends every year
    to his homestead.
  6. The king of Osraige with great prosperity
    is entitled to ten shields and ten swords
    and ten horses over the great plains
    from the king of Tara in the north.
  7. The king of Osraige with lofty pride
    is entitled to ten shields,
    ten swords in justice, and two bracelets
    of pure gold from the king of firm Cashel.
  8. The stipend of the king of the Déisi
    from the king of Cashel, examine it,
    is a gold-hilted sword, a famous horse,
    and a ship fully rigged.
  9. The warrior king of Uí Liatháin
    is entitled to no mean stipend:
    the shield of the king of Cashel,
    a handsome sword, a horse and harness from over the sea.
  10. The petty king of Mag Fian is entitled
    to a horse from the king of Cashel and a bridle;
    the valiant king of Fermoy is entitled
    to a shield and a handsome sword.
  11. The clan of Cairpre Músc of great renown,
    their king is entitled to a stipend:
    the shield of the fierce king of Cashel,
    his horse and his leashed hound.
  12. The prosperous king of Raithlenn—
    it is a generous stipend—is entitled
    to ten swords and ten horns,
    ten purple cloaks and ten blue cloaks.
  13.  p.41
  14. The king of brown Dáirfine is entitled
    to three swords which defend spoils,
    three ships and three coats of mail
    from the king of contending Cashel.
  15. The stipend of the valiant king of Drong
    from the king of Ireland is not to be despised,
    three swords, curved and slender,
    and three fair ships.
  16. The stipend of the king of Loch Léin
    from the king of Ireland of noble mind:
    ten brown steeds, ten ships,
    and ten coats of mail.
  17. The stipend of the king of Feórann Flainn
    from the descendants of Oilill Ólom:
    ten harnessed horses from the stud
    and his fine satin hood.
  18. The stipend of the king of Léim in Chon
    from the king of Cashel, it is a happy agreement,
    his worthy ship brightly coloured,
    a horse, a sword, a splendid horn.
  19. The stipend of the king of fair Gabrán
    from the great king of pleasant Munster:
    as long as he rules in his mighty house,
    the king is entitled to sit beside him.
  20. When he goes to his own house,
    he is entitled to a horse and ready harness,
    and to a horse and harness for each man
    of those with whom he goes east.
  21. The stipend of the king of Bruig Ríg
    from the king of Ireland without anxiety:
    ten dark red tunics
    and ten foreigners who know not Irish.
  22.  p.43
  23. The stipend of the king of lofty Áine
    from the king of Cashel whose sword is fierce:
    his shield and his bright sword
    and thirty cows each Beltaine.
  24. The stipend of the king of the Uaithne
    from the king of Cashel, it is clever,
    six shields and six fine swords
    and six horses of the choicest.
  25. The king of pleasant Araid
    is entitled from the king of Ireland
    of gentle countenance to six swords,
    six prized shields, and six purple mantles.
  26. The stipend of the king of golden Éle
    from the festive king of Cashel:
    six shields, six fine swords,
    six slaves, and six woman-slaves.
  27. He will be a sage or a venerable ollam—
    Mac Cuilennáin has promised it—
    he is not needy in his time,
    whosoever shall have memorized this as it is.

 7

Of the Strongholds of the Kings of Cashel Brug Ríg, Muilched, fair Senchua, Ros Ruada, Cluain Uama, Cathair Chnuis, Cathair Findabrach, Cathair Thuaigi, Cathair Glennamnach, Cathair Chind Chon, Dún Fir Aencholca, Dún nGair, Cathair Methais, Temair Shuba, Ardbile, Aenach mBerráin, Mag Caille, Ard Conaill, Ard Meic Conaind, Ard Ruidi, Tuaiscert Maigi, Mag Saíre, the three Arans on the ocean, Aenach Cairpri, Druim Mór, Druim Caín, Cathair Chuirc, Murbolcan, Geibtine, Grafann, Aill Meic Cuirr, Mag nAí, Mag nEtarbÁine, Uachtmag,  p.45 Caechán Boirne, Murmag, Mag nEnaig, Tuaim nEtain, Mag nAsail, Eibliu, Ucht na Rígna, Cuillenn, Cua, Cláire, Indeoin, Áine, Ord, Uillenn Etan, Loch Cend, Cend Nathrach, Rafann, Druim Caín, Druim Fíngin, Treda na Ríg, Ráith Eirc, Ráith Fhaelad, Ráith Arda, Ráith Droma Deilge, Benntraige, Crecraige, Orbraige, Uí Chuirp. And of them the glorious Benén sang:

  1. That the eric of Fergus
    Scandal may be briefly known,
    you have the substance of the knowledge,
    from the Nore to Dún nDreasa.
  2. The eric of king Fergus
    in riches and land,
    they thought Laigin Desgabair
    as far as the sea enough for slaying him.
  3. To powerful Cashel belongs
    Brug Ríg and great Muilched,
    fair Senchua, bright Ros Ruada,
    and noble Cluain Uama too.
  4. Cathair Chnuis, Cathair Fhindabrach,
    Cathair Thuaigi with its prosperity,
    Cathair Glennamnach, Cathair Chind Chon,
    Dún Fir Aencholca, Dún nGair.
  5. Cathair Methais, Temair Shuba,
    Airbile prosperous and gay,
    Aenach mBerrán, fair Mag Caille,
    Ard Conaill for the use of troops.
  6. Ard Meic Conaing and Ard Ruidi,
    Tuaiscert Maige, a bracken­covered plain,
    Mag Saíre which crowds frequent,
    with the three Arans in the ocean.
  7. Aenach Cairpri, Druim Mór,Druim Caín,
    Cathair Chuirc which overlooks the sea,
    Murbolcan Geibtine, Grafann,
    his is the whole of Aill Meic Cuir.
  8.  p.47
  9. Mag nAí, Mag nEtarba,
    Uachtmag, Caechán Boirne ever for the king,
    Murmag, Mag nEnaig Rosa,
    Tuaim nEitin...
  10. Asal, Eibliu, Ucht na Rígna,
    the fort in which followers abound,
    Cuillenn, Cua, Cláire,
    Inneóin, Áine and Ord.
  11. Uillenn Etan, Loch Cenn,
    Cend Nathrach of the flocks (?),
    Rafann truly, Druim Caín, Druim Fíngin of the wood,
    even Treda na Ríg is his.
  12. Ráith Eirc, Ráith Faelad,
    Ráith Arda, and Ráith Droma Deilge
    in the south, Benntraige, Crecraige,
    Orbraige and Uí Chuirp, this is what is known.

Of the profits of Connaeht as Benén tells

 1

The rents and stipends of Connacht: the great rent of Connacht first of all in maintenance and attendance at Cruachain. From Umall the rents of Connacht are paid to Cruachain first: a hundred cows and a hundred boars and a hundred mantles, that is from Umall. A hundred oxen and a hundred milch cows and sixty swine and sixty cloaks, that is from the Crecraige. Two hundred and forty cloaks and two hundred cows and one hundred and twenty swine, that is from Conmaicne. A hundred cows and a hundred oxen, that is from the Ciarraige. Sixty crimson cloaks and sixty boars, that is also from the Ciarraige. Seven times fifty milch cows, a hundred and fifty boars and a hundred and fifty cloaks from the Luigne every  p.49 Beltaine, and a hundred and fifty oxen; and that is not on account of inferior status of the tribesmen but on account of the inferior status of the grazing and land. A hundred and forty cows and seven times fifty ingots of iron, three hundred and fifty swine and three hundred and fifty oxen, that is from the Cuirc. A hundred and fifty crimson cloaks and a hundred and fifty boars and a hundred and fifty oxen, that is from the Delbna in consideration for settling (?) them in their land. Seventy cloaks and seventy boars from Uí Máine on account of their land. Ua Briúin and Síl Muiredaig and Uí Fiachrach and Cenél nAeda are free tuatha and of equal status with the king, and they go not on an expedition or a muster save for a payment of cattle, and they go not into battle with the king save for pay; and if any such are brought and they happen to be killed, their king is entitled to their eric from the king (of the province); and when the Síl Fiachra or Síl nAeda or Síl Guaire do not hold the kingship, the noblest man of them present has the right to sit at the right of the king of Connacht. If he chance to be abroad in another territory, he is entitled to sit beside the king of Cashel or the king of Naas or the king of Emain Macha. And it is of them that the virtuous and heroic Benén sang:

  1. Hear a tradition that is not lowly
    of the high king of Connacht whose sword is powerful,
    what he is entitled to in that country
    of his for his honour, for his honour-price.
  2. The great rent of Connacht to Cruachain
    without disrespect from the goodly tribes,
    everyone from whom he is entitled,
    appropriate rule, to maintenance and attendance.
  3. A hundred cows of lasting fame,
    a hundred fat boars, a hundred mantles,
    splendid gift,
    from Umall to the king of Connacht.
  4. I shall tell the high rent
    of the Crecraige to the king of Connacht,
    for I know it, a hundred oxen of good colour
    to the king of Connacht and Cruachain.
  5.  p.51
  6. Sixty swine, it is a great stipulation,
    and sixty royal cloaks,
    a hundred milch cows hither from
    the Crecraige of the pleasant woods.
  7. Twelve score good cloaks,
    two hundred cows without error,
    six score swine, a firm demand,
    are due from the Conmaicne.
  8. A hundred cows of great fame,
    a hundred oxen, from the Ciarraige,
    a hard stipulation, to be given
    to the king of Connacht.
  9. Sixty pure red cloaks, sixty long boars
    from the Ciarraige,
    a hard judgement,
    assembled in one place.
  10. There are due from the Luigne
    without fault to be brought to the camp
    three hundred and fifty milch cows hither,
    to be rendered each Beltaine.
  11. A hundred and fifty boars, it is profit,
    to reach him every Samain,
    a hundred and fifty rich cloaks to
    the king of Connacht and Cruachain.
  12. Of the same tribute, it is handed down,
    without injustice or oppression,
    a hundred and fifty oxen are brought hither
    one day to supply the husbandry.
  13. Though the Luigne bring hither
    their tribute for their land,
    it is not the Luigne who are subject to it,
    but the grass and the land.
  14.  p.53
  15. The rent of the Corcraige without hardship
    to be given each time to the king of Mag nAí
    of the horses is seven score cows,
    no unjust judgement.
  16. Three hundred and fifty ingots of iron,
    three hundred and fifty noisy swine,
    three hundred and fifty oxen, appropriate rule,
    are given to the king of Connacht.
  17. A hundred and fifty purple cloaks,
    it has been heard, without untruth or error,
    that amount is due from the Delbna
    to the king of Connacht in Cruachain.
  18. A hundred and fifty boars without default,
    a hundred and fifty oxen of good colour,
    from the Delbna alone, it is no lie;
    their tribute must be maintÁined.
  19. It is not on account of inferior status
    of the people, were it not for the grass-rich land:
    they would not bring tribute hither
    except on account of their country.
  20. The great tribute of the Uí Máine
    to the Plain is remembered by every senchaid:
    seventy cloaks, it is no lie,
    seventy boars, a numerous flock.
  21. Though the fair tribute is brought
    from Uí Máine to the great Plain,
    it is on account of their land yonder
    that the tribute must be rendered.
  22. The free tribes of Connacht
    of the clans owe no service in battle:
    Uí Briúin in their ships across the sea,
    Síl Muiredaig of the households;
  23.  p.55
  24. Uí Fiachrach of the great plain,
    Cenél nAeda, it is no wrong,
    they owe neither tribute nor tax
    to be given to the king of Connacht.
  25. Those tribes that owe no fitting tribute,
    if one should wish to tell their privilege,
    it is a like inheritance for them all,
    whichever of them it be to whom the kingship may fall.
  26. If any of them go into battle
    with the king of Connacht and Cruachain,
    and he be killed by spears in the fight,
    payment of his eric is due.
  27. For none of them is obliged
    to go into battle or conflict
    with the king of Connacht of handsome wealth,
    unless it be for payment.
  28. When the kingship is not north with Síl nAeda,
    or the tribe of glorious Guaire,
    they are entitled, no mean hospitality,
    to sit beside the high king of Connacht.
  29. If it should happen to one of them
    to leave his country through injustice,
    each one of their kings is entitled
    to a place beside each fair provincial king.
  30. Well did Benén find
    this exact knowledge, it is correct.
    I shall tell how all that is.
    O noble people, listen!

 2

Here are the stipends of the tribes of Connacht from the high­king of Cruachu. For it is on account of land and stipend that they pay the rent, and not on account of lowliness of race, for their freemen on both sides are akin in this case. And it is for that reason

 p.57

that sovereignty and kingship pass from one branch to the other unless an impediment of kin-slaughter or oppression (?) of saints or denial of baptism (apostasy) prevents it, and sovereignty thus passes away from them; and then they are under service of rent and accept a stipend from the household which does not renounce or reject God.

The prince of Síl Muiredaig is entitled to the bracelet and battledress of the king of Connacht, and his shield and his sword and his coat of mail. Five horses and five swords and five ships and five coats of mail to the king of Umall. Six shields, six swords, six horses, six tunics, and six horns to the king of [Delbna. Six weapons, six tunics, six slaves, six women, and six coats of mail to the king of] Crecraige. Two bracelets, two chess-games, ten horns, and ten horses to the king of Conmaicne. Seven cloaks, seven tunics, seven horses, and seven hounds to the king of Uí Maine. Ten horses, ten cloaks, ten horns, and ten hounds to the king of Luigne. Five horses, five mantles, five swords, ten horns, ten slaves, and ten chess-games to the king of Uí Briúin. Five horses, five mantles, five swords, and five coats of mail to the king of the Cuirc. Three horns, three swords, three horses, ten bracelets, and ten chess-games to the king of the northern Uí Fhiachrach. Seven slaves, seven bondwomen, seven horns, three swords, and three dogs to the king of Cenél nAeda. Three tunics, three horns, and three horses to the king of Partraige. Thus are estimated the benefits of the tribal kings of Connacht, and of them Benén sang this:

  1. The stipends of the kings of Connacht
    I saw in a handsome book, what the king of Connacht,
    leader of the great host,
    gives to his tribes in the north.
  2. The best man of Síl Muredaig is entitled
    to receive from the king bracelet,
    battle-dress, horse, shield, sword,
    and coat of mail.
  3.  p.59
  4. The king of Umall is entitled
    without condition to five speedy horses
    in his country, five pointed swords of battle,
    five ships, five coats of mail.
  5. The king of Delbna from Druim Léith
    is entitled to six swords, six shields,
    six horses, six tunics embroidered with gold,
    and six drinking horns.
  6. The king of fair Crecraige is entitled
    to six weapons, six tunics,
    six slaves, six bond-women,
    and six coats of mail.
  7. The righteous king of Conmaicne
    is entitled to ten horns on entering
    his drinking chamber, ten swift horses to mount,
    two bracelets, and two sets of chess.
  8. The famous king of Uí Maine
    is entitled to seven cloaks,
    seven horses to cross the glen,
    seven hunting' dogs, and seven scarlet tunics.
  9. The king of Luigne of the warriors
    is entitled to ten horses, ten cloaks
    —no idle talk—ten horns for drinking mead,
    ten fair glossy hounds.
  10. The renowned king of Uí Briúin is entitled
    to five horses, five mantles, five swords,
    ten curved horns, ten slaves,
    and ten chess­games.
  11. The king of the Cuirc from the forest
    is entitled to five horses, five mantles,
    five swords that have not bent against a bone,
    five coats of mail to ward off spears.
  12.  p.61
  13. The king of Partraige, the stronghold,
    is entitled to three horns,
    three swords as his share (?), three tunics,
    and three horses from the king of Cruachu without concealment.
  14. Three cups to the king of Uí Fhiachrach,
    three swords for victory in a skirmish,
    three horses in Aidne of the ale-feasts,
    ten bracelets, and ten sets of chess.
  15. The king of Cenél nAeda is entitled
    to seven slaves, seven bond-women,
    three horns, three swords,
    and three dogs for his hunting-mound in the forest.
  16. Those are the stipends of the tribes
    of Connacht and Cruachu
    from the king of Mag nAi of the oxen,
    such as are entitled to a stipend.

These are the rents of the…

These are the rents of the king of Ailech and his stipend: his rents from the tribes, and the stipend he bestows upon them.

 1

A hundred sheep, a hundred cloaks, a hundred cows, and a hundred boars to him from the Cuilennraige. Thirty boars, thirty cows, and thirty wethers from Tuath Rátha. Three hundred boars, three hundred cows, three hundred wethers from Fir Luirg. Three hundred cows, three hundred beeves, a hundred flitches from the king of Uí Fhiachrach. A hundred beeves, a hundred cows, a hundred boars, and fifty cloaks from Uí Meic Caírthainn. Three hundred boars, three hundred cows, three hundred beeves from the Ciannachta of Glenn Gemin. A thousand milch cows, a hundred beeves, fifty oxen, fifty boars from Fir Lí. A hundred milch cows, fifty boars, fifty cloaks from Uí Thuirtri. A hundred beeves, a hundred  p.63 milch cows, fifty cloaks from Fir Maige Ítha. The free tribes of Ailech are Tulach Óg, Craeb, Mag nÍtha, Inis Eógain and Cenél Conaill. And of them the sage, Benén mac Sescnéin, sang:

  1. Listen to the rights of the king of Ailech
    amidst his proud forests:
    he is entitled to cattle, a handsome rent,
    from both free families and vassal-tribes.
  2. A hundred sheep, a hundred cloaks,
    a hundred cows, and a hundred boars
    is his tribute from warlike Cuilennraige—
    to the king of Ailech by their labour (?).
  3. Thirty boars from Tuath Rátha,
    thirty cows with rich milk, thirty wethers
    in the yellow month the king of Ailech
    is entitled to all of them.
  4. Three hundred boars from Fir Luirc,
    three hundred cows, no small feat,
    three hundred live wethers to the king
    of Ailech of the spacious house.
  5. From the king of Uí Fhiachrach he is entitled
    to three hundred cows, no wordy boast,
    a hundred beeves, and a hundred heavy flitches
    to the king of Febal of the level ships.
  6. A hundred beeves from Uí Meic Caírthainn
    and a hundred boars—it is not trifling—
    fifty cows, a lawful measure,
    fifty cloaks with white borders.
  7. Three hundred boars ...,
    three hundred cows to feed an army,
    three hundred beeves, the spoil of war,
    from the pros­perous Ciannachta.
  8.  p.65
  9. A thousand milch cows from Fir Lí,
    a hundred beeves, true judgement,
    fifty oxen,
    and fifty heavy boars.
  10. A hundred milch cows from the Uí Thuirtre,
    fifty flitches, fifty boars,
    and fifty coloured cloaks
    from Dún na Huidre on one day.
  11. A hundred beeves from Fir Muige,
    a hundred tawny milch cows,
    fifty cloaks is the rent assigned
    to the bold king of Ailech.
  12. No tax is due from Tulach Óg
    to the king of Febal of the swards,
    for kingship over the Men of Ireland
    may come from their strong country.
  13. No rent is due from An Chraeb
    to the gracious king of Ailech;
    no tax or thrall is due from
    Mag nÍtha for their fair lands.
  14. No rent which is not gratuitous is due
    from Inis Eógain to the high-king;
    Cland Chonaill owes no rent
    nor service nor wool.
  15. Those are the taxes of the king of Ailech.
    He is no sage who is not aware of them.
    The king who will not maintain his right
    is entitled neither to kingship nor to rule.

 2

These are the payments and stipends from the king of Ailech to his tribes and kindreds for refection and escort. The king of Ailech, when he is not king of Ireland, is himself entitled to sit beside the king of Ireland at a drinking-bout and at an assembly and to precede the king of Ireland at transactions, councils, and petitions. He is  p.67 entitled to fifty swords, fifty shields, fifty slaves, fifty suits of armour, and fifty horses. That is for the king of Ailech.

He distributes his stipend thus: five shields, five swords, five horns, five women, five slaves, and five horses to the king of Cairpre Droma Cliab. Five shields, five slaves, five women, and five swords to the king of Cenél nAeda Easa Ruaid. Six horses, six shields, six swords, six horns, six blue cloaks, and six green cloaks to the king of Cenél mBógaine. Five horses, five shields, five swords, five cloaks, and five coats of mail to the king of Cenél nÉnda. Seven women, seven slaves, seven horses, and seven swords to the king of Cenél Lugdach. Seven slaves, seven women, seven swords, and seven horns to the king of Inis Eógain. Six horses, six horns, six swords, six shields, and six hounds to the king of Mag nÍtha. Three horses, three shields, three swords, three horns to the king of Uí Fhiachrach Arda Sratha. Three horses, three shields, three swords, and three horns to the king of Fir Luirg. Three horses, three shields, three swords, and three green cloaks to the king of Aín Chraeb. Three women, three mantles, and three tunics to the king of Uí Meic Caírthinn. Three horses, three shields, three horns, and three swords to the king of Ciannachta Glenna Gemin. Six slaves, six horses, and six shields to the king of Fir Lí. Three women, three slaves, and three horses to the king of Uí Thuirtre. Fifty slaves, fifty suits of armour, fifty cloaks, and fifty coats of mail to the king of Tulach Óg. And of that distribution and division Benén sang:

  1. O Man, if you were to travel north
    across Mag nÍtha of the firm borders,
    tell the stipend of each one from the king
    of Ailech of the gentle brow.
  2. When he is not king of noble Ireland,
    the king of Ailech, rich in tribute,
    is entitled to sit by the faultless side
    of the king of Ireland of the hills.
  3. Fifty swords, fifty shields,
    fifty slaves—a heavy debt—fifty suits
    of armour, fifty horses to the king
    of Ailech of high judgement.
  4.  p.69
  5. His prosperous kings are entitled
    to stipends and gifts
    from the warlike king of Ailech
    after the toil of a hard journey.
  6. Five shields, five swords, five horns,
    five horses, and five women of high spirit
    to the king of Cairpre Droma Cliab
    from the king of Ailech of the gold bridles.
  7. The king of Cenél nAeda is entitled
    to five shields, five slender swords,
    five slaves from beyond the sea,
    and five fair women.
  8. The king of Cenél mBógaine is entitled
    to six cavalry horses, six shields,
    six swords, six horns, six green cloaks,
    and six blue cloaks.
  9. The king of Cenél nÉnna is entitled
    to five fine strong horses, five shields,
    five swords for battle, five mantles,
    and five coats of mail.
  10. The king of Cenél Lugdach is entitled
    to seven swords for hard smiting, seven women,
    seven slaves right soon,
    seven noble horses for the champion.
  11. The king of Inis Eógain is entitled
    to seven slaves—no great bounty—seven horses,
    seven women from over the great sea,
    seven fair horns for the drinking feast.
  12. The king of Mag nÍtha is entitled
    to six fine horses from abroad, six horns,
    six swords, six hounds, six white shields
    to hang on his walls (?).
  13.  p.71
  14. The king of fair Uí Fhiachrach is entitled
    to three fine horses at his goodly pool,
    three shields, three horns,
    and three swords from the martial king of Ailech.
  15. The warrior king of Fir Luirg is entitled
    to three fine horses across the heather,
    three shields, three pointed swords,
    and three brown horns.
  16. The king of An Chraeb is entitled
    to wealth, three sound horses are his payment,
    with three shields, three swords for battle,
    and three green cloaks.
  17. The king of Uí Meic Caírthinn is entitled
    to three tunics with gold borders,
    three fine mantles as payment,
    three worthy slave-women.
  18. The king of Glenn Gemin is entitled,
    in sooth, to three brown horses,
    three shields, three horns,
    and three swords every year from the king of Ailech.
  19. The king of Fir Lí of the lake
    is entitled to six shields, six swords for battle,
    six horses, proud and slender,
    and six hard­working slaves.
  20. The king of Uí Thuirtre in the north
    is entitled to three spirited cavalry horses,
    three graceful women,
    and three slaves.
  21. The strong king of Tulach Óc
    is entitled to fifty prosperous slaves
    on the highway, fifty swords, fifty horses,
    fifty mantles, and fifty coats of mail.
  22.  p.73
  23. Here is the tradition of Síl Néill.
    I record it plainly in a book.
    The hand of Benén with due regard
    wrote it, O man!

The tradition of the Airgialla

 1

The Airgialla are bound only to a hosting of three fortnights with the high-king of Ireland every third year, and they do not go in Spring or in Autumn, and seven cumals are paid for each man lost on that hosting, and only one seventh of every restitution from them and they do not pay for a theft they commit, but they swear the robber's oath, and their surety is not held in fetter or chain, but he swears under the king's hand, and if he absconds thereafter, he does not inherit on earth or in heaven.

They are entitled moreover to a third of every levy from the king of Ailech, and a third of that third belongs to the line of Colla Mend. And the seat of the king of Airgialla is beside the seat of the king of Tailtiu, and the distance of it is so that the sword of the king of Airgialla may reach the tip of the cup-bearer's hand. And it is his privilege to receive every third horn that comes to the king of Tara. His queen is entitled to the same privilege. And for them Benén sang this:

  1. Listen to a law that ye shall hear,
    the tradition which we relate,
    the high covenant of the Airgialla
    with the kings of Ireland.
  2.  p.75
  3. There is due from the Airgialla
    according to rule
    three fort­nights hosting
    every three years.
  4. They do not go in Spring,
    as I have heard,
    nor at the beginning of Autumn
    at the approach of the harvest.
  5. Seven hundred is their muster
    on going forth from their tribes;
    seven hundred séts are given them
    in return for the hosting.
  6. A hosting across the Airgialla
    without giving sureties,
    seven cumals to them
    for it on the morrow.
  7. If they kill cattle
    during a hosting,
    only the seventh part of restitution
    is given by them.
  8. If a charge be made of crimes
    for which a prisoner is fettered,
    there is due from them only
    the robber's oath.
  9. A hostage of the Airgialla,
    though he go, it is likewise,
    only the oath of a hostage
    without lock or chain.
  10. If the hostage abscond
    as a churl absconds,
    he will not be chosen on earth
    nor blessed in heaven.
  11.  p.77
  12. There is due to the king of Airgialla
    throughout sea-girt Ireland
    from lawful (?)
    kings a third of every levy.
  13. A third of that third—truly...
    —belongs to Colla Menn,
    the young prince of the Collas.
  14. When the men of Ireland assemble
    to the brilliant gathering,
    the seat of the king of Airgialla
    is at the right hand of the king of Tailtiu.
  15. The distance of that seat
    —truly it is no errors—is so that
    his hardy sword shall reach
    the spencer of the goodly fort.
  16. The king of Airgialla
    beyond every tribal chieftain
    is entitled to every third horn of ale
    at the right hand of the king of Tara.
  17. His queen without falsehood or illusion
    is entitled to the same allowance from the other queen.
  18. We pray the Creator of all living things,
    the wonderful supreme King. Listen.

 2

Here are the stipend of the king of Airgialla from the king of Ireland, and the stipend of the tribes of the Airgialla from the king of Airgialla himself.

The king of Airgialla, first of all, is entitled to the status of free hostages for his hostages and to entrust them to the king of Tara,

 p.79

and to their clothing and food, and that they be in the counsels ] of the king; and it is failure for them, if they abscond from hostageship.

The king of Uí Nialláin first is entitled to three shields, three swords, three horns, and three horses from the king of Ireland. Five purple cloaks, five swords, and five horses to the king of Uí Bresail. Six cloaks, six shields, six swords, six horns, and six horses to the king of Uí Echach. Four horns, four swords, four shields, and four cloaks to the king of Uí Méith. Three cloaks, three shields, three swords, and three coats of mail to the king of Uí Dorthain. Six horses, six slaves, and six women to the king of Uí Briúin Ar Choill. Eight cloaks, eight horses, eight shields, eight swords, eight horns, and eight slaves to the king of Lemain and Uí Chremthaind and Síl nDuibthíre. Three horses, three shields, three swords, three cloaks, and three coats of mail to the king of Léithriu. Four horses, four slaves, four swords, and four shields to the king of Dartraige. Six horns, six shields, six swords, six women, and six sets of chess to the king of Fernmag. Five cloaks, five shields, five swords, five ships, and five coats of mail to the king of Fir Manach. Six slaves, six shields, six swords, six horns, and twelve cloaks to the king of Mugdorn and Ros. And it is to preserve that law and those benefits that Benén composed this:

  1. This difficulty rests upon the descendants of the Collas,
    the bright host of Liathdruim,
    that they do not know the amount of their stipend
    from the king of bright Fuaid.
  2. Here is the tradition—I shall relate it for you—
    of the descen­dants of gentle Cairpre:
    learn, people of Fál of the fiana,
    the handsome stipends of the Airgialla.
  3. The gracious king of Airgialla is entitled
    to freedom for his hostages—a noble compact—
    and to stipend and bestowal of gifts
    from the serene king of Ireland.
  4.  p.81
  5. Nine hostages to the king of Ireland on his circuit
    by consent of the king of Airgialla all together;
    they should be entrusted to the king of Tlachtga in the east
    without prison-cells or fetters.
  6. They should receive fitting raiment,
    a horse, a sword with guards of gold,
    proper rights of council and splendour in their surroundings (?)
    for the comely hostages of Airgialla.
  7. It is failure for them if they abscond;
    worse for the king who uses a fetter.
    Save that, no one has a claim
    upon the honoured king of Airgialla.
  8. Three shields, three swords, three horns,
    three horses, and three merry women
    to the king of Uí Nialláin of brilliant fame
    from the king of Ireland of cool lakes.
  9. The stipend of the king of Uí Bresail
    is five purple cloaks and a fine brooch (?),
    five shields, five fighting swords,
    and five swift horses of goodly colour.
  10. The king of noble Uí Echach
    is entitled to six purple fringed cloaks,
    six shields, six swords, six horns,
    and six grey horses with dark legs.
  11. The noble king of Uí Méith
    is entitled to four swords,
    four horns, four horses, and four blue cloaks
    from the king of Macha of the meetings.
  12. The stipend of the king of Uí Dorthain
    is three purple cloaks with fringe, three shields,
    three fighting swords, three mantles,
    and three coats of mail.
  13.  p.83
  14. The king of Uí Briúin ar Choill
    is entitled to six horses for keen pursuit,
    six stout slaves in payment,
    and six slave women to match them.
  15. The king of three tuaths in the country
    is entitled to another stipend from the king,
    Fir Lemna, Uí Chremthainn,
    and Síl nDuibthíre.
  16. Eight brown horses are due to him,
    eight purple fleecy cloaks, eight shields,
    eight swords, eight horns,
    and eight strong-fisted slaves.
  17. The king of Léithriu of the warriors
    is entitled to three fine horses,
    a prudent pledge, three shields, three fighting swords,
    three mantles, and three coats of mail.
  18. The king of Dartraige, a flame of valour,
    is entitled to four hardworking slaves,
    four swords hard in battle, four horses,
    and four golden shields.
  19. The king of fair Fernmag is entitled
    to six polished horns for ale, six shields,
    six curved swords, six fair women,
    and six sets of chess.
  20. The great king of Fir Manach is entitled
    to five cloaks with gold fringe,
    five shields, five fighting swords,
    five ships, and five coats of mail.
  21. The king of Mugdorn and Ros is entitled
    to six willing slaves, six swords,
    six shields, six horns, six purple cloaks,
    and six blue cloaks.
  22.  p.85
  23. Here is the tradition of the hosts
    whom Benén always loved:
    it is a great difficulty to all the learned,
    save him who is expert in testimony.

The wages and stipends of the Ulaid

 1

The king of the Ulaid first, when he is not himself king of Ireland, is entitled to sit beside the king of Ireland and to be first in his council and retinue so long as he is with the king of Ireland. And when they part, fifty swords, fifty horses, fifty cloaks, fifty hoods, fifty hides (?), fifty coats of mail, thirty bracelets, ten hounds, ten mantles, ten horns, ten ships, twenty handfuls of herbs, and twenty gulls' eggs to the king of the Ulaid—all of that every three years.

The king of the Ulaid distributes a stipend to his kings as follows: twenty horns, twenty swords, twenty hounds, twenty slaves, twenty horses, twenty cloaks, twenty matail, and twenty cumals from the king of the Ulaid to the king of Dál nAraide. Three horses, three slaves, three women, and three ships to the king of Dál Riata. Four ships, four slaves, and four horses to the king of the Airther. Six slaves, six horses, six horns, and six swords to the king of Uí Erca Chéin. Eight horns, eight horses, and eight slaves to the king of Dál mBuinde. Eight slaves, eight horses with silver bridles to the king of Uí Blaithmeic. Two bracelets, ten ships, ten horses, ten bridles, and ten hides(?) to the king of Duibthrian. Eight ships, eight slaves, eight horses, eight horns, and eight cloaks to the king of the Arda. Eight slaves, eight women, eight horses, and eight ships to the king of Leth Cathail. Three horses, three mantles, three horns, and  p.87 three hounds to the king of Boirche. Ten horns, ten swords, ten ships, and ten cloaks to the king of Coba. Six horns, ten ships, ten horses, and ten tunics to the king of Muirthemne. And it is to maintain those rights that Benén composed this:

  1. Here are the revenues of the Ulaid
    without penalty or bad origin,
    as stipends are paid yonder
    by the king of blessed Boirche.
  2. When he is not king of all Ireland,
    the king of the hard-smiting Ulaid is entitled,
    when in Tara of the steadings,
    to sit next to the king of Banba rich in cattle.
  3. Fifty swords, fifty shields,
    fifty cloaks, fifty grey horses,
    fifty hoods, fifty hides (?),
    and fifty well-fitting coats of mail;
  4. Thirty bracelets in truth,
    ten hounds and ten mantles,
    ten horns with handsome handles
    and ten fine ships;
  5. Twenty gull's eggs, twenty handfuls
    of herbs from the sea­shore,
    twenty bridles with splendid ornament
    of precious stones;
  6. That is the stipend to which the king
    of populous Cuailnge yonder is entitled
    every third year, no foolish boast,
    from the king of Fótla of heathy wastes.
  7. Twenty horns, twenty swords, twenty hounds
    —it is a burden—twenty slaves,
    care-free gaiety, and twenty horses
    used to hosting;
  8.  p.89
  9. Twenty cloaks, no small matter,
    twenty mantles of soft colour,
    twenty horns, and twenty women
    to the valiant king of Dál nAraide.
  10. The stipend of the king of Dál Riata
    is three black horses well trained,
    three women, three full-grown slaves,
    and three stout ships.
  11. The stipend of the king of the Airther
    is four slaves who will not kill (?),
    four fine brown horses,
    and four handsome ships.
  12. The king of Uí Erca Céin is entitled
    to six horses shining in the sun,
    six fighting swords, six horns,
    and six merry slaves.
  13. The king of bright Dál mBuinde is entitled
    to eight horns, eight cups, eight slaves,
    eight valuable women,
    and eight horses for racing.
  14. The stipend of the king of Uí Blaithmic
    is eight comely slaves...,
    eight horses from the mountains, not stolen,
    with bridles of old silver.
  15. The stipend of the king of fierce Duibthrian
    is two bracelets, ten horses,ten bridles,
    ten hides which a host cannot pierce (?),
    and ten ships on Loch Cuan.
  16. The stipend of the king of the Arda
    is eight foreign slaves,
    eight mettlesome horses, eight horns,
    eight cornered cloaks, and eight ships.
  17.  p.91
  18. The king of Leth Cathail is entitled
    to eight slaves without hardship, eight women,
    eight brown horses at his fort,
    eight curved horns for passing around.
  19. The valiant king of Boirche is entitled
    to three big horses of mettle,
    three cloaks, three horns,
    and three handsome pure white hounds.
  20. The stipend of the king of victorious Mag Coba is ten horns,
    ten wounding swords,
    ten ships which a host mans,
    and ten gold-bordered cloaks.
  21. The proud king of Muirthemne is entitled
    to six horns for drinking ale,
    ten ships for the warrior of Elga,
    ten horses, and ten red tunics.
  22. Remember every day and night
    the tradition of the kings
    of Cuailnge and Boirche.
    Benén in his time established those rights as they are.

 199d

2. The refections and rents of the tribes of the Ulaid

His first refection is in Ráith Mór Maige Line: that is three hundred beeves and three hundred cloaks from Line. A hundred and fifty oxen from Dál Riata and a hundred and fifty boars; a hundred and fifty cows, and a hundred and fifty cloaks from Semne. Two hundred boars and two hundred cows from the Lathairne. A hundred cows, a hundred cloaks, and a hundred wethers from Crotraige. A hundred cows, a hundred wethers, and a hundred boars from the Brétach. A hundred beeves, a hundred wethers, and a hundred boars from the Fortuatha. A hundred and fifty beeves and a hundred and fifty boars from the Monaig. Three hundred oxen and three hundred cows from Duibthrian. Three hundred boars and three hundred cloaks from Leth Cathail. That is his maintenance from the free tribes apart from his subject tribes.

 p.93

He has a right also to provision by them of milk, ale and needlework in plenty. And of this Benén sang as follows:

  1. I will proclaim, a noble story,
    the rights of the king of Emain
    and the Ulaid against his battalions
    on Mag Macha.
  2. Three hundred beeves from Mag Line,
    no rash saying,
    and three hundred cows,
    is the faultless judgement awarded by you.
  3. He is entitled to a hundred and fifty
    oxen from Dál Riata and
    a hundred and fifty fat pigs
    that have had no young.
  4. A hundred and fifty splendid cloaks from Semne
    —announce it to all—
    and a hundred and fifty fine cows
    of the herd...
  5. From the bare Lathairne, it is no lie,
    he is entitled to two hundred boars
    with curved tusks,
    and two hundred cows.
  6. From Crotraige of the ships are due
    —remember it—a hundred wethers,
    a hundred cows—may it be no bad herd!—
    and a hundred cloaks.
  7. A hundred wethers,
    a hundred cows from the Brétach,
    a harsh tale, a hundred boars
    in flocks, as I shall declare.
  8.  p.95
  9. A hundred wethers from the high Fortuatha,
    a hundred beeves, a hundred boars,
    if he renders them,
    and a hundred cloaks.
  10. A hundred and fifty beeves
    from the Monaig—let it not be slow—
    a hundred and fifty boars
    with straight ...
  11. Three hundred goodly oxen are due
    from Duibthrian,
    and three hundred cows with their ...
    to the king.
  12. Three hundred boars from the tribes of Cathal
    —it is not hard—and three hundred
    goodly cloaks well coloured
    are due in the north.
  13. Those are his rents to maintain him.
    Hear ye, apart from
    the common people,
    what are his rights.

The rights of the king of Tara

 1

When the king of Tara is not king of Ireland, he is entitled to a hundred swords, a hundred shields, a hundred horses, a hundred coloured cloths, and a hundred coats of mail. That is from the king of Ireland to the king of Tara. Now from the king of Tara to his kings and to the tribes of Meath : twenty horns, twenty swords, twenty slaves, and twenty hounds to the king of Brega. Five shields, five swords, five cloaks, five horses, and five hounds to the

 p.97

king of Mag Lacha. Ten horses, ten slaves, ten women and ten horns to the king of Laegaire. Seven shields, seven horses, seven slaves, seven women, and seven hounds to the king of Ardgal. Seven horses, seven swords, seven horns, and seven cloaks to the king of Fir Chell. Six horses, six swords, six shields, and six slaves to the king of Fir Thulach. Eight shields, eight swords, eight horns, and eight horses to the king of Fir Thethba. Six shields, six horses, six cloaks, six slaves, and six horns to the king of Cuircne. Five horses, five swords, and five cloaks to the king of Uí Beccon. Five women, five horses, five horns, and five shields to the king of Coill Fallamain. Eight slaves, eight women, eight horses, eight shields, and eight swords to the king of Delbna Mór. And it is for them that Benén sang:

  1. Recount the rights of the king of Tara
    which gracious Benén has told;
    what is due to him at Tara
    has been memorized by a Latin scholar.
  2. The king of Tara of the princes
    is entitled to a hundred swords and a hundred shields,
    a hundred suits and a hundred horses,
    a hundred mantles and a hundred coats of mail.
  3. The fair king of the realm of Brega
    is entitled to twenty horns, twenty swords,
    twenty hounds, and twenty slaves
    as stipend from the king of Tara.
  4. The king of Mag Lacha is entitled
    to five shields, five fighting swords,
    five fleecy cloaks, five horses,
    and five white hounds in fine array.
  5. The swift king of Laegaire is entitled
    to ten sturdy horses in his tribeland,
    ten slaves, ten full-grown women, ten hounds,
    and ten horns for the drinking-feast.
  6. The stipend of the noble king of Ardgal
    is seven shields, seven horses from Scotland,
    seven full-grown women,
    seven slaves, and seven hounds.
  7.  p.99
  8. The king of Coill Echach is entitled
    to seven strong horses from the king of tribes,
    seven swords for battle,
    seven horns and seven coloured cloaks.
  9. The strong king of Fir Thulach
    is entitled to six horses from overseas (?),
    six swords, six red shields,
    and six foreign slaves without speech.
  10. The stipend of the king of Fir Thethba
    is eight shields, eight fighting swords,
    eight horns, eight mantles,
    and eight worthy slave women.
  11. The king of Curcne of the fen
    is entitled to six shields, six horses,
    six cloaks, six slaves,
    and six horns for ready service.
  12. The stipend of the king of Uí Beccon
    is five horses that are fast away,
    five brilliant cloaks of lasting colour,
    and five swords for battle.
  13. The king of Coill In Ollaim is entitled to five shields,
    five horns for his treasure,
    five horses brought in well-laden ships,
    and five worthy woman slaves.
  14. The king of festive Delbna is entitled
    to eight swords, eight shields from across the sea,
    eight horses with slender legs,
    eight slaves, and eight slave women.
  15. That is the tradition of the kings of Tara—
    not every prattling bard can tell it—
    it befits not the bard but only the file
    to know the rights of every king.

 p.101
 2

We have stated the stipends of the kings of the tribes of Meath. Now these are the rents, food-rents, and refections of the king of Tara from the tribes as they were paid to Cond and Cormac and Coirpre, and it is through them that the kings succeeded to the kingship afterwards. There is an equal reckoning of tax and payment without increase for wealth nor decrease for poverty unless want should come upon the kindred, or plague or famine or mortality. It is levied proportionately, great or small, every year. The levying third of that tax goes to the alien families of Tara for provision and sustenance, and for storing till the time of need, to be supplied in time of need (?). And for them Benén said:

  1. The rent of the tribes of Meath, a great story,
    a powerful poet has told
    how it has served Tara
    in the east ever since the time of Conn Cétchathach.
  2. The king of Tara of the tribes,
    a sage who owns it with a splendid host,
    is entitled to fifty oxen from the people of Déisi,
    fifty sows, and fifty young pigs.
  3. Thirty oxen from Dál Máthar,
    thirty sows—it is not a kinsman's rent—
    thirty wethers, a good reckoning,
    for the happy king of Meath.
  4. Three hundred oxen from the Delbna
    shall come to Tara, three hundred boars,
    three hundred flitches, and
    three hundred wethers from the great kindred.
  5. Thrice fifty mantles from the Luigne,
    reckon thrice fifty boars as well,
    and thrice fifty beeves without deceit
    are to be given to mighty Tara.
  6.  p.105
  7. A hundred beeves from Fir Arda,
    a hundred white wethers unless you... them,
    a hundred boars, a heavy memory,
    from the kinsmen of the haughty Luigne.
  8. A hundred fine cloaks from the Saithne,
    a hundred sows—prosperous stock—
    a hundred beeves on the plains and
    a hundred wethers for slaughter.
  9. A hundred boars from warlike Cuircne,
    a hundred beeves, a great effort,
    a hundred sleek milch cows
    for the strong king of Liattruim.
  10. Three hundred boars from the Gailenga,
    three hundred wethers, three hundred mantles,
    three hundred oxen, strong help,
    to the Crooked Mound, as you have heard.
  11. hundred wethers from Fir Thulach,
    a hundred boars to the happy dwelling,
    a hundred milch cows with their calves,
    a hundred oxen without fail.
  12. Thirty wethers from Mag Lacha
    to the king of the Crooked Mound of battle,
    thirty milch cows, sleek and yellow,
    and thirty oxen into the goodly fort.
  13. Sixty cloaks from Uí Beccon,
    sixty beeves, a great array,
    sixty choice sows and
    sixty wethers to the great hill.
  14. That is the amount of stock
    without error to which the king of Meath is entitled;
    in golden Tara where he dwells,
    that is the whole of his rent.

 p.105

Here is interpolated in L and…

1
 1

  1. Benén has stated the rights of the kings of Leinster
    as he found them in the judgement of an author,
    the amount that the king of each tribe
    is entitled to as stipend for his wisdom.
  2. When the high-king of Leinster
    of the green lakes is not king of all Ireland,
    he is to be allowed to lead the van
    into each strong country by the king of temperate Ireland.
  3. Ten slaves to the warrior king of Leinster,
    ten fast dogs with keen sight,
    ten hides washed by the waves,
    ten ships, and ten coats of mail.
  4. Thirty rings, fifty swords,
    a hundred brown horses with sheltering cloths,
    fifty hoods—not mere spoil—
    ten horns, and ten royal mantles.
  5. Six horns, six rings to Uí Fhaeláin,
    six mantles in that place,
    six swift horses with their trappings;
    though it be claimed, it is not by kinship (?).
  6. A hundred horses from him to the chieftain Tomar,
    a hundred cows for a stipend,
    thirty women with large families,
    a hundred swords,—an onerous gift.
  7. Eight ships from the warrior to the prince of Cualu,
    with sails of fine cloth,
    eight horns, eight swords...
    eight tunics, eight gold embroidered mantles.
  8.  p.107
  9. Seven shields and seven horses
    to the king of the Fortuatha after drinking a cup of wine,
    seven horns of mead to the ruler,
    seven swords—do not find fault with them.
  10. Six tunics to the king of the Inber,
    six swift bounding stags,
    six coats of mail, six ships,
    and six well-made brown horses.
  11. Seven horses to the fair Uí Fheilmeda,
    fierce devilish men,
    five curved horns, five cloaks,
    and five mantles as you remember.
  12. A hundred cows to the valiant Uí Chendselaig,
    a hundred horses are bestowed upon the tribe,
    ten ships, ten bridles, ten saddles,
    and ten bracelets that are displayed.
  13. Six bracelets are given to the king of Raíriu,
    and reckon too six royal chargers,
    six mantles to be sent to the hero,
    and six slaves to this warrior.
  14. Eight swords, eight drinking-horns
    from the king of valiant Carman,
    eight horses with glossy manes
    to the king of Fothairt Osnada.
  15. Eight horses to Uí Drona in Dind Gabra
    from the king's hand with bounty,
    eight hounds for killing the stag,
    eight swords for battle.
  16. Eight horses to Uí Boirche for their vigour
    —not much for men of their prowess—
    eight horns, eight women whom he has not dishonoured
    and eight spirited slaves.
  17.  p.109
  18. Eight horses to the noisy Uí Buide,
    proud, sleek, with fine heads:
    their king is entitled to three rings
    and three sets of chess from the king of Gabal.
  19. The warrior king of Laigse is entitled
    to eight horses, eight ready keen-sighted hounds,
    eight shields by which weapons are scattered,
    eight mantles, eight coats of mail.
  20. Six horses they assign to Uí Chrimthannáin,
    six oxen in good...
    six horns to be in their hands,
    six mantles without error.
  21. Ten shields, ten horns, and ten swords,
    ten rings without error,
    to the king of the race of Failge son of Cathaír
    without reproach—it is good profit.
  22. Those are the stipends of the warriors of Leinster,
    like fair fruit from a pure hand,
    from the high king of Gabal and Gabrán;
    the statement is complete.

2. Here are the rents and refections of the Laigin

Upon the Foreigners is charged the first part of this rent, seven hundred flitches, seven hundred boars, seven hundred wethers, seven hundred oxen, seven hundred cows, and seven hun­ dred cloaks, that is from the Foreigners. Two hundred milch cows, a hundred boars, and a hundred cloaks from the Fortuatha of the Laigin. Síl Fiachach and Síl Rosa Failge pay only the refection of one night to the king of the Laigin, if he goes east to meet the Foreigners or north against the Uí Néill or south against Munster.

 p.111

But the subject families of their territories render a hundred beeves, a hundred cows, a hundred boars, and a hundred flitches. Two hundred cows, two hundred cloaks, and two hundred oxen from the seven Fothairt. Seven hundred cows, seven hundred boars, seven hundred wethers, and seven hundred beeves, that is from the seven Laígse of the Laigin. Two hundred beeves, two hundred cows, and two hundred cloaks from the Osraige. That is from the free tribes of the Laigin.

The services of scavenging, mending, bathing, and washing the head are provided by the husbandmen of the lowest degrees of the Féni among them. Purple and scarlet, and red thread and grey thread and white wool and madder (?) and bindén are provided by the higher husbandmen. If they abscond, there is double liability on them.

Those rents are paid every third year, besides the chief rent of the king of Ireland ut supra diximus. And of them the sage Benén sang:

  1. Hear, ye warlike Laigin,
    a tradition that is not trivial
    about the worthy rent to which
    the king of Cualu is entitled.
  2. Seven hundred flitches, seven hundred boars,
    seven hundred oxen, seven hundred good wethers,
    seven hundred cloaks, and seven hundred cows
    from the tribes of the Foreigners in one day
  3. He is entitled to a hundred cloaks,
    it is no lie, a hundred boars, a goodly flock,
    and two hundred lively milch cows
    from the kindreds of the Fortuatha
  4. No rent—a fair compact—
    is due from the valiant Uí Chenn­sealaig,
    but only from the sturdy stranger-families
    that use their grass and land
  5.  p.113
  6. The valiant Uí Failge pay
    neither cumal nor rent nor tax
    to the king of the Laigin if he goes on a journey,
    save a night's re­fection in hospitality
  7. A hundred beeves and a hundred cows
    are brought to the king by every other tribe,
    a hundred boars and a hundred flitches
    from these subject families
  8. From the Fothairt are due
    two hundred tawny cows,
    two hundred cloaks as tribute and
    two hundred rough oxen for the yoke
  9. Two hundred beeves, a great portion,
    two hundred cloaks, two hundred milch cows,
    two hundred wethers, a good help,
    from the Lagin of Deasgabair
  10. Seven hundred cows from the active Laígse,
    seven hundred boars spread over the tribes,
    seven hundred beeves to the plain of the Laigin,
    seven hundred wethers across the sandy soil
  11. Those are the rents of the tribes of householders
    from the Laigin to their king.
    Let him not be reckoned a sage who will not declare it aright,
    and everyone should hear
  12. The freemen's rents, as they have been proclaimed,
    are those that we have told thus far;
    they are due from the free families
    who occupy land outside (the royal demesne ?)
  13. The subject families, loss without regret,
    who occupy hiss own demesne,
    must bring to the forts
    of the high-king a subject's rent
  14.  p.115
  15. The rent that is due from them
    is the service of scavenging,
    the mending of his cloaks, lasting service,
    service of bathing and washing of the head
  16. There are due from the best of them
    scarlet and purple of good strength,
    red thread, white wool,
    I shall not conceal it, yellow madder and bindén
  17. The subject families of base degree
    who abscond to avoid the rent of their land,
    must pay twice as much as they gave
    from the ancestral land
  18. The poet who does not know
    his rents and stipends
    is not strictly entitled to hospitality
    from any provincial king in Ireland
  19. The poet who knows exactly
    both stipend and rent is entitled to respect,
    hospitality and wealth from every king
    to whom he has come. Hearken!

Benén sang this about the tradition…

Benén sang this about the tradition of the Foreigners of Dublin:

  1. Here is a gay and graceful story,
    pleasing to the men of Ireland;
    the revenue of Dublin—I shall not conceal it—
    as Benén appointed it.
  2. When the Deacon's Grandson of the goodly household
    came to Tara in the north,
    vigorous Laegaire did not believe
    that apostle of the Britons and of Brega.
  3.  p.117
  4. That good man, the Deacon's Grandson,
    went sunwise around radiant Ireland
    until he reached the fortress of the fair Foreigners,
    helping the children of the sons of Míl.
  5. The king of stalwart Dublin,
    when Patrick came south,
    was Ailpín son of Aeol Ádach
    of the descendants of Domnall Dubdámach.
  6. On the day that Pátraic of Macha
    of the great tributes came to Dublin,
    victorious death carried off
    the bashful son of Ailpín.
  7. The son of the king of the Foreigners,
    uncouth Eochaid, is brought to the Deacon's
    Grandson to trouble and ensnare him:
    it was an insult to the apostle.
  8. 'If you give him life,
    cleric revered and powerful,
    I shall bow before you at Coill Chenann,
    and the Foreigners of the green land will bow.'
  9. The apostle and the king made
    three circuits sunwise,
    and the fair warrior, Eochaid,
    arose alive.
  10. Then the host bring to him
    a screpall for each man,
    an ounce of gold, an ounce for each nose thus,
    a screpall of gold for each man.
  11. Three ounces of the tax were left
    in the gardens of the Foreigners;
    Dublin is thrice plundered on account of it
    by the Gaedil of the bright shields.
  12.  p.119
  13. If this tax is paid me
    every year by you from Liamain,
    the men of the whole world
    will not be able to despoil your fortress.
  14. The fortress you occupy in force
    I shall deliver from the black demon:
    it will be one of the three
    last surviving hearths in Ireland.
  15. I bestow upon all Dublin
    supremacy in womanhood for their women,
    supremacy for their fair Foreigners,
    supremacy in beauty for their daughters.
  16. Supremacy in swimming for their sons,
    supremacy in war and in strife,
    supremacy for their fosterlings till evening
    in sending round the drinking horns.
  17. Supremacy for the king for ever in stalwart Dublin,
    supremacy for the hireling, supremacy for the perfect warrior,
    of reverence in its churches,
    supremacy for dwellings and sacred heights.
  18. The fortress in the north from which I have come,
    may its king be without success;
    great is his fierceness in a fight,
    my curse on Laegaire.'
  19. Therefore the Foreigners will give
    no peace to the king of Meath of the long blades,
    but there will be strife every year
    between Tara and Liamain.
  20. That is the tradition of Dublin,
    I tell it to you in return for (payment of your) debts (?);
    it will be in books for ever
    as it is here in the tradition.

 p.121

Patrick bestowed this blessing upon the…

Patrick bestowed this blessing upon the inhabitants of the island of Ireland, and Patrick said this:

The Blessing of God upon you all, you men of Ireland, boys, women and girls, blessing of rule, blessing of prosperity, a lasting blessing, a healing blessing, a great blessing, perpetual blessing; blessing of heaven, cloud-blessing; blessing of sea, fish-blessing; blessing of land, fruit-blessing; blessing of dew, blessing of light, blessing of valour, blessing of weapons, blessing of word, blessing of deed, blessing of dignity, blessing of rank upon you all, laymen and clerics, so long as you proclaim the blessing of the men of heaven which exceeds a worldly blessing beyond measure.

No province in Ireland owes hospitality to a poet who does not know the rents and stipends of that province, as Dubthach Mac Huí Lugair said:

  1. He is not entitled to visitation or reward, for he is not a wise
    poet in the various kinds of knowledge, unless he know exactly
    the secure rents and stipends, that they may all be bestowed (?)
    according to many-branched knowledge from beginning to end.
  2. He is not entitled to visitation in any of the fair provinces of
    Ireland nor (?) to the circuit of a single tuath, if truth be regarded,
    the poet who cannot distinguish firmly the revenues and burdens
    and exemption, the portion of each territory he visits.
  3. Then is he a learned historian when he studies the zealous
    deeds of the island of proud Éber.
  4.  p.123
  5. Then is he a solid scholar like an immovable rock,
    when he understands the stipends and rents without doubt,
    so that he will recount them all in every high assembly.
  6. Let him not be a vessel of old proverbs for reward or friendship,
    for a man with proper training (?) will not cite old judgements.
    Let him not be bashful or timid (?) in the presence of a great family;
    unless he is thus distinguished he does not deserve his fee.

Tara is a house where Conn's…

  1. Tara is a house where Conn's son dwelt,
    seat of warriors at Liathdruim;
    I can remember what she awards
    to her chieftains.
  2. Each king whom strong Tara shall accept,
    and who shall possess the land of Ireland,
    is the noblest of all the host
    of fertile Ireland.
  3. If it be a king who belongs to Tara
    and who is best of the chieftains,
    everyone should submit to the righteous king
    of true judgement by coming to his house.
  4. He is bound to govern the hosts
    once they join his gathering;
    they are bound to bring to him
    in Tara a hostage for every man.
  5.  p.125
  6. Tara does not belong to him
    unless there be a reliable historian
    who may tell his lord
    the stipend of each man.
  7. Let him not give anyone more than is right,
    so that he may not give a false judgement;
    let there be no strife in his house,
    for that is one of his chief tabus.
  8. Let him not make war against
    the host of the province of Conchobor:
    let sheltered Tara not be laid waste
    by the warfare of the descendants of Rudraige.
  9. He is entitled to be in mighty Tara
    with everyone subject to him;
    when he is not himself prepared for battle,
    his provincial kings are at his command.
  10. The worthy king of the Ulaid
    owes him a feast each seventh Samain,
    and to send it to him without stint,
    on the border of Lind Luathgainne.
  11. The amount of the feast that is due there
    to the king of Tara of the stout blades
    is twelve vats of each kind of ale
    with the proper supply of food.
  12. He goes afterwards to Tara
    with his retinue;
    they make the journey eagerly
    so that they may discover their stipend.
  13. The king of Emain Macha is entitled
    —every noble who accepts generous hospitality,
    is not the son of a weakling—
    to a payment that is fitting.
  14.  p.127
  15. Half of the warm house is assigned
    to that company from Emain Macha,
    and they take—we do not think it unfair—
    an equal half with all the rest of Ireland.
  16. Wine is to be served to them in Tara
    so that their spirits rise,
    coloured drinking-horns sharp-pointed,
    chess-boards and chessmen.
  17. The width of his face in gold
    is given to the great and mighty king,
    two hundred cows, two hundred horses,
    and two hundred chariots, no false judgement.
  18. Twelve ships in a stately fleet
    from the king of Tara of the combats
    should be sent for the prince's sons
    for it is a princely escort.
  19. Twelve poisoned spears, twelve swords
    {}
    twelve garments of many colours
    for the prince's sons.
  20. The fairest bride in Tara
    from among the high-spirited queens
    should be given to him
    as he chooses if he be unwedded.
  21. Protection of the red spear with its retinue
    should be given to the king of Ulster of many boasts,
    if he be in Tara of the towers,
    a sanctuary which none dares to violate.
  22. The Gailenga shall pay the cost of his horses,
    the Fir Breg the cost of his troops,
    if he be in Tara of the tribes,
    for they are of his own people.
  23.  p.129
  24. His portion in the house of Tara
    -he should be pleased with it—
    is sixty beeves, twenty pigs,
    and twenty fiitches in a great load (?).
  25. Twenty handfuls of herbs,
    twenty glistening seagulls' eggs,
    twenty hives of bees
    shall be given him together.
  26. That is all he is entitled
    to from the king of radiant Tara,
    and I say and repeat that
    it is no mere nothing.
  27. After that the king of Cualnge
    returns home with the troops
    to distribute his stipends,
    having rested at the end of his journey.
  28. To the king of Ráith Mór Maige
    he owes more than a royal fee,
    for his is the noblest service (?)
    and he is the first to receive a stipend.
  29. He is entitled, if you ask it,
    to eight coloured cloaks,
    two ships and a gleaming shield for each shoulder,
    if he be not king of the Ulaid;
  30. A set of chess and white brandub,
    eight horns and eight cups.
    eight hounds, eight horses,
    and eight spears together.
  31. The king of Mag Coba of the light,
    slender weapons is entitled to
    seven hounds, seven horses,
    and seven spears together.
  32.  p.131
  33. The Cenél nEógain are bound to go on a hosting with him,
    and the Cenél Conaill without fail;
    they do not fail him at a muster,
    their duty is to rally to him.
  34. The king of Airgialla is entitled to
    his horse in return for his hostages,
    no false judgement, and the king of noble Cenèl Conaill
    is entitled to sit opposite to him in every place.
  35. The king of the honourable Uí Briúin is entitled
    to his splendid French horse;
    the king of Conmaicne is entitled
    to a hound, a horse and choice garments.
  36. The reason why the king of Ulaid
    of the mighty weapon gives them those gifts
    is that their power may be in his house,
    and that they may come with him to Tara.
  37. The gessa of the king of Ulaid of Emain
    and of his famous lands (?) are:
    to approach the lair of a boar at any time (?)
    to see it being attacked;
  38. To listen to the birds of the valley
    of noble Loch Swilly,
    and to bathe in the month of May
    eastwards on beautiful Loch Foyle.
  39. Those are the severe tabus of the high king
    of the province of the Branch-red House;
    if he be used to do those things,
    he will never succeed to Tara.
  40. Among the lucky things of the great king
    of Ulaid are to spend Easter at Caendruim,
    to have his stewards in Tailtiu of the triple rampart,
    and that Emain shall harbour his daughters (?);
  41.  p.133
  42. That he have a fleet upon Loch Cuan,
    that he be connected by marriage with the king
    of the cold Foreigners, that Eanach Caín
    be of good repute and that his stewards be in Tara. T.
  43. The king of Naas owes a great banquet,
    hard to provide, twenty vats
    of each kind of ale
    with their provision in addition.
  44. The stipend of the king of the Laigin of Lore
    from the king of Tara of the stronghold
    —O ye who are in your house—
    I have it in memory:
  45. A hundred sons of princes of lasting fame
    go with him to the rampart of Tara;
    a maiden for every man shall be in Tara,
    jealous (?) and slender.
  46. Seven gilt chariots which he brings
    with him to a banquet,
    seven score coloured garments
    for the prince s Sons.
  47. Then the king of the Laigin returns home
    with his warriors, making the journey
    to the fort of Naas,
    and distributes his stipend.
  48. If the valiant Uí Chennselaig
    have the great kingship,
    they have the distribution of its wealth
    to their princes and kings.
  49. The king of the fair Uí Fhaeláin is entitled
    to seven coloured cloaks for every goodly mantle(?),
    and four ships on the lake
    so that their prows be in a fleet(?).
  50.  p.135
  51. The king of cold Uí Fhailge is entitled
    to four coloured shields,
    it is a good stipend, four horns
    of every colour and four swords for battle.
  52. The noble king of Osraige is entitled
    to twelve hounds with a good litter,
    twelve horses without fail (?)
    with goodly chariots.
  53. The king of Uí Chennselaig of the spoils
    has control of the house of Tara;
    this is the truth for all time,
    for it is the house of the king of Laigin.
  54. The king of the keen Uí Gabla is entitled
    to a gold ring for each finger;
    and the fair king of the Fortuatha is entitled
    to a gold armlet from the white-hot coals (?).
  55. I observe the gessa of the king of the Laigin:
    that he be challenged to give battle in his own country,
    that the Foreigners revolt against him,
    and that he sends hostages to Dublin.
  56. Moreover, that the king should not be respected,
    that Coemgein should not be held in high regard,
    not to go to Naas...
    are among the gessa of the noble king.
  57. To maintain Brigit in her property
    is one of the lucky things of the Laigin kings,
    and to pay her rent in his house,
    and to go every month to Tara.
  58. The king of Cashel of the spoils
    has a duty to go to the rampart of Tara
    with forty charioteers to
    present his banquet.
  59.  p.137
  60. The king of Temair of the towers
    has a duty to go with the same number,
    and none of them a churl's son,
    to hold the banquet of the Erainn.
  61. In Temair Luachra the king of Munster
    and his tribes owe thirty vats
    with their provision,
    it is good cheer.
  62. He is entitled to a week's refection
    at Temair Luachra Degaid in the west,
    and not to depart until he
    distribute his stipend.
  63. This is the firm stipend
    which is due from the high king of Ireland,
    eight horses, eight yoked chariots,
    eight rings, and eight horns.
  64. Eight score cloaks,
    eight bright shields on goodly arms,
    seven plough-teams in a handsome file,
    and seven score cows with their calves(?).
  65. A cauldron shall be given to the king of Cashel
    as is due by the king of Tara
    who renders without fail,
    and it shall be brought to Temair Luachra.
  66. Then the king of Munster
    of heroic battles
    distributes to his valiant champions (?),
    both king and queen.
  67. The noble king of the Déisi is entitled
    to eight good horses that will be prized,
    eight green cloaks, and
    eight brooches of findruine.
  68.  p.139
  69. The king of Uí Liatháin of the sea is entitled
    to eight horns, eight swords,
    and eight good horses
    from the king of Cashel without exchange.
  70. The king of great Uí Echach is entitled
    to a breastplate and a spear for battle,
    two rings of red gold,
    and two sturdy horses.
  71. The king of dark Dáirine is entitled
    to receive from the king of Cashel
    of the conflict eight pointed swords for the fight,
    eight ships, and eight coats of mail.
  72. To the king of long Loch Léin
    he owes a friendly complement,
    twenty cows, twenty horses,
    and twenty ships, no unjust judgement.
  73. The king of Ciarraige of the hill is entitled
    to twenty horses
    —no cause of harm—
    sixty white cows, and sixty cups.
  74. The king of the fair Uí Chonaill is entitled
    to his Easter rainment from the king of Cashel,
    his flashing blade with bright colour
    and his spear as well.
  75. The king of Éile is entitled
    to his country free as far as Sliab Bladma,
    without liability for service outside it,
    unlike any other king, unless fair battle should claim him (?).
  76. The reason why the king of Munster
    of noble nature gives them all
    this is that the men may be thankful
    that they are not delayed in Tara.
  77.  p.141
  78. The three lucky things of the king of fair Cashel
    are to have a queen from Connacht,
    to have a fleet on the noble Shannon
    and to hold Cashel.
  79. His three unlucky things in turn
    are to declare war on the Laigin,
    to be maintÁined in fair Cashel,
    and not to go to Tara.
  80. He is entitled to a handsome and merry banquet
    from the king of populous Limerick,
    thirty vats, as is known,
    with their excellent provision.
  81. The king of fruitful Thomond is entitled
    to a friendly reward, thirty cows,
    two hundred horses, and three gold rings—
    no unjust judgement.
  82. Four ships with a boat,
    it is a pleasant rule,
    two shields for every ship,
    two swords, and two coats of mail.
  83. The chieftain of Limerick
    from Liathmuine is entitled
    only to this much in truth,
    and to the daughter of the king of Tara.
  84. The king of Corco Baiscind is entitled to a horn,
    forty horses, and a royal garment from the king of Thomond of many journeys
    —it is no false judgement.
  85. The under-king of Corco Mruad is entitled
    to the ship of his choice on the day of an expedition,
    from the king of Thomond of the tribes,
    two hundred cows, and his blessing.
  86.  p.143
  87. I award the daughter of the strong king of Thomond
    to the king of Corco Mruad
    so that she be his wife wherever he be (?)
    after he comes into the house of the king of Tara.
  88. The tabus of the king
    of broad Limerick are...
    to take part in a council of three,
    and to confide in the queen.
  89. The lucky things of the virtuous king
    are to have nine in his goodly council,
    to be of handsome appearance,
    and to aspire to Tara.
  90. The prince of Cruachain
    —do not conceal it—
    is entitled to forty vats at a feast
    from the noble king of Ireland and not to go to it alone.
  91. The valiant king of Gaela is entitled
    to his reward from him now, sixty cows,
    two hundred horses, and four armlets,
    no unjust award.
  92. Four gilt horns to the prince
    of Cruachain of the royal line,
    which he brings with him to the drinking feast
    and keeps in his house in the west;
  93. Four red shields,
    four coloured helmets,
    four coats of mail in addition,
    and four spears for battle.
  94. It is a tabu for him that Cruachain
    should be three times plundered;
    it is lucky for him to have a fleet on Loch Rí;
    if he beyond all others do that, he will often win Tara.
  95.  p.145
  96. The great king of Uí Máine is entitled
    to four horns for the drinking feast,
    twenty cows, twenty horses,
    and clothing for two hundred men, no false judgement.
  97. The fair king of Uí Fhiachrach is entitled
    to four ships with a
    boat, thirty women,
    and three horns.
  98. The king of the Three Tribes,
    although the ignorant know it not,
    is entitled to twenty beeves, twenty pigs,
    and twenty flitches in a great load (?).
  99. The generous king of Luigne is entitled
    to four ornamented shields,
    four tunics with red gold,
    and four ships, no mean effort.
  100. That is all he is entitled to
    from the prince of bright Cruachain;
    they owe him attendance at each meeting
    and to come to Tara.
  101. The king of Mide of the market is entitled
    to seven plough­teams that plough the land
    and seven score flocks
    from the famous king of Ireland.
  102. The king of populous Brega is entitled
    to twenty horses, no shame,
    with goodly trappings
    not to be denied.
  103.  p.147
  104. The king of Saithne is entitled to this,
    a horse, and two score cows,
    his cauldron and his vat,
    for their closeness of kinship (?) is no less.
  105. The king of the Déisi tonight is entitled
    to twenty beeves and twenty wethers,
    and the king of Luigne is entitled
    to twenty horses with their saddles.
  106. The king of Gailenga is entitled
    to a spear with a socket of wrought gold
    and twenty splendid bridles
    with red enamel and carbuncle.
  107. Thus are due from him
    the stipends of the chiefs of Mide,
    and they should not be withheld (?) by force,
    but they should be brought to Tara.
  108. The tabus of the king of Cenél nEógain
    in his house are to have a queen from Connacht,
    to be at peace with Dál nAraide
    and to be at war with Cenél Conaill.
  109. Alone the king of Laise
    of the warriors goes east from his house;
    twenty horses are due to him
    for his journey, that is his stipend.
  110. The King of heaven and solid earth,
    may we all do His will,
    so that we may be established in His house,
    for it is happier than Tara.

Document details

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File description

Title statement

Title (uniform): Lebor na Cert

Title (translation, English Translation): The Book of Rights

Title (supplementary): English translation

Author: unknown

Editor: Myles Dillon

Responsibility statement

translated by: Myles Dillon and Emer Purcell

Electronic edition compiled by: and Emer Purcell

proof corrections by: Mary Jones

Funded by: University College, Cork and The HEA via the LDT Project.

Edition statement

1. First draft, revised and corrected.

Extent: 23500 words

Publication statement

Publisher: CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts: a project of the Department of History, University College, Cork

Address: College Road, Cork, Ireland -- http://www.ucc.ie/celt

Date: 2006

Distributor: CELT online at University College, Cork, Ireland.

CELT document ID: T102900

Availability: Available with prior consent of the CELT project for purposes of academic research and teaching only.Copyright for the printed edition rests with the Irish Texts Society. The electronic edition was compiled with the kind permission of the copyright owner.

Notes statement

You can purchase the book(s) containing this text via the ITS website (http://www.irishtextssociety.org/). Click on the link to the RIA shop.

Source description

Vellum Manuscript sources

  1. The Book of Hy Many (written 1378-94) ff. 76 a 1-80 c 29.
  2. The Book of Ballymote (written 1384-1406) ff. 268 a 36-281 b 53.
  3. The Book of Lecan (written 1416-18) ff. 194 d 12-202 d 26.
  4. The Book of Lismore (late 15th century) ff. 98 d 20-105 b 21.
  5. National Library Gaelic MS. VI (16th century ?) ff. 13r 1-19v 18 (f.20 is misplaced).

Paper Manuscript sources

  1. None of the following manuscripts are earlier than the eighteenth century: Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, no. 288 p. 251 (19th century).
  2. Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, no. 485 p. 276 (18th century).
  3. Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, no. 689 p. 103 (18th century).
  4. Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, no. 712 f. 43f (18th century).
  5. Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, no. 756 p. 208 (18th century).
  6. Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, no. 757 (copy of 756) p. 319 (18th century).
  7. Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, no. 930 p. 75a (19th century).
  8. Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, no. 1012 p. 119 (19th century).
  9. Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, no. 1195 p. 1 (18th century). These do not include the two manuscripts of Lismore (nos, 261 by O'Curry and 478 by O'Longan) nor the transcript of Lecan (no. 894 by Connellan). Of these nos. 712 and 1195 are the most important. Nos. 288, 485, 689 and 930 contain only fragments concerning Cashel. These paper manuscripts have not been closely examined. Only no. 712 (23 H 28) had been regularly consulted; it usually agrees with Lismore but is not a mere copy. The Abbotsford Irish manuscript contains a good text of the same recension.

Editions

  1. John O'Donovan (ed. & tr.), Leabhar na gCeart or the Book of Rights (Dublin 1847)
  2. Myles Dillon (ed. & tr.), Lebor na Cert: the Book of Rights, ITS 46 (Dublin 1962) with introduction and notes. Publications by the Irish Texts Society can be ordered via their website. See http://www.irishtextssociety.org/ for details.

Further reading

  1. Eugene O'Curry, Lectures on the manuscript materials of ancient Irish history (New York 1861).
  2. Eugene O'Curry, On the manners and customs of the ancient Irish, ed. W. K. O'Sullivan (3 vols, Dublin 1873, repr. Dublin 1996).
  3. Eoin MacNeill, 'The Book of Rights', New Ireland Rev 25 (1906) 65–80, 206–16, 348–62.
  4. Eoin MacNeill, 'Early Irish population groups: their nomenclature, classification and chronology', Proc Roy Ir Acad (C) 29 (1911–12) 59–114.
  5. Paul Walsh (ed.) Gleanings from Irish manuscripts (Dublin 1918; repr. 1933).
  6. Eoin MacNeill, Celtic Ireland (Dublin 1921; repr. Dublin 1981).
  7. Paul Walsh, Leaves of history (Drogheda 1930) [contains Paul Walsh, 'Ancient Meath according to the Book of Rights', 3–51].
  8. Paul Walsh, 'Connacht in the Book of Rights', J Galway Archaeol Hist Soc 19 (1940) 1–15.
  9. Paul Walsh, 'Meath in the Book of Rights', John Ryan (ed), Féil-sgríbhinn Eóin Mhic Néill: essays and studies ... Eoin MacNeill (Dublin 1940) 508–21.
  10. D. A. Binchy (ed), Críth gablach, Mediaeval and Modern Irish Series 11 (Dublin 1941).
  11. Myles Dillon (ed. & tr.), 'The manuscript tradition of the Testament of Cathaír Már', S. O'Brien (ed), Measgra i gcuimhne Mhichíl Uí Chléirigh (Dublin 1944) 201–09.
  12. T. F. O'Rahilly, Early Irish history and mythology (Dublin 1946).
  13. Vernam E. Hull (ed. & tr.), 'Cert ríg Caisil: the right of the king of Cashel', Medieval Studies 11 (1949) 233–38.
  14. Myles Dillon (ed), Early Irish society (Dublin 1954, repr. 1959, 1965; Cork 1969).
  15. D. A. Binchy, 'Secular institutions, Myles Dillon (ed), Early Irish society (Dublin 1954) 52–65.
  16. Gerard Murphy, Early Irish lyrics (Oxford 1956).
  17. Myles Dillon, 'On the date and authorship of the Book of Rights', Celtica 4 (1958) 239–49.
  18. Myles Dillon, 'Three texts related to the Book of Rights', Celtica 6 (1963) 184–92.
  19. James Carney, 'Light on ancient Ireland', Review of Myles Dillon (ed), Lebor na cert, Irish Texts Society 46, 1963. Irish Press, 28 December 1963.
  20. Francis John Byrne (review of Myles Dillon, Lebor na cert), Studia Hibernica 5 (1965) 155–58.
  21. Myles Dillon, 'Ceart Uí Néill', Studia Celtica 1 (1966) 1–18.
  22. Anthony Candon, 'Barefaced effrontery; secular and ecclesiastical politics in early twelfth century Ireland', Seanchas Ardmhacha 14/2 (1991) 1–25.
  23. A. J. Hughes, 'The geographical location of the fortúatha Ulad of Lebor na cert', Ériu 42 (1991) 149–51.
  24. Marie Therese Flanagan, 'Irish and Anglo-Norman warfare in twelfth-century Ireland', T. Bartlett & K. Jeffrey (ed), A military history of Ireland (Cambridge 1996) 52–75.
  25. Swift, Catherine 'Royal fleets in Viking Ireland: the evidence of Lebor na Cert, A.D. 1050-1150', in John Hines, Alan Lane and Mark Redknap (eds) Land, Sea and Home, Proceedings from a conference on Viking settlement, at Cardiff, July 2001 (Maney 2004) 189-206.

The edition used in the digital edition

Dillon, Myles, ed. (1962). Lebor na Cert‍. 1st ed. xxv + 194 pp.; ix-xxv Introduction; Text 1-147; Appendix A Timna Chathaír Máir 148-178; Appendix B Table of Stipends and Tributes 179-189; Index of people and places 191-194; Map and notes on Map by Liam Price; 4 pages unnumbered. Dublin: The Educational Company of Ireland, for the Irish Texts Society.

You can add this reference to your bibliographic database by copying or downloading the following:

@book{T102900,
  title 	 = {Lebor na Cert},
  editor 	 = {Myles Dillon},
  edition 	 = {1},
  note 	 = {xxv + 194 pp.; ix-xxv Introduction; Text 1-147; Appendix A Timna Chathaír Máir 148-178; Appendix B Table of Stipends and Tributes 179-189; Index of people and places 191-194; Map and notes on Map by Liam Price; 4 pages unnumbered.},
  publisher 	 = {The Educational Company of Ireland, for the Irish Texts Society},
  address 	 = {Dublin},
  date 	 = {1962},
  UNKNOWN 	 = {seriesStmt},
  UNKNOWN 	 = {notesStmt}
}

 T102900.bib

Encoding description

Project description: CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts

Sampling declarations

The present text represents odd pages 3–147 of the volume. All editorial introduction, notes and indexes have been omitted.

Editorial declarations

Correction: Text has been proof-read twice.

Normalization: The electronic text represents the edited text. Text supplied by the editor is tagged sup resp="MD". Expansions to the text are marked ex.

Quotation: There are no quotations.

Hyphenation: The editor's hyphenation has been retained.

Segmentation: div0=the whole text; div1=the section; div2=the subsection; stanzas are marked lg. Paragraphs are marked p.

Interpretation: Names are not tagged, nor are terms for cultural and social roles.

Reference declaration

A canonical reference to a location in this text should be made using “section”, eg section 1.

Profile description

Creation: Translated by Myles Dillon. c.1960-1961

Language usage

  • The translation is in English. (en)
  • Some words, mostly names, are in Irish. (ga)

Keywords: law; prose; poetry; medieval; translation

Revision description

(Most recent first)

  1. 2008-09-05: Keywords added, file validated. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  2. 2008-07-27: Value of div0 "type" attribute modified, title elements streamlined, content of 'langUsage' revised; minor modifications made to header. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  3. 2007-12-14: Note inserted in header. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  4. 2007-12-10: Typos corrected, new SGML and HTML versions created. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  5. 2006-08-08: Header modified; file reparsed, HTML file created. (ed. Beatrix Färber)
  6. 2006-07-31: Header compiled with bibliographical details. (ed. Emer Purcell)
  7. 2006-07-14: Text proof-read (2); markup added, pagebreaks inserted and milestone tags positioned. (ed. Emer Purcell)
  8. 2006-05-30: Text captured and proof-read and donated to CELT. (ed. Mary Jones)

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page of the print edition

folio of the manuscript

numbered division

 999 line number of the print edition (in grey: interpolated)

underlining: text supplied, added, or expanded editorially

italics: foreign words; corrections (hover to view); document titles

bold: lemmata (hover for readings)

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Other languages

G102900: Lebor na Cert (in Irish)

Source document

T102900.xml

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  1. Here is interpolated in L and B the Testament of Catháir Mór, as preface to the section on the Laigin 🢀

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